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mitosis , meiosis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093265/developmental-tracing-of-oocyte-development-in-gonadal-soma-derived-factor-deficiency-medaka-oryzias-latipes-using-a-transgenic-approach
#1
Guijun Guan, Kaiqing Sun, Xi Zhang, Xiaomiao Zha, Mingyou Li, Yan Yan, Yunzhi Wang, Jianbin Chen, Meisheng Yi, Yunhan Hong
Gonadal soma-derived factor (gsdf) is reported to be a male initiator in medaka based on loss- and gain- of function via targeted disruption, or transgenic over-expression. However, little is known about how gsdf promotes undifferentiated gonad entry into male pathways or prevents entry into the female pathway. We utilized a visible folliculogenesis system with a reporter cassette of dual-color fluorescence expression to identify difference between oocyte development from wildtype and gsdf deficiency medaka...
January 13, 2017: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075662/centriolin-a-centriole-appendage-protein-regulates-peripheral-spindle-migration-and-asymmetric-division-in-mouse-meiotic-oocytes
#2
Tian-Yi Sun, Hai-Yang Wang, Jung-Woo Kwon, Bao Yuan, In-Won Lee, Xiang-Shun Cui, Nam-Hyung Kim
Unlike somatic cells mitosis, germ cell meiosis consists of two consecutive rounds of division that segregate homologous chromosomes and sister chromatids, respectively. The meiotic oocyte is characterized by an absence of centrioles and asymmetric division. Centriolin is a relatively novel centriolar protein that functions in mitotic cell cycle progression and cytokinesis. Here, we explored the function of centriolin in meiosis and showed that it is localized to meiotic spindles and concentrated at the spindle poles and midbody during oocyte meiotic maturation...
January 11, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073973/human-foetal-ovary-shares-meiotic-preventing-factors-with-the-developing-testis
#3
Nelly Frydman, Marine Poulain, Brahim Arkoun, Clotilde Duquenne, Sophie Tourpin, Sébastien Messiaen, René Habert, Virginie Rouiller-Fabre, Alexandra Benachi, Gabriel Livera
STUDY QUESTION: How can pre-meiotic germ cells persist in the human foetal ovary? SUMMARY ANSWER: Numerous oogonia escaping meiotic entry were retrieved throughout human ovarian development simultaneously with the expression of signalling pathways preventing meiosis, typically described in the rodent embryonic testis. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: The transition from mitosis to meiosis is a key event in female germ cells that remains poorly documented in research on the human ovary...
January 9, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057603/the-protein-expression-landscape-of-mitosis-and-meiosis-in-diploid-budding-yeast
#4
Emmanuelle Becker, Emmanuelle Com, Régis Lavigne, Marie-Hélène Guilleux, Bertrand Evrard, Charles Pineau, Michael Primig
: Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an established model organism for the molecular analysis of fundamental biological processes. The genomes of numerous strains have been sequenced, and the transcriptome and proteome of major phases during the haploid and diploid yeast life cycle have been determined. However, much less is known about dynamic changes of the proteome when cells switch from mitotic growth to meiotic development. We report a quantitative protein profiling analysis of yeast cell division and differentiation based on mass spectrometry...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991556/kif2a-regulates-the-spindle-assembly-and-the-metaphase-i-anaphase-i-transition-in-mouse-oocyte
#5
Ming-Huang Chen, Yu Liu, Ya-Long Wang, Rui Liu, Bai-Hui Xu, Fei Zhang, Fei-Ping Li, Lin Xu, Yan-Hong Lin, Shu-Wen He, Bao-Qiong Liao, Xian-Pei Fu, Xiao-Xue Wang, Xiang-Jun Yang, Hai-Long Wang
KIF2A, a member of the kinesin-13 family, has been reported to play a role in spindle assembly in mitosis. However, its function in mammalian meiosis remains unknown. In this research, we examined the expression, localization and function of KIF2A during mouse oocyte meiosis. KIF2A was expressed in some key stages in mouse oocyte meiosis. Immunofluorescent staining showed that KIF2A distributed in the germinal vesicle at the germinal vesicle stage and as the spindle assembling after meiosis resumption, KIF2A gradually accumulated to the entire spindle...
December 19, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974640/fidgetin-regulates-cultured-astrocyte-migration-by-severing-tyrosinated-microtubules-at-the-leading-edge
#6
Zunlu Hu, Jie Feng, Weijuan Bo, Ronghua Wu, Zhangji Dong, Yan Liu, Liang Qiang, Mei Liu
Microtubule (MT) organization is essential for many cellular events including mitosis, migration and cell polarity. Fidgetin (Fign), an ATP-dependent MT-severing protein, contributes to the regulation of MT configuration by cutting and trimming MT polymers. Functions of Fign have been indicated in neurite outgrowth, mitosis, meiosis, and cellular migration. Here we focused on migration of astrocytes. We report that Fign plays an essential role in cultured astrocyte migration by preferentially targeting MTs (or regions of MTs) that are rich in tyrosinated tubulin, a marker for especially dynamic MTs or especially dynamic regions of MTs...
