keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

mitosis , meiosis

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335524/roles-of-cdk-and-ddk-in-genome-duplication-and-maintenance-meiotic-singularities
#1
REVIEW
Blanca Gómez-Escoda, Pei-Yun Jenny Wu
Cells reproduce using two types of divisions: mitosis, which generates two daughter cells each with the same genomic content as the mother cell, and meiosis, which reduces the number of chromosomes of the parent cell by half and gives rise to four gametes. The mechanisms that promote the proper progression of the mitotic and meiotic cycles are highly conserved and controlled. They require the activities of two types of serine-threonine kinases, the cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) and the Dbf4-dependent kinase (DDK)...
March 20, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328127/partial-tetrasomy-11q-resulting-from-an-intrachromosomal-triplication-of-a-22-mb-region-of-chromosome-11
#2
Mariana Kekis, Carol Deeg, Sayaka Hashimoto, Aimee McKinney, Linda Erdman, Cecelia Green-Geer, Christine Shuss, Scott Hickey, Caroline Astbury, Robert E Pyatt
Intrachromosomal triplications are complex chromosomal rearrangements which arise during meiosis or mitosis and lead to a tetrasomic dose of the affected genomic regions. We describe a female patient harboring an intrachromosomal triplication who presented to the Genetics clinic with dysmorphic features, including telecanthus, flat facial profile, and prognathism, short stature, widely spaced nipples, multiple allergy complaints, loose bowel movements, and mild speech delay. Microarray analysis showed a copy number gain of a 22...
April 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301465/an-smc-like-protein-binds-and-regulates-caenorhabditis-elegans-condensins
#3
Lucy Fang-I Chao, Meha Singh, James Thompson, John R Yates, Kirsten A Hagstrom
Structural Maintenance of Chromosomes (SMC) family proteins participate in multisubunit complexes that govern chromosome structure and dynamics. SMC-containing condensin complexes create chromosome topologies essential for mitosis/meiosis, gene expression, recombination, and repair. Many eukaryotes have two condensin complexes (I and II); C. elegans has three (I, II, and the X-chromosome specialized condensin IDC) and their regulation is poorly understood. Here we identify a novel SMC-like protein, SMCL-1, that binds to C...
March 16, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300828/ncaph-plays-important-roles-in-human-colon-cancer
#4
Liang Yin, Li-Ping Jiang, Qiu-Shuo Shen, Qiu-Xia Xiong, Xiao Zhuo, Long-Long Zhang, Hai-Jing Yu, Xiang Guo, Ying Luo, Jian Dong, Qing-Peng Kong, Cui-Ping Yang, Yong-Bin Chen
Colon cancer (CC) is one of the major malignancies worldwide, whose pathogenesis is complex and requires the accumulated alteration of multiple genes and signaling pathways. Condensins are multi-protein complexes that play pivotal roles in chromosome assembly and segregation during mitosis, meiosis and even tumorigenesis. Using tissue microarrays by immunohistochemistry and hematoxylin-eosin staining, we found that non-SMC condensin I complex subunit H (NCAPH) in colon cancerous tissues was higher than that in all corresponding adjacent non-cancerous tissues...
March 16, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296084/de-novo-loss-of-function-variants-in-stag2-are-associated-with-developmental-delay-microcephaly-and-congenital-anomalies
#5
Sureni V Mullegama, Steven D Klein, Milene V Mulatinho, Tharanga Niroshini Senaratne, Kathryn Singh, Dzung C Nguyen, Natalie M Gallant, Samuel P Strom, Shahnaz Ghahremani, Nagesh P Rao, Julian A Martinez-Agosto
The cohesin complex is an evolutionarily conserved multi-subunit protein complex which regulates sister chromatid cohesion during mitosis and meiosis. Additionally, the cohesin complex regulates DNA replication, DNA repair, and transcription. The core of the complex consists of four subunits: SMC1A, SMC3, RAD21, and STAG1/2. Loss-of-function mutations in many of these proteins have been implicated in human developmental disorders collectively termed "cohesinopathies." Through clinical exome sequencing (CES) of an 8-year-old girl with a clinical history of global developmental delay, microcephaly, microtia with hearing loss, language delay, ADHD, and dysmorphic features, we describe a heterozygous de novo variant (c...
