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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648240/eventual-sport-performance-level-what-about-the-role-of-type-of-sport-perception-of-critical-life-events-and-practice-quality
#1
Tynke Toering
The target article describes an interesting study, which provides some challenging findings regarding athletes' pathway to excellence. The suggested links between critical life events, need for success, personal characteristics, and eventual performance level make sense from a psychodynamic perspective. This commentary will discuss some critical points related to the application of the findings in talent identification and -development programs. These are (1) the possible effect of the selection of participants on the results (including the impact of dependence on others for team sport athletes and the opportunity for multiple medal attainment), (2) a lack of detail in the description of how the athletes approached the critical life events (the perception of an event may contribute more to development than the event itself), and (3) a lack of detail in the description of the practice process throughout development...
2017: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645893/introductory-biology-students-use-of-enhanced-answer-keys-and-reflection-questions-to-engage-in-metacognition-and-enhance-understanding
#2
Jaime L Sabel, Joseph T Dauer, Cory T Forbes
Providing feedback to students as they learn to integrate individual concepts into complex systems is an important way to help them to develop robust understanding, but it is challenging in large, undergraduate classes for instructors to provide feedback that is frequent and directed enough to help individual students. Various scaffolds can be used to help students engage in self-regulated learning and generate internal feedback to improve their learning. This study examined the use of enhanced answer keys with added reflection questions and instruction as scaffolds for engaging undergraduate students in self-regulated learning within an introductory biology course...
2017: CBE Life Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634460/children-s-self-regulation-in-cultural-contexts-the-role-of-parental-socialization-theories-goals-and-practices
#3
REVIEW
Jorge M Jaramillo, María I Rendón, Lorena Muñoz, Mirjam Weis, Gisela Trommsdorff
Self-regulation is a complex multidimensional construct which has been approached mainly in Western cultural contexts. The present contribution examines the importance of considering the culture-sensitive nature of self-regulation by reviewing theory and research on the development of children's self-regulation in different cultural contexts. This review of theory and research allows to suggest that widely shared values in a cultural group influence parental socialization theories, goals, and practices, which in turn have an impact on how children learn to self-regulate, the forms of self-regulation they develop, and the goals associated with self-regulation...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630519/strategies-for-improving-learner-metacognition-in-health-professional-education
#4
REVIEW
Melissa S Medina, Ashley N Castleberry, Adam M Persky
Metacognition is an essential skill in critical thinking and self-regulated, lifelong learning. It is important for learners to have skills in metacognition because they are used to monitor and regulate reasoning, comprehension, and problem-solving, which are fundamental components/outcomes of pharmacy curricula. Instructors can help learners develop metacognitive skills within the classroom and experiential setting by carefully designing learning activities within courses and the curriculum. These skills are developed through intentional questioning, modeling techniques, and reflection...
May 2017: American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626441/teaching-improvisation-through-processes-applications-in-music-education-and-implications-for-general-education
#5
REVIEW
Michele Biasutti
Improvisation is an articulated multidimensional activity based on an extemporaneous creative performance. Practicing improvisation, participants expand sophisticated skills such as sensory and perceptual encoding, memory storage and recall, motor control, and performance monitoring. Improvisation abilities have been developed following several methodologies mainly with a product-oriented perspective. A model framed under the socio-cultural theory of learning for designing didactic activities on processes instead of outcomes is presented in the current paper...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626440/executive-function-in-adolescence-associations-with-child-and-family-risk-factors-and-self-regulation-in-early-childhood
#6
Donna Berthelsen, Nicole Hayes, Sonia L J White, Kate E Williams
Executive functions are important higher-order cognitive skills for goal-directed thought and action. These capacities contribute to successful school achievement and lifelong wellbeing. The importance of executive functions to children's education begins in early childhood and continues throughout development. This study explores contributions of child and family factors in early childhood to the development of executive function in adolescence. Analyses draw on data from the nationally representative study, Growing up in Australia: The Longitudinal Study of Australian Children...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605209/pacing-and-self-regulation-important-skills-for-talent-development-in-endurance-sports
#7
Marije T Elferink-Gemser, Florentina J Hettinga
Pacing has been characterized as a multi-faceted goal-directed process of decision-making in which athletes need to decide how and when to invest their energy during the race, a process essential for optimal performance. Both physiological as well as psychological characteristics associated with adequate pacing and performance are known to develop with age. Consequently, the multi-faceted skill of pacing might be under construction throughout adolescence as well. Therefore, we propose that the complex skill of pacing is a potential important performance characteristic for talented youth athletes, that needs to be developed throughout adolescence...
