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mitosis , meiosis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733545/a-small-molecule-inhibitor-targeting-the-aurkc-i%C3%AE%C2%BAb%C3%AE-interaction-decreases-transformed-growth-of-mda-mb-231-breast-cancer-cells
#1
Eun Hee Han, Jin-Young Min, Shin-Ae Yoo, Sung-Joon Park, Yun-Jeong Choe, Hee Sub Yun, Zee-Won Lee, Sun Woo Jin, Hyung Gyun Kim, Hye Gwang Jeong, Hyun Kyoung Kim, Nam Doo Kim, Young-Ho Chung
The Aurora kinases, Aurora A (AURKA), Aurora B (AURKB), and Aurora C (AURKC), are serine/threonine kinases required for the control of mitosis (AURKA and AURKB) or meiosis (AURKC). Several Aurora kinase inhibitors are being investigated as novel anticancer therapeutics. Recent studies demonstrated that AURKC activation contributes to breast cancer cell transformation. Therefore, AURKC is both a promising marker and therapeutic target for breast cancer; however, its signaling network has not been fully characterized...
June 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733417/analysis-of-schizosaccharomyces-pombe-meiosis
#2
Akira Yamashita, Takeshi Sakuno, Yoshinori Watanabe, Masayuki Yamamoto
Meiosis is a specialized cell cycle that generates haploid gametes from diploid cells. The fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe is one of the best model organisms for studying the regulatory mechanisms of meiosis. S. pombe cells, which normally grow in the haploid state, diploidize by conjugation and initiate meiosis when starved for nutrients, especially nitrogen. Following two rounds of chromosome segregation, spore formation takes place. The switch from mitosis to meiosis is controlled by a kinase, Pat1, and an RNA-binding protein, Mei2...
July 21, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711872/cell-scientist-to-watch-kevin-corbett
#3
(no author information available yet)
Kevin Corbett graduated in biology and biochemistry from the University of Virginia. He then went to the University of California, Berkeley, to work on the structure and function of DNA topoisomerases in bacteria and archaea for his PhD with James Berger. In 2005, he moved to the laboratory of Stephen Harrison at Harvard Medical School for his postdoctoral work on kinetochore structure and function, particularly the yeast monopolin complex, which promotes proper chromosome segregation in the first meiotic division...
July 15, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701347/a-casein-kinase-1-prevents-expulsion-of-the-oocyte-meiotic-spindle-into-a-polar-body-by-regulating-cortical-contractility
#4
Jonathan R Flynn, Francis J McNally
During female meiosis, haploid eggs are generated from diploid oocytes. This reduction in chromosome number occurs through two highly asymmetric cell divisions resulting in one large egg and two small polar bodies. Unlike mitosis, where an actomyosin contractile ring forms between the sets of segregating chromosomes, the meiotic contractile ring forms on the cortex adjacent to one spindle pole, then ingresses down the length of the spindle to position itself at the exact midpoint between the two sets of segregating chromosomes...
July 12, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692865/live-cell-confocal-laser-imaging-studies-on-the-nuclear-behavior-during-meiosis-and-ascosporogenesis-in-morchella-importuna-under-artificial-cultivation
#5
Peixin He, Ke Wang, Yingli Cai, Wei Liu
The commercial production of Morchella mushrooms, especially M. importuna, has been realized since 2012 in China, which facilitates the fundamental studies of Morchella spp. In this paper, the cytological characteristics at three stages of ascocarpic development and the nuclear behavior during meiosis and ascosporogenesis in cultivated strain M. importuna 1(#) was visualized by confocal laser scanning microscopy. The results suggested that the strain sporulated at sporulation stage of ascocarpic development...
June 29, 2017: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682694/daam1-regulates-fascin-for-actin-assembly-in-mouse-oocyte-meiosis
#6
Yujie Lu, Yu Zhang, Meng-Hao Pan, Nam-Hyung Kim, Shao-Chen Sun, Xiang-Shun Cui
As a formin protein, Daam1 (Dishevelled-associated activator of morphogenesis 1) is reported to regulate series of cell processes like endocytosis, cell morphology and migration via its effects on actin assembly in mitosis. However, whether Daam1 plays roles in female meiosis remains uncertain. In this study, we investigated the expression and functions of Daam1 during mouse oocyte meiosis. Our results indicated that Daam1 localized at the cortex of oocytes, which was similar with actin filaments. After Daam1 morpholino (MO) microinjection, the expression of Daam1 significantly decreased, which resulted in the failure of oocyte polar body extrusion...
July 6, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666956/coordination-of-cellular-differentiation-polarity-mitosis-and-meiosis-new-findings-from-early-vertebrate-oogenesis
#7
REVIEW
Yaniv M Elkouby, Mary C Mullins
A mechanistic dissection of early oocyte differentiation in vertebrates is key to advancing our knowledge of germline development, reproductive biology, the regulation of meiosis, and all of their associated disorders. Recent advances in the field include breakthroughs in the identification of germline stem cells in Medaka, in the cellular architecture of the germline cyst in mice, in a mechanistic dissection of chromosomal pairing and bouquet formation in meiosis in mice, in tracing oocyte symmetry breaking to the chromosomal bouquet of meiosis in zebrafish, and in the biology of the Balbiani body, a universal oocyte granule...
