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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444609/density-assessment-and-mapping-of-microorganisms-around-a-biocomposting-plant-in-sanandaj-iran
#1
Sanaz Rashidi, B Shahmoradi, Afshin Maleki, Kiomars Sharafi, Ebrahim Darvishi
Exposure to microorganisms can cause various diseases or exacerbate the excitatory responses, inflammation, dry cough and shortness of breath, reduced lung function, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and allergic response or allergic immune. The aim of the present study was to investigate the density of microorganisms around the air of processing facilities of a biocomposting plant. Each experiment was carried out according to ASTM E884-82 (2001) method. The samples were collected from inhaled air in four locations of the plant, which had a high traffic of workers and employees, including screen, conveyor belt, aerated compost pile, and static compost pile...
May 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434529/stochastic-multicomponent-reactive-transport-analysis-of-low-quality-drainage-release-from-waste-rock-piles-controls-of-the-spatial-distribution-of-acid-generating-and-neutralizing-minerals
#2
Daniele Pedretti, K Ulrich Mayer, Roger D Beckie
In mining environmental applications, it is important to assess water quality from waste rock piles (WRPs) and estimate the likelihood of acid rock drainage (ARD) over time. The mineralogical heterogeneity of WRPs is a source of uncertainty in this assessment, undermining the reliability of traditional bulk indicators used in the industry. We focused in this work on the bulk neutralizing potential ratio (NPR), which is defined as the ratio of the content of non-acid-generating minerals (typically reactive carbonates such as calcite) to the content of potentially acid-generating minerals (typically sulfides such as pyrite)...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433916/a-novel-method-for-contributing-to-composting-start-up-at-low-temperature-by-inoculating-cold-adapted-microbial-consortium
#3
Xin-Yu Xie, Yue Zhao, Qing-Hong Sun, Xue-Qin Wang, Hong-Yang Cui, Xu Zhang, Yan-Jie Li, Zi-Min Wei
Low temperature climate presented a technical challenge to start-up composting in northern region of China. This study investigated if the cold-adapted microbial consortium (CAMC) could promote composting start-up at low temperature. In this work, the CAMC was inoculated when food waste was composted at 10°C. The results showed that inoculating CAMC accelerated the piles temperature effectively, the piles passed through the start-up period within 37h. Moreover, the inoculants could enhance the abundances of dominant strains related to organic matters degradation rate...
April 11, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431522/comparative-proteomic-analysis-of-neisseria-meningitidis-wildtype-and-dpra-null-mutant-strains-links-dna-processing-to-pilus-biogenesis
#4
Getachew Tesfaye Beyene, Shewit Kalayou, Tahira Riaz, Tone Tonjum
BACKGROUND: DNA processing chain A (DprA) is a DNA binding protein which is ubiquitous in bacteria, and is required for DNA transformation to various extents among bacterial species. However, the interaction of DprA with competence and recombination proteins is poorly understood. Therefore, the proteomes of whole Neisseria meningitidis (Nm) wildtype and dprA mutant cells were compared. Such a comparative proteomic analysis increases our understanding of the interactions of DprA with other Nm components and may elucidate its potential role beyond DNA processing in transformation...
April 21, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423410/analysis-of-dislocation-configurations-in-a-0-0-1-fcc-single-crystal-by-electron-channeling-contrast-imaging-in-the-sem
#5
Ivan Gutierrez-Urrutia
We have investigated the dislocation configurations in a [0 0 1] single crystal of a face-centered alloy (316L stainless steel) by the electron channeling contrast imaging (ECCI) technique in the scanning electron microscope under controlled diffraction conditions. Specific dislocations such as piled-up dislocations and Lomer-Cottrell dislocations were characterized by the analysis of dislocation contrast and dislocation line trace analysis. The ECCI technique also allows the sound estimation of the local resolved stress acting on gliding dislocations by the analysis of the radius of curvature following a transmission electron microscopy-based geometrical approach...
April 1, 2017: Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417592/individualising-the-dose-of-allopurinol-in-patients-with-gout
#6
Diluk R W Kannangara, Garry G Graham, Daniel F B Wright, Sophie L Stocker, Ian Portek, Kevin D Pile, Murray L Barclay, Kenneth M Williams, Lisa K Stamp, Richard O Day
AIMS: The aims of the study were to 1) determine if a plasma oxypurinol concentration-response relationship or an allopurinol dose-response relationship best predicts the dose requirements of allopurinol in the treatment of gout; and, 2) to construct a nomogram for calculating the optimum maintenance dose of allopurinol to achieve target serum urate (SU) concentrations. METHODS: A non-linear regression analysis was used to examine the plasma oxypurinol concentration- and allopurinol dose-response relationships with serum urate...
