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M Mayer-Pinto, K A Dafforn, A B Bugnot, T M Glasby, E L Johnston
Assessments of human impacts on natural habitats often focus on the abundance of component species, yet physiological and/or sub-lethal effects of stressors on functional attributes may be equally important to consider. Here we evaluated how artificial structures, an integral part of urbanisation in the marine environment, affects key functional properties of the habitat-forming kelp Ecklonia radiata. Given that stressors rarely occur in isolation, we assessed the effects of infrastructure across an urbanised estuary...
May 5, 2018: Marine Environmental Research
Victoria Pile, Jennifer Y F Lau, Marta Topor, Tammy Hedderly, Sally Robinson
Aberrant interoceptive accuracy could contribute to the co-occurrence of anxiety and premonitory urge in chronic tic disorders (CTD). If it can be manipulated through intervention, it would offer a transdiagnostic treatment target for tics and anxiety. Interoceptive accuracy was first assessed consistent with previous protocols and then re-assessed following an instruction attempting to experimentally enhance awareness. The CTD group demonstrated lower interoceptive accuracy than controls but, importantly, this group difference was no longer significant following instruction...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Allison S Quan, Michael B Eisen
The fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, is preferentially found on fermenting fruits. The yeasts that dominate the microbial communities of these substrates are the primary food source for developing D. melanogaster larvae, and adult flies manifest a strong olfactory system-mediated attraction for the volatile compounds produced by these yeasts during fermentation. Although most work on this interaction has focused on the standard laboratory yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a wide variety of other yeasts naturally ferment fallen fruit...
2018: PloS One
Evgenia-Maria Papaslioti, Rafael Pérez-López, Annika Parviainen, Francisco Macías, Antonio Delgado-Huertas, Carlos J Garrido, Claudio Marchesi, José M Nieto
Highly acidic phosphogypsum wastes with elevated potential for contaminant leaching are stack-piled near coastal areas worldwide, threatening the adjacent environment. Huge phosphogypsum stacks were disposed directly on the marshes of the Estuary of Huelva (SW Spain) without any impermeable barrier to prevent leaching and thus, contributing to the total contamination of the estuarine environment. According to the previous weathering model, the process water ponded on the surface of the stack, initially used to carry the waste, was thought to be the main washing agent through its infiltration and subsequently the main component of the leachates emerging as the edge outflows...
April 28, 2018: Water Research
Ingrid David, Juan-Pablo Sánchez, Miriam Piles
BACKGROUND: Indirect genetic effects (IGE) are important components of various traits in several species. Although the intensity of social interactions between partners likely vary over time, very few genetic studies have investigated how IGE vary over time for traits under selection in livestock species. To overcome this issue, our aim was: (1) to analyze longitudinal records of average daily gain (ADG) in rabbits subjected to a 5-week period of feed restriction using a structured antedependence (SAD) model that includes IGE and (2) to evaluate, by simulation, the response to selection when IGE are present and genetic evaluation is based on a SAD model that includes IGE or not...
May 10, 2018: Genetics, Selection, Evolution: GSE
Pascal R Buenzli, Chloé Lerebours, Andreas Roschger, Paul Roschger, Richard Weinkamer
PURPOSE: Experimental measurements of bone mineral density distributions (BMDDs) enable a determination of secondary mineralization kinetics in bone, but the maximum degree of mineralization and how this maximum is approached remain uncertain. We thus test computationally different hypotheses on late stages of bone mineralization by simulating BMDDs in low-turnover conditions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An established computational model of the BMDD that accounts for mineralization and remodeling processes was extended to limit mineralization to various maximum calcium capacities of bone...
December 2018: Connective Tissue Research
Il Gyu Kong, Dae Woo Kim
Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a major part of the recalcitrant inflammatory diseases of the upper airway that needs enormous socioeconomic burden. T helper (Th) 2 type immune responses recruiting eosinophils were the most well-known immune players in CRS pathogenesis especially in western countries. By the piling up of a vast amount of researches to elucidate the pathogenic mechanism of CRS recently, heterogeneous inflammatory processes were found to be related to the phenotypes of CRS. Recently more cells other than T cells were in the focus of CRS pathogenesis, such as the epithelial cell, macrophage, innate lymphoid cells, and neutrophils...
