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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918224/driving-on-urban-roads-how-we-come-to-expect-the-correct-speed
#1
Samuel G Charlton, Nicola J Starkey
The subjective categories that drivers use to distinguish between different road types have been shown to influence the speeds they choose to drive but as yet we do not understand the road features that drivers use to make their discriminations. To better understand how drivers describe and categorise the roads they drive, 55 participants were recruited to drive a video of familiar urban roads in a driving simulator at the speed they would drive these roads in their own cars (using the accelerator and brake pedal in the driving simulator to adjust their speed)...
September 14, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917534/modeling-the-modified-drug-release-from-curved-shape-drug-delivery-systems-dome-matrix-%C3%A2
#2
D Caccavo, A A Barba, M d'Amore, R De Piano, G Lamberti, A Rossi, P Colombo
The controlled drug release from hydrogel-based drug delivery systems is a topic of large interest for research in pharmacology. The mathematical modeling of the behavior of these systems is a tool of emerging relevance, since the simulations can be of use in the design of novel systems, in particular for complex shaped tablets. In this work a model, previously developed, was applied to complex-shaped oral drug delivery systems based on hydrogels (Dome Matrix®). Furthermore, the model was successfully adopted in the description of drug release from partially accessible Dome Matrix® systems (systems with some surfaces coated)...
September 13, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912216/a-cargo-sorting-dna-robot
#3
Anupama J Thubagere, Wei Li, Robert F Johnson, Zibo Chen, Shayan Doroudi, Yae Lim Lee, Gregory Izatt, Sarah Wittman, Niranjan Srinivas, Damien Woods, Erik Winfree, Lulu Qian
Two critical challenges in the design and synthesis of molecular robots are modularity and algorithm simplicity. We demonstrate three modular building blocks for a DNA robot that performs cargo sorting at the molecular level. A simple algorithm encoding recognition between cargos and their destinations allows for a simple robot design: a single-stranded DNA with one leg and two foot domains for walking, and one arm and one hand domain for picking up and dropping off cargos. The robot explores a two-dimensional testing ground on the surface of DNA origami, picks up multiple cargos of two types that are initially at unordered locations, and delivers them to specified destinations until all molecules are sorted into two distinct piles...
September 15, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905399/microdosimetric-measurements-of-a-clinical-proton-beam-with-micrometer-sized-solid-state-detector
#4
Sarah E Anderson, Keith M Furutani, Linh T Tran, Lachlan Chartier, Marco Petasecca, Michael Lerch, Dale A Prokopovich, Mark Reinhard, Vladimir L Perevertaylo, Anatoly B Rosenfeld, Michael G Herman, Chris Beltran
PURPOSE: Microdosimetry is a vital tool for assessing the microscopic patterns of energy deposition by radiation, which ultimately govern biological effect. Solid-state, silicon-on-insulator microdosimeters offer an approach for making microdosimetric measurements with high spatial resolution (on the order of tens of micrometers). These high-resolution, solid-state microdosimeters may therefore play a useful role in characterizing proton radiotherapy fields, particularly for making highly-resolved measurements within the Bragg peak region...
September 14, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905153/land-use-change-and-its-driving-forces-toward-mutual-conversion-in-zhangjiakou-city-a-farming-pastoral-ecotone-in-northern-china
#5
Chao Liu, Yueqing Xu, Piling Sun, An Huang, Weiran Zheng
Land use/cover change (LUCC), a local environmental issue of global importance, and its driving forces have been crucial issues in geography and environmental research. Previous studies primarily focused on major driving factors in various land use types, with few explorations of differences between driving forces of mutual land use type conversions, especially in fragile eco-environments. In this study, Zhangjiakou City, in a farming-pastoral ecotone in Northern China, was taken as an example to analyze land use change between 1989 and 2015, and explore the driving forces of mutual land use type conversions using canonical correlation analysis...
September 14, 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904784/marine-dock-pilings-foster-diverse-native-cryptobenthic-fish-assemblages-across-bioregions
#6
Simon J Brandl, Jordan M Casey, Nancy Knowlton, James Emmett Duffy
Anthropogenic habitats are increasingly prevalent in coastal marine environments. Previous research on sessile epifauna suggests that artificial habitats act as a refuge for nonindigenous species, which results in highly homogenous communities across locations. However, vertebrate assemblages that live in association with artificial habitats are poorly understood. Here, we quantify the biodiversity of small, cryptic (henceforth "cryptobenthic") fishes from marine dock pilings across six locations over 35° of latitude from Maine to Panama...
September 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901620/assessment-of-the-spectral-performance-of-hybrid-photon-counting-x-ray-detectors
#7
Peter Trueb, Pietro Zambon, Christian Broennimann
PURPOSE: Hybrid Photon Counting (HPC) detectors profoundly improved x-ray diffraction experiments at third generation synchrotron facilities. Enabling the simultaneous measurement of x-ray intensities in multiple energy bins, they also have many potential applications in the field of medical imaging. A prerequisite for this is a clean spectral response. To quantify how efficiently HPC detectors are able to assign photons to the correct energy bin, a quantity called Spectral Efficiency (SE) is introduced...
