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Wagner de Souza Pereira, Alphonse Germaine Albert Charles Kelecom, Ademir Xavier da Silva, Alessander Sá do Carmo, Delcy de Azavedo Py Júnior
The Ore Treatment Unit (in Portuguese Unidade de Tratamento de Minérios - UTM) located in Caldas, MG, Brazil is a disabled uranium mine. Environmental conditions generate acid drainage leaching metals and radionuclides from the waste rock pile. This drainage is treated to remove the heavy metals and radionuclides, before allowing the release of the effluent to the environment. To validate the treatment, samples of the released effluents were collected at the interface of the installation with the environment...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Julieta Nattero, María Carla Cecere, Ricardo E Gürtler
Environmentally-induced developmental instability has frequently been assessed using fluctuating asymmetry (FA) methods. For Triatoma infestans, the major vector of Chagas disease, the combined effects of host-feeding sources and habitats affected wing developmental instability depending on sex in Figueroa villages, northwest Argentina. Here we investigated whether habitat, sex, season/year and insecticide applications affected wing developmental instability in T. infestans populations from Amamá and other rural villages of northwest Argentina over a four-year period...
November 13, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Hilbert W van der Glas, Esther H-J Kim, Anis Z Mustapa, Wijdan R Elmanaseer
OBJECTIVES: Two processes underlie food comminution during chewing: (1) selection, i.e. every particle has a chance of being placed between the teeth and being subjected to (2) breakage. Selection decreases with particle number by saturation of breakage sites, and it depends on competition between smaller and larger particles for breakage sites. Theoretical models were tested which describe competition between various sizes X. In the one-way model, small particles cannot compete with larger ones because of their smaller height...
October 31, 2017: Archives of Oral Biology
V Lindberg-Larsen, H Kehlet, K Pilely, J Bagger, M L Rovsing, P Garred
Preoperative glucocorticoid administration reduces the systemic inflammatory response. Pentraxin 3 (PTX3) is a novel inflammatory marker belonging to the humoral arm of innate immunity exerting a potentially protective host response. This study evaluated PTX3 and other complement marker changes after preoperative methylprednisolone (MP) early after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Seventy patients were randomized (1 : 1) to preoperative intravenous (i.v.) MP 125 mg (group MP) or isotonic saline i.v. (group C)...
October 14, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
Behzad Nasri, Florent Brun, Olivier Fouché
One of the most undesired wastes is the human excreta due to the socio-environmental pressure. Otherwise, the nutriments contained in human excreta could be used as fertilizers to enrich the soil. Familial waterless litter composting toilets (FWLCT) are an alternative for locations where a centralized sewerage network cannot be provided or where there is a lack of standard urban infrastructure including roads, electricity, and water supply. The scientific researches on the composting techniques, the methods of control of the composting processors, and the rate of produced leachate are very limited...
November 5, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Jakob Tougaard, Michael Dähne
A key question related to regulating noise from pile driving, air guns, and sonars is how to take into account the hearing abilities of different animals by means of auditory frequency weighting. Recordings of pile driving sounds, both in the presence and absence of a bubble curtain, were evaluated against recent thresholds for temporary threshold shift (TTS) for harbor porpoises by means of four different weighting functions. The assessed effectivity, expressed as time until TTS, depended strongly on choice of weighting function: 2 orders of magnitude larger for an audiogram-weighted TTS criterion relative to an unweighted criterion, highlighting the importance of selecting the right frequency weighting...
October 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Haojie Fei, Nabanita Saha, Natalia Kazantseva, Robert Moucka, Qilin Cheng, Petr Saha
The flexible supercapacitors (SCs) of the conventional sandwich-type structure have poor flexibility due to the large thickness of the final entire device. Herein, we have fabricated a highly flexible asymmetric SC using manganese dioxide (MnO₂) and reduced graphene oxide (RGO) nanosheet-piled hydrogel films and a novel bacterial cellulose (BC)-filled polyacrylic acid sodium salt-Na₂SO₄ (BC/PAAS-Na₂SO₄) neutral gel electrolyte. Apart from being environmentally friendly, this BC/PAAS-Na₂SO₄ gel electrolyte has high viscosity and a sticky property, which enables it to combine two electrodes together...
