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mitosis , meiosis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319181/the-small-gtpase-rhoa-regulates-the-limk1-2-cofilin-pathway-to-modulate-cytoskeletal-dynamics-in-oocyte-meiosis
#1
Xing Duan, Yu Zhang, Kun-Lin Chen, Hao-Lin Zhang, Lan-Lan Wu, Hong-Lin Liu, Zhen-Bo Wang, Shao-Chen Sun
LIM kinases (LIMK1/2) are LIM domain-containing serine/threonine/tyrosine kinases that mediate multiple cellular processes in mitosis. In the present study, we explored the functional roles and potential signaling pathway of LIMK1/2 during mouse oocyte meiosis. Disruption of LIMK1/2 activity and expression significantly decreased oocyte polar body extrusion. Live-cell imaging revealed that spindle migration was disturbed after both LIMK1 and LIMK2 knock down, and this might be due to aberrant distribution of actin filaments in the oocyte cytoplasm and cortex...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317645/computational-modelling-of-meiotic-entry-and-commitment
#2
Tanvi Bhola, Orsolya Kapuy, P K Vinod
In response to developmental and environmental conditions, cells exit the mitotic cell cycle and enter the meiosis program to generate haploid gametes from diploid germ cells. Once cells decide to enter the meiosis program they become irreversibly committed to the completion of meiosis irrespective of the presence of cue signals. How meiotic entry and commitment occur due to the dynamics of the regulatory network is not well understood. Therefore, we constructed a mathematical model of the regulatory network that controls the transition from mitosis to meiosis in Schizosaccharomyces pombe...
January 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316864/overexpression-of-the-transcription-factor-rst2-in-schizosaccharomyces-pombe-indicates-growth-defect-mitotic-defects-and-microtubule-disorder
#3
Kouhei Takenaka, Takuma Tanabe, Makoto Kawamukai, Yasuhiro Matsuo
In Schizosaccharomyces pombe, the transcription factor Rst2 regulates ste11 in meiosis and fbp1 in glucogenesis downstream of the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase (PKA) pathway. Here, we demonstrate that Rst2 regulates additional cellular events. Overexpressed Rst2 elevated the frequency of oval, bent, branched, septated, and multi-septated cells. Cells showed normal nuclear divisions but exhibited abnormal nuclear organization at low frequency. In oval cells, microtubules were curved but they were rescued by the deletion of mal3...
January 10, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305387/simple-and-complex-centromeric-satellites-in-drosophila-sibling-species
#4
Paul Talbert, Sivakanthan Kasinathan, Steven Henikoff
Centromeres are the chromosomal sites of assembly for kinetochores, the protein complexes that attach to spindle fibers and mediate separation of chromosomes to daughter cells in mitosis and meiosis. In most multicellular organisms, centromeres comprise a single specific family of tandem repeats, often 100-400 bp in length, found on every chromosome, typically in one location within heterochromatin. Drosophila melanogaster is unusual in that the heterochromatin contains many families of mostly short (5-12 bp) tandem repeats, none of which appear to be present at all centromeres, and none of which are found only at centromeres...
January 5, 2018: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288727/characterization-of-the-es-ddx52-involved-in-the-spermatogonial-mitosis-and-spermatid-differentiation-in-chinese-mitten-crab-eriocheir-sinensis
#5
Qing Li, Hongdan Yang, Lin He, Qun Wang
Spermatogenesis involves a series of process including exiting from the mitotic cell cycle, entry into meiosis, completion of complex differentiation programs, and producing spermatozoa. Expression of various genes in an ordered manner, and interactions between various genes and their protein products, primarily controlled at the post-transcriptional level with DEAD-box RNA helicases playing a crucial role in germ cell development, are required for production of fertile sperm. Many members of this family have been deeply studied in spermatogenesis, such as DDX3X, DDX25 and DDX4, but few data are available on DDX52...
