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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126117/dynamic-reorganization-of-open-chromatin-underlies-diverse-transcriptomes-during-spermatogenesis
#1
So Maezawa, Masashi Yukawa, Kris G Alavattam, Artem Barski, Satoshi H Namekawa
During spermatogenesis, germ cells undergo massive cellular reconstruction and dynamic chromatin remodeling to facilitate highly diverse transcriptomes, which are required for the production of functional sperm. However, it remains unknown how germline chromatin is organized to promote the dynamic, complex transcriptomes of spermatogenesis. Here, using ATAC-seq, we establish the varied landscape of open chromatin during spermatogenesis. We identify the reorganization of accessible chromatin in intergenic and intronic regions during the mitosis-to-meiosis transition...
November 6, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120325/structural-insight-into-tpx2-stimulated-microtubule-assembly
#2
Rui Zhang, Johanna Roostalu, Thomas Surrey, Eva Nogales
During mitosis and meiosis, microtubule (MT) assembly is locally upregulated by the chromatin-dependent Ran-GTP pathway. One of its key targets is the MT-associated spindle assembly factor TPX2. The molecular mechanism of how TPX2 stimulates MT assembly remains unknown because structural information about the interaction of TPX2 with MTs is lacking. Here, we determine the cryo-electron microscopy structure of a central region of TPX2 bound to the MT surface. TPX2 uses two flexibly linked elements ('ridge' and 'wedge') in a novel interaction mode to simultaneously bind across longitudinal and lateral tubulin interfaces...
November 9, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114254/accelerated-generation-of-selfed-pure-line-plants-for-gene-identification-and-crop-breeding
#3
REVIEW
Guijun Yan, Hui Liu, Haibo Wang, Zhanyuan Lu, Yanxia Wang, Daniel Mullan, John Hamblin, Chunji Liu
Production of pure lines is an important step in biological studies and breeding of many crop plants. The major types of pure lines for biological studies and breeding include doubled haploid (DH) lines, recombinant inbred lines (RILs), and near isogenic lines (NILs). DH lines can be produced through microspore and megaspore culture followed by chromosome doubling while RILs and NILs can be produced through introgressions or repeated selfing of hybrids. DH approach was developed as a quicker method than conventional method to produce pure lines...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098627/exercise-training-and-epigenetic-regulation-multilevel-modification-and-regulation-of-gene-expression
#4
Ursula Paula Renó Soci, Stephano Freitas Soares Melo, João Lucas Penteado Gomes, André Casanova Silveira, Clara Nóbrega, Edilamar Menezes de Oliveira
Exercise training elicits acute and adaptive long term changes in human physiology that mediate the improvement of performance and health state. The responses are integrative and orchestrated by several mechanisms, as gene expression. Gene expression is essential to construct the adaptation of the biological system to exercise training, since there are molecular processes mediating oxidative and non-oxidative metabolism, angiogenesis, cardiac and skeletal myofiber hypertrophy, and other processes that leads to a greater physiological status...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072697/requirement-for-ccnb1-in-mouse-spermatogenesis
#5
Ji-Xin Tang, Jian Li, Jin-Mei Cheng, Bian Hu, Tie-Cheng Sun, Xiao-Yu Li, Aalia Batool, Zhi-Peng Wang, Xiu-Xia Wang, Shou-Long Deng, Yan Zhang, Su-Ren Chen, Xingxu Huang, Yi-Xun Liu
Spermatogenesis, which involves mitosis and meiosis of male germ cells, is a highly complicated and coordinately ordered process. Cyclin B1 (CCNB1), an important regulator in cell cycle machinery, is proved essential for mouse embryonic development. However, the role of CCNB1 in mammalian spermatogenesis remains unclear. Here we tested the requirement for CCNB1 using conditional knockout mice lacking CCNB1 in male germ cells. We found that ablation of CCNB1 in gonocytes and spermatogonia led to mouse sterile caused by the male germ cells' depletion...
