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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135055/the-modulatory-role-of-cytokines-il-4-and-il-17-in-the-functional-activity-of-phagocytes-in-diabetic-pregnant-women
#1
Danny L G Fagundes, Eduardo L França, Michelangelo B Gonzatti, Marilza V C Rugde, Iracema M P Calderon, Adenilda C Honorio-França
The study investigated the role of cytokines IL-4 and IL-17 in the modulation of the functional activity of mononuclear phagocytes in diabetic pregnant women with hyperglycemia. Sixty pregnant women were assigned to the following groups: nondiabetic (ND), mild gestational hyperglycemia (MGH), gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), or type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2). The functional activity of phagocytes from maternal blood, cord blood, and colostrum was assessed by determining their superoxide release, phagocytosis, microbicidal activity, and intracellular Ca(2+) release...
November 14, 2017: APMIS: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, et Immunologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133155/a-prospective-study-of-travellers-diarrhoea-analysis-of-pathogen-findings-by-destination-in-various-sub-tropical-regions
#2
Tinja Lääveri, Katri Vilkman, Sari H Pakkanen, Juha Kirveskari, Anu Kantele
OBJECTIVES: Eighty million travellers visiting (sub)tropical regions contract travellers' diarrhoea (TD) each year, yet prospective data comparing the prevalence of TD pathogens in various geographical regions are scarce. Our recent study employing modern molecular methods found enteropathogenic (EPEC) and enteroaggregative (EAEC) Escherichia coli to be the most frequent pathogens, followed by enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) and Campylobacter. We revisited our data to compare the findings by geographical region...
November 10, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128404/milk-from-transgenic-goat-expressing-human-lysozyme-for-recovery-and-treatment-of-gastrointestinal-pathogens
#3
Igor de Sá Carneiro, José Nilson Rodrigues de Menezes, Julyana Almeida Maia, André Marrocos Miranda, Victor Bruno Soares de Oliveira, James D Murray, Elizabeth A Maga, Marcelo Bertolini, Luciana Relly Bertolini
Lysozyme is an important non-specific immune protein in human milk, modulating the immune response against bacterial infections. The aim of this study was to characterize the milk of a transgenic goat expressing a recombinant human lysozyme (rhLZ) in the milk, also testing the in vitro antibacterial activity of the rhLZ milk against pathogens of the gastrointestinal tract. Milk samples collected from Tg and non-transgenic goats (nTg) from the 3rd to the 11th week of lactation were submitted to physicochemical analyses, rhLZ semi-quantification, and to rhLZ antimicrobial activity against Micrococcus luteus, Shiguella sonnei and Enterococcus faecalis...
November 8, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118939/escherichia-coli-pathotypes-and-shigella-sero-groups-in-diarrheic-children-in-nairobi-city-kenya
#4
Peter Lokamar Nyanga, Jackson Onyuka, Mark Kilongosi Webale, Tom Were, Valentine Budambula
Aim: In the present study, we investigated the prevalence of E. coli pathotypes and Shigella sero-groups and their antimicrobial profiles among diarrheic children in Nairobi city, Kenya. Background: Although diarrheagenic E. coli pathotypes and Shigella sero-groups are leading causes of diarrhea in children under five years in developing countries, their distribution and antimicrobial resistance vary from place to place and over time in a given region. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, we enrolled diarrheic children (n=354) under five years seeking treatment at Mbagathi Hospital, Nairobi city, Kenya,...
2017: Gastroenterology and Hepatology From Bed to Bench
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110874/diarrheagenic-escherichia-coli-infections-among-the-children-of-andaman-islands-with-special-reference-to-pathotype-distribution-and-clinical-profile
#5
P Ramya Raghavan, Subarna Roy, Ramanathan Thamizhmani, Attayur Purushothaman Sugunan
Diarrhoeagenic E. coli (DEC) is one of the most common causes of diarrhoeal death in children less than five years globally. It is responsible for 30%-40% of all diarrhoeal episodes in developing countries. It is estimated that 0.12million children died of diarrhoea caused by DEC in 2011 globally. There is no baseline data on the occurrence of DEC diarrhoea in Andaman Islands, the remote islands of India. The study is particularly important as these strains are the emerging enteric pathogen in both developed and developing countries...