December 27, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283376/differential-selective-pressures-experienced-by-the-aurora-kinase-gene-family
#6
Joni M Seeling, Alexis A Farmer, Adam Mansfield, Hyuk Cho, Madhusudan Choudhary
Aurora kinases (AKs) are serine/threonine kinases that are essential for cell division. Humans have three AK genes: AKA, AKB, and AKC. AKA is required for centrosome assembly, centrosome separation, and bipolar spindle assembly, and its mutation leads to abnormal spindle morphology. AKB is required for the spindle checkpoint and proper cytokinesis, and mutations cause chromosome misalignment and cytokinesis failure. AKC is expressed in germ cells, and has a role in meiosis analogous to that of AKB in mitosis...
December 28, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276128/tension-induced-error-correction-and-not-kinetochore-attachment-status-activates-the-sac-in-an-aurora-b-c-dependent-manner-in-oocytes
#7
Antoine Vallot, Ioanna Leontiou, Damien Cladière, Warif El Yakoubi, Susanne Bolte, Eulalie Buffin, Katja Wassmann
Cell division with partitioning of the genetic material should take place only when paired chromosomes named bivalents (meiosis I) or sister chromatids (mitosis and meiosis II) are correctly attached to the bipolar spindle in a tension-generating manner. For this to happen, the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) checks whether unattached kinetochores are present, in which case anaphase onset is delayed to permit further establishment of attachments. Additionally, microtubules are stabilized when they are attached and under tension...
December 16, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246297/distinct-expression-profiles-and-novel-targets-of-micrornas-in-human-spermatogonia-pachytene-spermatocytes-and-round-spermatids-between-oa-patients-and-noa-patients
#8
Chencheng Yao, Qingqing Yuan, Minghui Niu, Hongyong Fu, Fan Zhou, Wenhui Zhang, Hong Wang, Liping Wen, Ligang Wu, Zheng Li, Zuping He
Human spermatogenesis includes three main stages, namely, the mitosis of spermatogonia, meiosis of spermatocytes, and spermiogenesis of spermatids, which are precisely regulated by epigenetic and genetic factors. Abnormality of epigenetic and genetic factors can result in aberrant spermatogenesis and eventual male infertility. However, epigenetic regulators in controlling each stage of normal and abnormal human spermatogenesis remain unknown. Here, we have revealed for the first time the distinct microRNA profiles in human spermatogonia, pachytene spermatocytes, and round spermatids between obstructive azoospermia (OA) patients and non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA) patients...
December 15, 2017: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238470/the-effects-of-activated-omental-extract-on-nuclear-and-cytoplasmic-in-vitro-maturation-of-rat-oocytes
#9
Fakhroddin Mesbah, Aris Donic Pracha, Tahereh Talaei-Khozani, Soghra Bahmanpour
Objective: The role of growth factors, including vascular endothelial growth factor of activated omentum on mitosis is clearly known, though not on all the aspects of in vitro oocyte maturation. This study was designed to assess the effect of activated-omental extract (AOE) on in vitro maturation (IVM) of rat cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs). Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, the COCs were incubated in Ham's F-10 supplemented with either 20% AOE, 20% fetal bovine serum (FBS) or serum-free media...
December 2017: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237819/condensins-promote-chromosome-individualization-and-segregation-during-mitosis-meiosis-and-amitosis-in-tetrahymena-thermophila
#10
Rachel Howard-Till, Josef Loidl
Condensin is a protein complex with diverse functions in chromatin packaging and chromosome condensation and segregation. We studied condensin in the evolutionarily distant protist model Tetrahymena, which features non-canonical nuclear organization and divisions. In Tetrahymena, the germline and soma are partitioned into two different nuclei within a single cell. Consistent with their functional specializations in sexual reproduction and gene expression, condensins of the germline nucleus and the polyploid somatic nucleus are composed of different subunits...