October 26, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071446/sequence-requirement-of-the-ade6-4095-meiotic-recombination-hotspot-in-schizosaccharomyces-pombe
#6
Steven J Foulis, Kyle R Fowler, Walter W Steiner
Homologous recombination occurs at a greatly elevated frequency in meiosis compared to mitosis and is initiated by programmed double-strand DNA breaks (DSBs). DSBs do not occur at uniform frequency throughout the genome in most organisms, but occur preferentially at a limited number of sites referred to as hotspots. The location of hotspots have been determined at nucleotide-level resolution in both the budding and fission yeasts, and while several patterns have emerged regarding preferred locations for DSB hotspots, it remains unclear why particular sites experience DSBs at much higher frequency than other sites with seemingly similar properties...
October 25, 2017: Genetica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050234/a-small-molecule-inhibitor-targeting-the-aurkc-i%C3%AE%C2%BAb%C3%AE-interaction-decreases-transformed-growth-of-mda-mb-231-breast-cancer-cells
#7
Eun Hee Han, Jin-Young Min, Shin-Ae Yoo, Sung-Joon Park, Yun-Jeong Choe, Hee Sub Yun, Zee-Won Lee, Sun Woo Jin, Hyung Gyun Kim, Hye Gwang Jeong, Hyun Kyoung Kim, Nam Doo Kim, Young-Ho Chung
The Aurora kinases, Aurora A (AURKA), Aurora B (AURKB), and Aurora C (AURKC), are serine/threonine kinases required for the control of mitosis (AURKA and AURKB) or meiosis (AURKC). Several Aurora kinase inhibitors are being investigated as novel anticancer therapeutics. Recent studies demonstrated that AURKC activation contributes to breast cancer cell transformation. Therefore, AURKC is both a promising marker and therapeutic target for breast cancer; however, its signaling network has not been fully characterized...
September 19, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022485/prevalence-of-%C3%AE-iii-tubulin-tubb3-expression-in-human-normal-tissues-and-cancers
#8
Fermín Person, Waldemar Wilczak, Claudia Hube-Magg, Christoph Burdelski, Christina Möller-Koop, Ronald Simon, Mercedes Noriega, Guido Sauter, Stefan Steurer, Susanne Burdak-Rothkamm, Frank Jacobsen
Microtubules are multifunctional cytoskeletal proteins that are involved in crucial cellular roles including maintenance of cell shape, intracellular transport, meiosis, and mitosis. Class III beta-tubulin (βIII-tubulin, also known as TUBB3) is a microtubule protein, normally expressed in cells of neuronal origin. Its expression was also reported in various other tumor types, such as several types of lung cancer, ovarian cancer, and esophageal cancer. TUBB3 is of clinical relevance as overexpression has been linked to poor response to microtubule-targeting anti-cancer drugs such as taxanes...
October 2017: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982686/regulation-of-mitosis-meiosis-transition-by-the-ubiquitin-ligase-%C3%AE-trcp-in-male-germ-cells
#9
Tadashi Nakagawa, Teng Zhang, Ryo Kushi, Seiji Nakano, Takahiro Endo, Makiko Nakagawa, Noriko Yanagihara, David Zarkower, Keiko Nakayama
The mitosis-meiosis transition is essential for spermatogenesis. Specific and timely down-regulation of the transcription factor DMRT1, and consequent induction of Stra8 expression, is required for this process in mammals, but the molecular mechanism has remained unclear. Here we show that β-TrCP, the substrate recognition component of an E3 ubiquitin ligase complex, targets DMRT1 for degradation and thereby controls the mitosis-meiosis transition in mouse male germ cells. Conditional inactivation of β-TrCP2 in male germ cells of β-TrCP1 knockout mice resulted in sterility due to a lack of mature sperm...
