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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013045/the-mechanism-underlying-ler-mediated-alleviation-of-gene-repression-by-h-ns
#1
Minsang Shin
Secretion of effector proteins in Enteropathogeneic Escherichia coli (EPEC) and Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) is mediated by a specialized type III secretion system, components of which are encoded in the LEE operons 1 to 5. H-NS, a global repressor in E. coli, silences the expression of LEE operons. Ler, a master regulator in LEE operons, shares 24% amnio acid identity and 44% amino acid similarity to H-NS. Interestingly, rather than a gene silencer, its main role has been characterized as an antagonizing protein that relieves H-NS-mediated transcriptional silencing...
December 21, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965649/the-12-gastrointestinal-pathogens-spectrum-of-acute-infectious-diarrhea-in-a-sentinel-hospital-shenzhen-china
#2
Hongwei Shen, Jinjin Zhang, Yinghui Li, Sirou Xie, Yixiang Jiang, Yanjie Wu, Yuhui Ye, Hong Yang, Haolian Mo, Chaoman Situ, Qinghua Hu
Acute infectious gastroenteritis is one of the most common diseases among all ages, particularly in developing countries. The pathogen spectrum may differ among different regions and seasons. To investigate the etiology of acute diarrhea in Shenzhen, a prospective study was conducted from August 2014 to September 2015. Stools from 412 patients with diarrhea (286 of whom were adults) including the general epidemiological information of the patients were collected. The 19 pathogens were detected by conventional culture method or multiplex PCR assay, which included five viruses (rotavirus, adenovirus, sapovirus, norovirus, and astrovirus), 11 bacterial pathogens (Salmonella, Campylobacter jejuni, Shigella, Listeria monocytogenes, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio cholera, Enterohemorrhagic (EHEC), enteropathogenic (EPEC), enteroinvasive (EIEC), enterotoxigenic (ETEC); and enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC)) and three parasites (Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia, and Cryptosporidium parvum)...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965648/surveillance-of-diarrheagenic-escherichia-coli-strains-isolated-from-diarrhea-cases-from-children-adults-and-elderly-at-northwest-of-mexico
#3
Adrian Canizalez-Roman, Héctor M Flores-Villaseñor, Edgar Gonzalez-Nuñez, Jorge Velazquez-Roman, Jorge E Vidal, Secundino Muro-Amador, Gerardo Alapizco-Castro, J Alberto Díaz-Quiñonez, Nidia León-Sicairos
Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) strains are a main cause of gastrointestinal disease in developing countries. In this study we report the epidemiologic surveillance in a 4-year period (January 2011 to December 2014) of DEC strains causing acute diarrhea throughout the Sinaloa State, Mexico. DEC strains were isolated from outpatients of all ages with acute diarrhea (N = 1,037). Specific DEC pathotypes were identified by PCR-amplification of genes encoding virulence factors. The adhesion phenotype and antibiotic resistance were also investigated...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956465/hfq-and-three-hfq-dependent-small-regulatory-rnas-mgrr-ryhb-and-mcas-coregulate-the-locus-of-enterocyte-effacement-in-enteropathogenic-escherichia-coli
#4
Shantanu Bhatt, Marisa Egan, Jasmine Ramirez, Christian Xander, Valerie Jenkins, Sarah Muche, Jihad El-Fenej, Jamie Palmer, Elisabeth Mason, Elizabeth Storm, Thomas Buerkert
Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is a significant cause of infantile diarrhea and death in developing countries. The pathogenicity island locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) is essential for EPEC to cause diarrhea. Besides EPEC, the LEE is also present in other gastrointestinal pathogens, most notably enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC). Whereas transcriptional control of the LEE has been meticulously examined, posttranscriptional regulation, including the role of Hfq-dependent small RNAs, remains undercharacterized...
