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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341983/diarrheagenic-escherichia-coli-and-acute-gastroenteritis-in-children-in-davidson-county-tennessee-united-states-a-case-control-study
#1
Aamer Imdad, Monique A Foster, Junaid Iqbal, Christopher Fonnesbeck, Daniel C Payne, Chengxian Zhang, James D Chappell, Natasha Halasa, Oscar G Gómez-Duarte
BACKGROUND: Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) are an important cause of acute gastroenteritis in children; however, there is limited information available on the epidemiology, phylogenetics, serotyping, and antibiotic susceptibility of DEC in children in the United States. The aim of this study was to determine the molecular epidemiology of DEC among children with and without acute gastroenteritis in Davidson County, Tennessee. METHODS: This prospective, frequency matched, case-control study recruited subjects 15 days to 17 years of age and detected DEC with polymerase chain reaction from stool samples...
January 16, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339461/cooperative-immune-suppression-by-escherichia-coli-and-shigella-effector-proteins
#2
Maarten F de Jong, Neal M Alto
The enteric attaching and effacing (A/E) pathogens EHEC and EPEC and invasive pathogens EIEC and Shigella encode Type III secretion systems (T3SS) used to inject effector proteins into human host cells during infection. Among these are a group of effectors required for NF-κB mediated host immune evasion. Recent studies have identified several effector proteins from A/E pathogens and EIEC/Shigella that are involved in suppression of NF-κB and uncovered their cellular and molecular functions. A novel mechanism among these effectors from both groups of pathogens is to coordinate effector function during infection...
January 16, 2018: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307130/pathotyping-of-diarrhoeagenic-cattle-escherichia-coli-strains-isolated-in-the-province-of-tehran-iran
#3
Hamid Staji, Pietro Badagliacca, Taghi Zahraei Salehi, Federica Lopes, Mariangela Iorio, Alfreda Tonelli, Luc Masson
An oligonucleotide DNA microarray targeting 348 virulence factors and genetic markers was used in the pathotyping, serotyping and phylogrouping of 51 Escherichia coli strains isolated from faecal samples. The samples were collected from diarrhoeic 1 to 30 days old calves located at 14 farms in the Tehran province, Iran. Positive microarray signals for genes encoding the Locus of Enterocyte E acement (LEE), the Type III Secretion System (TTSS), and the absence of EPEC adherence factor (EAF) permitted the pathotyping of 25 strains as atypical Enteropathogenic (aEPEC) or Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC)...
December 29, 2017: Veterinaria Italiana
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280544/low-prevalence-of-the-gang-of-seven-and-absence-of-the-o80-h2-serotypes-amongst-shigatoxigenic-and-enteropathogenic-escherichia-coli-stec-and-epec-in-intestinal-contents-of-healthy-cattle-at-two-slaughterhouses-in-belgium-2014
#4
D Thiry, K De Rauw, S Takaki, J-N Duprez, A Iguchi, D Piérard, N Korsak, J G Mainil
AIMS: The purpose of this survey was to estimate the respective prevalence of the "gang of seven" and "non-gang of seven" serotypes of Shigatoxigenic and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli and to identify the O80:H2 serotype in 245 intestinal contents collected at two slaughterhouses in Belgium in 2014. METHODS AND RESULTS: After overnight enrichment growth the 69 intestinal contents testing positive with PCR targeting the eae, stx1 and stx2 genes were inoculated onto four agar media...
December 27, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277965/novel-insights-into-the-mechanism-of-sepl-mediated-control-of-effector-secretion-in-enteropathogenic-escherichia-coli
#5
Meztlli O Gaytán, Julia Monjarás Feria, Eduardo Soto, Norma Espinosa, Julia M Benítez, Dimitris Georgellis, Bertha González-Pedrajo
Type three secretion systems (T3SSs) are virulence determinants employed by several pathogenic bacteria as molecular syringes to inject effector proteins into host cells. Diarrhea-producing enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) uses a T3SS to colonize the intestinal tract. T3S is a highly coordinated process that ensures hierarchical delivery of three classes of substrates: early (inner rod and needle subunits), middle (translocators), and late (effectors). Translocation of effectors is triggered upon host-cell contact in response to different environmental cues, such as calcium levels...