December 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093106/a-gastrointestinal-pcr-panel-improves-clinical-management-and-lowers-healthcare-costs
#6
Stacy G Beal, Elizabeth E Tremblay, Steven Toffel, Lymaries Velez, Kenneth H Rand
Conventional methods for identification of gastrointestinal pathogens are time consuming, expensive, and have limited sensitivity. The aim of this study was to determine the clinical impact of a comprehensive molecular test, the BioFire FilmArray® Gastrointestinal (GI) Panel which tests for many of the most common agents of infectious diarrhea in approximately one hour. Patients with stool cultures submitted were tested on the GI Panel (n=241) and were compared with control patients (n=594) from the year prior...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091261/the-mouse-model-of-infection-with-citrobacter-rodentium
#7
Nicolas Bouladoux, Oliver J Harrison, Yasmine Belkaid
Citrobacter rodentium is a murine mucosal pathogen used as a model to elucidate the molecular and cellular pathogenesis of infection with two clinically important human gastrointestinal pathogens, enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) and enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC). C. rodentium infection provides an excellent model to study different aspects of host-pathogen interaction in the gut, including intestinal inflammatory responses during bacteria-induced colitis, mucosal healing and epithelial repair, the induction of mucosal immune responses, and the role of the intestinal microbiota in mediating resistance to colonization by enteric pathogens...
November 1, 2017: Current Protocols in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29084270/attaching-and-effacing-a-e-lesion-formation-by-enteropathogenic-e-coli-on-human-intestinal-mucosa-is-dependent-on-non-lee-effectors
#8
Massiel Cepeda-Molero, Cedric N Berger, Alistair D S Walsham, Samuel J Ellis, Simon Wemyss-Holden, Stephanie Schüller, Gad Frankel, Luis Ángel Fernández
Enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) is a human pathogen that causes acute and chronic pediatric diarrhea. The hallmark of EPEC infection is the formation of attaching and effacing (A/E) lesions in the intestinal epithelium. Formation of A/E lesions is mediated by genes located on the pathogenicity island locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE), which encode the adhesin intimin, a type III secretion system (T3SS) and six effectors, including the essential translocated intimin receptor (Tir). Seventeen additional effectors are encoded by genes located outside the LEE, in insertion elements and prophages...
October 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077065/glycomacropeptide-reduces-intestinal-epithelial-cell-barrier-dysfunction-and-adhesion-of-entero-hemorrhagic-and-entero-pathogenic-escherichia-coli-in-vitro
#9
Shane Feeney, Joseph Thomas Ryan, Michelle Kilcoyne, Lokesh Joshi, Rita Hickey
In recent years, the potential of glycosylated food components to positively influence health has received considerable attention. Milk is a rich source of biologically active glycoconjugates which are associated with antimicrobial, immunomodulatory, anti-adhesion, anti-inflammatory and prebiotic properties. Glycomacropeptide (GMP) is the C-terminal portion of kappa-casein that is released from whey during cheese-making by the action of chymosin. Many of the biological properties associated with GMP, such as anti-adhesion, have been linked with the carbohydrate portion of the protein...
October 27, 2017: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073283/identification-of-novel-substrates-of-shigella-t3sa-through-analysis-of-its-virulence-plasmid-encoded-secretome
#10
Laurie Pinaud, Mariana L Ferrari, Robin Friedman, Nico Jehmlich, Martin von Bergen, Armelle Phalipon, Philippe J Sansonetti, François-Xavier Campbell-Valois
Many human Gram-negative bacterial pathogens express a Type Three Secretion Apparatus (T3SA), including among the most notorious Shigella spp., Salmonella enterica, Yersinia enterocolitica and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC). These bacteria express on their surface multiple copies of the T3SA that mediate the delivery into host cells of specific protein substrates critical to pathogenesis. Shigella spp. are Gram-negative bacterial pathogens responsible for human bacillary dysentery. The effector function of several Shigella T3SA substrates has largely been studied but their potential cellular targets are far from having been comprehensively delineated...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034111/molecular-characterization-of-diarrheagenic-escherichia-coli-in-children-less-than-5-years-of-age-with-diarrhea-in-ouagadougou-burkina-faso
#11
Ali Konaté, René Dembélé, Assèta Kagambèga, Issiaka Soulama, Wendpoulomdé A D Kaboré, Emmanuel Sampo, Haoua Cissé, Antoine Sanou, Samuel Serme, Soumanaba Zongo, Cheikna Zongo, Alio Mahamadou Fody, Nathalie K Guessennd, Alfred S Traoré, Amy Gassama-Sow, Nicolas Barro
Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) is important bacteria of children's endemic and epidemic diarrhea worldwide. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of DEC isolated from stool samples collected from children with acute diarrhea living in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. From August 2013 to October 2015, stool samples were collected from 315 children under 5 years of age suffering from diarrhea in the "Centre Médical avec Antenne Chirurgicale (CMA)" Paul VI and the CMA of Schiphra. E. coli were isolated and identified by standard microbiological methods, and the 16-plex PCR method was used to further characterize them...