February 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939159/lambs-are-an-important-source-of-atypical-enteropathogenic-escherichia-coli-in-southern-brazil
#5
Fernando H Martins, Beatriz E C Guth, Roxane M F Piazza, Waldir P Elias, Sylvia C Leão, Juan Marzoa, Ghizlane Dahbi, Azucena Mora, Miguel Blanco, Jorge Blanco, Jacinta S Pelayo
Food-producing animals can harbor Escherichia coli strains with potential to cause diseases in humans. In this study, the presence of enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) was investigated in fecal samples from 130 healthy sheep (92 lambs and 38 adults) raised for meat in southern Brazil. EPEC was detected in 19.2% of the sheep examined, but only lambs were found to be positive. A total of 25 isolates was characterized and designated atypical EPEC (aEPEC) as tested negative for bfpA gene and BFP production. The presence of virulence markers linked to human disease as ehxA, paa, and lpfAO113 was observed in 60%, 24%, and 88% of the isolates, respectively...
November 30, 2016: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934827/flooding-adds-pathogenic-escherichia-coli-strains-to-the-water-sources-in-southern-khyber-pakhtunkhwa-pakistan
#6
M S Shah, M Eppinger, S Ahmed, A A Shah, A Hameed, F Hasan
PURPOSE: Seasonal rains in Pakistan result in heavy floods across the country, whereby faecal contaminants will be added to the water bodies and cause numerous food-borne outbreaks. The present study was aimed to determine the prevalence of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) strains in the water sources. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two hundred water samples collected during (2011-2012) were processed for the isolation of E. coli (EC) strains. EC strains were further analysed for antibiotic susceptibility patterns, and pathogroups-specific virulence factors stx1, stx2, stx2c, eae, tir, hlyA, bfpA, estA and eltA were detected using multiplex polymerase chain reaction...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931258/htra-mediated-e-cadherin-cleavage-is-limited-to-degp-and-degq-homologs-expressed-by-gram-negative-pathogens
#7
Carmen M Abfalter, Maria Schubert, Camilla Götz, Thomas P Schmidt, Gernot Posselt, Silja Wessler
BACKGROUND: The serine proteases HtrA/DegP secreted by the human gastrointestinal pathogens Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) and Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) cleave the mammalian cell adhesion protein E-cadherin to open intercellular adhesions. A wide range of bacteria also expresses the HtrA/DegP homologs DegQ and/or DegS, which significantly differ in structure and function. METHODS: E-cadherin shedding was investigated in infection experiments with the Gram-negative pathogens H...
8, 2016: Cell Communication and Signaling: CCS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920212/inhibition-of-antigen-specific-and-non-specific-stimulation-of-bovine-t-and-b-cells-by-lymphostatin-from-attaching-and-effacing-escherichia-coli
#8
Robin L Cassady-Cain, Elizabeth A Blackburn, Charlotte R Bell, Elizaveta Elshina, Jayne C Hope, Mark P Stevens
Enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) and enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) are enteric bacterial pathogens of worldwide importance. Most EPEC and non-O157 EHEC strains express lymphostatin (also known as LifA), a chromosomally-encoded 365 kDa protein. We previously demonstrated that lymphostatin is a putative glycosyltransferase that is important in intestinal colonisation of cattle by EHEC serogroup O5, O111 and O26 strains. However, the nature and consequences of the interaction between lymphostatin and immune cells from the bovine host are ill-defined...
December 5, 2016: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905628/-virulence-mechanisms-of-enteropathogenic-escherichia-coli
#9
Ana Elvira Farfán-García, Sandra Catherine Ariza-Rojas, Fabiola Andrea Vargas-Cárdenas, Lizeth Viviana Vargas-Remolina
Acute diarrheal disease (ADD) is a global public health problem, especially in developing countries and is one of the causes of mortality in children under five. ADD etiologic agents include viruses, bacteria and parasites in that order. Escherichia coli bacteria it is classified as a major diarrheagenic agent and transmitted by consuming contaminated water or undercooked foods. This review compiled updates on information virulence factors and pathogenic mechanisms involved in adhesion and colonization of seven pathotypes of E...
August 2016: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893961/the-genetics-of-enteropathogenic-escherichia-coli-virulence
#10
Jaclyn S Pearson, Cristina Giogha, Tania Wong Fok Lung, Elizabeth L Hartland
In many parts of the world, enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) are a leading cause of death in children with diarrhea. Much of what we know about the pathogenesis of EPEC infections is based on the study of one or two prototypic strains that have provided deep insight into the precise mechanisms by which EPEC colonizes the intestine, evades host immunity, and spreads from person to person. In some cases, defining the biochemical activity of the host-interacting effector proteins from these prototypic strains has led to the discovery of novel post-translational protein modifications and new understandings of biology and host-pathogen interactions...