December 26, 2017: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261025/free-ranging-synanthropic-birds-ardea-alba-and-columba-livia-domestica-as-carriers-of-salmonella-spp-and-diarrheagenic-escherichia-coli-in-the-vicinity-of-an-urban-zoo
#6
Mirela C V de Oliveira, Beatriz Q Camargo, Marcos P V Cunha, Andre Becker Saidenberg, Rodrigo H F Teixeira, Carlos E C Matajira, Luisa Z Moreno, Vasco T M Gomes, Ana P G Christ, Mikaela R F Barbosa, Maria I Z Sato, Andrea M Moreno, Terezinha Knöbl
The presence of free-ranging urban birds is a risk factor for transmitting pathogens to captive animals and humans alike, including Salmonella spp. and diarrheagenic Escherichia coli. Cloacal swabs from 156 synanthropic Great egrets (Ardea alba) and feral pigeons (Columba livia domestica) that inhabit the surroundings of an urban zoo were processed for the identification of Salmonella spp. and diarrheagenic E. coli pathotypes. Bacterial species identification and genotypic characterization employed the matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry and PCR techniques, respectively, comparing their phylogenetic profiles through amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis...
December 20, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233495/antibacterial-resistance-patterns-of-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase-producing-enteropathogenic-escherichia-coli-strains-isolated-from-children
#7
Pejman Karami, Hassan Bazmamoun, Iraj Sedighi, Amir Sasan Mozaffari Nejad, Mohammad Mehdi Aslani, Mohammad Yousef Alikhani
BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIM: This study aimed to determine the antibacterial resistance patterns of extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) isolated from Iranian children and to investigate its genetic patterns. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 192 non-repeats EPEC isolates were collected from stool samples of the children with and without diarrhoea. The EPEC strains were isolated from 1355 stool specimens obtained from 247 children with diarrhoea (0-10 years old; mean age, 5...
December 7, 2017: Arab Journal of Gastroenterology: the Official Publication of the Pan-Arab Association of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226143/self-conjugation-of-the-enteropathogenic-escherichia-coli-adherence-factor-plasmid-of-four-typical-epec-isolates
#8
Claudia Silva, Crispín Zavala-Alvarado, José L Puente
The enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) adherence factor plasmid (pEAF) encodes the proteins involved in the biogenesis of the bundle-forming pilus (BFP), a key virulence factor that mediates microcolony formation and the localized adherence phenotype on the surface of the host enterocytes. The presence or absence of this plasmid defines typical EPEC (tEPEC) and atypical EPEC (aEPEC), respectively. Although lateral transfer of pEAF has been evidenced by phylogenetic studies, conjugal transfer ability has been experimentally established only for two pEAF plasmids from strains isolated in the late 60s...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194362/the-small-regulatory-rna-spot42-inhibits-indole-biosynthesis-to-negatively-regulate-the-locus-of-enterocyte-effacement-of-enteropathogenic-escherichia-coli
#9
Shantanu Bhatt, Valerie Jenkins, Elisabeth Mason, Sarah Muche
The locus of enterocyte effacement is necessary for enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) to form attaching and effacing (A/E) lesions. A/E lesions are characterized by intimate bacterial adherence to intestinal cells and destruction of microvilli, which leads to diarrhea. Therefore, studies interrogating the regulation of the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) are critical for understanding the molecular epidemiology of EPEC infections and developing interventional strategies. Hitherto, most studies have centered on protein-based regulators, whereas the role of small regulatory RNAs remains underappreciated...
December 1, 2017: Microorganisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151781/molecular-epidemiology-of-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase-producing-escherichia-coli-pathotypes-in-diarrheal-children-from-low-socioeconomic-status-communities-in-bihar-india-emergence-of-the-ctx-m-type
#10
Abhishek Mandal, Abhishek Sengupta, Ajay Kumar, Utpal K Singh, Anil K Jaiswal, Pradeep Das, Sushmita Das
Background: Childhood diarrheal diseases remain highly endemic in India, but the emergence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli among children with diarrhea in Bihar remains elusive. In this study, we determine and characterize ESBL-producing E coli pathotypes among hospitalized diarrheal preschool children living in low socioeconomic level communities in Bihar, India. Materials and methods: The stool samples were collected everyday throughout the year for 2 consecutive years...