June 28, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652620/differential-cohesin-loading-marks-paired-and-unpaired-regions-of-platypus-sex-chromosomes-at-prophase-i
#8
Aaron E Casey, Tasman J Daish, Jose Luis Barbero, Frank Grützner
Cohesins are vital for chromosome organisation during meiosis and mitosis. In addition to the important function in sister chromatid cohesion, these complexes play key roles in meiotic recombination, DSB repair, homologous chromosome pairing and segregation. Egg-laying mammals (monotremes) feature an unusually complex sex chromosome system, which raises fundamental questions about organisation and segregation during meiosis. We discovered a dynamic and differential accumulation of cohesins on sex chromosomes during platypus prophase I and specific reorganisation of the sex chromosome complex around a large nucleolar body...
June 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634865/dynamics-of-tobacco-dna-topoisomerases-ii-in-cell-cycle-regulation-to-manage-topological-constrains-during-replication-transcription-and-mitotic-chromosome-condensation-and-segregation
#9
Badri Nath Singh, V Mohan Murali Achary, Varakumar Panditi, Sudhir K Sopory, Malireddy K Reddy
The topoisomerase II expression varies as a function of cell proliferation. Maximal topoisomerase II expression was tightly coupled to S phase and G2/M phase via both transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation. Investigation in meiosis using pollen mother cells also revealed that it is not the major component of meiotic chromosomes, it seems to diffuse out once meiotic chromosomal condensation is completed. Synchronized tobacco BY-2 cell cultures were used to study the role of topoisomerase II in various stages of the cell cycle...
June 20, 2017: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631016/new-insights-into-cohesin-loading
#10
REVIEW
Ireneusz Litwin, Robert Wysocki
Cohesin is a conserved, ring-shaped protein complex that encircles sister chromatids and ensures correct chromosome segregation during mitosis and meiosis. It also plays a crucial role in the regulation of gene expression, DNA condensation, and DNA repair through both non-homologous end joining and homologous recombination. Cohesins are spatiotemporally regulated by the Scc2-Scc4 complex which facilitates cohesin loading onto chromatin at specific chromosomal sites. Over the last few years, much attention has been paid to cohesin and cohesin loader as it became clear that even minor disruptions of these complexes may lead to developmental disorders and cancers...
June 19, 2017: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627627/stromal-antigen-2-functions-as-a-tumor-suppressor-in-bladder-cancer-cells
#11
Han Wang, Jianhua Zhong, Chenglong Wu, Yang Liu, Jinghua Zhang, Xiaowen Zou, Yan Chen, Jinfeng Su, Gang Yang, Yuantang Zhong, Aifa Tang
Stromal antigen 2 (STAG2) is a subunit of the cohesion complex that plays an important role in the normal segregation of sister chromatids during mitosis or meiosis. However, the effect of STAG2 on the bladder cancer cell proliferation, migration, and invasion has not yet been fully clarified. In this study, we aimed to characterize STAG2 expression and functional significance in BC and adjacent normal tissue. Notably, STAG2 expression was markedly lower in BC cells and tumor tissues than their normal counterparts at the gene and protein levels...
June 12, 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626760/txndc9-is-required-for-meiotic-maturation-of-mouse-oocytes
#12
Fanhua Ma, Liming Hou, Liguo Yang
Txndc9 (thioredoxin domain containing protein 9) has been shown to be involved in mammalian mitosis; however, its function in mammalian oocyte meiosis remains unclear. In this study, we initially found that Txndc9 is expressed during meiotic maturation of mouse oocytes and higher expression of Txndc9 mRNA and protein occurred in germinal vesicle (GV) stage. By using confocal scanning, we observed that Txndc9 localized at both nucleus and cytoplasm, especially at spindle microtubules. Specific depletion of Txndc9 by siRNA in mouse oocyte resulted in decreasing the rate of first polar body extrusion and increasing abnormal spindle assemble...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621416/all-in-one-integrating-cell-polarity-meiosis-mitosis-and-mechanical-forces-in-early-oocyte-differentiation-in-vertebrates
#13
Yaniv M Elkouby
While the differentiation of oocytes is key for embryonic development, and its investigation is crucial for advancing our understanding of human reproduction and fertility, many fundamental questions in oogenesis have been long standing. However, recent technical advances have led to several breakthroughs mainly in mice and zebrafish. Here I review these recent findings, including regulation and organization of the germline cyst, the mechanistics of chromosomal pairing, establishment of cell polarity, and formation of a universal mRNA-protein (mRNP) granule called the Balbiani body...