October 30, 2017: Materials
Takeshi Kamomae, Hajime Monzen, Mariko Kawamura, Kuniyasu Okudaira, Takayoshi Nakaya, Takashi Mukouyama, Yoshikazu Miyake, Yoshitomo Ishihara, Yoshiyuki Itoh, Shinji Naganawa
Intraoperative electron radiotherapy (IOERT), which is an accelerated partial breast irradiation method, has been used for early-stage breast cancer treatment. In IOERT, a protective disk is inserted behind the target volume to minimize the dose received by normal tissues. However, to use such a disk, the surgical incision must be larger than the field size because the disk is manufactured from stiff and unyielding materials. In this study, the applicability of newly developed tungsten-based functional paper (TFP) was assessed as an alternative to the existing protective disk...
October 30, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
De-Mi Cui, Weizhong Yan, Xiao-Quan Wang, Lie-Min Lu
Low strain pile integrity testing (LSPIT), due to its simplicity and low cost, is one of the most popular NDE methods used in pile foundation construction. While performing LSPIT in the field is generally quite simple and quick, determining the integrity of the test piles by analyzing and interpreting the test signals (reflectograms) is still a manual process performed by experienced experts only. For foundation construction sites where the number of piles to be tested is large, it may take days before the expert can complete interpreting all of the piles and delivering the integrity assessment report...
October 25, 2017: Sensors
Charlotte Marchand, Michel Mench, Yahya Jani, Fabio Kaczala, Peter Notini, Mohamed Hijri, William Hogland
A pilot scale experiment was conducted to investigate the aided-phytoextraction of metals and the aided-phytodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons (PHC) in a co-contaminated soil. First, this soil was amended with compost (10% w/w) and assembled into piles (Unp-10%C). Then, a phyto-cap of Medicago sativa L. either in monoculture (MS-10%C) or co-cropped with Helianthus annuus L. as companion planting (MSHA-10%C) was sown on the topsoil. Physico-chemical parameters and contaminants in the soil and its leachates were measured at the beginning and the end of the first growth season (after five months)...
October 18, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
M A Sanchez-Monedero, M L Cayuela, A Roig, K Jindo, C Mondini, N Bolan
The use of biochar in organic waste composting has attracted interest in the last decade due to the environmental and agronomical benefits obtained during the process. Biochar presents favourable physicochemical properties, such as large porosity, surface area and high cation exchange capacity, enabling interaction with major nutrient cycles and favouring microbial growth in the composting pile. The enhanced environmental conditions can promote a change in the microbial communities that can affect important microbially mediated biogeochemical cycles: organic matter degradation and humification, nitrification, denitrification and methanogenesis...
September 30, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Georgina Krebs, Victoria Pile, Sean Grant, Michelle Degli Esposti, Paul Montgomery, Jennifer Y F Lau
BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence suggests that cognitive bias modification of interpretations (CBM-I) is effective in altering interpretation biases and reducing anxiety in adults. Less is known about the impact of CBM-I in young people, but some recent findings, including a meta-analysis of combined cognitive bias modification of interpretation and attention techniques, have cast doubt on its clinical utility. Given the current debate, this meta-analysis sought to establish the independent effects of CBM-I on interpretations biases and anxiety in youth...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
Claudio Elbetti, Iacopo Giani, Eugenio Novelli, Jacopo Martellucci, Francesco Feroci
AIM: Aim of the present paper was to evaluate the role of tailored different single pile treatment in the clinical outcome of hemorrhoids. MATERIAL OF STUDY: The surgical strategy considered to treat only pathological piles with different procedure according to each pathological Goligher's degree, presence of fibrous, inelastic redundant internal pile(F) and presence of external pathological pile (external pile congestion or subversion of dental line (E) and skin tag not tolerated from the patient (S))...