2017: Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142104/constraints-on-lateral-gene-transfer-in-promoting-fimbrial-usher-protein-diversity-and-function
#11
Christopher J Stubenrauch, Gordon Dougan, Trevor Lithgow, Eva Heinz
Fimbriae are long, adhesive structures widespread throughout members of the family Enterobacteriaceae. They are multimeric extrusions, which are moved out of the bacterial cell through an integral outer membrane protein called usher. The complex folding mechanics of the usher protein were recently revealed to be catalysed by the membrane-embedded translocation and assembly module (TAM). Here, we examine the diversity of usher proteins across a wide range of extraintestinal (ExPEC) and enteropathogenic (EPEC) Escherichia coli, and further focus on a so far undescribed chaperone-usher system, with this usher referred to as UshC...
November 2017: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135055/the-modulatory-role-of-cytokines-il-4-and-il-17-in-the-functional-activity-of-phagocytes-in-diabetic-pregnant-women
#12
Danny L G Fagundes, Eduardo L França, Michelangelo B Gonzatti, Marilza V C Rugde, Iracema M P Calderon, Adenilda C Honorio-França
The study investigated the role of cytokines IL-4 and IL-17 in the modulation of the functional activity of mononuclear phagocytes in diabetic pregnant women with hyperglycemia. Sixty pregnant women were assigned to the following groups: nondiabetic (ND), mild gestational hyperglycemia (MGH), gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), or type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2). The functional activity of phagocytes from maternal blood, cord blood, and colostrum was assessed by determining their superoxide release, phagocytosis, microbicidal activity, and intracellular Ca(2+) release...
November 14, 2017: APMIS: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, et Immunologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133155/a-prospective-study-of-travellers-diarrhoea-analysis-of-pathogen-findings-by-destination-in-various-sub-tropical-regions
#13
Tinja Lääveri, Katri Vilkman, Sari H Pakkanen, Juha Kirveskari, Anu Kantele
OBJECTIVES: Eighty million travellers visiting (sub)tropical regions contract travellers' diarrhoea (TD) each year, yet prospective data comparing the prevalence of TD pathogens in various geographical regions are scarce. Our recent study employing modern molecular methods found enteropathogenic (EPEC) and enteroaggregative (EAEC) Escherichia coli to be the most frequent pathogens, followed by enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) and Campylobacter. We revisited our data to compare the findings by geographical region...
November 10, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128404/milk-from-transgenic-goat-expressing-human-lysozyme-for-recovery-and-treatment-of-gastrointestinal-pathogens
#14
Igor de Sá Carneiro, José Nilson Rodrigues de Menezes, Julyana Almeida Maia, André Marrocos Miranda, Victor Bruno Soares de Oliveira, James D Murray, Elizabeth A Maga, Marcelo Bertolini, Luciana Relly Bertolini
Lysozyme is an important non-specific immune protein in human milk, modulating the immune response against bacterial infections. The aim of this study was to characterize the milk of a transgenic goat expressing a recombinant human lysozyme (rhLZ) in the milk, also testing the in vitro antibacterial activity of the rhLZ milk against pathogens of the gastrointestinal tract. Milk samples collected from Tg and non-transgenic goats (nTg) from the 3rd to the 11th week of lactation were submitted to physicochemical analyses, rhLZ semi-quantification, and to rhLZ antimicrobial activity against Micrococcus luteus, Shiguella sonnei and Enterococcus faecalis...
November 8, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118939/escherichia-coli-pathotypes-and-shigella-sero-groups-in-diarrheic-children-in-nairobi-city-kenya
#15
Peter Lokamar Nyanga, Jackson Onyuka, Mark Kilongosi Webale, Tom Were, Valentine Budambula
Aim: In the present study, we investigated the prevalence of E. coli pathotypes and Shigella sero-groups and their antimicrobial profiles among diarrheic children in Nairobi city, Kenya. Background: Although diarrheagenic E. coli pathotypes and Shigella sero-groups are leading causes of diarrhea in children under five years in developing countries, their distribution and antimicrobial resistance vary from place to place and over time in a given region. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, we enrolled diarrheic children (n=354) under five years seeking treatment at Mbagathi Hospital, Nairobi city, Kenya,...
