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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631016/new-insights-into-cohesin-loading
#1
REVIEW
Ireneusz Litwin, Robert Wysocki
Cohesin is a conserved, ring-shaped protein complex that encircles sister chromatids and ensures correct chromosome segregation during mitosis and meiosis. It also plays a crucial role in the regulation of gene expression, DNA condensation, and DNA repair through both non-homologous end joining and homologous recombination. Cohesins are spatiotemporally regulated by the Scc2-Scc4 complex which facilitates cohesin loading onto chromatin at specific chromosomal sites. Over the last few years, much attention has been paid to cohesin and cohesin loader as it became clear that even minor disruptions of these complexes may lead to developmental disorders and cancers...
June 19, 2017: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627627/stromal-antigen-2-functions-as-a-tumor-suppressor-in-bladder-cancer-cells
#2
Han Wang, Jianhua Zhong, Chenglong Wu, Yang Liu, Jinghua Zhang, Xiaowen Zou, Yan Chen, Jinfeng Su, Gang Yang, Yuantang Zhong, Aifa Tang
Stromal antigen 2 (STAG2) is a subunit of the cohesion complex that plays an important role in the normal segregation of sister chromatids during mitosis or meiosis. However, the effect of STAG2 on the bladder cancer cell proliferation, migration, and invasion has not yet been fully clarified. In this study, we aimed to characterize STAG2 expression and functional significance in BC and adjacent normal tissue. Notably, STAG2 expression was markedly lower in BC cells and tumor tissues than their normal counterparts at the gene and protein levels...
June 12, 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626760/txndc9-is-required-for-meiotic-maturation-of-mouse-oocytes
#3
Fanhua Ma, Liming Hou, Liguo Yang
Txndc9 (thioredoxin domain containing protein 9) has been shown to be involved in mammalian mitosis; however, its function in mammalian oocyte meiosis remains unclear. In this study, we initially found that Txndc9 is expressed during meiotic maturation of mouse oocytes and higher expression of Txndc9 mRNA and protein occurred in germinal vesicle (GV) stage. By using confocal scanning, we observed that Txndc9 localized at both nucleus and cytoplasm, especially at spindle microtubules. Specific depletion of Txndc9 by siRNA in mouse oocyte resulted in decreasing the rate of first polar body extrusion and increasing abnormal spindle assemble...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621416/all-in-one-integrating-cell-polarity-meiosis-mitosis-and-mechanical-forces-in-early-oocyte-differentiation-in-vertebrates
#4
Yaniv M Elkouby
While the differentiation of oocytes is key for embryonic development, and its investigation is crucial for advancing our understanding of human reproduction and fertility, many fundamental questions in oogenesis have been long standing. However, recent technical advances have led to several breakthroughs mainly in mice and zebrafish. Here I review these recent findings, including regulation and organization of the germline cyst, the mechanistics of chromosomal pairing, establishment of cell polarity, and formation of a universal mRNA-protein (mRNP) granule called the Balbiani body...
2017: International Journal of Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600780/meiotic-divisions-no-place-for-gender-equality
#5
Warif El Yakoubi, Katja Wassmann
In multicellular organisms the fusion of two gametes with a haploid set of chromosomes leads to the formation of the zygote, the first cell of the embryo. Accurate execution of the meiotic cell division to generate a female and a male gamete is required for the generation of healthy offspring harboring the correct number of chromosomes. Unfortunately, meiosis is error prone. This has severe consequences for fertility and under certain circumstances, health of the offspring. In humans, female meiosis is extremely error prone...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588601/in-favor-of-establishment-regulation-of-chromatid-cohesion-in-plants
#6
REVIEW
Pablo Bolaños-Villegas, Kuntal De, Mónica Pradillo, Desheng Liu, Christopher A Makaroff
In eukaryotic organisms, the correct regulation of sister chromatid cohesion, whereby sister chromatids are paired and held together, is essential for accurate segregation of the sister chromatids and homologous chromosomes into daughter cells during mitosis and meiosis, respectively. Sister chromatid cohesion requires a cohesin complex comprised of structural maintenance of chromosome adenosine triphosphatases and accessory proteins that regulate the association of the complex with chromosomes or that are involved in the establishment or release of cohesion...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585134/cenp-a-regulates-chromosome-segregation-during-the-first-meiosis-of-mouse-oocytes
#7
Li Li, Shu-Tao Qi, Qing-Yuan Sun, Shi-Ling Chen
Proper chromosome separation in both mitosis and meiosis depends on the correct connection between kinetochores of chromosomes and spindle microtubules. Kinetochore dysfunction can lead to unequal distribution of chromosomes during cell division and result in aneuploidy, thus kinetochores are critical for faithful segregation of chromosomes. Centromere protein A (CENP-A) is an important component of the inner kinetochore plate. Multiple studies in mitosis have found that deficiencies in CENP-A could result in structural and functional changes of kinetochores, leading to abnormal chromosome segregation, aneuploidy and apoptosis in cells...
