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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905628/-virulence-mechanisms-of-enteropathogenic-escherichia-coli
#1
Ana Elvira Farfán-García, Sandra Catherine Ariza-Rojas, Fabiola Andrea Vargas-Cárdenas, Lizeth Viviana Vargas-Remolina
Acute diarrheal disease (ADD) is a global public health problem, especially in developing countries and is one of the causes of mortality in children under five. ADD etiologic agents include viruses, bacteria and parasites in that order. Escherichia coli bacteria it is classified as a major diarrheagenic agent and transmitted by consuming contaminated water or undercooked foods. This review compiled updates on information virulence factors and pathogenic mechanisms involved in adhesion and colonization of seven pathotypes of E...
August 2016: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893961/the-genetics-of-enteropathogenic-escherichia-coli-virulence
#2
Jaclyn S Pearson, Cristina Giogha, Tania Wong Fok Lung, Elizabeth L Hartland
In many parts of the world, enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) are a leading cause of death in children with diarrhea. Much of what we know about the pathogenesis of EPEC infections is based on the study of one or two prototypic strains that have provided deep insight into the precise mechanisms by which EPEC colonizes the intestine, evades host immunity, and spreads from person to person. In some cases, defining the biochemical activity of the host-interacting effector proteins from these prototypic strains has led to the discovery of novel post-translational protein modifications and new understandings of biology and host-pathogen interactions...
November 23, 2016: Annual Review of Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872241/the-type-iii-effector-nled-from-enteropathogenic-e-coli-differentiates-between-host-substrates-p38-and-jnk
#3
Kristina Creuzburg, Cristina Giogha, Tania Wong Fok Lung, Nichollas E Scott, Sabrina Mühlen, Elizabeth L Hartland, Jaclyn S Pearson
Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is a gastrointestinal pathogen that utilises a type III secretion system (T3SS) to inject an array of virulence effector proteins into host enterocytes to subvert numerous cellular processes for successful colonisation and dissemination. The T3SS effector NleD is a 28 kDa zinc metalloprotease that is translocated into host enterocytes where it directly cleaves and inactivates the MAP kinase signaling proteins, JNK and p38. Here a library of 91 random transposon based, in-frame, linker insertion mutants of NleD were tested for their ability to cleave JNK and p38 during transient transfection of cultured epithelial cells...
November 21, 2016: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864920/design-of-small-molecule-inhibitors-of-type-iii-secretion-system-atpase-escn-from-enteropathogenic-eecherichia-coli
#4
Lukasz Bzdzion, Hanna Krezel, Karol Wrzeszcz, Irmina Grzegorek, Katarzyna Nowinska, Grzegorz Chodaczek, Wieslaw Swietnicki
Enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) is a human pathogen using type III secretion system for delivery of proteins directly into the human host. The system contains a single ATPase, EscN, which is essential for uncoupling of proteins from their complexes with chaperones before the delivery. The structure of EscN ATPase (PDB code: 2obm) was used to screen computationally for small molecule inhibitors blocking its active site. Two lead candidates were examined but only one, Compound 54, was selected for further optimization...
November 18, 2016: Acta Biochimica Polonica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845198/hyaluronan-35kda-treatment-protects-mice-from-citrobacter-rodentium-infection-and-induces-epithelial-tight-junction-protein-zo-1-in-vivo
#5
Yeojung Kim, Sean P Kessler, Dana R Obery, Craig R Homer, Christine McDonald, Carol A de la Motte
Maintaining a healthy intestinal barrier, the primary physical barrier between intestinal microbiota and the underlying lamina propria, is critical for optimal health. Epithelial integrity is essential for the prevention of the entrance of luminal contents, such as bacteria and their products, through the large intestinal barrier. In this study, we investigated the protective functions of biosynthetic, specific sized, hyaluronan around 35kDa (HA35) on intestinal epithelium in healthy mice, as well as mice infected Citrobacter rodentium, an established model that mimics infection with a serious human pathogen, enteropathogenic E...