September 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900428/c-reactive-protein-binds-to-cholesterol-crystals-and-co-localizes-with-the-terminal-complement-complex-in-human-atherosclerotic-plaques
#8
Katrine Pilely, Stefano Fumagalli, Anne Rosbjerg, Ninette Genster, Mikkel-Ole Skjoedt, Carlo Perego, Angela M R Ferrante, Maria-Grazia De Simoni, Peter Garred
Inflammation is a part of the initial process leading to atherosclerosis and cholesterol crystals (CC), found in atherosclerotic plaques, which are known to induce complement activation. The pentraxins C-reactive protein (CRP), long pentraxin 3 (PTX3), and serum amyloid P component (SAP) are serum proteins associated with increased risk of cardiovascular events and these proteins have been shown to interact with the complement system. Whether the pentraxins binds to CC and mediate downstream complement-dependent inflammatory processes remains unknown...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878048/functional-impairments-for-outcomes-in-a-randomized-trial-of-unruptured-brain-avms
#9
J P Mohr, Jessica R Overbey, Ruediger von Kummer, Marco A Stefani, Richard Libman, Christian Stapf, Michael K Parides, John Pile-Spellman, Ellen Moquete, Claudia S Moy, Eric Vicaut, Alan J Moskowitz, Kirsty Harkness, Charlotte Cordonnier, Alessandra Biondi, Emmanuel Houdart, Joachim Berkefeld, Karin J M Klijn, Xavier Barreau, Helen Kim, Andreas Hartmann
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of medical vs interventional management on functional outcome in A Randomized Trial of Unruptured Brain Arteriovenous Malformations (ARUBA). METHODS: We used the initial results of a nonblinded, randomized, controlled, parallel-group trial involving adults ≥18 years of age with an unruptured brain arteriovenous malformation (AVM) to compare the effects of medical management (MM) with or without interventional therapy (IT) on functional impairment, defined by a primary outcome of death or symptomatic stroke causing modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score ≥2...
September 6, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874258/acoustic-dose-behavioral-response-relationship-in-sea-bass-dicentrarchus-labrax-exposed-to-playbacks-of-pile-driving-sounds
#10
Ronald A Kastelein, Nancy Jennings, Aimée Kommeren, Lean Helder-Hoek, Jessica Schop
The foundations of offshore wind turbines are attached to the sea bed by percussion pile driving. Pile driving sounds may affect the behavior of fish. Acoustic dose-behavioral response relationships were determined for sea bass in a pool exposed for 20 min to pile driving sounds at seven mean received root-mean-square sound pressure levels [SPLrms; range: 130-166 dB re 1 μPa; single strike sound exposure level (SELss) range: 122-158; 6 dB steps]. Initial responses (sudden, short-lived changes in swimming speed and direction) and sustained responses (changes in school cohesion, swimming depth, and speed) were quantified...
August 31, 2017: Marine Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863572/on-the-underwater-sound-field-from-impact-pile-driving-arrival-structure-precursor-arrivals-and-energy-streamlines
#11
Peter H Dahl, David R Dall'Osto
Underwater noise from impact pile driving is studied through measurements using a vertical line array (VLA) placed at range 120 m from the pile source (water depth 7.5 m) over which bathymetry varied gradually increasing to depth 12.5 m at the VLA. The data were modeled assuming the pile impact produces a radial expansion that acts as sound source and propagates along the pile at supersonic speed. This leads to the conceptualization of the pile as a discrete, vertical line source for which frequency- and source-depth-dependent complex phasing is applied...
August 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863028/associations-of-plasma-nitrite-l-arginine-and-asymmetric-dimethylarginine-with-morbidity-and-mortality-in-patients-with-necrotizing-soft-tissue-infections
#12
Marco Bo Hansen, Lars Simon Rasmussen, Peter Garred, Katrine Pilely, Anna Mygind Wahl, Anders Perner, Martin Bruun Madsen, Elise Røge Hedegaard, Ulf Simonsen, Ole Hyldegaard
BACKGROUND: The nitric oxide system could play an important role in the pathophysiology related to necrotizing soft tissue infection (NSTI). Accordingly, we investigated the association between plasma nitrite level at admission and the presence of septic shock in patients with NSTI. We also evaluated the association between nitrite, asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), L-arginine, L-arginine/ADMA-ratio and outcome. METHODS: We analyzed plasma from 141 NSTI patients taken upon hospital admission...
