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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782212/national-impact-of-the-epec-pediatrics-enhanced-train-the-trainer-model-for-delivering-education-on-pediatric-palliative-care
#1
Kimberley Widger, Joanne Wolfe, Stefan Friedrichsdorf, Jason D Pole, Sarah Brennenstuhl, Stephen Liben, Mark Greenberg, Eric Bouffet, Harold Siden, Amna Husain, James A Whitlock, Myra Leyden, Adam Rapoport
BACKGROUND: Lack of pediatric palliative care (PPC) training impedes successful integration of PPC principles into pediatric oncology. OBJECTIVES: We examined the impact of an enhanced implementation of the Education in Palliative and End-of-Life Care for Pediatrics (EPEC® -Pediatrics) curriculum on the following: (1) knowledge dissemination; (2) health professionals' knowledge; (3) practice change; and (4) quality of PPC. DESIGN: An integrated knowledge translation approach was used with pre-/posttest evaluation of care quality...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Palliative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778753/sm22-is-required-for-the-maintenance-of-actin-rich-structures-generated-during-bacterial-infections
#2
Michael Dominic Chua, Kevin Jay Hipolito, Onisukomen Benny Singerr, Julian Solway, Julian Andrew Guttman
The host actin cytoskeleton is utilized by an assortment of pathogenic bacteria to colonize and cause disease in their hosts. Two prominently studied actin-hijacking bacteria are enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) and Listeria monocytogenes. EPEC form actin-rich pedestals atop its host cells to move across the intestinal epithelia, while Listeria monocytogenes generate branched actin networks arranged as actin clouds around the bacteria and as comet tails for propulsion within and amongst their host cells...
May 17, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738574/prevalence-and-characterization-of-escherichia-coli-isolated-from-the-upper-oconee-watershed-in-northeast-georgia
#3
Sohyun Cho, Lari M Hiott, John B Barrett, Elizabeth A McMillan, Sandra L House, Shaheen B Humayoun, Eric S Adams, Charlene R Jackson, Jonathan G Frye
Surface waters are important sources of water for drinking, industrial, agricultural, and recreational uses; hence, contamination of water by fecal, pathogenic, or antimicrobial resistant (AR) bacteria is a major environmental and public health concern. However, very little data is available on prevalence of these bacteria in surface water throughout a watershed. This study aimed to characterize Escherichia coli present in the Upper Oconee Watershed, a mixed-use watershed in Athens, GA, USA for potential pathogenicity and AR...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723122/antimicrobial-resistance-profiles-of-enterohemorrhagic-and-enteropathogenic-escherichia-coli-of-serotypes-o157-h7-o26-h11-o103-h2-o111-h8-o145-h28-compared-to-escherichia-coli-isolated-from-the-same-adult-cattle
#4
Maryse Michèle Um, Hubert Brugère, Monique Kérourédan, Eric Oswald, Delphine Bibbal
The aim of this study was to compare the antimicrobial resistance profiles of top five enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) and enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) to E. coli isolated from the fecal flora of the same adult cattle. Previous prevalence studies had led to the isolation by immunomagnetic separation (IMS) of 39 EHEC and 80 EPEC. Seven EHEC were resistant (17.9%), and six were multidrug resistant (MDR) (15.4%). None of the top five EHEC was resistant to azithromycin. Nine EPEC O26:H11 (11.3%) were resistant...
May 3, 2018: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719449/up-regulation-of-nhe8-by-somatostatin-ameliorates-the-diarrhea-symptom-in-infectious-colitis-mice-model
#5
Xuelian Lei, Lin Cai, Xiao Li, Hua Xu, Chong Geng, Chunhui Wang
Na+ /H+ exchangers (NHEs) have been shown to be involved in regulating cell volume and maintaining fluid and electrolyte homeostasis. Pooled evidences have suggested that loss of Na+ /H+ exchanger isoform 8 (NHE8) impairs intestinal mucosa. Whether NHE8 participates in the pathology of infectious colitis is still unknown. Our previous study demonstrated that somatostatin (SST) could stimulate the expression of intestinal NHE8 so as to facilitate Na+ absorption under normal condition. This study further explored whether NHE8 participates in the pathological processes of infectious colitis and the effects of SST on intestinal NHE8 expression in the setting of infectious colitis...
