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self regulated learning

Paul T Cirino, Yusra Ahmed, Jeremy Miciak, W Pat Taylor, Elyssa H Gerst, Marcia A Barnes
OBJECTIVE: Executive function (EF) is a commonly used but difficult to operationalize construct. In this study, we considered EF and related components as they are commonly presented in the neuropsychological literature, as well as the literatures of developmental, educational, and cognitive psychology. These components have not previously been examined simultaneously, particularly with this level of comprehensiveness, and/or at this age range or with this sample size. We expected that the EF components would be separate but related, and that a bifactor model would best represent the data relative to alternative models...
February 2018: Neuropsychology
Veni Kandasamy, Ashley H Hirai, Reem M Ghandour, Michael D Kogan
OBJECTIVE: Flourishing reflects positive mental health and thriving and is important for children's development and well-being. Few national studies of flourishing among school-aged children exist. Exposure to socioeconomic disadvantage is negatively associated with social and health outcomes, including flourishing. This analysis describes independent associations of the child, family, school, and neighborhood factors with flourishing, which we hypothesized may contribute to sociodemographic disparities...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
Richard J Stevenson, Heather M Francis, Megan J Oaten, Rebecca Schilt
The hippocampus is involved in interoceptive processing (i.e., perceiving internal bodily states), with much of this evidence relating to hunger and fullness. Here we examine whether cardiac and self-report measures of interoception are related to two measures of hippocampal dependent learning and memory (HDLM) - the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) and Logical Memory. Healthy adults completed a neuropsychological test battery including all of these measures, along with assessments of intelligence and executive function...
March 2, 2018: Brain and Cognition
Richard Stansfield
BACKGROUND: Religious beliefs and practices have been shown to have some association with desistance from offending, as have cognitive processes, including emotion regulation, self-control, reasoning, learning, and empathy. Religious behaviours may, however, be moderated or mediated by cognitive abilities, but few studies take this into account. AIM: The aim of this study was to assess the role of cognitive ability in any relationship between religious beliefs and behaviours and desistance from substance use among adolescents...
March 1, 2018: Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health: CBMH
Barry Sheehan, Finbarr Murphy, Martin Mullins, Irini Furxhi, Anna L Costa, Felice C Simeone, Paride Mantecca
Hazard identification is the key step in risk assessment and management of manufactured nanomaterials (NM). However, the rapid commercialisation of nano-enabled products continues to out-pace the development of a prudent risk management mechanism that is widely accepted by the scientific community and enforced by regulators. However, a growing body of academic literature is developing promising quantitative methods. Two approaches have gained significant currency. Bayesian networks (BN) are a probabilistic, machine learning approach while the weight of evidence (WoE) statistical framework is based on expert elicitation...
February 25, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Olle Ten Cate, Larry D Gruppen, Jennifer R Kogan, Lorelei A Lingard, Pim W Teunissen
The introduction of competency-based medical education has shifted thinking from a fixed-time model to one stressing attained competencies, independent of the time needed to arrive at those competencies. In this article, the authors explore theoretical and conceptual issues related to time variability in medical training, starting with the Carroll model from the 1960s that put time in the equation of learning. They discuss mastery learning, deliberate practice, and learning curves.While such behaviorist theories apply well to structured courses and highly structured training settings, learning in the clinical workplace is not well captured in such theories or in the model that Carroll proposed...
March 2018: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
Carola Grunschel, Justine Patrzek, Katrin B Klingsieck, Stefan Fries
Academic procrastination is considered to be a result of self-regulation failure having detrimental effects on students' well-being and academic performance. In the present study, we developed and evaluated a group training that aimed to reduce academic procrastination. We based the training on a cyclical process model of self-regulated learning, thus, focusing on improving deficient processes of self-regulated learning among academic procrastinators (e.g., time management, dealing with distractions). The training comprised five sessions and took place once a week for 90 min in groups of no more than 10 students...