2017: International Journal of Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600780/meiotic-divisions-no-place-for-gender-equality
#14
Warif El Yakoubi, Katja Wassmann
In multicellular organisms the fusion of two gametes with a haploid set of chromosomes leads to the formation of the zygote, the first cell of the embryo. Accurate execution of the meiotic cell division to generate a female and a male gamete is required for the generation of healthy offspring harboring the correct number of chromosomes. Unfortunately, meiosis is error prone. This has severe consequences for fertility and under certain circumstances, health of the offspring. In humans, female meiosis is extremely error prone...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588601/in-favor-of-establishment-regulation-of-chromatid-cohesion-in-plants
#15
REVIEW
Pablo Bolaños-Villegas, Kuntal De, Mónica Pradillo, Desheng Liu, Christopher A Makaroff
In eukaryotic organisms, the correct regulation of sister chromatid cohesion, whereby sister chromatids are paired and held together, is essential for accurate segregation of the sister chromatids and homologous chromosomes into daughter cells during mitosis and meiosis, respectively. Sister chromatid cohesion requires a cohesin complex comprised of structural maintenance of chromosome adenosine triphosphatases and accessory proteins that regulate the association of the complex with chromosomes or that are involved in the establishment or release of cohesion...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585134/cenp-a-regulates-chromosome-segregation-during-the-first-meiosis-of-mouse-oocytes
#16
Li Li, Shu-Tao Qi, Qing-Yuan Sun, Shi-Ling Chen
Proper chromosome separation in both mitosis and meiosis depends on the correct connection between kinetochores of chromosomes and spindle microtubules. Kinetochore dysfunction can lead to unequal distribution of chromosomes during cell division and result in aneuploidy, thus kinetochores are critical for faithful segregation of chromosomes. Centromere protein A (CENP-A) is an important component of the inner kinetochore plate. Multiple studies in mitosis have found that deficiencies in CENP-A could result in structural and functional changes of kinetochores, leading to abnormal chromosome segregation, aneuploidy and apoptosis in cells...
June 2017: Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577021/segmental-duplication-of-chromosome-11-and-its-implications-for-cell-division-and-genome-wide-expression-in-rice
#17
Rong Zhang, Chao Xue, Guanqing Liu, Xiaoyu Liu, Mingliang Zhang, Xiao Wang, Tao Zhang, Zhiyun Gong
Segmental duplication is a major structural variation that occurs in chromosomes. Duplication leads to the production of gene copies with increased numbers of related repeat segments, causing the global genome to be in a state of imbalance. In addition, if the added segment contains a centromeric specific DNA, the duplicated chromosome will have structural multiple centromeres. We identified a segmental duplication containing structurally tricentric regions derived from the short arm of chromosome 11 (11L∙ + 11L∙ + 11S∙11S∙11S∙11S, "∙" represents the centromeric DNA repeat loci), and analyzed its implications for cell division and genome-wide expression...
June 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543764/mir-31-regulates-spermatogonial-stem-cells-meiosis-via-targeting-stra8
#18
Yingjie Wang, Qisheng Zuo, Yulin Bi, Wenhui Zhang, Jin Jin, Liangliang Zhang, Ya-Ni Zhang, Bichun Li
Stra8 (stimulated by retinoic acid gene 8) is a specific gene that is expressed in mammalian germ cells during transition from mitosis to meiosis and plays a key role in the initiation of meiosis in mammals and birds. So, the evaluation of the Stra8 pathway in cSSCs may provide a deeper insight into mammalian spermatogenesis. miRNA was also an important regulating factor for meiosis of SSCs. However, there is currently no data indicating that miRNA regulate the meiosis of SSCs via Stra8. Here, we predicted the prospective miRNA targeting to Stra8 using the online Bioinformatics database-Targetscan, and performed an analysis of the dual-luciferase recombinant vector, pGL3-CMV-LUC-MCS-Stra8-3'UTR...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542371/whole-genome-sequencing-of-spermatocytic-tumors-provides-insights-into-the-mutational-processes-operating-in-the-male-germline
#19
Eleni Giannoulatou, Geoffrey J Maher, Zhihao Ding, Ad J M Gillis, Lambert C J Dorssers, Alexander Hoischen, Ewa Rajpert-De Meyts, Gilean McVean, Andrew O M Wilkie, Leendert H J Looijenga, Anne Goriely
Adult male germline stem cells (spermatogonia) proliferate by mitosis and, after puberty, generate spermatocytes that undertake meiosis to produce haploid spermatozoa. Germ cells are under evolutionary constraint to curtail mutations and maintain genome integrity. Despite constant turnover, spermatogonia very rarely form tumors, so-called spermatocytic tumors (SpT). In line with the previous identification of FGFR3 and HRAS selfish mutations in a subset of cases, candidate gene screening of 29 SpTs identified an oncogenic NRAS mutation in two cases...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484865/chondriokinesis-during-microsporogenesis-in-plants
#20
REVIEW
Dorota Tchórzewska
Chondriokinesis represents a highly orchestrated process of organelle rearrangement in all dividing plant and animal cells, ensuring a proper course of karyokinesis and cytokinesis. This process plays a key role in male gametophyte formation. Chondriokinesis is a regular rearrangement of cell organelles, assuring their regular inheritance, during both mitotic and meiotic divisions in plant and animal cells. The universal occurrence of the process implies its high conservatism and its probable origin at an early stage of plant evolution...
July 2017: Planta
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