2017: Gastroenterology and Hepatology From Bed to Bench
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110874/diarrheagenic-escherichia-coli-infections-among-the-children-of-andaman-islands-with-special-reference-to-pathotype-distribution-and-clinical-profile
#16
P Ramya Raghavan, Subarna Roy, Ramanathan Thamizhmani, Attayur Purushothaman Sugunan
Diarrhoeagenic E. coli (DEC) is one of the most common causes of diarrhoeal death in children less than five years globally. It is responsible for 30%-40% of all diarrhoeal episodes in developing countries. It is estimated that 0.12million children died of diarrhoea caused by DEC in 2011 globally. There is no baseline data on the occurrence of DEC diarrhoea in Andaman Islands, the remote islands of India. The study is particularly important as these strains are the emerging enteric pathogen in both developed and developing countries...
December 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093106/a-gastrointestinal-pcr-panel-improves-clinical-management-and-lowers-healthcare-costs
#17
Stacy G Beal, Elizabeth E Tremblay, Steven Toffel, Lymaries Velez, Kenneth H Rand
Conventional methods for identification of gastrointestinal pathogens are time consuming, expensive, and have limited sensitivity. The aim of this study was to determine the clinical impact of a comprehensive molecular test, the BioFire FilmArray® Gastrointestinal (GI) Panel which tests for many of the most common agents of infectious diarrhea in approximately one hour. Patients with stool cultures submitted were tested on the GI Panel (n=241) and were compared with control patients (n=594) from the year prior...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091261/the-mouse-model-of-infection-with-citrobacter-rodentium
#18
Nicolas Bouladoux, Oliver J Harrison, Yasmine Belkaid
Citrobacter rodentium is a murine mucosal pathogen used as a model to elucidate the molecular and cellular pathogenesis of infection with two clinically important human gastrointestinal pathogens, enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) and enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC). C. rodentium infection provides an excellent model to study different aspects of host-pathogen interaction in the gut, including intestinal inflammatory responses during bacteria-induced colitis, mucosal healing and epithelial repair, the induction of mucosal immune responses, and the role of the intestinal microbiota in mediating resistance to colonization by enteric pathogens...
November 1, 2017: Current Protocols in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29084270/attaching-and-effacing-a-e-lesion-formation-by-enteropathogenic-e-coli-on-human-intestinal-mucosa-is-dependent-on-non-lee-effectors
#19
Massiel Cepeda-Molero, Cedric N Berger, Alistair D S Walsham, Samuel J Ellis, Simon Wemyss-Holden, Stephanie Schüller, Gad Frankel, Luis Ángel Fernández
Enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) is a human pathogen that causes acute and chronic pediatric diarrhea. The hallmark of EPEC infection is the formation of attaching and effacing (A/E) lesions in the intestinal epithelium. Formation of A/E lesions is mediated by genes located on the pathogenicity island locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE), which encode the adhesin intimin, a type III secretion system (T3SS) and six effectors, including the essential translocated intimin receptor (Tir). Seventeen additional effectors are encoded by genes located outside the LEE, in insertion elements and prophages...
October 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077065/glycomacropeptide-reduces-intestinal-epithelial-cell-barrier-dysfunction-and-adhesion-of-entero-hemorrhagic-and-entero-pathogenic-escherichia-coli-in-vitro
#20
Shane Feeney, Joseph Thomas Ryan, Michelle Kilcoyne, Lokesh Joshi, Rita Hickey
In recent years, the potential of glycosylated food components to positively influence health has received considerable attention. Milk is a rich source of biologically active glycoconjugates which are associated with antimicrobial, immunomodulatory, anti-adhesion, anti-inflammatory and prebiotic properties. Glycomacropeptide (GMP) is the C-terminal portion of kappa-casein that is released from whey during cheese-making by the action of chymosin. Many of the biological properties associated with GMP, such as anti-adhesion, have been linked with the carbohydrate portion of the protein...
October 27, 2017: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
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