November 23, 2016: Annual Review of Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872241/the-type-iii-effector-nled-from-enteropathogenic-e-coli-differentiates-between-host-substrates-p38-and-jnk
#11
Kristina Creuzburg, Cristina Giogha, Tania Wong Fok Lung, Nichollas E Scott, Sabrina Mühlen, Elizabeth L Hartland, Jaclyn S Pearson
Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is a gastrointestinal pathogen that utilises a type III secretion system (T3SS) to inject an array of virulence effector proteins into host enterocytes to subvert numerous cellular processes for successful colonisation and dissemination. The T3SS effector NleD is a 28 kDa zinc metalloprotease that is translocated into host enterocytes where it directly cleaves and inactivates the MAP kinase signaling proteins, JNK and p38. Here a library of 91 random transposon based, in-frame, linker insertion mutants of NleD were tested for their ability to cleave JNK and p38 during transient transfection of cultured epithelial cells...
November 21, 2016: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864920/design-of-small-molecule-inhibitors-of-type-iii-secretion-system-atpase-escn-from-enteropathogenic-eecherichia-coli
#12
Lukasz Bzdzion, Hanna Krezel, Karol Wrzeszcz, Irmina Grzegorek, Katarzyna Nowinska, Grzegorz Chodaczek, Wieslaw Swietnicki
Enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) is a human pathogen using type III secretion system for delivery of proteins directly into the human host. The system contains a single ATPase, EscN, which is essential for uncoupling of proteins from their complexes with chaperones before the delivery. The structure of EscN ATPase (PDB code: 2obm) was used to screen computationally for small molecule inhibitors blocking its active site. Two lead candidates were examined but only one, Compound 54, was selected for further optimization...
November 18, 2016: Acta Biochimica Polonica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845198/hyaluronan-35kda-treatment-protects-mice-from-citrobacter-rodentium-infection-and-induces-epithelial-tight-junction-protein-zo-1-in-vivo
#13
Yeojung Kim, Sean P Kessler, Dana R Obery, Craig R Homer, Christine McDonald, Carol A de la Motte
Maintaining a healthy intestinal barrier, the primary physical barrier between intestinal microbiota and the underlying lamina propria, is critical for optimal health. Epithelial integrity is essential for the prevention of the entrance of luminal contents, such as bacteria and their products, through the large intestinal barrier. In this study, we investigated the protective functions of biosynthetic, specific sized, hyaluronan around 35kDa (HA35) on intestinal epithelium in healthy mice, as well as mice infected Citrobacter rodentium, an established model that mimics infection with a serious human pathogen, enteropathogenic E...
November 11, 2016: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826737/gwas-analysis-of-qtl-for-enteric-septicemia-of-catfish-and-their-involved-genes-suggest-evolutionary-conservation-of-a-molecular-mechanism-of-disease-resistance
#14
Tao Zhou, Shikai Liu, Xin Geng, Yulin Jin, Chen Jiang, Lisui Bao, Jun Yao, Yu Zhang, Jiaren Zhang, Luyang Sun, Xiaozhu Wang, Ning Li, Suxu Tan, Zhanjiang Liu
Disease problems cause major economic losses for the aquaculture industries. In catfish, enteric septicemia of catfish (ESC), caused by the bacterial pathogen Edwardsiella ictaluri, is the leading disease problem, causing tens of millions of dollars of annual economic losses. In this study, we conducted a genome-wide association study to determine quantitative trait loci (QTL) for resistance against ESC using an interspecific hybrid system. Five hundred fish were used in the analysis and 192 phenotypic extremes were used for genotyping with the catfish 250K SNP arrays...
November 8, 2016: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826029/cytolethal-distending-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli-o157-h43-strain-t22-represents-a-novel-evolutionary-lineage-within-the-o157-serogroup
#15
Domonkos Sváb, Balázs Bálint, Gergely Maróti, István Tóth
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7/NM strains are significant foodborne pathogens intensively studied, while other sero- and pathotypes of the O157 serogroup only began to receive more attention. Here we report the first genome sequence of a cytolethal distending toxin (CDT-V) producing E. coli O157:H43 strain (T22) isolated from cattle. The genome consists of a 4.9Mb chromosome assembled into three contigs and one plasmid of 82.4kb. Comparative genomic investigations conducted with the core genomes of representative E...