September 2017: European Journal of Microbiology & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016293/molecular-and-phenotypic-characterization-of-diarrheagenic-escherichia-coli-strains-isolated-from-bacteremic-children
#12
Maribel Riveros, Wilfredo García, Coralith García, David Durand, Erik Mercado, Joaquim Ruiz, Theresa J Ochoa
Escherichia coli is an important cause of Gram-negative bacteremia. The aim of this study was to characterize at the molecular and phenotypic levels E. coli strains belonging to different diarrheagenic pathotypes [diarrheagenic E. coli (DEC)] isolated from bacteremia in children younger than 5 years of age. Seventy bacteremia E. coli strains were collected in a prospective study in 12 hospitals in Lima, Peru. The presence of virulence genes associated with DEC [enterotoxigenic (lt and st), enteropathogenic (eaeA), shiga toxin-producing (stx1and stx2), enteroinvasive (ipaH), enteroaggregative (aggR), and diffusely adherent (daaD)] was determined by multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR)...
October 9, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992515/molecular-characterization-of-diarrheagenic-escherichia-coli-isolated-from-vegetables-in-argentina
#13
Juliana González, Jimena S Cadona, Marcelo Sanz, Ana V Bustamante, A Mariel Sanso
The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of diarrheagenic E. coli strains in vegetables from the humid Pampa region, Argentina, and to determine the occurrence of serotypes and virulence genes in the isolates. A total of 373 fresh vegetable samples obtained from 41 different geographical points were examined. E. coli was detected in 38.6% of the samples. Ten isolates could be obtained from 14 samples presumptively positive for diarrheagenic E. coli: 8 were identified as atypical Enteropathogenic E...
September 29, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968393/correlates-of-multi-drug-non-susceptibility-in-enteric-bacteria-isolated-from-kenyan-children-with-acute-diarrhea
#14
Rebecca L Brander, Judd L Walson, Grace C John-Stewart, Jacqueline M Naulikha, Janet Ndonye, Nancy Kipkemoi, Doreen Rwigi, Benson O Singa, Patricia B Pavlinac
BACKGROUND: Reduced antimicrobial susceptibility threatens treatment efficacy in sub-Saharan Africa, where data on the burden and correlates of antibiotic resistance among enteric pathogens are limited. METHODS: Fecal samples from children aged 6 mos-15 yrs presenting with acute diarrhea in western Kenya were cultured for bacterial pathogens. HIV-uninfected children with identified Shigella or Salmonella species or pathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC, ETEC, EAEC or EIEC) were included in this cross-sectional sub-study...
October 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937656/characterization-of-diarrheagenic-escherichia-coli-isolated-in-organic-waste-products-cattle-fecal-matter-manure-and-slurry-from-cattle-s-markets-in-ouagadougou-burkina-faso
#15
Evariste Bako, Assèta Kagambèga, Kuan Abdoulaye Traore, Touwendsida Serge Bagre, Hadiza Bawa Ibrahim, Soutongnooma Caroline Bouda, Isidore Juste Ouindgueta Bonkoungou, Saidou Kaboré, Cheikna Zongo, Alfred Sababenejo Traore, Nicolas Barro
Cattle farming can promote diarrheal disease transmission through waste, effluents or cattle fecal matter. The study aims to characterize the diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) isolated from cattle feces, manure in the composting process and slurry, collected from four cattle markets in Ouagadougou. A total of 585 samples (340 cattle feces, 200 slurries and 45 manures in the composting process) were collected from the four cattle markets between May 2015 and May 2016. A multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), namely 16-plex PCR, was used to screen simultaneously the virulence genes specific for shiga toxin-producing E...
