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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225586/multicolor-electrochromic-devices-based-on-molecular-plasmonics
#1
Grant J Stec, Adam Lauchner, Yao Cui, Peter Nordlander, Naomi J Halas
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules, the hydrogen-terminated, subnanometer scale version of graphene, support plasmon resonances with the addition or removal of a single electron. Typically colorless when neutral, they are transformed into vivid optical absorbers in either their positively or negatively charged states. Here we demonstrate a low-voltage, multistate electrochromic device based on PAH plasmon resonances that can be reversibly switched between nearly colorless (0 V), olive (+4 V), and royal blue (-3...
February 22, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224115/the-escherichia-coli-serogroup-o1-and-o2-lipopolysaccharides-are-encoded-by-multiple-o-antigen-gene-clusters
#2
Sabine Delannoy, Lothar Beutin, Patricia Mariani-Kurkdjian, Aubin Fleiss, Stéphane Bonacorsi, Patrick Fach
Escherichia coli strains belonging to serogroups O1 and O2 are frequently associated with human infections, especially extra-intestinal infections such as bloodstream infections or urinary tract infections. These strains can be associated with a large array of flagellar antigens. Because of their frequency and clinical importance, a reliable detection of E. coli O1 and O2 strains and also the frequently associated K1 capsule is important for diagnosis and source attribution of E. coli infections in humans and animals...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221970/genomic-tools-for-customized-recovery-and-detection-of-foodborne-shiga-toxigenic-escherichia-coli
#3
Michael Knowles, Sara Stinson, Dominic Lambert, Catherine Carrillo, Adam Koziol, Martine Gauthier, Burton Blais
Genomic antimicrobial resistance (AMR) prediction tools have the potential to support foodborne illness outbreak investigations through their application in the analysis of bacterial genomes from causative strains. The AMR marker profile of a strain of interest, initially identified in outbreak-associated clinical samples, may serve as the basis for customization of selective enrichment media, facilitating its recovery from samples in a food safety investigation. Different possibilities for AMR analyses include the use of comprehensive AMR gene databases such as the Comprehensive Antibiotic Resistance Database, which can be mined with in-house bioinformatics alignment tools (e...
December 2016: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221953/comparative-evaluation-of-genomic-and-laboratory-approaches-for-determination-of-shiga-toxin-subtypes-in-escherichia-coli
#4
Catherine D Carrillo, Adam G Koziol, Amit Mathews, Noriko Goji, Dominic Lambert, George Huszczynski, Martine Gauthier, Kingsley Amoako, Burton W Blais
The determination of Shiga toxin (ST) subtypes can be an important element in the risk characterization of foodborne ST-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) isolates for making risk management decisions. ST subtyping methods include PCR techniques based on electrophoretic or pyrosequencing analysis of amplicons and in silico techniques based on whole genome sequence analysis using algorithms that can be readily incorporated into bioinformatics analysis pipelines for characterization of isolates by their genetic composition...
December 2016: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221928/rapid-identification-of-shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli-o-serogroups-from-fresh-produce-and-raw-milk-enrichment-cultures-by-luminex-bead-based-suspension-array
#5
Julie A Kase, Anna Maounounen-Laasri, Andrew Lin
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Bacteriological Analytical Manual (BAM) Chapter 4a describes a Luminex microbead-based suspension array used to screen colonies for 11 clinically relevant Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) serogroups: O26, O45, O91, O103, O104, O111, O113, O121, O128, O145, and O157. We evaluated the usefulness of this method to identify STEC-positive enrichment samples before agar plating. Twelve E. coli strains were added to three types of fresh produce (bagged baby spinach, alfalfa sprouts, and cilantro) at levels near the detection limit of the test...
September 2016: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221921/national-survey-of-shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli-serotypes-o26-o45-o103-o111-o121-o145-and-o157-in-australian-beef-cattle-feces
#6
Glen E Mellor, Narelle Fegan, Lesley L Duffy, Kate E McMILLAN, David Jordan, Robert S Barlow
Escherichia coli O157 and six non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) serotypes (O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145, colloquially referred to as the "big 6") have been classified as adulterants of raw nonintact beef products in the United States. While beef cattle are a known reservoir for the prototype STEC serotype, E. coli O157, less is known about the dissemination of non-O157 STEC serotypes in Australian cattle. In the present study, 1,500 fecal samples were collected at slaughter from adult (n =628) and young (n =286) beef cattle, adult (n =128) and young (n =143) dairy cattle, and veal calves (n = 315) across 31 Australian export-registered processing establishments...
November 2016: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221870/bovine-leukemia-virus-and-mycobacterium-avium-subsp-paratuberculosis-are-not-associated-with-shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli-shedding-in-cattle
#7
Cristina Venegas-Vargas, Shannon D Manning, Paul M Coussens, Jonathan A Roussey, Paul Bartlett, Daniel Grooms
Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is a retrovirus that causes enzootic bovine leukosis in cattle, and Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the etiologic agent of Johne's disease in cattle. Both diseases are chronic in nature and can lead to the disruption of normal immunological or physiological processes. Cattle are the major reservoir of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), a cause of foodborne illness in humans. We tested the hypothesis that cattle infected with BLV or MAP are more likely to shed STEC...