November 11, 2016: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826737/gwas-analysis-of-qtl-for-enteric-septicemia-of-catfish-and-their-involved-genes-suggest-evolutionary-conservation-of-a-molecular-mechanism-of-disease-resistance
#6
Tao Zhou, Shikai Liu, Xin Geng, Yulin Jin, Chen Jiang, Lisui Bao, Jun Yao, Yu Zhang, Jiaren Zhang, Luyang Sun, Xiaozhu Wang, Ning Li, Suxu Tan, Zhanjiang Liu
Disease problems cause major economic losses for the aquaculture industries. In catfish, enteric septicemia of catfish (ESC), caused by the bacterial pathogen Edwardsiella ictaluri, is the leading disease problem, causing tens of millions of dollars of annual economic losses. In this study, we conducted a genome-wide association study to determine quantitative trait loci (QTL) for resistance against ESC using an interspecific hybrid system. Five hundred fish were used in the analysis and 192 phenotypic extremes were used for genotyping with the catfish 250K SNP arrays...
November 8, 2016: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826029/cytolethal-distending-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli-o157-h43-strain-t22-represents-a-novel-evolutionary-lineage-within-the-o157-serogroup
#7
Domonkos Sváb, Balázs Bálint, Gergely Maróti, István Tóth
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7/NM strains are significant foodborne pathogens intensively studied, while other sero- and pathotypes of the O157 serogroup only began to receive more attention. Here we report the first genome sequence of a cytolethal distending toxin (CDT-V) producing E. coli O157:H43 strain (T22) isolated from cattle. The genome consists of a 4.9Mb chromosome assembled into three contigs and one plasmid of 82.4kb. Comparative genomic investigations conducted with the core genomes of representative E...
November 5, 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821583/model-of-host-pathogen-interaction-dynamics-links-in-vivo-optical-imaging-and-immune-responses
#8
Angelique Ale, Valerie F Crepin, James W Collins, Nicholas Constantinou, Maryam Habibzay, Ann Babtie, Gad Frankel, Michael P H Stumpf
Tracking disease progression in vivo is essential for the development of treatments against bacterial infection. Optical imaging has become a central tool for in vivo tracking of bacterial population development and therapeutic response. For a precise understanding of in vivo imaging results in terms of disease mechanisms derived from detailed post mortem observations, however, a link between the two is needed. Here we develop a model that provides that link for the investigation of Citrobacter rodentium infection, a mouse model for enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC)...
November 7, 2016: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807696/common-themes-in-cytoskeletal-remodeling-by-intracellular-bacterial-effectors
#9
Guy Tran Van Nhieu, Stéphane Romero
Bacterial pathogens interact with various types of tissues to promote infection. Because it controls the formation of membrane extensions, adhesive processes, or the junction integrity, the actin cytoskeleton is a key target of pathogens during infection. We will highlight common and specific functions of the actin cytoskeleton during bacterial infections, by first reviewing the mechanisms of intracellular motility of invasive Shigella, Listeria, and Rickettsia. Through the models of EPEC/EHEC, Shigella, Salmonella, and Chlamydia spp...
November 3, 2016: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796284/modulation-of-host-signaling-in-the-inflammatory-response-by-enteropathogenic-escherichia-coli-virulence-proteins
#10
Xiaonan Zhuang, Zijuan Chen, Chenxi He, Lin Wang, Ruixue Zhou, Dapeng Yan, Baoxue Ge
To successfully infect host cells and evade the host immune response, a type III secretion system (T3SS) is commonly used by enteric bacterial pathogens such as enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC). Recent findings have revealed that various effectors are injected into host cells through the T3SS and exert an inhibitory effect on inflammatory signaling pathways, subverting the immune responses to these pathogens. Here we review recent studies aimed at addressing the modulation of several important inflammatory signaling pathways modulated by EPEC effector proteins, such as the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways, which provides insight into the unfinished work in this unexplored field and helps to identify novel positions in inflammatory signaling networks for EPEC effectors...