June 12, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604013/improving-self-regulated-learning-with-a-retrieval-practice-intervention
#8
Robert Ariel, Jeffrey D Karpicke
Repeated retrieval practice is a powerful learning tool for promoting long-term retention, but students use this tool ineffectively when regulating their learning. The current experiments evaluated the efficacy of a minimal intervention aimed at improving students' self-regulated use of repeated retrieval practice. Across 2 experiments, students made decisions about when to study, engage in retrieval practice, or stop learning a set of foreign language word pairs. Some students received direct instruction about how to use repeated retrieval practice...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603848/how-restudy-decisions-affect-overall-comprehension-for-seventh-grade-students
#9
Keith W Thiede, Joshua S Redford, Jennifer Wiley, Thomas D Griffin
BACKGROUND: Self-regulated learning requires accurate monitoring and effective regulation of study. Little is known about how effectively younger readers regulate their study. AIMS: We examined how decisions about which text to restudy affect overall comprehension for seventh-grade students. In addition to a Participant's Choice condition where students were allowed to pick texts for restudy on their own, we compared learning gains in two other conditions in which texts were selected for them...
June 12, 2017: British Journal of Educational Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603612/exposure-to-the-drug-company-marketing-in-greece-interactions-and-attitudes-in-a-non-regulated-environment-for-medical-students
#10
Magdalini Filippiadou, Dimitrios Kouvelas, Georgios Garyfallos, Ioannis Tsakiridis, Dimitrios Tzachanis, Dimitrios Spachos, Georgios Papazisis
BACKGROUND: Medical students are targeted by the pharmaceutical industry and are exposed to their marketing strategies even in the preclinical years of study. The marketing strategies used by pharmaceutical companies with physicians are also applied to students, affecting their future prescribing behaviour, and include low-cost non-educational gifts, travel expenses and conferences registration fees. In Greece, there are no national or institutional regulations and guidelines concerning drug company-medical student interactions...
July 2017: Annals of Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600264/generalized-self-organizing-maps-for-automatic-determination-of-the-number-of-clusters-and-their-multiprototypes-in-cluster-analysis
#11
Marian B Gorzalczany, Filip Rudzinski
This paper presents a generalization of self-organizing maps with 1-D neighborhoods (neuron chains) that can be effectively applied to complex cluster analysis problems. The essence of the generalization consists in introducing mechanisms that allow the neuron chain--during learning--to disconnect into subchains, to reconnect some of the subchains again, and to dynamically regulate the overall number of neurons in the system. These features enable the network--working in a fully unsupervised way (i.e., using unlabeled data without a predefined number of clusters)--to automatically generate collections of multiprototypes that are able to represent a broad range of clusters in data sets...
June 7, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548461/attending-learning-and-socioeconomic-disadvantage-developmental-cognitive-and-social-neuroscience-of-resilience-and-vulnerability
#12
REVIEW
Kylie Schibli, Kyle Wong, Nina Hedayati, Amedeo D'Angiulli
We review current findings associating socioeconomic status (SES), development of neurocognitive functions, and neurobiological pathways. A sizeable interdisciplinary literature was organized through a bifurcated developmental trajectory (BiDeT) framework, an account of the external and internal variables associated with low SES that may lead to difficulties with attention and learning, along with buffers that may protect against negative outcomes. A consistent neurocognitive finding is that low-SES children attend to information nonselectively, and engage in late filtering out of task-irrelevant information...
May 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541186/distributed-patterns-of-brain-activity-underlying-real-time-fmri-neurofeedback-training
#13
Rotem Kopel, Kirsten Emmert, Frank Scharnowski, Sven Haller, Dimitri Van De Ville
Neurofeedback (NF) based on real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (rt-fMRI) is an exciting neuroimaging application. In most rt-fMRI NF studies, the activity level of a single region of interest (ROI) is provided as a feedback signal and the participants are trained to up or down regulate the feedback signal. NF training effects are typically analyzed using a confirmatory univariate approach, i.e., changes in the target ROI are explained by a univariate linear modulation. However, learning to self-regulate the ROI activity through NF is mediated by distributed changes across the brain...