April 2018: Immune Network
Katrin Fabian, Josiah Fannoh, George G Washington, Wilfred B Geninyan, Bethuel Nyachienga, Garmai Cyrus, Joyce N Hallowanger, Jason Beste, Deepa Rao, Bradley H Wagenaar
The integration of culturally salient idioms of distress into mental healthcare delivery is essential for effective screening, diagnosis, and treatment. This study systematically explored idioms, explanatory models, and conceptualizations in Maryland County, Liberia to develop a culturally-resonant screening tool for mental distress. We employed a sequential mixed-methods process of: (1) free-lists and semi-structured interviews (n = 20); patient chart reviews (n = 315); (2) pile-sort exercises, (n = 31); and (3) confirmatory focus group discussions (FGDs); (n = 3) from June to December 2017...
May 4, 2018: Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry
Carly Whittaker, Nicola E Yates, Stephen J Powers, Tom Misselbrook, Ian Shield
This study compares dry matter losses and quality changes during the storage of SRC willow as chips and as rods. A wood chip stack consisting of approximately 74 tonnes of fresh biomass, or 31 tonnes dry matter (DM) was built after harvesting in the spring. Three weeks later, four smaller stacks of rods with an average weight of 0.8 tonnes, or 0.4 tonnes DM were built. During the course of the experiment temperature recorders placed in the stacks found that the wood chip pile reached 60 °C within 10 days of construction, but the piles of rods remained mostly at ambient temperatures...
May 2018: Biomass & Bioenergy
Sarah R B King, Kathryn A Schoenecker, Jennifer A Fike, Sara J Oyler-McCance
Fecal DNA collected noninvasively can provide valuable information about genetic and ecological characteristics. This approach has rarely been used for equids, despite the need for conservation of endangered species and management of abundant feral populations. We examined factors affecting the efficacy of using equid fecal samples for conservation genetics. First, we evaluated two fecal collection methods (paper bag vs. ethanol). Then, we investigated how time since deposition and month of collection impacted microsatellite amplification success and genotyping errors...
April 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Alyson M Hockenberry, Deborah M B Post, Katherine A Rhodes, Michael Apicella, Magdalene So
Post-translational acetylation is a common protein modification in bacteria. It was recently reported that Neisseria gonorrhoeae acetylates the Type IV pilus retraction motor, PilT. Here, we show recombinant PilT can be acetylated in vitro and acetylation does not affect PilT ultrastructure. To investigate the function of PilT acetylation, we mutated an acetylated lysine, K117, to mimic its acetylated or unacetylated forms. These mutations were not tolerated by wild-type Neisseria gonorrhoeae, but they were tolerated by Neisseria gonorrhoeae carrying an inducible pilE when grown without inducer...
May 2, 2018: Molecular Microbiology
Ronald A Kastelein, Lean Helder-Hoek, John M Terhune
High-amplitude impulsive sounds produced by pile driving and airguns may result in hearing damage in nearby seals. By swimming at the water surface, seals may reduce their exposure to underwater sound, as sound pressure levels (SPLs) are often lower just below the surface than deeper in the water column. Seals can make physiological adjustments such that they can switch between having maximum sensitivity for either aerial or underwater sounds. This could mean that hearing sensitivity for underwater sounds is lower when swimming at the water surface (when hearing may be focused on aerial sounds) than when swimming at depth...
April 2018: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Mohamed A S Zaghloul, Mohan Wang, Sheng Huang, Cyril Hnatovsky, Dan Grobnic, Stephen Mihailov, Ming-Jun Li, David Carpenter, Lin-Wen Hu, Joshua Daw, Guillaume Laffont, Simon Nehr, Kevin P Chen
This paper reports the testing results of radiation resistant fiber Bragg grating (FBG) in random air-line (RAL) fibers in comparison with FBGs in other radiation-hardened fibers. FBGs in RAL fibers were fabricated by 80 fs ultrafast laser pulse using a phase mask approach. The fiber Bragg gratings tests were carried out in the core region of a 6 MW MIT research reactor (MITR) at a steady temperature above 600°C and an average fast neutron (>1 MeV) flux >1.2 × 1014 n/cm2 /s. Fifty five-day tests of FBG sensors showed less than 5 dB reduction in FBG peak strength after over 1 × 1020 n/cm2 of accumulated fast neutron dose...