January 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221838/use-of-the-escherichia-coli-identification-microarray-for-characterizing-the-health-risks-of-shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli-isolated-from-foods
#8
David W Lacher, Jayanthi Gangiredla, Isha Patel, Christopher A Elkins, Peter C H Feng
More than 470 serotypes of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) have been identified, but not all cause severe illness in humans. Most STEC that cause severe diseases can adhere to epithelial cells, produce specific stx subtypes, and belong to certain serotypes; therefore, these traits appear to be critical STEC risk factors. However, testing for these traits is labor intensive, and serotyping is inadequate because of extensive variations among E. coli O and H antigen types. In the present study, the E...
October 2016: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213899/human-influence-and-biotic-homogenization-drive-the-distribution-of-escherichia-coli-virulence-genes-in-natural-habitats
#9
Adriana Cabal, Joaquin Vicente, Julio Alvarez, Jose Angel Barasona, Mariana Boadella, Lucas Dominguez, Christian Gortazar
Cattle are the main reservoirs for Shiga-toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), the only known zoonotic intestinal E. coli pathotype. However, there are other intestinal pathotypes that can cause disease in humans, whose presence has been seldom investigated. Thus, our aim was to identify the effects of anthropic pressure and of wild and domestic ungulate abundance on the distribution and diversity of the main human E. coli pathotypes and nine of their representative virulence genes (VGs). We used a quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) for the direct detection and quantification of the genus-specific gene uidA, nine E...
February 18, 2017: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207308/prevalence-of-listeria-monocytogenes-in-retail-lightly-pickled-vegetables-and-its-successful-control-at-processing-plants
#10
Masumi Taguchi, Masashi Kanki, Yuko Yamaguchi, Hideichi Inamura, Yosuke Koganei, Tetsuya Sano, Hiromi Nakamura, Hiroshi Asakura
Incidences of food poisoning traced to nonanimal food products have been increasingly reported. One of these was a recent large outbreak of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157 infection from the consumption of lightly pickled vegetables, indicating the necessity of imposing hygienic controls during manufacturing. However, little is known about the bacterial contamination levels in these minimally processed vegetables. Here we examined the prevalence of STEC, Salmonella spp., and Listeria monocytogenes in 100 lightly pickled vegetable products manufactured at 55 processing factories...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207302/characteristics-of-shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli-o157-in-slaughtered-reindeer-from-northern-finland
#11
Claudio Zweifel, Lisa Fierz, Nicole Cernela, Sauli Laaksonen, Maria Fredriksson-Ahomaa, Roger Stephan
Fecal samples collected from 470 slaughtered reindeer 6 to 7 months of age were screened by real-time PCR (after enrichment) for Shiga toxin genes (stx) and then for Escherichia coli serogroup O157. Shiga toxin genes were found frequently (>30% of samples), and serogroup O157 was detected in 20% of the stx-positive samples. From these samples, a total of 25 E. coli O157:H(-) isolates (nonmotile but PCR positive for fliCH7) were obtained. Twenty-four of these E. coli O157:H(-) isolates did not ferment sorbitol and originated from one geographic area...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199145/characterization-and-virulence-potential-of-serogroup-o113-shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli-strains-isolated-from-beef-and-cattle-in-the-united-states
#12
Peter Feng, Sabine Delannoy, David W Lacher, Joseph M Bosilevac, Patrick Fach
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) of serotype O113:H21 have caused severe diseases but are unusual in that they do not produce the intimin protein required for adherence to intestinal epithelial cells. Strains of serogroup O113 are one of the most common STEC found in ground beef and beef products in the United States, but their virulence potential is unknown. We used a microarray to characterize 65 O113 strains isolated in the United States from ground beef, beef trim, cattle feces, and fresh spinach...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191041/comparative-genomic-analysis-of-shiga-toxin-producing-and-non-shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli-o157-isolated-from-outbreaks-in-korea
#13
Taesoo Kwon, Won Kim, Seung-Hak Cho
BACKGROUND: The Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157 strain NCCP15739 and non-STEC O157 strain NCCP15738 were isolated from outbreaks in Korea. We characterized NCCP15739 and NCCP15738 by genome sequencing and a comparative genomic analysis using two additional strains, E. coli K-12 substr. MG1655 and O157:H7 EDL933. RESULTS: Using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform and the RAST server, the whole genomes of NCCP15739 and NCCP15738 were obtained and annotated...
2017: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28180952/endothelial-dysfunction-during-long-term-follow-up-in-children-with-stec-hemolytic-uremic-syndrome
#14
Martin Kreuzer, Laura Sollmann, Stephan Ruben, Maren Leifheit-Nestler, Dagmar-Christiane Fischer, Lars Pape, Dieter Haffner
BACKGROUND: Shiga-toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC)-associated hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) is a major cause of acute kidney injury (AKI), especially in children. Its long-term outcome with respect to endothelial damage remains largely elusive. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study in 26 children who had suffered from STEC-HUS in the past and achieved a complete recovery of renal function (eGFR >90 ml/min/1.73 m(2)). Skin microcirculation after local heating was assessed by laser Doppler fluximetry, carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV), carotid intima media thickness (cIMT), 24-h ambulatory blood pressure, and angiopoietin (Ang) 1 and 2 serum levels after a median follow-up period of 6...