May 2018: Korean Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702315/enteroaggregative-escherichia-coli-is-the-predominant-diarrheagenic-e-coli-pathotype-among-irrigation-water-and-food-sources-in-south-africa
#6
Matthew Aijuka, Araceli E Santiago, Jorge A Girón, James P Nataro, Elna M Buys
Diarrheagenic E. coli (DEC) has been implicated in foodborne outbreaks worldwide and have been associated with childhood stunting in the absence of diarrhoea. Infection is extraordinarily common, but the routes of transmission have not been determined. Therefore, determining the most prevalent pathotypes in food and environmental sources may help provide better guidance to various stakeholders in ensuring food safety and public health and advancing understanding of the epidemiology of enteric disease. We characterized 205 E...
April 20, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702254/despite-antibiotic-treatment-of-travellers-diarrhoea-pathogens-are-found-in-stools-from-half-of-travellers-at-return
#7
Tinja Lääveri, Katri Vilkman, Sari Pakkanen, Juha Kirveskari, Anu Kantele
BACKGROUND: Among visitors to the (sub)tropics, 20-50% contract travellers' diarrhoea (TD) and 5-30% take antibiotics. While shortening the duration of illness, antimicrobials predispose to acquisition of multi-drug resistant bacteria. Therefore, liberal use is no longer advocated. Although antibiotics kill pathogens, no data support the view that they could prevent post-infectious sequelae. We investigated how antibiotic use for TD abroad impacts the pathogen findings at return. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We revisited 456 travellers' clinical data and stool pathogens examined by qPCR for Salmonella, Yersinia, Campylobacter, Shigella, Vibrio cholerae and enteroaggregative (EAEC), enteropathogenic (EPEC), enterotoxigenic (ETEC), enterohaemorrhagic (EHEC) and enteroinvasive (EIEC) Escherichia coli...
April 24, 2018: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692296/coinfection-with-enteric-pathogens-in-east-african-children-with-acute-gastroenteritis-associations-and-interpretations
#8
Maria Andersson, Jean-Claude Kabayiza, Kristina Elfving, Staffan Nilsson, Mwinyi I Msellem, Andreas Mårtensson, Anders Björkman, Tomas Bergström, Magnus Lindh
Enteric coinfections among children in low-income countries are very common, but it is not well known if specific pathogen combinations are associated or have clinical importance. In this analysis, feces samples from children in Rwanda and Zanzibar less than 5 years of age, with ( N = 994) or without ( N = 324) acute diarrhea, were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction targeting a wide range of pathogens. Associations were investigated by comparing co-detection and mono-detection frequencies for all pairwise pathogen combinations...
April 23, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675452/attaching-and-effacing-pathogens-exploit-junction-regulatory-activities-of-n-wasp-and-snx9-to-disrupt-the-intestinal-barrier
#9
John J Garber, Emily M Mallick, Karen M Scanlon, Jerrold R Turner, Michael S Donnenberg, John M Leong, Scott B Snapper
Background & Aims: Neural Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome protein (N-WASP) is a key regulator of the actin cytoskeleton in epithelial tissues and is poised to mediate cytoskeletal-dependent aspects of apical junction complex (AJC) homeostasis. Attaching-and-effacing (AE) pathogens disrupt this homeostasis through translocation of the effector molecule early secreted antigenic target-6 (ESX)-1 secretion-associated protein F (EspF). Although the mechanisms underlying AJC disruption by EspF are unknown, EspF contains putative binding sites for N-WASP and the endocytic regulator sorting nexin 9 (SNX9)...