December 14, 2016: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966791/separase-function-beyond-cohesion-cleavage-and-an-emerging-oncogene
#7
Ravinder Kumar
Proper and timely segregation of genetic endowment is necessary for survival and perpetuation of every species. Mis-segregation of chromosomes and resulting aneuploidy leads to genetic instability, which can jeopardize the survival of an individual or population as a whole. Abnormality with segregation of genetic contents has been associated with several medical consequences including cancer, sterility, mental retardation, spontaneous abortion, miscarriages and other birth related defects. Separase, by irreversible cleavage of cohesin complex subunit, paves the way for metaphase/anaphase transition during the cell cycle...
December 14, 2016: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965682/stable-epigenetic-variants-selected-from-an-induced-hypomethylated-fragaria-vesca-population
#8
Jihua Xu, Karen K Tanino, Stephen J Robinson
Epigenetic inheritance was transmitted through selection over five generations of extreme early, but not late flowering time phenotypic lines in Fragaria vesca. Epigenetic variation was initially artificially induced using the DNA demethylation reagent 5-azacytidine (5-azaC). It is the first report to explore epigenetic variant selection and phenotypic trait inheritance in strawberry. Transmission frequency of these traits was determined across generations. The early flowering (EF4) and late stolon (LS) phenotypic traits were successfully transmitted across five and three generations through meiosis, respectively...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917322/bioinformatical-analysis-of-eukaryotic-shugoshins-reveals-meiosis-specific-features-of-vertebrate-shugoshins
#9
Tatiana M Grishaeva, Darya Kulichenko, Yuri F Bogdanov
BACKGROUND: Shugoshins (SGOs) are proteins that protect cohesins located at the centromeres of sister chromatids from their early cleavage during mitosis and meiosis in plants, fungi, and animals. Their function is to prevent premature sister-chromatid disjunction and segregation. The study focused on the structural differences among SGOs acting during mitosis and meiosis that cause differences in chromosome behavior in these two types of cell division in different organisms. METHODS: A bioinformatical analysis of protein domains, conserved amino acid motifs, and physicochemical properties of 32 proteins from 25 species of plants, fungi, and animals was performed...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858158/structure-of-centromere-chromatin-from-nucleosome-to-chromosomal-architecture
#10
REVIEW
Thomas Schalch, Florian A Steiner
The centromere is essential for the segregation of chromosomes, as it serves as attachment site for microtubules to mediate chromosome segregation during mitosis and meiosis. In most organisms, the centromere is restricted to one chromosomal region that appears as primary constriction on the condensed chromosome and is partitioned into two chromatin domains: The centromere core is characterized by the centromere-specific histone H3 variant CENP-A (also called cenH3) and is required for specifying the centromere and for building the kinetochore complex during mitosis...
November 17, 2016: Chromosoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837282/the-chromosomal-basis-of-meiotic-acentrosomal-spindle-assembly-and-function-in-oocytes
#11
REVIEW
Sarah J Radford, Alexandra L Nguyen, Karen Schindler, Kim S McKim
Several aspects of meiosis are impacted by the absence of centrosomes in oocytes. Here, we review four aspects of meiosis I that are significantly affected by the absence of centrosomes in oocyte spindles. One, microtubules tend to assemble around the chromosomes. Two, the organization of these microtubules into a bipolar spindle is directed by the chromosomes. Three, chromosome bi-orientation and attachment to microtubules from the correct pole require modification of the mechanisms used in mitotic cells. Four, chromosome movement to the poles at anaphase cannot rely on polar anchoring of spindle microtubules by centrosomes...
November 11, 2016: Chromosoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826839/structure-and-mechanism-of-plant-dna-methyltransferases
#12
Jiamu Du
DNA methylation is an important epigenetic mark that functions in eukaryotes from fungi to animals and plants, where it plays a crucial role in the regulation of epigenetic silencing. Once the methylation mark is established by the de novo DNA methyltransferase (MTase), it requires specific regulatory mechanisms to maintain the methylation state during chromatin replication, both during meiosis and mitosis. Plants have distinct DNA methylation patterns that are both established and maintained by unique DNA MTases and are regulated by plant-specific pathways...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826797/the-cohesion-stabilizer-sororin-favors-dna-repair-and-chromosome-segregation-during-mouse-oocyte-meiosis
#13
Chun-Jie Huang, Yi-Feng Yuan, Di Wu, Faheem Ahmed Khan, Xiao-Fei Jiao, Li-Jun Huo
Maintenance and timely termination of cohesion on chromosomes ensures accurate chromosome segregation to guard against aneuploidy in mammalian oocytes and subsequent chromosomally abnormal pregnancies. Sororin, a cohesion stabilizer whose relevance in antagonizing the anti-cohesive property of Wings-apart like protein (Wapl), has been characterized in mitosis; however, the role of Sororin remains unclear during mammalian oocyte meiosis. Here, we show that Sororin is required for DNA damage repair and cohesion maintenance on chromosomes, and consequently, for mouse oocyte meiotic program...