October 5, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982183/nima-related-kinase-1-nek1-regulates-meiosis-i-spindle-assembly-by-altering-the-balance-between-%C3%AE-adducin-and-myosin-x
#10
Miguel A Brieño-Enríquez, Stefannie L Moak, J Kim Holloway, Paula E Cohen
NIMA-related kinase 1 (NEK1) is a serine/threonine and tyrosine kinase that is highly expressed in mammalian germ cells. Mutations in Nek1 induce anemia, polycystic kidney and infertility. In this study we evaluated the role of NEK1 in meiotic spindle formation in both male and female gametes. Our results show that the lack of NEK1 provokes an abnormal organization of the meiosis I spindle characterized by elongated and/or multipolar spindles, and abnormal chromosome congression. The aberrant spindle structure is concomitant with the disruption in localization and protein levels of myosin X (MYO10) and α-adducin (ADD1), both of which are implicated in the regulation of spindle formation during mitosis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981863/subtelomeres-constitute-a-safeguard-for-gene-expression-and-chromosome-homeostasis
#11
Sanki Tashiro, Yuki Nishihara, Kazuto Kugou, Kunihiro Ohta, Junko Kanoh
The subtelomere, a telomere-adjacent chromosomal domain, contains species-specific homologous DNA sequences, in addition to various genes. However, the functions of subtelomeres, particularly subtelomeric homologous (SH) sequences, remain elusive. Here, we report the first comprehensive analyses of the cellular functions of SH sequences in the fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Complete removal of SH sequences from the genome revealed that they are dispensable for mitosis, meiosis and telomere length control...
October 13, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961822/human-female-meiosis-revised-new-insights-into-the-mechanisms-of-chromosome-segregation-and-aneuploidies-from-advanced-genomics-and-time-lapse-imaging
#12
Antonio Capalbo, Eva R Hoffmann, Danilo Cimadomo, Filippo Maria Ubaldi, Laura Rienzi
BACKGROUND: The unbalanced transmission of chromosomes in human gametes and early preimplantation embryos causes aneuploidy, which is a major cause of infertility and pregnancy failure. A baseline of 20% of human oocytes are estimated to be aneuploid and this increases exponentially from 30 to 35 years, reaching on average 80% by 42 years. As a result, reproductive senescence in human females is predominantly determined by the accelerated decline in genetic quality of oocytes from 30 years of age...
November 1, 2017: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947561/profiling-of-mirnas-in-porcine-germ-cells-during-spermatogenesis
#13
Xiaoxu Chen, Dongxue Che, Pengfei Zhang, Xueliang Li, Qingqing Yuan, Tian Tian Liu, Jiayin Guo, Tongying Feng, Ligang Wu, Mingzhi Liao, Zuping He, Wen Xian Zeng
Spermatogenesis includes mitosis of spermatogonia, meiosis of pachytene spermatocytes and spermiogenesis of round spermatids. MiRNAs as a ~22nt small noncoding RNA are involved in regulating spermatogenesis at post-transcriptional level. However, the dynamic miRNAs expression in the developmental porcine male germ cells remains largely undefined. In this study, we purified porcine spermatogonia, pachytene spermatocytes, and round spermatids using a STA-PUT apparatus. A small RNA deep sequencing and analysis were conducted to establish a miRNAs profiling in these male germ cells...
September 25, 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894962/ring-chromosomes-from-formation-to-clinical-potential
#14
REVIEW
Inna E Pristyazhnyuk, Aleksei G Menzorov
Ring chromosomes (RCs) are circular DNA molecules, which occur rarely in eukaryotic nuclear genomes. Lilian Vaughan Morgan first described them in the fruit fly. Human embryos very seldom have RCs, about 1:50,000. Carriers of RCs may have varying degrees of symptoms, from healthy phenotype to serious pathologies in physical and intellectual development. Many authors describe common symptoms of RC presence: short stature and some developmental delay that could be described as a "ring chromosome syndrome." As a rule, RCs arise de novo through the end-joining of two DNA double-strand breaks, telomere-subtelomere junction, or inv dup del rearrangement in both meiosis and mitosis...
September 12, 2017: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840245/centromere-dynamics-in-male-and-female-germ-cells
#15
Elaine M Dunleavy, Caitríona M Collins
In sexually reproducing organisms the germ line is the cellular lineage that gives rise to gametes. All germ cells originate from germline stem cells that divide asymmetrically to generate gonial pre-cursors, which are amplified in number by mitotic divisions, undergo meiosis and eventually differentiate into mature gametes (haploid eggs and sperm). Information transmitted with gametes is inherited by offspring, and potentially by subsequent generations, instructing in organismal development and beyond. Meiosis comprises one round of DNA replication, followed by two rounds of chromosome segregation; homologous chromosomes segregate in the first division (meiosis I) and sister chromatids segregate in the second division (meiosis II)...