March 11, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265764/germline-specific-labeling-of-the-somatic-chromosomes-by-protein-phosphatase-2a-and-histone-h3s28-phosphorylation-in-acricotopus-lucidus
#6
Wolfgang Staiber
Additional chromosomes limited to the germline (=Ks) were established as a special form of germline-soma differentiation in the Orthocladiinae, a subfamily of the Chironomidae (Bauer and Beermann in Z Naturforsch 7b: 557-563, 1952). The Ks together with the somatic chromosomes (=Ss) pass through a complex chromosome cycle with elimination at mitosis and a monopolar migration of all Ks. The dissimilar behavior of Ks and Ss in these exceptional mitoses initiated the search for differential chromosome marks in the orthocladiid Acricotopus lucidus...
March 6, 2017: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242217/genome-transfer-prevents-fragmentation-and-restores-developmental-potential-of-developmentally-compromised-postovulatory-aged-mouse%C3%A2-oocytes
#7
Mitsutoshi Yamada, Dieter Egli
Changes in oocyte quality can have great impact on the developmental potential of early embryos. Here we test whether nuclear genome transfer from a developmentally incompetent to a developmentally competent oocyte can restore developmental potential. Using in vitro oocyte aging as a model system we performed nuclear transfer in mouse oocytes at metaphase II or at the first interphase, and observed that development to the blastocyst stage and to term was as efficient as in control embryos. The increased developmental potential is explained primarily by correction of abnormal cytokinesis at anaphase of meiosis and mitosis, by a reduction in chromosome segregation errors, and by normalization of the localization of chromosome passenger complex components survivin and cyclin B1...
March 14, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229961/neurospora-tetrasperma-crosses-heterozygous-for-hybrid-translocation-strains-produce-rare-eight-spored-asci-bearing-heterokaryotic-ascospores
#8
Durgadas P Kasbekar, Selvam Rekha
During ascogenesis in Neurospora, the ascospores are partitioned at the eight-nucleus stage that follows meiosis and a post-meiotic mitosis, and the ascospores that form in eight-spored asci are usually homokaryotic. We had previously created novel TNt strains by introgressing four Neurospora crassa insertional translocations (EB4, IBj5, UK14-1, and B362i) into N. tetrasperma. We now show that crosses of all the TNt strains with single-mating-type derivatives of the standard N. tetrasperma pseudohomothallic strain 85 (viz...
March 2017: Journal of Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226231/cell-biology-of-the-plant-nucleus
#9
Iris Meier, Eric J Richards, David E Evans
The eukaryotic nucleus is enclosed by the nuclear envelope, which is perforated by the nuclear pores, the gateways of macromolecular exchange between the nucleoplasm and cytoplasm. The nucleoplasm is organized in a complex three-dimensional fashion that changes over time and in response to stimuli. Within the cell, the nucleus must be viewed as an organelle (albeit a gigantic one) that is a recipient of cytoplasmic forces and capable of morphological and positional dynamics. The most dramatic reorganization of this organelle occurs during mitosis and meiosis...
February 22, 2017: Annual Review of Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220481/does-max-open-up-a-new-avenue-for-meiotic-research
#10
REVIEW
Ayumu Suzuki, Masataka Hirasaki, Akihiko Okuda
Meiosis is a central event of sexual reproduction. Like somatic cells, germ cells conduct mitosis to increase their cell number, but unlike somatic cells, germ cells switch their cell division mode from mitosis to meiosis at a certain point in gametogenesis. However, the molecular basis of this switch remains elusive. In this review article, we give an overview of the onset of mammalian meiosis, including our recent finding that MYC Associated Factor X (MAX) prevents ectopic and precocious meiosis in embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and germ cells, respectively...