March 2018: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615989/intestinal-pathogenic-escherichia-coli-insights-for-vaccine-development
#10
REVIEW
Maricarmen Rojas-Lopez, Ricardo Monterio, Mariagrazia Pizza, Mickaël Desvaux, Roberto Rosini
Diarrheal diseases are one of the major causes of mortality among children under five years old and intestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (InPEC) plays a role as one of the large causative groups of these infections worldwide. InPECs contribute significantly to the burden of intestinal diseases, which are a critical issue in low- and middle-income countries (Asia, Africa and Latin America). Intestinal pathotypes such as enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) and enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) are mainly endemic in developing countries, while ETEC strains are the major cause of diarrhea in travelers to these countries...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29550166/multitalented-espb-of-enteropathogenic-escherichia-coli-epec-enters-cells-autonomously-and-induces-programmed-cell-death-in-human-monocytic-thp-1-cells
#11
Doreen Baumann, Helen Salia, Lilo Greune, Stephanie Norkowski, Britta Körner, Zina M Uckeley, Gad Frankel, Marianne Guenot, Christian Rüter, M Alexander Schmidt
Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) subvert host cell signaling pathways by injecting effector proteins via a Type 3 Secretion System (T3SS). The T3SS-dependent EspB protein is a multi-functional effector protein, which contributes to adherence and translocator pore formation and after injection exhibits several intracellular activities. In addition, EspB is also secreted into the environment. Effects of secreted EspB have not been reported thus far. As a surrogate for secreted EspB we employed recombinant EspB (rEspB) derived from the prototype EPEC strain E2348/69 and investigated the interactions of the purified protein with different human epithelial and immune cells including monocytic THP-1 cells, macrophages, dendritic cells, U-937, epithelial T84, Caco-2, and HeLa cells...
March 12, 2018: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29514935/rapid-molecular-detection-of-gastrointestinal-pathogens-and-its-role-in-antimicrobial-stewardship
#12
Şiran Keske, Burak Zabun, Kahraman Aksoy, Füsun Can, Erhan Palaoğlu, Önder Ergönül
We aimed to detect the etiological agents of acute diarrhea by a molecular gastrointestinal pathogen test (MGPT) and to assess the impact of MGPT on antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASP). This is a prospective observational study and was conducted between 1 January 2015 and 30 June 2017. We included consequent patients who had acute diarrhea. At the end of 2015, we implemented ASP in acute diarrhea cases and compared the outcomes in the pre-ASP and post-ASP periods. An FDA-cleared multiplexed gastrointestinal PCR panel system, the BioFire FilmArray (Idaho Technology, Salt Lake City, UT), which detects 20 pathogens in stool, was used...
May 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29509331/tandem-tyrosine-phosphosites-in-the-enteropathogenic-escherichia-coli-chaperone-cest-are-required-for-differential-type-iii-effector-translocation-and-virulence
#13
Cameron S Runte, Umang Jain, Landon J Getz, Sabrina Secord, Asaomi Kuwae, Akio Abe, Jason J LeBlanc, Andrew W Stadnyk, James B Kaper, Anne-Marie Hansen, Nikhil A Thomas
Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) use a type 3 secretion system (T3SS) for injection of effectors into host cells and intestinal colonization. Here, we demonstrate that the multicargo chaperone CesT has two strictly conserved tyrosine phosphosites, Y152 and Y153 that regulate differential effector secretion in EPEC. Conservative substitution of both tyrosine residues to phenylalanine strongly attenuated EPEC type 3 effector injection into host cells, and limited Tir effector mediated intimate adherence during infection...
March 6, 2018: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29497406/detection-and-characterization-of-enteropathogenic-and-shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli-strains-in-rattus-spp-from-buenos-aires
#14
Ximena Blanco Crivelli, María P Bonino, Paula Von Wernich Castillo, Armando Navarro, Osvaldo Degregorio, Adriana Bentancor
Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) and Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) are pathovars of E. coli that impact human health by causing childhood diseases. In this work, 118 synanthropic rodents of the genus Rattus from Buenos Aires, Argentina were evaluated as EPEC and STEC carriers. Rectal swab samples from captured animals were evaluated by conventional PCR to detect the presence of the eae , stx 1, stx 2, and rfb O157 genes. Twenty-one isolates were obtained (17 EPEC isolates from seven animals and four STEC isolates from the same animal)...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29487585/identification-and-characterization-of-t5-like-bacteriophages-representing-two-novel-subgroups-from-food-products
#15
Domonkos Sváb, Linda Falgenhauer, Manfred Rohde, Judit Szabó, Trinad Chakraborty, István Tóth