2017: Progress in Molecular and Subcellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840242/the-promises-and-challenges-of-genomic-studies-of-human-centromeres
#16
Karen H Miga
Human centromeres are genomic regions that act as sites of kinetochore assembly to ensure proper chromosome segregation during mitosis and meiosis. Although the biological importance of centromeres in genome stability, and ultimately, cell viability are well understood, the complete sequence content and organization in these multi-megabase-sized regions remains unknown. The lack of a high-resolution reference assembly inhibits standard bioinformatics protocols, and as a result, sequence-based studies involving human centromeres lag far behind the advances made for the non-repetitive sequences in the human genome...
2017: Progress in Molecular and Subcellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840237/orchestrating-the-specific-assembly-of-centromeric-nucleosomes
#17
Ewelina Zasadzińska, Daniel R Foltz
Centromeres are chromosomal loci that are defined epigenetically in most eukaryotes by incorporation of a centromere-specific nucleosome in which the canonical histone H3 variant is replaced by Centromere Protein A (CENP-A). Therefore, the assembly and propagation of centromeric nucleosomes are critical for maintaining centromere identify and ensuring genomic stability. Centromeres direct chromosome segregation (during mitosis and meiosis) by recruiting the constitutive centromere-associated network of proteins throughout the cell cycle that in turn recruits the kinetochore during mitosis...
2017: Progress in Molecular and Subcellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819014/cyclin-a2-modulates-kinetochore-microtubule-attachment-in-meiosis-ii
#18
Qing-Hua Zhang, Wai Shan Yuen, Deepak Adhikari, Jennifer A Flegg, Greg FitzHarris, Marco Conti, Piotr Sicinski, Ibtissem Nabti, Petros Marangos, John Carroll
Cyclin A2 is a crucial mitotic Cdk regulatory partner that coordinates entry into mitosis and is then destroyed in prometaphase within minutes of nuclear envelope breakdown. The role of cyclin A2 in female meiosis and its dynamics during the transition from meiosis I (MI) to meiosis II (MII) remain unclear. We found that cyclin A2 decreases in prometaphase I but recovers after the first meiotic division and persists, uniquely for metaphase, in MII-arrested oocytes. Conditional deletion of cyclin A2 from mouse oocytes has no discernible effect on MI but leads to disrupted MII spindles and increased merotelic attachments...
October 2, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803373/th2a-is-phosphorylated-at-meiotic-centromere-by-haspin
#19
Masashi Hada, Jihye Kim, Erina Inoue, Yuko Fukuda, Hiromitsu Tanaka, Yoshinori Watanabe, Yuki Okada
Histone phosphorylation is sometimes associated with mitosis and meiosis. We have recently identified a phosphorylation of the 127th threonine on TH2A (pTH2A), a germ cell-specific H2A variant, in condensed spermatids and mitotic early preimplantation embryos of mice. Here, we further report the existence of pTH2A at the centromeres in metaphase I spermatocytes and oocytes. Moreover, we identified Haspin, a known kinase for the 3rd threonine on H3, is responsible for pTH2A in vivo. In contrast to the severe meiotic defect in oocytes treated with a Haspin inhibitor, pTH2A-deficient mice, in which the 127th threonine was replaced by alanine, maintained the fertility and exhibited no obvious defect in both oocytes and spermatogenesis...
August 12, 2017: Chromosoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791037/adaptation-of-the-pivotal-differential-genome-pattern-for-the-induction-of-intergenomic-chromosome-recombination-in-hybrids-of-synthetic-amphidiploids-within-triticeae-tribe
#20
Michal T Kwiatek, Joanna Majka, Maciej Majka, Jolanta Belter, Halina Wisniewska
A pivotal-differential evolution pattern is when two allopolyploids share a common genome, which is called pivotal, and differ with respect to the other genome or genomes, called differential. This feature induces the intergenomic recombination between chromosomes of differential genomes, which can lead to speciation. Our study is a cytomolecular insight into this mechanism which was adapted for the induction of intergenomic chromosome recombination in hybrids of synthetic amphidiploids Aegilops biuncialis × S...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
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