December 13, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229982/myosin-x-knockout-is-semi-lethal-and-demonstrates-that-myosin-x-functions-in-neural-tube-closure-pigmentation-hyaloid-vasculature-regression-and-filopodia-formation
#11
Ernest G Heimsath, Yang-In Yim, Mirna Mustapha, John A Hammer, Richard E Cheney
Myosin-X (Myo10) is an unconventional myosin best known for its striking localization to the tips of filopodia. Despite the broad expression of Myo10 in vertebrate tissues, its functions at the organismal level remain largely unknown. We report here the generation of KO-first (Myo10 tm1a/tm1a ), floxed (Myo10 tm1c/tm1c ), and KO mice (Myo10 tm1d/tm1d ). Complete knockout of Myo10 is semi-lethal, with over half of homozygous KO embryos exhibiting exencephaly, a severe defect in neural tube closure. All Myo10 KO mice that survive birth exhibit a white belly spot, all have persistent fetal vasculature in the eye, and ~50% have webbed digits...
December 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222412/ancestral-perinatal-obesogen-exposure-results-in-a-transgenerational-thrifty-phenotype-in-mice
#12
Raquel Chamorro-Garcia, Carlos Diaz-Castillo, Bassem M Shoucri, Heidi Käch, Ron Leavitt, Toshi Shioda, Bruce Blumberg
Ancestral environmental exposures to non-mutagenic agents can exert effects in unexposed descendants. This transgenerational inheritance has significant implications for understanding disease etiology. Here we show that exposure of F0 mice to the obesogen tributyltin (TBT) throughout pregnancy and lactation predisposes unexposed F4 male descendants to obesity when dietary fat is increased. Analyses of body fat, plasma hormone levels, and visceral white adipose tissue DNA methylome and transcriptome collectively indicate that the F4 obesity is consistent with a leptin resistant, thrifty phenotype...
December 8, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196561/hierarchical-regulation-of-centromeric-cohesion-protection-by-meikin-and-shugoshin-during-meiosis-i
#13
Seira Miyazaki, Jihye Kim, Takeshi Sakuno, Yoshinori Watanabe
The kinetochore is the key apparatus regulating chromosome segregation. Particularly in meiosis, unlike in mitosis, sister kinetochores are captured by microtubules emanating from the same spindle pole (mono-orientation), and sister chromatid cohesion mediated by cohesin is protected at centromeres in the following anaphase. Shugoshin, which localizes to centromeres depending on the phosphorylation of histone H2A by Bub1 kinase, plays a central role in protecting meiotic cohesin Rec8 from separase cleavage...
December 1, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187566/stage-specific-gene-profiling-of-germinal-cells-helps-delineate-the-mitosis-meiosis-transition
#14
Tinglu Yuan, Wei-Jie Huang, Juan He, Dong Zhang, Weihua Tang
In flowering plants, germ lines are induced from somatic meristems within reproductive organs. Within anthers, germinal cell initials first undergo several rounds of mitotic proliferation before synchronously entering meiosis. Our understanding of the progression and the molecular basis of this mitosis to meiosis transition is still limited. Taking advantage of the correlation between anther length and pre-meiotic germinal cell development in maize, we studied the transcriptome dynamics of germinal cells at three sequential stages, i...
November 29, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176878/genome-wide-recombination-rate-variation-in-a-recombination-map-of-cotton
#15
Chao Shen, Ximei Li, Ruiting Zhang, Zhongxu Lin
Recombination is crucial for genetic evolution, which not only provides new allele combinations but also influences the biological evolution and efficacy of natural selection. However, recombination variation is not well understood outside of the complex species' genomes, and it is particularly unclear in Gossypium. Cotton is the most important natural fibre crop and the second largest oil-seed crop. Here, we found that the genetic and physical maps distances did not have a simple linear relationship. Recombination rates were unevenly distributed throughout the cotton genome, which showed marked changes along the chromosome lengths and recombination was completely suppressed in the centromeric regions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174386/expression-and-cellular-localization-of-double-sex-and-mab-3-related-transcription-factor-1-in-testes-of-postnatal-small-tail-han-sheep-at-different-developmental-stages
#16
Taotao Li, Zengkui Lu, Ruirui Luo, Jianfeng Gao, Xingxu Zhao, Youji Ma
Double sex and mab-3 related transcription factor 1 (Dmrt1), an evolutionarily conserved gene, is a sex-related gene expressed in male gonads, that is involved in the regulation of sex differentiation, testicular development and reproductive function maintenance. Until now, functional studies on the Dmrt1 gene in sheep (Ovis aries) have been lacking. In this study, testis, heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney and longissimus dorsi muscle tissues were collected from Small-Tail Han sheep at 0, 2, 5, 12 and 24months after birth (mab)...