February 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208750/the-consequences-of-chromosome-segregation-errors-in-mitosis-and-meiosis
#11
REVIEW
Tamara Potapova, Gary J Gorbsky
Mistakes during cell division frequently generate changes in chromosome content, producing aneuploid or polyploid progeny cells. Polyploid cells may then undergo abnormal division to generate aneuploid cells. Chromosome segregation errors may also involve fragments of whole chromosomes. A major consequence of segregation defects is change in the relative dosage of products from genes located on the missegregated chromosomes. Abnormal expression of transcriptional regulators can also impact genes on the properly segregated chromosomes...
February 8, 2017: Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197916/regulation-of-plant-cellular-and-organismal-development-by-sumo
#12
Nabil Elrouby
This chapter clearly demonstrates the breadth and spectrum of the processes that SUMO regulates during plant development. The gross phenotypes observed in mutants of the SUMO conjugation and deconjugation enzymes reflect these essential roles, and detailed analyses of these mutants under different growth conditions revealed roles in biotic and abiotic stress responses, phosphate starvation, nitrate and sulphur metabolism, freezing and drought tolerance and response to excess copper. SUMO functions also intersect with those regulated by several hormones such as salicylic acid , abscisic acid , gibberellins and auxin, and detailed studies provide mechanistic clues of how sumoylation may regulate these processes...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197668/mechanisms-controlling-germline-cyst-breakdown-and-primordial-follicle-formation
#13
REVIEW
Chao Wang, Bo Zhou, Guoliang Xia
In fetal females, oogonia proliferate immediately after sex determination. The progress of mitosis in oogonia proceeds so rapidly that the incompletely divided cytoplasm of the sister cells forms cysts. The oogonia will then initiate meiosis and arrest at the diplotene stage of meiosis I, becoming oocytes. Within each germline cyst, oocytes with Balbiani bodies will survive after cyst breakdown (CBD). After CBD, each oocyte is enclosed by pre-granulosa cells to form a primordial follicle (PF). Notably, the PF pool formed perinatally will be the sole lifelong oocyte source of a female...
February 14, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190776/regulators-of-alternative-polyadenylation-operate-at-the-transition-from-mitosis-to-meiosis
#14
Lingjuan Shan, Chan Wu, Di Chen, Lei Hou, Xin Li, Lixia Wang, Xiao Chu, Yifeng Hou, Zhaohui Wang
In the sexually reproductive organisms, gametes are produced by meiosis following a limited mitotic amplification. However, the intrinsic program switching cells from mitotic to meiotic cycle is unclear. Alternative polyadenylation (APA) is a highly conserved means of gene regulation and is achieved by the RNA 3'-processing machinery to generate diverse 3'UTR profiles. In Drosophila spermatogenesis, we observed distinct profiles of transcriptome-wide 3'UTR between mitotic and meiotic cells. In mutant germ cells stuck in mitosis, 3'UTRs of hundreds of genes were consistently shifted...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Genetics and Genomics, Yi Chuan Xue Bao
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181049/condensin-master-organizer-of-the-genome
#15
REVIEW
Paul Kalitsis, Tao Zhang, Kathryn M Marshall, Christian F Nielsen, Damien F Hudson
A fundamental requirement in nature is for a cell to correctly package and divide its replicated genome. Condensin is a mechanical multisubunit complex critical to this process. Condensin uses ATP to power conformational changes in DNA to enable to correct DNA compaction, organization, and segregation of DNA from the simplest bacteria to humans. The highly conserved nature of the condensin complex and the structural similarities it shares with the related cohesin complex have provided important clues as to how it functions in cells...