April 30, 2018: Optics Express
Madhura Patankar, Sara Väyrynen, Anne Tuomisto, Markus Mäkinen, Sinikka Eskelinen, Tuomo J Karttunen
BACKGROUND/AIM: Micropapillary structures (MIPs) are focal piles of columnar cells without extracellular matrix contact, and common in serrated colorectal carcinoma (CRC). In order to characterize biology of MIPs in colorectal cancer (CRC), the proliferation and apoptosis rates, and survivin expression were compared between MIPs and other cancer epithelial cells of CRC (non-MIPs). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We assessed 46 samples of normal colorectal mucosa, 62 carcinomas and 54 polyps for proliferation (Ki67), apoptosis (M30), and survivin expression by immunohistochemistry...
May 2018: Anticancer Research
Antoine Bérut, Hugo Chauvet, Valérie Legué, Bruno Moulia, Olivier Pouliquen, Yoël Forterre
Plants are able to sense and respond to minute tilt from the vertical direction of the gravity, which is key to maintain their upright posture during development. However, gravisensing in plants relies on a peculiar sensor made of microsize starch-filled grains (statoliths) that sediment and form tiny granular piles at the bottom of the cell. How such a sensor can detect inclination is unclear, as granular materials like sand are known to display flow threshold and finite avalanche angle due to friction and interparticle jamming...
April 30, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Jing Yuan, Difang Zhang, Yun Li, Ji Li, Wenhai Luo, Hongyu Zhang, Guoying Wang, Guoxue Li
Interactive influences of the aeration pattern, aeration rate, and turning frequency on municipal solid waste biodrying performance were investigated. Energy and water mass balances were used to identify the main water-removal routes and determine the amount of energy used and efficiency. Changing the aeration pattern and turning frequency did not significantly affect biodrying performance when the other conditions and total aeration volume were constant. The total aeration volume controlled the pile temperature and evaporation, making it the main factor affecting water loss during biodrying...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Claire Bailey, Vandana Garg, Deksha Kapoor, Heather Wasser, Dorairaj Prabhakaran, Lindsay M Jaacks
OBJECTIVE: To understand factors that influence the process of food decision-making among urban Indian women in the context of the nutrition transition. DESIGN: Mixed methods. METHODS: Semistructured interviews and sorting of 12 a priori hypothesized drivers into categories of always, sometimes, and never influencing food choice. SETTING: Delhi, India. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty-eight women aged 20-35 years selected from the roster of a prospective cohort study...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior
Nayara Vilela Avelar, Benício Costa Ribeiro, Ana Augusta Passos Rezende, Cláudio Mudadu Silva, Angélica de Cássia Oliveira Carneiro, Márcio Arêdes Martins
This study investigated an industrial biosludge drying system using hot gases from a coal furnace, seeking to increase the solids content of the biosludge above 50% (w.b.), considered suitable for combustion in biomass boilers. Biosludge was collected from a paper mill activated sludge plant. Biosludge mixtures with eucalyptus chips and eucalyptus bark in two different proportions (15% and 25%), were placed into a drying chamber. Hot gases generated by the furnace, with a flowrate of 0.64 ± 0.02 m3 .s-1 at 100 ± 20°C, were applied to the piles through a blowing system...
April 27, 2018: Environmental Technology
Nikola Topic, Thorsten Pöschel, Jason A C Gallas
We report evidence of a surprising systematic onset of periodic patterns in very tall piles of disks deposited randomly between rigid walls. Independently of the pile width, periodic structures are always observed in monodisperse deposits containing up to 10^{7} disks. The probability density function of the lengths of disordered transient phases that precede the onset of periodicity displays an approximately exponential tail. These disordered transients may become very large when the channel width grows without bound...
April 6, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Daisuke Tsuji, Michio Otsuki, Hiroaki Katsuragi
Nonlinear relaxation dynamics of a vertically vibrated granular pile is experimentally studied. In the experiment, the flux and slope on the relaxing pile are measured by using a high-speed laser profiler. The relation of these quantities can be modeled by the nonlinear transport law assuming the uniform vibrofluidization of an entire pile. The fitting parameter in this model is only the relaxation efficiency, which characterizes the energy conversion rate from vertical vibration into horizontal transport. We demonstrate that this value is a constant independent of experimental conditions...
March 23, 2018: Physical Review Letters
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