April 2018: Journal of Prevention & Intervention in the Community
Shlomo Zacks, Meirav Hen
Procrastination is a widespread phenomenon in academic settings. It has been studied from many different theoretical angles, and a variety of causes and consequences have been suggested. Recent studies support the notion that academic procrastination can be seen from a situational perspective and as a failure in learning self-regulation. It suggests that interventions should address situational as well as deficits in self-regulation to help students overcome their procrastinating tendencies. The present review examined the recent literature on causes and consequences of academic procrastination and the limited number of studies of academic interventions for academic procrastination...
April 2018: Journal of Prevention & Intervention in the Community
Darunee Rujkorakarn, Supatra Buatee, Surada Jundeekrayom, Andrew C Mills
In the rural villages of Thailand, rich social support networks exist that bond the community members to help each other. This study explored the barriers and facilitators of living with schizophrenia in Thai villages. A descriptive qualitative study was conducted using semi-structured interviews with individuals with schizophrenia, family members, and significant others. Content analysis of transcripts involved examining the data, recording observations, data reduction, and coding themes. Four main themes emerged from the narratives: (i) keep doing day-to-day activities as a way of life; (ii) support sustains day-to-day living; (iii) controlling medication side effects maintains daily living; and (iv) managing self maintains daily living...
February 27, 2018: International Journal of Mental Health Nursing
Russell S Kabir, Yutaka Haramaki, Hyeyoung Ki, Hiroyuki Ohno
Relaxation programs are known for their versatility, cost-effectiveness, and ability to help people obtain skills to regulate their mental states and promote and maintain health. Self-Active Relaxation Therapy (SART) is a body-oriented approach to psychological rehabilitation that grew out of the suite of movement tasks developed in the Japanese psychotherapy known as Dohsa-hou , or the body movement method. The program for SART is designed to stretch, twist, and release areas of the upper, lower, and whole body through a set of movements which are guided by the practitioner and performed "self-actively" by the client to empower them to learn to recognize points of tension in the body and act on their own to achieve a relaxed state...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Fatemeh Mokhtari, W Jack Rejeski, Yingying Zhu, Guorong Wu, Sean L Simpson, Jonathan H Burdette, Paul J Laurienti
More than one-third of adults in the United States are obese, with a higher prevalence among older adults. Obesity among older adults is a major cause of physical dysfunction, hypertension, diabetes, and coronary heart diseases. Many people who engage in lifestyle weight loss interventions fail to reach targeted goals for weight loss, and most will regain what was lost within 1-2 years following cessation of treatment. This variability in treatment efficacy suggests that there are important phenotypes predictive of success with intentional weight loss that could lead to tailored treatment regimen, an idea that is consistent with the concept of precision-based medicine...
February 19, 2018: NeuroImage
Brooke Donnelly, Stephen Touyz, Phillipa Hay, Amy Burton, Janice Russell, Ian Caterson
Objective: In recent decades there has been growing interest in the use of neuroimaging techniques to explore the structural and functional brain changes that take place in those with eating disorders. However, to date, the majority of research has focused on patients with anorexia nervosa. This systematic review addresses a gap in the literature by providing an examination of the published literature on the neurobiology of individuals who binge eat; specifically, individuals with bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge eating disorder (BED)...
2018: Journal of Eating Disorders
Nutmeg Hallett
Patients exhibiting challenging behaviour, which includes any non-verbal, verbal or physical behaviour, is a significant issue in healthcare settings. Preventing such behaviour and the harm it can cause is important for healthcare organisations and individuals, and involves following a public health model comprised of three tiers: primary, secondary and tertiary prevention. Primary prevention aims to reduce the risk of challenging behaviour occurring in the first instance; secondary prevention involves reducing the risk associated with imminent challenging behaviour and its potential escalation; and tertiary prevention focuses on minimising the physical and emotional harm caused by challenging behaviours, during and after an event...
