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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340520/galangin-inhibits-human-osteosarcoma-cells-growth-by-inducing-transforming-growth-factor-%C3%AE-1-dependent-osteogenic-differentiation
#1
Chunhong Liu, Mingming Ma, Junde Zhang, Shaoliu Gui, Xiaohai Zhang, Shuangtao Xue
Osteosarcoma is the most common primary malignancy of the musculoskeletal system, and is associated with excessive proliferation and poor differentiation of osteoblasts. Currently, despite the use of traditional chemotherapy and radiotherapy, no satisfactory and effective agent has been developed to treat the disease. Herein, we found that a flavonoid natural product, galangin, could significantly attenuate human osteosarcoma cells proliferation, without causing obvious cell apoptosis. Moreover, galangin enhanced the expression of osteoblast differentiation markers (collagen type I, alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin and osteopontin) remarkably and elevated the alkaline phosphatase activity in human osteosarcoma cells...
March 20, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340370/validation-of-comet-assay-in-oregon-r-and-wild-type-strains-of-drosophila-melanogaster-exposed-to-a-natural-radioactive-environment-in-brazilian-semiarid-region
#2
Cícero Jorge Verçosa, Aroldo Vieira de Moraes Filho, Ícaro Fillipe de Araújo Castro, Robson Gomes Dos Santos, Kenya Silva Cunha, Daniela de Melo E Silva, Ana Cristina Lauer Garcia, Julio Alejandro Navoni, Viviane Souza do Amaral, Claudia Rohde
Natural radiation of geological origin is a common phenomenon in Brazil, a country where radioactive agents such as uranium may be often found. As an unstable atom, uranium undergoes radioactive decay with the generation of a series of decay by-products, including radon, which may be highly genotoxic and trigger several pathological processes, among which cancer. Because it is a gas, radon may move freely between cracks and gaps in the ground, seeping upwards into the buildings and in the environment. In this study, two Drosophila melanogaster Meigen (Diptera, Drosophilidae) strains called Oregon-R and Wild (collected in a non-radioactive environment) were exposed to atmospheric radiation in the Lajes Pintadas city, in the semiarid zone of northeastern Brazil...
March 21, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335588/recovery-of-nk-cd56-cd3-cells-after-1-year-of-tenofovir-therapy-for-chronic-hepatitis-b-infection
#3
Hwan Hee Lee, Hyojeung Kang, Hyosun Cho
Natural killer (NK) cells have been reported to be dysfunctional in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infection. However, the functional recovery of NK cells was not clearly understood under anti-viral therapeutic agents in CHB. In this study, we investigated the phenotypic changes of NK(CD56+CD3-) cells in terms of their functional markers (CD16, NKG2A, NKG2D) during tenofovir therapy in CHB. The frequency of NK(CD56+CD3-) cells in CHB patients was significantly increased after 12 months of tenofovir therapy when compared to baseline...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335497/ginsenoside-ppd-s-antitumor-effect-via-down-regulation-of-mtor-revealed-by-super-resolution-imaging
#4
Bo Teng, Junguang Jiang, Lijing Zhao, Jing Gao, Junyu Chen, Zhe Liu, Hongda Wang, Binfeng Lu
Derived from Panax ginseng, the natural product 20(S)-Protopanaxadiol (PPD) has been reported for its cytotoxicity against several cancer cell lines. The molecular mechanism is, however, not well understood. Here we show that PPD significantly inhibits proliferation, induces apoptosis and causes G2/M cell cycle arrest in human laryngeal carcinoma cells (Hep-2 cells). PPD also decreases the levels of proteins related to cell proliferation. Moreover, PPD-induced apoptosis is characterized by a dose-dependent down-regulation of Bcl-2 expression and up-regulation of Bax, and is accompanied by the activation of Caspase-3 as well...