February 9, 2017: Chromosome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177917/cytoskeleton-associated-protein-5-and-clathrin-heavy-chain-binding-regulates-spindle-assembly-in-mouse-oocytes
#16
Angeleem Lu, Cheng-Jie Zhou, Dong-Hui Wang, Zhe Han, Xiang-Wei Kong, Yu-Zhen Ma, Zhi-Zhong Yun, Cheng-Guang Liang
Mammalian oocyte meiotic maturation is the precondition of early embryo development. Lots of microtubules (MT)-associated proteins participate in oocyte maturation process. Cytoskeleton-associated protein 5 (CKAP5) is a member of the XMAP215 family that regulates microtubule dynamics during mitosis. However, its role in meiosis has not been fully studied. Here, we investigated the function of CKAP5 in mouse oocyte meiotic maturation and early embryo development. Western blot showed that CKAP5 expression increased from GVBD, maintaining at high level at metaphase, and decreased after late 1-cell stage...
February 4, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28147341/aurora-kinases-novel-therapy-targets-in-cancers
#17
REVIEW
Anqun Tang, Keyu Gao, Laili Chu, Rui Zhang, Jing Yang, Junnian Zheng
Aurora kinases, a family of serine/threonine kinases, consisting of Aurora A (AURKA), Aurora B (AURKB) and Aurora C (AURKC), are essential kinases for cell division via regulating mitosis especially the process of chromosomal segregation. Besides regulating mitosis, Aurora kinases have been implicated in regulating meiosis. The deletion of Aurora kinases could lead to failure of cell division and impair the embryonic development. Overexpression or gene amplification of Aurora kinases has been clarified in a number of cancers...
January 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133632/cdc14-phosphatase-directs-centrosome-re-duplication-at-the-meiosis-i-to-meiosis-ii-transition-in-budding-yeast
#18
Colette Fox, Juan Zou, Juri Rappsilber, Adele L Marston
Background Gametes are generated through a specialized cell division called meiosis, in which ploidy is reduced by half because two consecutive rounds of chromosome segregation, meiosis I and meiosis II, occur without intervening DNA replication. This contrasts with the mitotic cell cycle where DNA replication and chromosome segregation alternate to maintain the same ploidy. At the end of mitosis, CDKs are inactivated. This low CDK state in late mitosis/G1 allows for critical preparatory events for DNA replication and centrosome/spindle pole body (SPB) duplication...
January 5, 2017: Wellcome Open Res
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125646/kif4-is-essential-for-mouse-oocyte-meiosis
#19
Nicole J Camlin, Eileen A McLaughlin, Janet E Holt
Progression through the meiotic cell cycle must be strictly regulated in oocytes to generate viable embryos and offspring. During mitosis, the kinesin motor protein Kif4 is indispensable for chromosome condensation and separation, midzone formation and cytokinesis. Additionally, the bioactivity of Kif4 is dependent on phosphorylation via Aurora Kinase B and Cdk1, which regulate Kif4 function throughout mitosis. Here, we examine the role of Kif4 in mammalian oocyte meiosis. Kif4 localized in the cytoplasm throughout meiosis I and II, but was also observed to have a dynamic subcellular distribution, associating with both microtubules and kinetochores at different stages of development...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093265/developmental-tracing-of-oocyte-development-in-gonadal-soma-derived-factor-deficiency-medaka-oryzias-latipes-using-a-transgenic-approach
#20
Guijun Guan, Kaiqing Sun, Xi Zhang, Xiaomiao Zha, Mingyou Li, Yan Yan, Yunzhi Wang, Jianbin Chen, Meisheng Yi, Yunhan Hong
Gonadal soma-derived factor (gsdf) is reported to be a male initiator in medaka based on loss- and gain- of function via targeted disruption, or transgenic over-expression. However, little is known about how gsdf promotes undifferentiated gonad entry into male pathways or prevents entry into the female pathway. We utilized a visible folliculogenesis system with a reporter cassette of dual-color fluorescence expression to identify difference between oocyte development from wildtype and gsdf deficiency medaka...
January 13, 2017: Mechanisms of Development
keyword
keyword
116477
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"