During recent years, interest in the use of bacteriophages as biocontrol agents against foodborne pathogens has increased, particularly for members of the family Enterobacteriaceae, with pathogenic Escherichia coli, Shigella, and Salmonella strains among them. Here, we report the isolation and characterisation of 12 novel T5-like bacteriophages from confiscated food samples. All bacterophages effectively lysed E. coli K-12 strains and were able to infect pathogenic E. coli strains representing enterohaemorrhagic (EHEC), enteropathogenic (EPEC), enterotoxigenic (ETEC), and enteroinvasive (EIEC) pathotypes, Shigella dysenteriae, S...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29487571/molecular-survey-of-viral-and-bacterial-causes-of-childhood-diarrhea-in-khartoum-state-sudan
#16
Mosab A Adam, Ji Wang, Khalid-A Enan, Hongwei Shen, Hao Wang, Abdel R El Hussein, Azza B Musa, Isam M Khidir, Xuejun Ma
Diarrheal disease is a major public health problem for children in developing countries. Knowledge of etiology that causes diarrheal illness is essential to implement public health measures to prevent and control this disease. Published studies regarding the situation of childhood diarrhea in Sudan is scanty. This study aims to investigate viral and bacterial etiology and related clinical and epidemiological factors in children with acute diarrhea in Khartoum State, Sudan. A total of 437 fecal samples were collected from hospitalized children <5 years old with acute diarrhea, viral and bacterial pathogens were investigated by using two-tube multiplex RT-PCR...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29487356/enteropathogenic-e-coli-effectors-espf-and-map-independently-disrupt-tight-junctions-through-distinct-mechanisms-involving-transcriptional-and-post-transcriptional-regulation
#17
Anand Prakash Singh, Swati Sharma, Kirti Pagarware, Rafay Anwar Siraji, Imran Ansari, Anupam Mandal, Pangertoshi Walling, Saima Aijaz
Enteropathogenic E. coli infection is characterized by rapid onset of diarrhea but the underlying mechanisms are not well defined. EPEC targets the tight junctions which selectively regulate the permeability of charged and uncharged molecules. Cooperative actions of the EPEC effectors EspF and Map have been reported to mediate tight junction disruption. To analyze the individual contributions of EspF and Map, we generated in vitro models where EspF and Map, derived from the EPEC strain E2348/69, were constitutively expressed in epithelial cells...
February 27, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29478177/waterborne-outbreaks-in-diarrhoea-endemic-foci-of-india-a-longitudinal-exploration-and-its-implications
#18
Madhumanti Halder, Subham Mookerjee, Prasenjit Batabyal, Anup Palit
Diarrhoea remains a global public health enigma raising deep concerns for the health planners since contaminated potable water often spoils the community health structure. We hereby report a 6-year odd continuing outbreak surveillance report based on potable water indices, during which 264 water samples were screened from different districts of West Bengal, India. Samples were analysed for the presence of different enteropathogenic bacterial species by conventional molecular tools and their sensitivity to antibiotics...
February 24, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29477730/host-cell-targeting-by-enteropathogenic-bacteria-t3ss-effectors
#19
REVIEW
Laurie Pinaud, Philippe J Sansonetti, Armelle Phalipon
Microbial pathogens possess a diversity of weapons that disrupt host homeostasis and immune defenses, thus resulting in the establishment of infection. The best-characterized system mediating bacterial protein delivery into target eukaryotic cells is the type III secretion system (T3SS) expressed by Gram-negative bacteria, including the human enteric pathogens Shigella, Salmonella, Yersinia, and enteropathogenic/enterohemorragic Escherichia coli (EPEC/EHEC). The emerging global view is that these T3SS-bearing pathogens share similarities in their ability to target key cellular pathways such as the cell cytoskeleton, trafficking, cell death/survival, and the NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways...
April 2018: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470944/antimicrobial-resistance-and-prevalence-of-diarrheagenic-escherichia-coli-dec-in-diarrheic-yaks-of-tibetan-plateau-china
#20
Li Lei, Mujeeb Ur Rehman, Shucheng Huang, Lihong Zhang, Lei Wang, Khalid Mehmood, Hui Zhang, Xiaole Tong, Meng Wang, Jiakui Li
This study was conducted to test the distribution of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) associated genes in fecal isolates from diarrheic yaks of a high remote region of China. Briefly, we obtained 203 fecal samples from diarrheic adult yaks and E. coli strains were isolated and identified via standard methods The antibiotic sensitivity of isolates was determined via disk diffusion method and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to detect the DEC virulence associated genes. Results of the current study showed a high rate of resistance to tetracycline (93...
June 2018: Acta Tropica
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