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Javier Sanchez-Villamil, Gabriela Tapia-Pastrana, Fernando Navarro-Garcia
Inflammatory response is key for the host defense against diarrheagenic Escherichia coli and contributes to the pathogenesis of the disease but there is not a comparative study among different diarrheagenic pathotypes. We analyzed the inflammatory response induced by five diarrheagenic pathotypes in a HT-29 cell infection model. The model was unified to reproduce the pathogenesis of each pathotype. To compare the inflammatory responses we evaluated: (i) nuclear NF-κB and ERK1/2 translocation by confocal microscopy; (ii) kinetics of activation by each pathway detecting p65 and ERK1/2 phosphorylation by Western blotting; (iii) pathways modulation through bacterial infections with or without co-stimulation with TNF-α or EGF; (iv) cytokine profile induced by each pathotype with and without inhibitors of each pathway...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Seong-Hwan Park, Mira Yu, Juil Kim, Yuseok Moon
NSAID-activated Gene 1 (NAG-1) is a prognostic indicator of chronic inflammatory diseases and aggressive tumors. Among the stress sentinels in response to infection by enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) or other pathogenic E. coli, C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), a representative stress-regulated transcription factor, was prominently increased and assessed for its involvement in NAG-1-mediated pathogenic cellular responses. NAG-1 expression was transcriptionally upregulated by CHOP, which promoted chemokine production through stained NF-κB activation...
October 19, 2016: Microbes and Infection
B X Ke, D M He, H L Tan, H H Zeng, T Yang, B S Li, Y H Liang, L L Lu, J H Liang, Q Huang, C W Ke
Objective: To study the infection status, serotypes, drug resistance and molecular characteristics of Salmonella, Shigella, Vibrio parahemolyticus, enterotoxigenic Escherichia (E.) coli (ETEC), pathogenic E. coli (EPEC), Shiga Toxin producing E. coli (STEC) and Enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC) collected from diarrhea patients in Guangdong. Methods: The strains of Salmonella, Shigella, V. parahemolyticus and 4 kinds of E. coli isolated from foodborne diseases surveillance during 2013-2014 were collected to conduct serotyping, drug resistance test and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE)...
October 10, 2016: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
Theresia E B Stradal, Sonia C P Costa
A key aspect of bacterial pathogenesis is the colonization and persistence within the host and, later on, its dissemination to new niches. During evolution, bacteria developed a myriad of virulence mechanisms to usurp the host's sophisticated defense mechanisms in order to establish their colonization niche. Elucidation of the highly dynamic and complex interactions between host and pathogens remains an important field of study. Here, we highlight the conserved manipulation of the actin cytoskeleton by some Gram-negative gastrointestinal pathogens, addressing the role of type III secreted bacterial GEFs at the different steps of pathogenesis...
October 16, 2016: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
Dominic J Pollard, Joanna C Young, Valentina Covarelli, Silvia Herrera-León, Thomas R Connor, Maria Fookes, Danielle Walker, Aurora Echeita, Nicholas R Thomson, Cedric N Berger, Gad Frankel
Salmonella spp. utilize type III secretion systems (T3SS) to translocate effectors into the cytosol of mammalian host cells, subverting cell signaling and facilitating the onset of gastroenteritis. In this study we compared a draft genome assembly of S. enterica subsp. salamae strain 3588/07 (S. salamae) against the genomes of S. enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium strain LT2 and S. bongori strain 12419. S. salamae encode the Salmonella pathogenicity island (SPI)-1; SPI-2 and the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) T3SSs...
October 10, 2016: Infection and Immunity
Daniel Humphreys, Vikash Singh, Vassilis Koronakis
To establish pathogenicity, bacteria must evade phagocytosis directed by remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton. We show that macrophages facilitate pathogen phagocytosis through actin polymerization mediated by the WAVE regulatory complex (WRC), small GTPases Arf and Rac1, and the Arf1 activator ARNO. To establish extracellular infections, enteropathogenic (EPEC) and enterohaemorrhagic (EHEC) Escherichia coli hijack the actin cytoskeleton by injecting virulence effectors into the host cell. Here, we find that the virulence effector EspG counteracts WRC-dependent phagocytosis, enabling EPEC and EHEC to remain extracellular...