February 8, 2017: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161846/genotypic-analysis-of-virulence-genes-and-antimicrobial-profile-of-diarrheagenic-escherichia-coli-isolated-from-diseased-lambs-in-iran
#15
Reza Ghanbarpour, Nasrin Askari, Masoud Ghorbanpour, Yahya Tahamtan, Khoobyar Mashayekhi, Narjes Afsharipour, Nasim Darijani
The aim of the present study was to determine the analysis of virulence genes and antimicrobial profile of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli isolated from diseased lambs. Two hundred ninety E. coli isolates were recovered from 300 rectal swabs of diarrheic lambs and were confirmed by biochemical tests. The pathotype determination was done according to the presence of genes including f5, f41, LTI, STI, bfp, ipaH, stx 1 , stx 2 , eae, ehlyA, cnf 1 , cnf 2 , cdIII, cdIV, and f17 by PCR method. Sixty-six isolates (23...
February 4, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157555/release-of-volatile-and-semi-volatile-toxicants-during-house-fires
#16
Fiona Hewitt, Antonis Christou, Kathryn Dickens, Richard Walker, Anna A Stec
Qualitative results are presented from analysis of volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds (VOCs/SVOCs) obtained through sampling of gaseous effluent and condensed particulates during a series of experimental house fires conducted in a real house. Particular emphasis is given to the 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) listed by the Environmental Protection Agency due to their potentially carcinogenic effects. The initial fuel packages were either cooking oil or a single sofa; these were burned both alone, and in furnished surroundings...
December 27, 2016: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150898/biofilm-formation-invasiveness-and-colicinogeny-in-locus-of-enterocyte-and-effacement-negative-o113-h21-shigatoxigenic-escherichia-coli
#17
Luís Fernando Dos Santos, Franciele Tafarello Biscola, Evanilde Maria Gonçalves, Beatriz Ernestina Cabílio Guth
AIMS: Although Shiga toxins (Stx) are well established virulence traits of O113:H21 Shigatoxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC) strains, a shortage in the knowledge of other virulence properties that may contribute to pathogenesis may exist in this serotype. This study investigated biofilm, invasiveness and colicinogeny capabilities in O113:H21 STEC isolated in Brazil, mostly from animal reservoirs. A search for genes which were reported to participate in the process of biofilm formation was also performed...
February 2, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145027/improved-porcine-model-for-shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli-infection-by-deprivation-of-colostrum-feeding-in-newborn-piglets
#18
Toshio Sato, Takashi Hamabata, Eiji Takita, Takeshi Matsui, Kazutoshi Sawada, Taishi Imaoka, Nobuo Nakanishi, Keizo Nakayama, Takamitsu Tsukahara
Porcine edema disease (ED) is a toxemia caused by enteric infection with Shiga toxin 2e (Stx2e)-producing Escherichia coli (STEC). ED occurs most frequently during the weaning period and is manifested as emaciation associated with high mortality. In our experimental infection with a specific STEC strain, we failed to cause the suppression of weight gain in piglets, which is a typical symptom of ED, in two consecutive experiments. Therefore, we examined the effects of deprivation of colostrum on the sensitivity of newborn piglets to STEC infection...
February 1, 2017: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137189/heat-killed-cell-preparation-of-corynebacterium-glutamicum-stimulates-the-immune-activity-and-improves-survival-of-mice-against-enterohemorrhagic-escherichia-coli
#19
Makoto Ebisawa, Takamitsu Tsukahara, Ryosuke Fudou, Yasuhiro Ohta, Mitsunori Tokura, Norimasa Onishi, Takeshi Fujieda
Fermentation by Corynebacterium glutamicum is used by various industries to produce L-Glutamate, and the heat-killed cell preparation of this bacterium (HCCG) is a by-product of the fermentation process. In present study, we evaluated the immunostimulating and survival effects against enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (STEC) infection of HCCG. HCCG significantly stimulated in vitro IgA and interleukin-12 p70 production in murine Peyer's patch cells and peritoneal macrophages, respectively. Oral administration of 10 mg/kg body weight (BW) of HCCG for seven consecutive days stimulated IgA concentration in murine cecal digesta...
January 30, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127846/population-and-evolutionary-dynamics-of-shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli-o157-in-a-beef-herd-a-longitudinal-study
#20
Meghan Jones, Sophie Octavia, Geraldine Lammers, Jane Heller, Ruiting Lan
Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 (STEC O157) is naturally found in the gastrointestinal tract of cattle and can cause severe disease in humans. There is limited understanding of the population dynamics and microevolution of STEC O157 at herd level. In this study, isolates from a closed beef herd of 23 cows were used to examine the population turnover in the herd. Of the nine STEC O157 clades previously described, clade 7 was found in 162 of the 169 isolates typed. Multiple locus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) analysis differentiated 169 isolates into 33 unique MLVA types...
January 27, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
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