June 2017: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529806/increased-alpha-rhythm-dynamic-range-promotes-recovery-from-visuospatial-neglect-a-neurofeedback-study
#14
Tomas Ros, Abele Michela, Anne Bellman, Philippe Vuadens, Arnaud Saj, Patrik Vuilleumier
Despite recent attempts to use electroencephalogram (EEG) neurofeedback (NFB) as a tool for rehabilitation of motor stroke, its potential for improving neurological impairments of attention-such as visuospatial neglect-remains underexplored. It is also unclear to what extent changes in cortical oscillations contribute to the pathophysiology of neglect, or its recovery. Utilizing EEG-NFB, we sought to causally manipulate alpha oscillations in 5 right-hemisphere stroke patients in order to explore their role in visuospatial neglect...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521573/students-motivation-toward-feedback-seeking-in-the-clinical-workplace
#15
Lubberta H de Jong, Robert P Favier, Cees P M van der Vleuten, Harold G J Bok
In medical education, students are increasingly regarded as active seekers of feedback rather than passive recipients. Previous research showed that in the intentions of students to seek feedback, a learning and performance goal can be distinguished. In this study, we investigated the intentions (defined as level and orientation of motivation) of different performing students (low, average, and high performing students) to seek feedback in the clinical workplace using Self-Determination Theory. We conducted a quantitative study with students in their clinical clerkships and grouped them based on their performance...
May 19, 2017: Medical Teacher
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503157/a-review-of-self-regulated-learning-six-models-and-four-directions-for-research
#16
REVIEW
Ernesto Panadero
Self-regulated learning (SRL) includes the cognitive, metacognitive, behavioral, motivational, and emotional/affective aspects of learning. It is, therefore, an extraordinary umbrella under which a considerable number of variables that influence learning (e.g., self-efficacy, volition, cognitive strategies) are studied within a comprehensive and holistic approach. For that reason, SRL has become one of the most important areas of research within educational psychology. In this paper, six models of SRL are analyzed and compared; that is, Zimmerman; Boekaerts; Winne and Hadwin; Pintrich; Efklides; and Hadwin, Järvelä and Miller...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498982/using-self-assessment-to-develop-metacognition-and-self-regulated-learners
#17
Amy Siegesmund
Student success is too often challenged by a lack of metacognition and ability to self-regulate learning. This commentary argues that the use of self-assessment to increase student metacognition positively impacts student learning and self-regulation. In addition, several strategies for incorporating self-assessment will be presented.
June 15, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495935/metacognition-in-upper-division-biology-students-awareness-does-not-always-lead-to-control
#18
Kathryn Morris Dye, Julie Dangremond Stanton
Students with awareness and control of their own thinking can learn more and perform better than students who are not metacognitive. Metacognitive regulation is how you control your thinking in order to learn. It includes the skill of evaluation, which is the ability to appraise your approaches to learning and then modify future plans based on those appraisals. We asked when, why, and how upper-division biology students evaluated their approaches to learning. We used self-evaluation assignments to identify students with potentially high metacognition and conducted semistructured interviews to collect rich qualitative data from them...
2017: CBE Life Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495934/how-should-i-study-for-the-exam-self-regulated-learning-strategies-and-achievement-in-introductory-biology
#19
Amanda J Sebesta, Elena Bray Speth
In college introductory science courses, students are challenged with mastering large amounts of disciplinary content while developing as autonomous and effective learners. Self-regulated learning (SRL) is the process of setting learning goals, monitoring progress toward them, and applying appropriate study strategies. SRL characterizes successful, "expert" learners, and develops with time and practice. In a large, undergraduate introductory biology course, we investigated: 1) what SRL strategies students reported using the most when studying for exams, 2) which strategies were associated with higher achievement and with grade improvement on exams, and 3) what study approaches students proposed to use for future exams...
2017: CBE Life Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489192/a-new-approach-to-feed-frequency-studies-and-protein-intake-regulation-in-juvenile-pirarucu
#20
Bruno O DE Mattos, Eduardo C T Nascimento, Aline A Santos, Kayck A Barreto, Francisco J Sánchez-Vázquez, Rodrigo Fortes-Silva
This study aimed to investigate pirarucu's (Arapaima gigas) ability to trigger a self-feeding system to regulate protein intake between two standard diets that contained 39% and 49% of crude protein. The same system allowed the evaluation of daily feeding and locomotor activity rhythms. Eighteen fish (654.44±26.85g) were distributed into six 250 L tanks (3 fish/tank). Fish had free access to both diets (39% vs. 49% protein) by feeders (2 per tank), adapted to be activated by fish themselves. This system was connected to a computer system...
April 27, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
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