October 11, 2016: Cell Reports
Shantanu Bhatt, Marisa Egan, Valerie Jenkins, Sarah Muche, Jihad El-Fenej
Enterohemorrhagic and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli are gastrointestinal pathogens that disrupt the intestinal microvilli to form attaching and effacing (A/E) lesions on infected cells and cause diarrhea. This pathomorphological trait is encoded within the pathogenicity island locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE). The LEE houses a type 3 secretion system (T3SS), which upon assembly bridges the bacterial cytosol to that of the host and enables the bacterium to traffic dozens of effectors into the host where they hijack regulatory and signal transduction pathways and contribute to bacterial colonization and disease...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Rowan R Thomas, Heather J L Brooks, Rory O'Brien
BACKGROUND: Shiga toxin-producing (STEC) and enteropathogenic (EPEC) Escherichia coli are gastrointestinal pathogens causing diarrhoeal and extraintestinal disease. Due to lack of EPEC screening and use of Sorbitol-MacConkey (SMAC) agar in faecal screening, the true prevalence of EPEC and non-O157 STEC in New Zealand diarrhoeal cases is unknown. METHODS: Diarrhoeic stools sourced from Dunedin hospital were pre-enriched, DNA extracted with Chelex-100 resin and screened using a multiplex TaqMan quantitative PCR assay amplifying stx1, sxt2 and EPEC (eae) gene markers...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Clinical Pathology
Anoop Kumar, Arivarasu Natarajan Anbazhagan, Hayley P Coffing, Ishita Chatterjee, Shubha Priyamvada, Tarunmeet Gujral, Seema Saksena, Ravinder K Gill, Waddah A Alrefai, Alip Borthakur, Pradeep K Dudeja
Impaired absorption of electrolytes is a hallmark of diarrhea associated with inflammation or enteric infections. Intestinal epithelial luminal membrane NHE3 (Na(+)/H(+) exchanger 3) and DRA (Cl(-)/HCO3 (-) exchanger) play key roles in mediating electroneutral NaCl absorption. We have previously shown decreased NHE3 and DRA function in response to short-term infection with enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), a diarrheal pathogen. Recent studies have also shown substantial downregulation of DRA expression in diarrheal model of infection with Citrobacter rodentium, the mouse counterpart of EPEC...
September 15, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
M A Pallett, V F Crepin, N Serafini, M Habibzay, O Kotik, J Sanchez-Garrido, J P Di Santo, A R Shenoy, C N Berger, G Frankel
The human pathogen enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC), as well as the mouse pathogen Citrobacter rodentium, colonize the gut mucosa via attaching and effacing lesion formation and cause diarrheal diseases. EPEC and C. rodentium type III secretion system (T3SS) effectors repress innate immune responses and infiltration of immune cells. Inflammatory caspases such as caspase-1 and caspase-4/11 are crucial mediators of host defense and inflammation in the gut via their ability to process cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18...
September 14, 2016: Mucosal Immunology
Elvia Michelli, Adriana Millán, Hectorina Rodulfo, Mirian Michelli, Jesús Luiggi, Numirin Carreño, Marcos De Donato
INTRODUCTION: Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli is an important causative agent of acute diarrheic syndrome.  OBJECTIVE: To identify clonal groups of enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), in 485 children with acute diarrhea aged 0 to 10 years attending health care centers in Arismendi, Benítez and Sucre municipalities, Sucre state, Venezuela, from March to December, 2011.  MATERIALS AND METHODS: After obtaining the informed consent, stool samples were collected...
2016: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
Hilo Yen, Masaki Karino, Toru Tobe
Innate immunity is an essential component in the protection of a host against pathogens. Enteropathogenic and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EPEC and EHEC, respectively) are known to modulate the innate immune responses of infected cells. The interference is dependent on their type III secretion system (T3SS) and T3SS-dependent effector proteins. Furthermore, these cytosolically injected effectors have been demonstrated to engage multiple immune signaling pathways, including the IFN/STAT, MAPK, NF-κB, and inflammasome pathways...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Cristiane S de Souza, Alfredo G Torres, Andressa Caravelli, Anderson Silva, Juliana M Polatto, Roxane M F Piazza
Atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (aEPEC) are heterogeneous strains in terms of serotypes, adherence patterns and the presence of novel virulence factors. This heterogeneity is intriguing, promoting studies trying to characterize these novel proteins and to better comprehend this pathotype group. In a previous study analyzing low-molecular mass proteomes of four representative aEPEC strains and three different adhesion phenotypes, we classified proteins according to their annotated function, with most of them being involved in metabolism and transport; while some of them were classified as hypothetical proteins...
September 12, 2016: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
María José Grande Burgos, Maria Luisa Fernández Márquez, Rubén Pérez Pulido, Antonio Gálvez, Rosario Lucas López
Eggs may contain extraintestinal pathogenic (ExPEC) and diarrheogenic (DEC) Escherichia coli which in addition may carry antibiotic resistance. The wide use of biocides and disinfectants in the food industry may induce biocide tolerance in bacteria. The aim of the present study was to evaluate biocide tolerance and antibiotic resistance in E. coli from hen egg shells. A total of 27 isolates obtained from a screening of 180 eggs were studied. Seven isolates carried both eae and bfpA genes of typical enteropathogenic E...