February 21, 2018: Nursing Standard
Dganit Sharon, Keren Grinberg
BACKGROUND: Emotional intelligence (EI) reflects the general capacity to comprehend emotions (in ourselves and in others), to regulate emotions, and to cope effectively with emotional situations. The study program in nursing is varied, and includes theoretical and practical aspects, but teaching EI is not part of the core curriculum. We argue that teaching EI should not only be included in the curriculum, but that EI tests should be included in the admissions process. OBJECTIVE: This study reviews the relationship between EI level and the degree of success in nursing studies, and its importance...
February 7, 2018: Nurse Education Today
Yen Ting Lin, Peter G Hufton, Esther J Lee, Davit A Potoyan
Pluripotent embryonic stem cells are of paramount importance for biomedical sciences because of their innate ability for self-renewal and differentiation into all major cell lines. The fateful decision to exit or remain in the pluripotent state is regulated by complex genetic regulatory networks. The rapid growth of single-cell sequencing data has greatly stimulated applications of statistical and machine learning methods for inferring topologies of pluripotency regulating genetic networks. The inferred network topologies, however, often only encode Boolean information while remaining silent about the roles of dynamics and molecular stochasticity inherent in gene expression...
February 16, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
Joseph E M van Agteren, Sharon Lawn, Billie Bonevski, Brian J Smith
Currently, the evidence for mobile health (mHealth) smoking cessation interventions is limited and heterogeneous, warranting the need for innovative rigorously developed solutions. The aim of this study was to describe the development of a smoking cessation smartphone application (app) developed using evidence-based principles. The app ( was designed using the Intervention Mapping framework, incorporating an extensive literature review and qualitative study, in combination with the Behavioural Change Taxonomy v1, the Theoretical Domains Framework, and the Persuasive System Design framework...
February 13, 2018: Translational Behavioral Medicine
Hale Z Toklu, Jacklyn C Fuller
Scholarly activities (i.e., the discovery of new knowledge; development of new technologies, methods, materials, or uses; integration of knowledge leading to new understanding) are intended to measure the quality and quantity of dissemination of knowledge. A successful mentorship program is necessary during residency to help residents achieve the six core competencies (patient care, medical knowledge, practice-based learning and improvement, systems-based practice, professionalism, interpersonal and communication skills) required by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME)...
December 5, 2017: Curēus
John Sandars, Rakesh Patel
The intention of personalized teaching and learning to improve clinical performance is the optimization of individual performance across a variety of tasks in different environments. Educational interventions need to have a focus on the assessment and feedback of both outcome and process of performance. An essential component of the assessment and feedback on the process of performance is how 'the will' and 'the skill' are dynamically adapted by the individual through self-regulated learning processes. Microanalysis can identify the key self-regulated learning processes and the findings used to inform self-regulated learning enhanced feedback for personalized teaching and learning...
February 2, 2018: British Journal of Hospital Medicine
Liesje Coertjens
AIM: The main aim of this commentary was to connect the insights from the contributions of the special issue on the intersection between depth and the regulation of strategy use. The seven contributions in this special issue stem from three perspectives: self-regulated learning (SRL), model of domain learning (MDL), or the student approaches to learning (SAL). PROCEDURE: Prior to combining insights from different studies, the definition and operationalization of cognitive and metacognitive processing in the seven contributions is described...
March 2018: British Journal of Educational Psychology
André Otti, Magali Pirson, Danielle Piette, Yves Coppieters T Wallant
INTRODUCTION: The absence of an explicit and coherent conception of the articulation between theory and practice in the reform of nursing training in Benin has resulted in poor quality clinical supervision of student nurses. The objective of this article is to analyze two interventions designed to improve the quality of supervision. METHODS: A student welcome booklet developed by means of a consultative and provocative participatory approach was tested with twelve student nurses versus a control group...
December 5, 2017: Santé Publique: Revue Multidisciplinaire Pour la Recherche et L'action
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