March 19, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335363/antimicrobial-antioxidant-and-anticancer-activities-of-biosynthesized-silver-nanoparticles-using-marine-algae-ecklonia-cava
#5
Jayachandran Venkatesan, Se-Kwon Kim, Min Suk Shim
Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) has gained great interest as a simple and eco-friendly alternative to conventional chemical methods. In this study, AgNPs were synthesized by using extracts of marine algae Ecklonia cava as reducing and capping agents. The formation of AgNPs using aqueous extract of Ecklonia cava was confirmed visually by color change and their surface plasmon resonance peak at 418 nm, measured by UV-visible spectroscopy. The size, shape, and morphology of the biosynthesized AgNPs were observed by transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering analysis...
December 6, 2016: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335344/a-targeted-nanoprobe-based-on-carbon-nanotubes-natural-biopolymer-chitosan-composites
#6
Baoyan Wu, Na Zhao
A novel targeting theranostic nanoprobe based on single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs)-natural biopolymer chitosan composites was developed for cancer cell targeting imaging and fluorescence imaging-guided photodynamic therapy. First, chitosan was respectively conjugated with a tumor-homing molecule folic acid, or a photosensitizing drug pyropheophorbide a using a water-soluble carbodiimide coupling chemistry. Chitosan was fluorescently labeled by fluorescein isothiocyanate via the covalently linkage of the isothiocyanate group with the amino group...
November 17, 2016: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335198/gold-nanoparticles-an-efficient-antimicrobial-agent-against-enteric-bacterial-human-pathogen
#7
Shahzadi Shamaila, Noshin Zafar, Saira Riaz, Rehana Sharif, Jawad Nazir, Shahzad Naseem
Enteric bacterial human pathogens, i.e., Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Klebsiella pneumoniae, are the major cause of diarrheal infections in children and adults. Their structure badly affects the human immune system. It is important to explore new antibacterial agents instead of antibiotics for treatment. This project is an attempt to explain how gold nanoparticles affect these bacteria. We investigated the important role of the mean particle size, and the inhibition of a bacterium is dose-dependent...
April 14, 2016: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333450/pcr-independent-method-of-transformation-associated-recombination-reveals-the-cosmomycin-biosynthetic-gene-cluster-in-an-ocean-streptomycete
#8
Charles B Larson, Max Crüsemann, Bradley S Moore
The transformation-associated recombination cloning methodology facilitates the genomic capture and heterologous expression of natural product biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs). We have streamlined this procedure by introduction of synthetic DNA gene blocks for the efficient capture of BGCs. We show the successful capture and expression of the aromatic polyketide antitumor agent cosmomycin from streptomycete bacteria and the discovery of new cosmomycin analogues by mass spectral molecular networking.
March 23, 2017: Journal of Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333308/fluconazole-treatment-enhances-extracellular-release-of-red-pigments-in-the-fungus-monascus-purpureus
#9
Sunil H Koli, Rahul K Suryawanshi, Chandrashekar D Patil, Satish V Patil
Traditional methods for the production of food grade pigments from fungus Monascus spp. are mostly relying on submerged fermentation. However, cell bound nature and intracellular accumulation of pigments in Monascus spp is the major hurdle in pigment production by submerged fermentation. The present study focused on the investigation of the effect of the antifungal agent, fluconazole on red pigment production from Monascus purpureus (NMCC-PF01). At the optimized concentration of fluconazole (30 μg/ml), pigment production was found to be enhanced by 88% after 96 h and it remained constant even after further incubation up to 168 h...
March 15, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333108/the-biology-of-pichia-membranifaciens-killer-toxins
#10
REVIEW
Ignacio Belda, Javier Ruiz, Alejandro Alonso, Domingo Marquina, Antonio Santos
The killer phenomenon is defined as the ability of some yeast to secrete toxins that are lethal to other sensitive yeasts and filamentous fungi. Since the discovery of strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae capable of secreting killer toxins, much information has been gained regarding killer toxins and this fact has substantially contributed knowledge on fundamental aspects of cell biology and yeast genetics. The killer phenomenon has been studied in Pichia membranifaciens for several years, during which two toxins have been described...