November 8, 2016: In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology. Animal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818689/epigenetic-remodeling-in-male-germline-development
#14
REVIEW
Na Li, Qiaoyan Shen, Jinlian Hua
In mammals, germ cells guarantee the inheritance of genetic and epigenetic information across generations and are the origin of a new organism. During embryo development, the blastocyst is formed in the early stage, is comprised of an inner cell mass which is pluripotent, and could give rise to the embryonic stem cells (ESCs). The inner cell mass undergoes demethylation processes and will reestablish a methylated state that is similar to that of somatic cells later in epiblast stage. Primordial germ cells (PGCs) will be formed very soon and accompanied by the process of genome-wide demethylation...
2016: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816818/the-spindle-checkpoint-in-plants-a-green-variation-over-a-conserved-theme
#15
REVIEW
Shinichiro Komaki, Arp Schnittger
The spindle checkpoint, also called spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC), is a crucial control instance in animals and yeast that surveys the correct attachment of chromosomes to the spindle assuring their equal distribution in mitosis and meiosis. The presence of homologs of all core SAC components in plants indicates that these regulators have an ancient function. However, the fact that mutants of SAC components in plants are usually fully viable together with the observation that plants can be readily made polyploid raises the question whether plants have an efficient SAC...
December 2016: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803161/molecular-basis-for-cohesin-acetylation-by-establishment-of-sister-chromatid-cohesion-n-acetyltransferase-esco1
#16
Yadilette Rivera-Colón, Andrew Maguire, Glen P Liszczak, Adam S Olia, Ronen Marmorstein
Protein acetylation is a prevalent posttranslational modification that is regulated by diverse acetyltransferase enzymes. Although histone acetyltransferases (HATs) have been well characterized both structurally and mechanistically, far less is known about non-histone acetyltransferase enzymes. The human ESCO1 and ESCO2 paralogs acetylate the cohesin complex subunit SMC3 to regulate the separation of sister chromatids during mitosis and meiosis. Missense mutations within the acetyltransferase domain of these proteins correlate with diseases, including endometrial cancers and Roberts syndrome...
December 16, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797084/a-protocol-for-measuring-mitotic-chromosome-condensation-quantitatively-in-fission-yeast-cells
#17
Christoph Schiklenk, Boryana Petrova, Christian H Haering
Even though the formation of compact cylindrical chromosomes early during mitosis or meiosis is a prerequisite for the successful segregation of eukaryotic genomes, little is known about the molecular basis of this chromosome condensation process. Here, we describe in detail the protocol for a quantitative chromosome condensation assay in fission yeast cells, which is based on precise time-resolved measurements of the distances between two fluorescently labeled positions on the same chromosome. In combination with an automated computational analysis pipeline, this assay enables the study of various candidate proteins for their roles in regulating genome topology during cell divisions...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27794100/starch-turnover-and-metabolism-during-flower-and-early-embryo-development
#18
Afif Hedhly, Hannes Vogler, Marc W Schmid, Diana Pazmino, Valeria Gagliardini, Diana Santelia, Ueli Grossniklaus
The accumulation of starch within photosynthetic tissues and within dedicated storage organs has been characterized extensively in many species, and a function in buffering carbon availability or in fueling later growth phases, respectively, has been proposed. However, developmentally regulated starch turnover within heterotrophic tissues other than dedicated storage organs is poorly characterized, and its function is not well understood. Here, we report on the characterization of starch turnover during flower, early embryo, and silique development in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) using a combined clearing-staining technique on whole-mount tissue...
December 2016: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27767093/turning-rice-meiosis-into-mitosis
#19
Delphine Mieulet, Sylvie Jolivet, Maud Rivard, Laurence Cromer, Aurore Vernet, Pauline Mayonove, Lucie Pereira, Gaëtan Droc, Brigitte Courtois, Emmanuel Guiderdoni, Raphael Mercier
Introduction of clonal reproduction through seeds (apomixis) in crops has the potential to revolutionize agriculture by allowing self-propagation of any elite variety, in particular F1 hybrids. In the sexual model plant Arabidopsis thaliana synthetic clonal reproduction through seeds can be artificially implemented by (i) combining three mutations to turn meiosis into mitosis (MiMe) and (ii) crossing the obtained clonal gametes with a line expressing modified CENH3 and whose genome is eliminated in the zygote...
November 2016: Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27759153/the-master-greatwall-kinase-a-critical-regulator-of-mitosis-and-meiosis
#20
Suzanne Vigneron, Perle Robert, Khaled Hached, Lena Sundermann, Sophie Charrasse, Jean-Claude Labbé, Anna Castro, Thierry Lorca
Entry into mitosis requires the coordinated activation of various protein kinases and phosphatases that together activate sequential signaling pathways allowing entry, progression and exit of mitosis. The limiting step is thought to be the activation of the mitotic Cdk1-cyclin B kinase. However, this model has recently evolved with new data showing that in addition to the Cdk1-cyclin B complex, Greatwall (Gwl) kinase is also required to enter into and maintain mitosis. This new concept proposes that entry into mitosis is now based on the combined activation of both kinases Cdk1-cyclin B and Gwl, the former promoting massive phosphorylation of mitotic substrates and the latter inhibiting PP2A-B55 phosphatase responsible for dephosphorylation of these substrates...
2016: International Journal of Developmental Biology
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