April 18, 2017: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414041/acute-and-sub-acute-toxicological-evaluation-of-lyophilized-nymphaea-x-rubra-roxb-ex-andrews-rhizome-extract
#7
Kushal Kumar, Sabeena Sharma, Ashish Kumar, Pushpender Bhardwaj, Kalpana Barhwal, Sunil Kumar Hota
Nymphaea x rubra Roxb. ex Andrews (N. rubra) has been widely reported for immunomodulatory properties and treatment of piles, bleeding nose and dysentery in traditional medicinal systems. However, its in-vitro and in-vivo toxicity studies have never been investigated. So, the present study was designed to investigate in-vitro and in-vivo toxicity of methanolic extract of N. rubra rhizome in rats. In-vitro cytotoxicity studies were conducted for different doses of extract in N2a cell lines. For in-vivo toxicity studies, SD rats were divided into three groups and administered with 0, 300 and 2000 mg/kg b...
April 13, 2017: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405276/a-simulation-approach-to-assessing-environmental-risk-of-sound-exposure-to-marine-mammals
#8
Carl R Donovan, Catriona M Harris, Lorenzo Milazzo, John Harwood, Laura Marshall, Rob Williams
Intense underwater sounds caused by military sonar, seismic surveys, and pile driving can harm acoustically sensitive marine mammals. Many jurisdictions require such activities to undergo marine mammal impact assessments to guide mitigation. However, the ability to assess impacts in a rigorous, quantitative way is hindered by large knowledge gaps concerning hearing ability, sensitivity, and behavioral responses to noise exposure. We describe a simulation-based framework, called SAFESIMM (Statistical Algorithms For Estimating the Sonar Influence on Marine Megafauna), that can be used to calculate the numbers of agents (animals) likely to be affected by intense underwater sounds...
April 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402916/potential-of-chopped-heath-biomass-and-spent-growth-media-to-replace-wood-chips-as-bulking-agent-for-composting-high-n-containing-residues
#9
J Viaene, B Reubens, K Willekens, C Van Waes, S De Neve, B Vandecasteele
We investigated the potential of C-rich byproducts to replace wood chips as bulking agent (BA) during composting. The impact of these alternatives on the composting process and on compost stability and characteristics was assessed. Three BA (chopped heath biomass and spent growth media used in strawberry and tomato cultivation) were used for processing leek residues in windrow composting. All BA resulted in stable composts with an organic matter (OM) content suitable for use as soil amendment. Using chopped heath biomass led to high pile temperatures and OM degradation and a nutrient-poor compost with high C/P ratio appropriate for increasing soil organic carbon content in P-rich soils...
April 9, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392123/reduced-turning-frequency-and-delayed-poultry-manure-addition-reduces-n-loss-from-sugarcane-compost
#10
S Bryndum, R Muschler, A Nigussie, J Magid, A de Neergaard
Composting is an effective method to recycle biodegradable waste as soil amendment in smallholder farming systems. Although all essential plant nutrients are found in compost, a substantial amount of nitrogen is lost during composting. This study therefore investigated the potential of reducing N losses by (i) delaying the addition of nitrogen-rich substrates (i.e. poultry manure), and (ii) reducing the turning frequency during composting. Furthermore, we tested the effect of compost application method on nitrogen mineralization...
April 6, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389825/exploring-the-physics-of-sand-drawings-the-role-of-craters-furrows-and-piles
#11
Jorge González-Gutiérrez, J C Ruiz-Suárez
Few years ago an article addressing the physics behind aaabstract paintings was published by Herczyński et al. (Phys. Today 64, 31 (2011) issue No. 6). The authors aimed to understand how artists like Jackson Pollock manipulated paints to create pieces of art where the theory of fluid dynamics had a clear and perceivable role. Scaling laws were found to explain the plasticity observed in the artists's traces that we admire in worldwide museums. Because sand drawings are not only wonderful artistic expressions but also intangible cultural heritages of humanity, we wonder if they could be analyzed in a similar fashion...
April 2017: European Physical Journal. E, Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388638/mechanisms-causing-size-differences-of-the-land-hermit-crab-coenobita-rugosus-among-eco-islands-in-southern-taiwan
#12
Chia-Hsuan Hsu, Keryea Soong
Numerous environmental factors can influence body size. Comparing populations in different ecological contexts is one potential approach to elucidating the most critical of such factors. In the current study, we found that the body size of the land hermit crab Coenobita rugosus was significantly larger on Dongsha Island in the South China Sea than on other eco-islands around Southern Taiwan. We hypothesized that this could be due to differences in (1) shell resources, (2) parasite impact, (3) competition, (4) predation, and (5) food...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384581/good-or-bad-vibrations-impacts-of-anthropogenic-vibration-on-the-marine-epibenthos
#13
REVIEW
Louise Roberts, Michael Elliott
Anthropogenic activities directly contacting the seabed, such as drilling and pile-driving, produce a significant vibration likely to impact benthic invertebrates. As with terrestrial organisms, vibration may be used by marine species for the detection of biotic and abiotic cues, yet the significance of this and the sensitivities to vibration are previously undocumented for many marine species. Exposure to additional vibration may elicit behavioral or physiological change, or even physical damage at high amplitudes or particular frequencies, although this is poorly studied in underwater noise research...