March 23, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333105/anti-melanogenic-properties-of-greek-plants-a-novel-depigmenting-agent-from-morus-alba-wood
#11
Eliza Chaita, George Lambrinidis, Christina Cheimonidi, Adamantia Agalou, Dimitris Beis, Ioannis Trougakos, Emmanuel Mikros, Alexios-Leandros Skaltsounis, Nektarios Aligiannis
In therapeutic interventions associated with melanin hyperpigmentation, tyrosinase is regarded as a target enzyme as it catalyzes the rate-limiting steps in mammalian melanogenesis. Since many known agents have been proven to be toxic, there has been increasing impetus to identify alternative tyrosinase inhibitors, especially from natural sources. In this study, we investigated 900 extracts from Greek plants for potential tyrosinase inhibitive properties. Among the five most potent extracts, the methanol extract of Morus alba wood (MAM) demonstrated a significant reduction in intracellular tyrosinase and melanin content in B16F10 melanoma cells...
March 23, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333091/marine-peptides-as-potential-agents-for-the-management-of-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-a-prospect
#12
REVIEW
En-Qin Xia, Shan-Shan Zhu, Min-Jing He, Fei Luo, Cheng-Zhan Fu, Tang-Bin Zou
An increasing prevalence of diabetes is known as a main risk for human health in the last future worldwide. There is limited evidence on the potential management of type 2 diabetes mellitus using bioactive peptides from marine organisms, besides from milk and beans. We summarized here recent advances in our understanding of the regulation of glucose metabolism using bioactive peptides from natural proteins, including regulation of insulin-regulated glucose metabolism, such as protection and reparation of pancreatic β-cells, enhancing glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and influencing the sensitivity of insulin and the signaling pathways, and inhibition of bioactive peptides to dipeptidyl peptidase IV, α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities...
March 23, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332637/evaluation-of-the-immunomodulatory-activity-of-the-chicken-nk-lysin-derived-peptide-cnk-2
#13
Woo H Kim, Hyun S Lillehoj, Wongi Min
Chicken NK-lysin (cNK-lysin), the chicken homologue of human granulysin, is a cationic amphiphilic antimicrobial peptide (AMP) that is produced by cytotoxic T cells and natural killer cells. We previously demonstrated that cNK-lysin and cNK-2, a synthetic peptide incorporating the core α-helical region of cNK-lysin, have antimicrobial activity against apicomplexan parasites such as Eimeria spp., via membrane disruption. In addition to the antimicrobial activity of AMPs, the immunomodulatory activity of AMPs mediated by their interactions with host cells is increasingly recognized...
March 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332150/dynamic-nature-of-presenilin1-%C3%AE-secretase-implication-for-alzheimer-s-disease-pathogenesis
#14
REVIEW
Katarzyna Marta Zoltowska, Oksana Berezovska
Presenilin 1 (PS1) is a catalytic component of the γ-secretase complex, responsible for the intramembraneous cleavage of more than 90 type I transmembrane proteins, including Alzheimer's disease (AD)-related amyloid precursor protein (APP). The γ-secretase-mediated cleavage of the APP C-terminal membrane stub leads to the production of various amyloid β (Aβ) species. The assembly of Aβ into neurotoxic oligomers, which causes synaptic dysfunction and neurodegeneration, is influenced by the relative ratio of the longer (Aβ42/43) to shorter Aβ (Aβ40) peptides...
March 22, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331079/characterization-and-vaccine-potential-of-membrane-vesicles-produced-by-francisella-noatunensis-sup-orientalis-in-an-adult-zebrafish-model
#15
Leidy Lagos, Julia I Tandberg, Urska Repnik, Preben Boysen, Erik Ropstad, Deepa Varkey, Ian T Paulsen, Hanne C Winther-Larsen
Vaccine development against extracellular bacteria has been important for the sustainability of the aquaculture industry. In contrast, infections with intracellular pathogens remain largely an unresolved problem. Francisella noatunensis subspecies orientalis (Fno) are Gram-negative, facultative intracellular bacteria that cause the disease francisellosis in fish. Francisellosis is commonly characterized as a chronic granulomatous disease with high morbidity and can result in high mortality depending on the host...