June 2017: Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577021/segmental-duplication-of-chromosome-11-and-its-implications-for-cell-division-and-genome-wide-expression-in-rice
#8
Rong Zhang, Chao Xue, Guanqing Liu, Xiaoyu Liu, Mingliang Zhang, Xiao Wang, Tao Zhang, Zhiyun Gong
Segmental duplication is a major structural variation that occurs in chromosomes. Duplication leads to the production of gene copies with increased numbers of related repeat segments, causing the global genome to be in a state of imbalance. In addition, if the added segment contains a centromeric specific DNA, the duplicated chromosome will have structural multiple centromeres. We identified a segmental duplication containing structurally tricentric regions derived from the short arm of chromosome 11 (11L∙ + 11L∙ + 11S∙11S∙11S∙11S, "∙" represents the centromeric DNA repeat loci), and analyzed its implications for cell division and genome-wide expression...
June 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543764/mir-31-regulates-spermatogonial-stem-cells-meiosis-via-targeting-stra8
#9
Yingjie Wang, Qisheng Zuo, Yulin Bi, Wenhui Zhang, Jin Jin, Liangliang Zhang, Ya-Ni Zhang, Bichun Li
Stra8 (stimulated by retinoic acid gene 8) is a specific gene that is expressed in mammalian germ cells during transition from mitosis to meiosis and plays a key role in the initiation of meiosis in mammals and birds. So, the evaluation of the Stra8 pathway in cSSCs may provide a deeper insight into mammalian spermatogenesis. miRNA was also an important regulating factor for meiosis of SSCs. However, there is currently no data indicating that miRNA regulate the meiosis of SSCs via Stra8. Here, we predicted the prospective miRNA targeting to Stra8 using the online Bioinformatics database-Targetscan, and performed an analysis of the dual-luciferase recombinant vector, pGL3-CMV-LUC-MCS-Stra8-3'UTR...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542371/whole-genome-sequencing-of-spermatocytic-tumors-provides-insights-into-the-mutational-processes-operating-in-the-male-germline
#10
Eleni Giannoulatou, Geoffrey J Maher, Zhihao Ding, Ad J M Gillis, Lambert C J Dorssers, Alexander Hoischen, Ewa Rajpert-De Meyts, Gilean McVean, Andrew O M Wilkie, Leendert H J Looijenga, Anne Goriely
Adult male germline stem cells (spermatogonia) proliferate by mitosis and, after puberty, generate spermatocytes that undertake meiosis to produce haploid spermatozoa. Germ cells are under evolutionary constraint to curtail mutations and maintain genome integrity. Despite constant turnover, spermatogonia very rarely form tumors, so-called spermatocytic tumors (SpT). In line with the previous identification of FGFR3 and HRAS selfish mutations in a subset of cases, candidate gene screening of 29 SpTs identified an oncogenic NRAS mutation in two cases...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484865/chondriokinesis-during-microsporogenesis-in-plants
#11
REVIEW
Dorota Tchórzewska
Chondriokinesis represents a highly orchestrated process of organelle rearrangement in all dividing plant and animal cells, ensuring a proper course of karyokinesis and cytokinesis. This process plays a key role in male gametophyte formation. Chondriokinesis is a regular rearrangement of cell organelles, assuring their regular inheritance, during both mitotic and meiotic divisions in plant and animal cells. The universal occurrence of the process implies its high conservatism and its probable origin at an early stage of plant evolution...
May 8, 2017: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469844/the-roles-of-micrornas-in-regulation-of-mammalian-spermatogenesis
#12
REVIEW
Xiaoxu Chen, Xueliang Li, Jiayin Guo, Pengfei Zhang, Wenxian Zeng
Mammalian spermatogenesis contains three continuous and organized processes, by which spermatogonia undergo mitosis and differentiate to spermatocytes, follow on meiosis to form haploid spermatids and ultimately transform into spermatozoa. These processes require an accurately, spatially and temporally regulated gene expression patterns. The microRNAs are a novel class of post-transcriptional regulators. Cumulating evidences have demonstrated that microRNAs are expressed in a cell-specific or stage-specific manner during spermatogenesis...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455402/sdg2-mediated-h3k4me3-is-crucial-for-chromatin-condensation-and-mitotic-division-during-male-gametogenesis-in-arabidopsis
#13
Violaine Pinon, Xiaozhen Yao, Aiwu Dong, Wen-Hui Shen
Epigenetic reprogramming occurring during reproduction is crucial for both animal and plant development. Histone H3 Lys 4 trimethylation (H3K4me3) is an evolutionarily conserved epigenetic mark of transcriptional active euchromatin. While much has been learned in somatic cells, H3K4me3 deposition and function in gametophyte is poorly studied. Here, we demonstrate that SET DOMAIN GROUP2 (SDG2)-mediated H3K4me3 deposition participates in epigenetic reprogramming during Arabidopsis male gametogenesis. We show that loss of SDG2 barely affects meiosis and cell fate establishment of haploid cells...