December 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821583/model-of-host-pathogen-interaction-dynamics-links-in-vivo-optical-imaging-and-immune-responses
#16
Angelique Ale, Valerie F Crepin, James W Collins, Nicholas Constantinou, Maryam Habibzay, Ann C Babtie, Gad Frankel, Michael P H Stumpf
Tracking disease progression in vivo is essential for the development of treatments against bacterial infection. Optical imaging has become a central tool for in vivo tracking of bacterial population development and therapeutic response. For a precise understanding of in vivo imaging results in terms of disease mechanisms derived from detailed postmortem observations, however, a link between the two is needed. Here, we develop a model that provides that link for the investigation of Citrobacter rodentium infection, a mouse model for enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC)...
January 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807696/common-themes-in-cytoskeletal-remodeling-by-intracellular-bacterial-effectors
#17
Guy Tran Van Nhieu, Stéphane Romero
Bacterial pathogens interact with various types of tissues to promote infection. Because it controls the formation of membrane extensions, adhesive processes, or the junction integrity, the actin cytoskeleton is a key target of pathogens during infection. We will highlight common and specific functions of the actin cytoskeleton during bacterial infections, by first reviewing the mechanisms of intracellular motility of invasive Shigella, Listeria, and Rickettsia. Through the models of EPEC/EHEC, Shigella, Salmonella, and Chlamydia spp...
2017: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796284/modulation-of-host-signaling-in-the-inflammatory-response-by-enteropathogenic-escherichia-coli-virulence-proteins
#18
Xiaonan Zhuang, Zijuan Chen, Chenxi He, Lin Wang, Ruixue Zhou, Dapeng Yan, Baoxue Ge
To successfully infect host cells and evade the host immune response, a type III secretion system (T3SS) is commonly used by enteric bacterial pathogens such as enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC). Recent findings have revealed that various effectors are injected into host cells through the T3SS and exert an inhibitory effect on inflammatory signaling pathways, subverting the immune responses to these pathogens. Here we review recent studies aimed at addressing the modulation of several important inflammatory signaling pathways modulated by EPEC effector proteins, such as the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways, which provides insight into the unfinished work in this unexplored field and helps to identify novel positions in inflammatory signaling networks for EPEC effectors...
October 31, 2016: Cellular & Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795876/a-study-of-parasitic-and-bacterial-pathogens-associated-with-diarrhea-in-hiv-positive-patients
#19
Siddharth Shah, Vaishali Kongre, Varun Kumar, Renu Bharadwaj
INTRODUCTION: Diarrhea is a common complication of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), occurring in almost 90% of AIDS patients in developing countries like India. The present study was aimed to determine the prevalence and microbiological profile of pathogens associated with diarrhea in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive patients and their relation to CD4 counts. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-five successive HIV-positive patients, 27 with diarrhea (study group) and 18 without diarrhea (control group), were included in the three-month study...
September 27, 2016: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795363/tricellular-tight-junction-protein-tricellulin-is-targeted-by-the-enteropathogenic-escherichia-coli-effector-espg1-leading-to-epithelial-barrier-disruption
#20
Vijay Morampudi, Franziska A Graef, Martin Stahl, Udit Dalwadi, Victoria S Conlin, Tina Huang, Bruce A Vallance, Hong B Yu, Kevan Jacobson
Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC)-induced diarrhea is often associated with disruption of intestinal epithelial tight junctions. Although studies have shown alterations in the expression and localization of bicellular tight junction proteins during EPEC infections, little is known about whether tricellular tight junction proteins (tTJs) are affected. Using Caco-2 cell monolayers, we investigated if EPEC is capable of targeting the tTJ protein tricellulin. Our results demonstrated that at 4 h postinfection, EPEC induced a significant reduction in tricellulin levels, accompanied by a significant loss of transepithelial resistance (TEER) and a corresponding increase in paracellular permeability...
January 2017: Infection and Immunity
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