November 22, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158290/a-comparative-proteome-profile-of-female-mouse-gonads-suggests-a-tight-link-between-the-electron-transport-chain-and-meiosis-initiation
#17
Cong Shen, Mingrui Li, Pan Zhang, Yueshuai Guo, Hao Zhang, Bo Zheng, Hui Teng, Tao Zhou, Xuejiang Guo, Ran Huo
Generation of haploid gametes by meiosis is a unique property of germ cells and is critical for sexual reproduction. Leaving mitosis and entering meiosis is a key step in germ cell development. Several inducers or intrinsic genes are known to be important for meiotic initiation, but the regulation of meiotic initiation, especially at the protein level, is still not well understood. We constructed a comparative proteome profile of female mouse fetal gonads at specific time points (11.5, 12.5, and 13.5 days post coitum), spanning a critical window for initiation of meiosis in female germ cells...
November 20, 2017: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153393/protein-based-inheritance-epigenetics-beyond-the-chromosome
#18
REVIEW
Zachary H Harvey, Yiwen Chen, Daniel F Jarosz
Epigenetics refers to changes in phenotype that are not rooted in DNA sequence. This phenomenon has largely been studied in the context of chromatin modification. Yet many epigenetic traits are instead linked to self-perpetuating changes in the individual or collective activity of proteins. Most such proteins are prions (e.g., [PSI+], [URE3], [SWI+], [MOT3+], [MPH1+], [LSB+], and [GAR+]), which have the capacity to adopt at least one conformation that self-templates over long biological timescales. This allows them to serve as protein-based epigenetic elements that are readily broadcast through mitosis and meiosis...
November 15, 2017: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126117/dynamic-reorganization-of-open-chromatin-underlies-diverse-transcriptomes-during-spermatogenesis
#19
So Maezawa, Masashi Yukawa, Kris G Alavattam, Artem Barski, Satoshi H Namekawa
During spermatogenesis, germ cells undergo massive cellular reconstruction and dynamic chromatin remodeling to facilitate highly diverse transcriptomes, which are required for the production of functional sperm. However, it remains unknown how germline chromatin is organized to promote the dynamic, complex transcriptomes of spermatogenesis. Here, using ATAC-seq, we establish the varied landscape of open chromatin during spermatogenesis. We identify the reorganization of accessible chromatin in intergenic and intronic regions during the mitosis-to-meiosis transition...
November 6, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120325/structural-insight-into-tpx2-stimulated-microtubule-assembly
#20
Rui Zhang, Johanna Roostalu, Thomas Surrey, Eva Nogales
During mitosis and meiosis, microtubule (MT) assembly is locally upregulated by the chromatin-dependent Ran-GTP pathway. One of its key targets is the MT-associated spindle assembly factor TPX2. The molecular mechanism of how TPX2 stimulates MT assembly remains unknown because structural information about the interaction of TPX2 with MTs is lacking. Here, we determine the cryo-electron microscopy structure of a central region of TPX2 bound to the MT surface. TPX2 uses two flexibly linked elements ('ridge' and 'wedge') in a novel interaction mode to simultaneously bind across longitudinal and lateral tubulin interfaces...
November 9, 2017: ELife
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