June 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450458/the-mitotic-exit-network-regulates-spindle-pole-body-selection-during-sporulation-of-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#14
Christian Renicke, Ann-Katrin Allmann, Anne Pia Lutz, Thomas Heimerl, Christof Taxis
Age-based inheritance of centrosomes in eukaryotic cells is associated with faithful chromosome distribution in asymmetric cell divisions. During Saccharomyces cerevisiae ascospore formation, such an inheritance mechanism targets the yeast centrosome equivalents, the spindle pole bodies at meiosis II onset. Decreased nutrient availability causes initiation of spore formation at only the younger spindle pole bodies and their associated genomes. This mechanism ensures encapsulation of non-sister genomes, which preserves genetic diversity and provides a fitness advantage at population level...
April 26, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439046/protein-phosphatase-2a-regulatory-subunit-b55%C3%AE-functions-in-mouse-oocyte-maturation-and-early-embryonic-development
#15
Shuang Liang, Jing Guo, Jeong-Woo Choi, Kyung-Tae Shin, Hai-Yang Wang, Yu-Jin Jo, Nam-Hyung Kim, Xiang-Shun Cui
Protein phosphatase 2A regulatory subunit B55α (PP2A-B55α) has been studied in mitosis. However, its functions in mammalian meiosis and early embryonic development remain unknown. Here, we report that PP2A-B55α is critical for mouse oocyte meiosis and preimplantation embryo development. Knockdown of PP2A-B55α in oocytes led to abnormal asymmetric division, disordered spindle dynamics, defects in chromosome congression, an increase in aneuploidy, and induction of the DNA damage response. Moreover, knockdown of PP2A-B55α in fertilized mouse zygotes impaired development to the blastocyst stage...
April 18, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431155/motoring-through-the-role-of-kinesin-superfamily-proteins-in-female-meiosis
#16
Nicole J Camlin, Eileen A McLaughlin, Janet E Holt
BACKGROUND: The kinesin motor protein family consists of 14 distinct subclasses and 45 kinesin proteins in humans. A large number of these proteins, or their orthologues, have been shown to possess essential function(s) in both the mitotic and the meiotic cell cycle. Kinesins have important roles in chromosome separation, microtubule dynamics, spindle formation, cytokinesis and cell cycle progression. This article contains a review of the literature with respect to the role of kinesin motor proteins in female meiosis in model species...
April 18, 2017: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408472/the-sweet-side-of-the-cell-cycle
#17
REVIEW
Ee Phie Tan, Francesca E Duncan, Chad Slawson
Cell division (mitosis) and gamete production (meiosis) are fundamental requirements for normal organismal development. The mammalian cell cycle is tightly regulated by different checkpoints ensuring complete and precise chromosomal segregation and duplication. In recent years, researchers have become increasingly interested in understanding how O-GlcNAc regulates the cell cycle. The O-GlcNAc post-translation modification is an O-glycosidic bond of a single β-N-acetylglucosamine sugar to serine/threonine residues of intracellular proteins...
April 15, 2017: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402788/ustilago-maydis-the-corn-smut-fungus-has-an-unusual-diploid-mitotic-stage
#18
Karen Snetselaar, Michael McCann
Ustilago maydis causes common smut disease in maize. Although pathogenic diploid strains of the fungus have been known for many years, the normal life cycle was thought to involve an extended dikaryotic stage, with nuclear fusion occurring in immature teliospores. However, microscopic examination of both living and fixed tumor material showed that nuclei fuse long before sporulation begins and that tumors are filled with uninucleate cells undergoing mitosis. Quantification of DNA in the nuclei confirmed these observations...
2017: Mycologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380054/meioc-maintains-an-extended-meiotic-prophase-i-in-mice
#19
Y Q Shirleen Soh, Maria M Mikedis, Mina Kojima, Alexander K Godfrey, Dirk G de Rooij, David C Page
The meiosis-specific chromosomal events of homolog pairing, synapsis, and recombination occur over an extended meiotic prophase I that is many times longer than prophase of mitosis. Here we show that, in mice, maintenance of an extended meiotic prophase I requires the gene Meioc, a germ-cell specific factor conserved in most metazoans. In mice, Meioc is expressed in male and female germ cells upon initiation of and throughout meiotic prophase I. Mouse germ cells lacking Meioc initiate meiosis: they undergo pre-meiotic DNA replication, they express proteins involved in synapsis and recombination, and a subset of cells progress as far as the zygotene stage of prophase I...
April 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374669/dynamics-of-lamins-b-and-a-c-and-nucleoporin-nup160-during-meiotic-maturation-in-mouse-oocytes
#20
V Nikolova, S Delimitreva, I Chakarova, R Zhivkova, V Hadzhinesheva, M Markova
This study was aimed at elucidating the fate of three important nuclear envelope components - lamins B and A/C and nucleoporin Nup160, during meiotic maturation of mouse oocytes. These proteins were localized by epifluorescence and confocal microscopy using specific antibodies in oocytes at different stages from prophase I (germinal vesicle) to metaphase II. In immature germinal vesicle oocytes, all three proteins were detected at the nuclear periphery. In metaphase I and metaphase II, lamin B co-localized with the meiotic spindle, lamin A/C was found in a diffuse halo surrounding the spindle and to a lesser degree throughout the cytoplasm, and Nup160 was concentrated to the spindle poles...
2017: Folia Biologica (Praha)
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