March 22, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330500/larvicidal-activity-of-phytosteroid-compounds-from-leaf-extract-of-solanum-nigrum-against-culex-vishnui-group-and-anopheles-subpictus
#16
Anjali Rawani, Anushree Singha Ray, Anupam Ghosh, Mary Sakar, Goutam Chandra
BACKGROUND: Vector control is facing a menace due to the appearance of resistance to synthetic insecticides. Insecticides of plant origin may provide appropriate substitute biocontrol techniques in the future. The present study was carried out to investigate the bio control potentiality of active ingredient isolated from chloroform: methanol (1:1 v/v) extract of mature leaves of Solanum nigrum L. (Solanaceae) against early 3rd instar larvae of Culex vishnui group (comprising of Cx. vishnui Theobald, Cx...
March 23, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330226/anti-oxidant-and-anti-microbial-properties-of-some-ethno-therapeutically-important-medicinal-plants-of-indian-himalayan-region
#17
Sandeep Rawat, Arun K Jugran, Amit Bahukhandi, Asutosh Bahuguna, Indra D Bhatt, Ranbeer S Rawal, Uppeandra Dhar
Therapeutic potential of medicinal plants as a source of noble natural anti-oxidants and anti-microbial agents has been well recognised all across the globe. In this study, phenolic compounds, in vitro anti-oxidant activity and anti-microbial properties have been investigated in five Himalayan medicinal plants, (e.g., Acorus calamus, Habenaria intermedia, Hedychium spicatum, Roscoea procera and Valeriana jatamansi) in different solvent systems. R. procera exhibited significantly (p < 0.05) higher phenolics; while H...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330192/differential-display-reverse-transcription-pcr-ddrt-pcr-a-new-technology-for-molecular-detection-and-studying-one-of-the-antagonistic-factors-of-bacillus-endophyticus-strain-sa-against-staphylococcus-aureus-mrsa
#18
Mahmoud F Moustafa, Tarek H Taha, M Helal, Sulaiman A Alrumman
Differential Display (DDRT-PCR) is a powerful technique for analyzing differences in gene expression. In-vivo expression technologies and differential display RT-PCR are providing new approaches to further examine a microbe's response to experimental conditions which more closely resemble natural microbial associations and habitats. In this study, Bacillus endophyticus strain SA isolated from the inner tissue of the stem of the cultivated plant (Salvadora persica, Asir, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia) produces an antagonistic factor...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330162/evaluation-of-silver-nanoparticles-synthetic-potential-of-couroupita-guianensis-aubl-flower-buds-extract-and-their-synergistic-antibacterial-activity
#19
T Venkata Rajesh Kumar, J S R Murthy, Madamsetti Narayana Rao, Y Bhargava
The present investigation demonstrates Couroupita guianensis flower buds extract mediated synthesis of stable silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). Instant formation of AgNPs was primarily confirmed by the appearance of yellowish brown colour and characteristic silver SPR band in the UV-visible spectrum. Elemental and crystalline natures of the AgNPs were identified from EDX and XRD pattern, respectively. Spherical morphology and the mono-disparity were revealed from TEM and AFM images. The particle size ranged from 5 to 30 nm and average size of 17 nm was consistent in XRD, TEM and AFM measurements...
June 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330075/a-novel-multiplex-pcr-method-for-the-detection-of-virulence-associated-genes-of-escherichia-coli-o157-h7-in-food
#20
Vo Van Giau, Thuy Trang Nguyen, Thi Kim Oanh Nguyen, Thi Thuy Hang Le, Tien Dung Nguyen
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 (E. coli O157:H7) strains are foodborne infectious agents that cause a number of life-threatening diseases, including hemorrhagic colitis (HC) and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). Shiga toxin 1 (stx1), shiga toxin 2 (stx2), or a combination of both are responsible for most clinical symptoms of these diseases. Hence, various diagnostic methods have been developed so far to detect shiga toxins such as cell culture, ELISA, Rapid Latex Agglutination (RPLA) and hybridization, but due to high costs and labor time in addition to low sensitivity, they have not received much attention...
June 2016: 3 Biotech
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