August 31, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855312/cyclodextrin-reduces-cholesterol-crystal-induced-inflammation-by-modulating-complement-activation
#13
Siril S Bakke, Marie H Aune, Nathalie Niyonzima, Katrine Pilely, Liv Ryan, Mona Skjelland, Peter Garred, Pål Aukrust, Bente Halvorsen, Eicke Latz, Jan K Damås, Tom E Mollnes, Terje Espevik
Cholesterol crystals (CC) are abundant in atherosclerotic plaques and promote inflammatory responses via the complement system and inflammasome activation. Cyclic oligosaccharide 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (BCD) is a compound that solubilizes lipophilic substances. Recently we have shown that BCD has an anti-inflammatory effect on CC via suppression of the inflammasome and liver X receptor activation. The putative effects of BCD on CC-induced complement activation remain unknown. In this study, we found that BCD bound to CC and reduced deposition of Igs, pattern recognition molecules, and complement factors on CC in human plasma...
August 30, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854479/-special-urological-traumatology-in-children-and-adolescents
#14
P Faé, A Schröder, W H Rösch, R Stein
Isolated injuries of the genitourinary tract are rare, with the kidney being the most frequently affected organ, especially in situations of polytrauma. Overall, the genitourinary tract is involved in approximately 3 % of all children suffering polytrauma accidents. The literature and international guidelines provide clear therapeutic concepts with a consensus on the diagnosis and treatment of renal trauma, both for the treatment of adults and for children and adolescents. However, the most common injuries to the external genitalia in children and adolescents are caused by blunt trauma, abrasion, bruising, and piling...
September 2017: Aktuelle Urologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854153/report-on-the-accident-at-windscale-no-1-pile-on-10-october-1957
#15
William Penney, Basil F J Schonland, J M Kay, Jack Diamond, David E H Peirson
A serious fire developed in the core of a nuclear reactor at Windscale Works, Sellafield, northwest England, which led to the release of significant quantities of radioactive material into the environment during 10-11th October, 1957. In 1957, Windscale Works was operated by the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA), and on 15th October it was announced by the Chairman of the UKAEA that a Committee of Inquiry had been established under the chairmanship of Sir William Penney to conduct an investigation into the accident...
August 30, 2017: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28845240/human-protein-secretory-pathway-genes-are-expressed-in-a-tissue-specific-pattern-to-match-processing-demands-of-the-secretome
#16
Amir Feizi, Francesco Gatto, Mathias Uhlen, Jens Nielsen
Protein secretory pathway in eukaryal cells is responsible for delivering functional secretory proteins. The dysfunction of this pathway causes a range of important human diseases from congenital disorders to cancer. Despite the piled-up knowledge on the molecular biology and biochemistry level, the tissue-specific expression of the secretory pathway genes has not been analyzed on the transcriptome level. Based on the recent RNA-sequencing studies, the largest fraction of tissue-specific transcriptome encodes for the secretome (secretory proteins)...
2017: NPJ Systems Biology and Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844822/diet-and-fertility-a-review
#17
REVIEW
Audrey J Gaskins, Jorge E Chavarro
The literature on the relationship between diet and human fertility has greatly expanded over the last decade, resulting in the identification of a few clear patterns. Intake of supplemental folic acid, particularly at doses higher than those recommended for the prevention of neural tube defects, has been consistently related to lower frequency of infertility, lower risk of pregnancy loss, and greater success in infertility treatment. On the other hand and despite promising evidence from animal models, vitamin D does not appear to exert an important role in human fertility in the absence of deficiency...
August 24, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833881/and-the-evidence-piles-on
#18
EDITORIAL
Shahid Husain, Melissa Randy Gitman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Pediatric Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828267/presence-of-the-tunicate-asterocarpa-humilis-on-ship-hulls-and-aquaculture-facilities-in-the-coast-of-the-biob%C3%A3-o-region-south-central-chile
#19
Javier Pinochet, Jean-Charles Leclerc, Antonio Brante, Claire Daguin-Thiébaut, Christian Díaz, Florence Tellier, Frédérique Viard
Non-native ascidians are important members of the fouling community associated with artificial substrata and man-made structures. Being efficient fouling species, they are easily spread by human-mediated transports (e.g., with aquaculture trade and maritime transports). This is exemplified by the ascidian Asterocarpa humilis which displays a wide distribution in the Southern Hemisphere and has been recently reported in the Northern Hemisphere (NW Europe). In continental Chile, its first report dates back from 2000 for the locality of Antofagasta (23°S)...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822956/a-novel-web-support-intervention-to-promote-recovery-following-anterior-cruciate-ligament-reconstruction-a-pilot-randomised-controlled-trial
#20
Pazit Levinger, Karen Hallam, Darren Fraser, Rebecca Pile, Clare Ardern, Brett Moreira, Simon Talbot
BACKGROUND: Self-efficacy is positively associated with adherence behaviours and rehabilitation outcomes following Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) reconstruction. An internet resource can be an effective way to provide information, goal setting, patient monitoring and hence support overall self-management. PURPOSE: This study examined the feasibility of a three month 'internet-based intervention' (mobile-oriented site) to enhance recovery for patients following ACL reconstruction...
June 8, 2017: Physical Therapy in Sport
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