September 22, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931467/clinical-features-and-molecular-epidemiology-of-diarrheagenic-escherichia-coli-pathotypes-identified-by-fecal-gastrointestinal-multiplex-nucleic-acid-amplification-in-patients-with-cancer-and-diarrhea
#16
Andrew W Chao, Micah Bhatti, Herbert L DuPont, James P Nataro, Lily G Carlin, Pablo C Okhuysen
Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) pathotypes with differing epidemiology and clinical features, are known causes of disease with worldwide occurrence. At a major cancer center in the U.S., we studied patients with cancer and diarrhea for whom a GI Biofire FilmArray multiplex GI panel (BFM) was performed. An enteropathogen was identified in 382 of 2017 (19%) samples distributed across 311 patients. Of these, 60/311(19%) were positive for DEC. Patients receiving hematopoietic stem cell transplants (HSCT) 29/60 (48%) or with a hematologic malignancy 17/60 (28%) accounted for the majority of DEC cases...
August 12, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919687/presence-and-characterization-of-escherichia-coli-virulence-genes-isolated-from-diseased-pigs-in-the-central-region-of-argentina
#17
Fernando A Bessone, Gabriela Bessone, Sebastián Marini, María B Conde, Fabrisio E Alustiza, Gustavo Zielinski
BACKGROUND: The main pathogen of neonatal and post weaning diarrhea and edema disease (ED) is Escherichia coli and pathotypes involved are enterotoxigenic, enteropathogenic, and shiga toxigenic (ETEC, EPEC, and STEC, respectively). Those diseases cause economic loss in pig production. AIM: The aim of this work was to evaluate the presence of strains expressing virulence markers genes and the antibiotic susceptibility profiles of E. coli from clinical cases of post weaning diarrhea and ED in farms in the central area of Argentina...
August 2017: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906580/comparison-of-one-commercial-and-two-in-house-taqman-multiplex-real-time-pcr-assays-for-detection-of-enteropathogenic-enterotoxigenic-and-enteroaggregative-escherichia-coli
#18
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Andreas Hahn, Marc Luetgehetmann, Olfert Landt, Norbert Georg Schwarz, Hagen Frickmann
OBJECTIVE: Enteropathogenic, enterotoxigenic and enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EPEC, ETEC, EAEC) are among the most frequent causes of diarrhoea during travel or on military deployments. Cost-efficient and reliable real-time multiplex PCR (mPCR) assays are desirable for surveillance or point prevalence studies in remote and resource-limited tropical settings. We compared one commercial PCR kit and two in-house assays without using a gold standard to estimate sensitivity and specificity of each assay...
November 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904264/zoonotic-potential-and-antibiotic-resistance-of-escherichia-coli-in-neonatal-calves-in-uruguay
#19
Ana Umpiérrez, Inés Bado, Martín Oliver, Sofía Acquistapace, Analía Etcheverría, Nora Lía Padola, Rafael Vignoli, Pablo Zunino
Escherichia coli is one of the main etiological agents of neonatal calf diarrhea (NCD). The objective of this study was to assess the presence of virulence genes, genetic diversity, and antibiotic resistance mechanisms in E. coli associated with NCD in Uruguay. PCR was used to assess the presence of intimin, Shiga-like toxin, and stable and labile enterotoxin genes. Resistance to fluoroquinolones and oxyimino-cephalosporins was estimated on Müller-Hinton agar plates. Further antibiotic disc-diffusion tests were performed to assess bacterial multi-resistance...
September 27, 2017: Microbes and Environments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887208/proteomic-comparison-of-three-clinical-diarrhoeagenic-drug-resistant-escherichia-coli-isolates-grown-on-chromagar%C3%A2-stec-media
#20
John Bosco Kalule, Suereta Fortuin, Bridget Calder, Lourens Robberts, Karen H Keddy, Andrew Nel, Shaun Garnett, Mark Nicol, Digby F Warner, Nelson C Soares, Jonathan M Blackburn
Shiga-toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) are key diarrhoea-causing foodborne pathogens. We used proteomics to characterize the virulence and antimicrobial resistance protein profiles of three clinical pathogenic E. coli isolates (two EPEC [one resistant to ciprofloxacin] and one STEC) cultured on CHROMagar™STEC solid media after minimal laboratory passage. We identified 4767 unique peptides from 1630 protein group across all three clinical E. coli strains...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
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