October 31, 2016: Cellular & Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795876/a-study-of-parasitic-and-bacterial-pathogens-associated-with-diarrhea-in-hiv-positive-patients
#11
Siddharth Shah, Vaishali Kongre, Varun Kumar, Renu Bharadwaj
INTRODUCTION: Diarrhea is a common complication of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), occurring in almost 90% of AIDS patients in developing countries like India. The present study was aimed to determine the prevalence and microbiological profile of pathogens associated with diarrhea in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive patients and their relation to CD4 counts. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-five successive HIV-positive patients, 27 with diarrhea (study group) and 18 without diarrhea (control group), were included in the three-month study...
September 27, 2016: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795363/tricellular-tight-junction-protein-tricellulin-is-targeted-by-the-enteropathogenic-e-coli-effector-espg1-leading-to-epithelial-barrier-disruption
#12
Vijay Morampudi, Franziska A Graef, Martin Stahl, Udit Dalwadi, Victoria S Conlin, Tina Huang, Bruce A Vallance, Hong B Yu, Kevan Jacobson
Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) induced diarrhea is often associated with disruption of intestinal epithelial tight junctions. Although studies have shown alterations in the expression and localization of bi-cellular tight junction proteins during EPEC infections, little is known whether tricellular tight junction proteins (tTJs) are affected. Using Caco-2 cell monolayers, we investigated if EPEC is capable of targeting the tTJ protein tricellulin. Our results demonstrated that at 4 hours p.i., EPEC induced a significant reduction in tricellulin levels accompanied by a significant loss of trans-epithelial resistance (TEER) and a corresponding increase in paracellular permeability...
October 24, 2016: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795324/functional-characterization-of-esck-orf4-a-sorting-platform-component-of-the-enteropathogenic-escherichia-coli-injectisome
#13
Eduardo Soto, Norma Espinosa, Miguel Díaz-Guerrero, Meztlli O Gaytán, José L Puente, Bertha González-Pedrajo
: The type III secretion system (T3SS) is a supramolecular machine used by many bacterial pathogens to translocate effector proteins directly into the eukaryotic host cell cytoplasm. Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is an important cause of infantile diarrheal disease in underdeveloped countries. EPEC virulence relies on a T3SS encoded within a chromosomal pathogenicity island known as the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE). In this work, we pursued the functional characterization of the LEE-encoded protein EscK (previously Orf4)...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27787756/characterization-of-virulence-factors-and-phylogenetic-group-determination-of-escherichia-coli-isolated-from-diarrheic-and-non-diarrheic-calves-from-brazil
#14
Fernanda Morcatti Coura, Soraia de Araújo Diniz, Jamili Maria Suhet Mussi, Marcos Xavier Silva, Andrey Pereira Lage, Marcos Bryan Heinemann
This study aimed to detect virulence factors, pathovars, and phylogenetic groups of Escherichia coli strains obtained from feces of calves with and without diarrhea up to 70 days old and to determine the association between occurrence of diarrhea, phylogenetic groups, and pathovars. Phylo-typing analysis of the 336 E. coli strains isolated from calves with Clermont method showed that 21 (6.25 %) belong to phylogroup A, 228 (67.85 %) to phylogroup B1, 2 (0.6 %) to phylogroup B2, 5 (1.49 %) to phylogroup C, 57 (16...
October 27, 2016: Folia Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774437/pathogenic-lifestyles-of-e-coli-pathotypes-in-a-standardized-epithelial-cell-model-influence-inflammatory-signaling-pathways-and-cytokines-secretion
#15
Javier Sanchez-Villamil, Gabriela Tapia-Pastrana, Fernando Navarro-Garcia
Inflammatory response is key for the host defense against diarrheagenic Escherichia coli and contributes to the pathogenesis of the disease but there is not a comparative study among different diarrheagenic pathotypes. We analyzed the inflammatory response induced by five diarrheagenic pathotypes in a HT-29 cell infection model. The model was unified to reproduce the pathogenesis of each pathotype. To compare the inflammatory responses we evaluated: (i) nuclear NF-κB and ERK1/2 translocation by confocal microscopy; (ii) kinetics of activation by each pathway detecting p65 and ERK1/2 phosphorylation by Western blotting; (iii) pathways modulation through bacterial infections with or without co-stimulation with TNF-α or EGF; (iv) cytokine profile induced by each pathotype with and without inhibitors of each pathway...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771295/c-ebp-homologous-protein-promotes-nsaid-activated-gene-1-linked-pro-inflammatory-signals-and-enterocyte-invasion-by-enteropathogenic-escherichia-coli
#16
Seong-Hwan Park, Mira Yu, Juil Kim, Yuseok Moon
NSAID-activated Gene 1 (NAG-1) is a prognostic indicator of chronic inflammatory diseases and aggressive tumors. Among the stress sentinels in response to infection by enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) or other pathogenic E. coli, C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), a representative stress-regulated transcription factor, was prominently increased and assessed for its involvement in NAG-1-mediated pathogenic cellular responses. NAG-1 expression was transcriptionally upregulated by CHOP, which promoted chemokine production through stained NF-κB activation...