April 3, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384055/lifting-the-impenetrable-veil-from-yellow-fever-to-ebola-hemorrhagic-fever-and-sarslifting-the-impenetrable-veil-from-yellow-fever-to-ebola-hemorrhagic-fever-and-sars-by-charles-h-calisher-rock-pile-press-red-feather-lakes-colorado-2013-540-pp-isbn-13-978-0
#14
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381230/validation-of-the-world-health-organization-disability-assessment-schedule-in-people-with-severe-mental-disorders-in-rural-ethiopia
#15
Kassahun Habtamu, Atalay Alem, Girmay Medhin, Abebaw Fekadu, Michael Dewey, Martin Prince, Charlotte Hanlon
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule (WHODAS-2.0) has been adapted and validated in several cultures, but data on performance in the African context are lacking. The aim of the study was to evaluate the validity and psychometric properties of the WHODAS-2.0 among people with severe mental disorders (SMD) and their caregivers in a rural African setting. METHODS: The content validity of the 36 item WHODAS was assessed using free listing and pile sorting in 36 community members...
April 5, 2017: Health and Quality of Life Outcomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377830/methods-to-reduce-forest-residue-volume-after-timber-harvesting-and-produce-black-carbon
#16
Deborah S Page-Dumroese, Matt D Busse, James G Archuleta, Darren McAvoy, Eric Roussel
Forest restoration often includes thinning to reduce tree density and improve ecosystem processes and function while also reducing the risk of wildfire or insect and disease outbreaks. However, one drawback of these restoration treatments is that slash is often burned in piles that may damage the soil and require further restoration activities. Pile burning is currently used on many forest sites as the preferred method for residue disposal because piles can be burned at various times of the year and are usually more controlled than broadcast burns...
2017: Scientifica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373862/microbial-abundances-predict-methane-and-nitrous-oxide-fluxes-from-a-windrow-composting-system
#17
Shuqing Li, Lina Song, Xiang Gao, Yaguo Jin, Shuwei Liu, Qirong Shen, Jianwen Zou
Manure composting is a significant source of atmospheric methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) that are two potent greenhouse gases. The CH4 and N2O fluxes are mediated by methanogens and methanotrophs, nitrifying and denitrifying bacteria in composting manure, respectively, while these specific bacterial functional groups may interplay in CH4 and N2O emissions during manure composting. To test the hypothesis that bacterial functional gene abundances regulate greenhouse gas fluxes in windrow composting systems, CH4 and N2O fluxes were simultaneously measured using the chamber method, and molecular techniques were used to quantify the abundances of CH4-related functional genes (mcrA and pmoA genes) and N2O-related functional genes (amoA, narG, nirK, nirS, norB, and nosZ genes)...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371761/bioremediation-of-storage-tank-bottom-sludge-by-using-a-two-stage-composting-system-effect-of-mixing-ratio-and-nutrients-addition
#18
Ali Koolivand, Mohammad Sadegh Rajaei, Mohammad Javad Ghanadzadeh, Reza Saeedi, Hamid Abtahi, Kazem Godini
The effect of mixing ratio and nutrients addition on the efficiency of a two-stage composting system in removal of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) from storage tank bottom sludge (STBS) was investigated. The system consisted of ten windrow piles as primary composting (PC) followed by four in-vessel reactors as secondary composting (SC). Various initial C/N/P and mixing ratios of STBS to immature compost (IC) were examined in the PC and SC for 12 and 6weeks, respectively. The removal rates of TPH in the two-stage system (93...
March 21, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368621/size-sorting-on-the-rubble-pile-asteroid-itokawa
#19
Troy Shinbrot, Tapan Sabuwala, Theo Siu, Miguel Vivar Lazo, Pinaki Chakraborty
Photographs of the asteroid Itokawa reveal unexpectedly strong size segregation between lowlands populated almost entirely by small pebbles and highlands consisting of larger boulders. We propose that this segregation may be caused by a simple and unexplored effect: pebbles accreting onto the asteroid rebound from boulders, but sink into pebbly regions. By number, overwhelmingly more particles on Itokawa are pebbles, and collisions involving these pebbles must unavoidably cause pebbly regions to grow. We carry out experiments and simulations that demonstrate that this mechanism of size sorting based on simple counting of grains produces strong lateral segregation that reliably obeys an analytic formula...
March 17, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367179/comparison-of-two-procedures-for-symptomatic-hemorrhoidal-disease-ligation-under-vision-and-ferguson-hemorrhoidectomy-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#20
Hakan Demir, Kerem Karaman, Metin Ercan, Havva Belma Kocer, Fehmi Celebi
OBJECTIVE: To compare Ligation under Vision (LUV) with Ferguson Hemorrhoidectomy (FH) in patients with Grade II, III and IV hemorrhoidal diseases according to their postoperative outcomes. METHODS: Between July 2008 and August 2014, 155 patients underwent FH and 120 patients LUV, in Sakarya University Teaching and Research Hospital. Our retrospective analysis focuses on postoperative complications, postoperative pain and rate of recurrence. In LUV procedure, submucosal tissue of the hemorrhoidal pile base was transfixed using absorbable sutures under direct vision through anoscope in the Jackknife position...
January 2017: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
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