December 5, 2016: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Valerie F Crepin, James W Collins, Maryam Habibzay, Gad Frankel
Infection of mice with Citrobacter rodentium is a robust model to study bacterial pathogenesis, mucosal immunology, the health benefits of probiotics and the role of the microbiota during infection. C. rodentium was first isolated by Barthold from an outbreak of mouse diarrhea in Yale University in 1972 and was 'rediscovered' by Falkow and Schauer in 1993. Since then the use of the model has proliferated, and it is now the gold standard for studying virulence of the closely related human pathogens enteropathogenic and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EPEC and EHEC, respectively)...
October 2016: Nature Protocols
Paul Ugalde-Silva, Octavio Gonzalez-Lugo, Fernando Navarro-Garcia
The intestinal epithelium consists of a single cell layer, which is a critical selectively permeable barrier to both absorb nutrients and avoid the entry of potentially harmful entities, including microorganisms. Epithelial cells are held together by the apical junctional complexes, consisting of adherens junctions, and tight junctions (TJs), and by underlying desmosomes. TJs lay in the apical domain of epithelial cells and are mainly composed by transmembrane proteins such as occludin, claudins, JAMs, and tricellulin, that are associated with the cytoplasmic plaque formed by proteins from the MAGUK family, such as ZO-1/2/3, connecting TJ to the actin cytoskeleton, and cingulin and paracingulin connecting TJ to the microtubule network...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Astrid B Kjaergaard, Anthony P Carr, M Casey Gaunt
Seven dogs diagnosed with enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) infection in association with acute gastroenteritis are described. Disease severity ranged from mild in adults to fatal disease in young dogs. Enteropathogenic E. coli infection should be considered as a possible differential diagnosis in dogs with diarrhea.
September 2016: Canadian Veterinary Journal. la Revue Vétérinaire Canadienne
Tracy H Hazen, Michael S Donnenberg, Sandra Panchalingam, Martin Antonio, Anowar Hossain, Inacio Mandomando, John Benjamin Ochieng, Thandavarayan Ramamurthy, Boubou Tamboura, Shahida Qureshi, Farheen Quadri, Anita Zaidi, Karen L Kotloff, Myron M Levine, Eileen M Barry, James B Kaper, David A Rasko, James P Nataro
Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) are diarrhoeagenic E. coli, and are a significant cause of gastrointestinal illness among young children in developing countries. Typical EPEC are identified by the presence of the bundle-forming pilus encoded by a virulence plasmid, which has been linked to an increased severity of illness, while atypical EPEC lack this feature. Comparative genomics of 70 total EPEC from lethal (LI), non-lethal symptomatic (NSI) or asymptomatic (AI) cases of diarrhoeal illness in children enrolled in the Global Enteric Multicenter Study was used to investigate the genomic differences in EPEC isolates obtained from individuals with various clinical outcomes...
2016: Nature Microbiology
Danielle J Ingle, Marija Tauschek, David J Edwards, Dianna M Hocking, Derek J Pickard, Kristy I Azzopardi, Thakshila Amarasena, Vicki Bennett-Wood, Jaclyn S Pearson, Boubou Tamboura, Martin Antonio, John B Ochieng, Joseph Oundo, Inácio Mandomando, Shahida Qureshi, Thandavarayan Ramamurthy, Anowar Hossain, Karen L Kotloff, James P Nataro, Gordon Dougan, Myron M Levine, Roy M Robins-Browne, Kathryn E Holt
Atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (aEPEC) is an umbrella term given to E. coli that possess a type III secretion system encoded in the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE), but lack the virulence factors (stx, bfpA) that characterize enterohaemorrhagic E. coli and typical EPEC, respectively. The burden of disease caused by aEPEC has recently increased in industrialized and developing nations, yet the population structure and virulence profile of this emerging pathogen are poorly understood. Here, we generated whole-genome sequences of 185 aEPEC isolates collected during the Global Enteric Multicenter Study from seven study sites in Asia and Africa, and compared them with publicly available E...
2016: Nature Microbiology
Elif Bozçal, Gürkan Yiğittürk, Ataç Uzel, Sabire Şöhret Aydemir
BACKGROUND/AIM: The purpose of this study was to investigate Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) strains originating from diarrheagenic patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 102 patients with diarrhea between October 2012 and January 2013 were enrolled in this study. Multiplex and standard polymerase chain reactions were performed to detect and distinguish STEC and EPEC strains. O serotyping of EPEC was carried out by monovalent antisera...
2016: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
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