October 19, 2016: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765129/-active-etiological-surveillance-for-foodborne-diseases-in-guangdong-province-2013-2014
#17
B X Ke, D M He, H L Tan, H H Zeng, T Yang, B S Li, Y H Liang, L L Lu, J H Liang, Q Huang, C W Ke
Objective: To study the infection status, serotypes, drug resistance and molecular characteristics of Salmonella, Shigella, Vibrio parahemolyticus, enterotoxigenic Escherichia (E.) coli (ETEC), pathogenic E. coli (EPEC), Shiga Toxin producing E. coli (STEC) and Enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC) collected from diarrhea patients in Guangdong. Methods: The strains of Salmonella, Shigella, V. parahemolyticus and 4 kinds of E. coli isolated from foodborne diseases surveillance during 2013-2014 were collected to conduct serotyping, drug resistance test and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE)...
October 10, 2016: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27744505/type-iii-secreted-virulence-factors-manipulating-signaling-to-actin-dynamics
#18
Theresia E B Stradal, Sonia C P Costa
A key aspect of bacterial pathogenesis is the colonization and persistence within the host and, later on, its dissemination to new niches. During evolution, bacteria developed a myriad of virulence mechanisms to usurp the host's sophisticated defense mechanisms in order to establish their colonization niche. Elucidation of the highly dynamic and complex interactions between host and pathogens remains an important field of study. Here, we highlight the conserved manipulation of the actin cytoskeleton by some Gram-negative gastrointestinal pathogens, addressing the role of type III secreted bacterial GEFs at the different steps of pathogenesis...
October 16, 2016: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736780/the-type-iii-secretion-system-effector-seoc-of-salmonella-enterica-subspecies-salamae-and-arizonae-adp-ribosylates-src-and-inhibits-opsono-phagocytosis
#19
Dominic J Pollard, Joanna C Young, Valentina Covarelli, Silvia Herrera-León, Thomas R Connor, Maria Fookes, Danielle Walker, Aurora Echeita, Nicholas R Thomson, Cedric N Berger, Gad Frankel
Salmonella spp. utilize type III secretion systems (T3SS) to translocate effectors into the cytosol of mammalian host cells, subverting cell signaling and facilitating the onset of gastroenteritis. In this study we compared a draft genome assembly of S. enterica subsp. salamae strain 3588/07 (S. salamae) against the genomes of S. enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium strain LT2 and S. bongori strain 12419. S. salamae encode the Salmonella pathogenicity island (SPI)-1; SPI-2 and the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) T3SSs...
October 10, 2016: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27732847/inhibition-of-wave-regulatory-complex-activation-by-a-bacterial-virulence-effector-counteracts-pathogen-phagocytosis
#20
Daniel Humphreys, Vikash Singh, Vassilis Koronakis
To establish pathogenicity, bacteria must evade phagocytosis directed by remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton. We show that macrophages facilitate pathogen phagocytosis through actin polymerization mediated by the WAVE regulatory complex (WRC), small GTPases Arf and Rac1, and the Arf1 activator ARNO. To establish extracellular infections, enteropathogenic (EPEC) and enterohaemorrhagic (EHEC) Escherichia coli hijack the actin cytoskeleton by injecting virulence effectors into the host cell. Here, we find that the virulence effector EspG counteracts WRC-dependent phagocytosis, enabling EPEC and EHEC to remain extracellular...
October 11, 2016: Cell Reports
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