2017: Annali Italiani di Chirurgia
Matias R Viotti, Armando G Albertazzi
Instrumented indentation has been used to measure mechanical properties, residual stresses, hardness, and viscoelastic properties, among others, due to its fast and nondestructive procedure. The accurate determination of the contact area between the indenter and the material is important for material property measurements and usually is masked by the pile-up or sink-in phenomenon. This paper presents the application of dual-wavelength image-plane digital holography in order to achieve a full-field determination of the topography around the indentation mark...
October 10, 2017: Applied Optics
Suqing Li, Karsten Liber
In order to identify suitable pioneer plant species for future revegetation of coal gob piles, a field survey was conducted to assess the success of different revegetation species and their influence on soil development nine years after initial planting on a reclaimed coal gob pile in the Yangquan mining area of Shanxi province, China. Data were analyzed using a quantitative classification method (TWINSPAN), ordination techniques (DCA and DCCA), Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and a geo-accumulation index (Igeo)...
October 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Richard O Day, Lauren J Frensham, Amy D Nguyen, Melissa T Baysari, Eindra Aung, Annie Y S Lau, Nicholas Zwar, Jennifer Reath, Tracey Laba, Ling Li, Andrew McLachlan, William B Runciman, Rachelle Buchbinder, Robyn Clay-Williams, Enrico Coiera, Jeffrey Braithwaite, H Patrick McNeil, David J Hunter, Kevin J Pile, Ian Portek, Kenneth Mapson WIlliams, Johanna I Westbrook
INTRODUCTION: Gout is increasing despite effective therapies to lower serum urate concentrations to 0.36 mmol/L or less, which, if sustained, significantly reduces acute attacks of gout. Adherence to urate-lowering therapy (ULT) is poor, with rates of less than 50% 1 year after initiation of ULT. Attempts to increase adherence in gout patients have been disappointing. We aim to evaluate the effectiveness of use of a personal, self-management, 'smartphone' application (app) to achieve target serum urate concentrations in people with gout...
October 16, 2017: BMJ Open
N P Hawkes, P Kolkowski, N J Roberts, P Salvador-Castiñeira, G C Taylor, D J Thomas
As part of its wide-ranging neutron metrology capabilities, the National Physical Laboratory in the UK has a thermal neutron facility in which accelerator-produced neutrons are moderated within a large assembly or pile of graphite bricks. The neutron field has previously been well characterised in terms of the fluence rate and energy spectrum at various irradiation positions. However, recent changes to the structure (e.g. enlarging the central irradiation cavity) have prompted a renewal and extension of this work...
October 13, 2017: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Zdenek Vykydal, Miloslav Králík
The graphite pile was set up at CMI to provide reference thermal neutron field for metrology and dosimetry purposes. It consists of three Pu-Be and three Am-Be radionuclide sources located in a 1.95 m (width) × 1.95 m (length) × 2.0 m (height) graphite moderator block. The neutron field in the volume of the experimental channel with dimensions of 40 cm × 40 cm × 135 cm (depth) was characterised experimentally and by Monte-Carlo calculations. Neutron fluence was determined by the activation of gold foils and Manganese tablets irradiated in nine different positions and by two 3He detectors of different construction irradiated in one position (bare and covered in three spherical PE moderators of 3, 3...
September 29, 2017: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Joshua M Smyth, Martin J Sliwinski, Matthew J Zawadzki, Stacey B Scott, David E Conroy, Stephanie T Lanza, David Marcusson-Clavertz, Jinhyuk Kim, Robert S Stawski, Catherine M Stoney, Orfeu M Buxton, Christopher N Sciamanna, Paige M Green, David M Almeida
Stress is an established risk factor for negative health outcomes, and responses to everyday stress can interfere with health behaviors such as exercise and sleep. In accordance with the Science of Behavior Change (SOBC) program, we apply an experimental medicine approach to identifying stress response targets, developing stress response assays, intervening upon these targets, and testing intervention effectiveness. We evaluate an ecologically valid, within-person approach to measuring the deleterious effects of everyday stress on physical activity and sleep patterns, examining multiple stress response components (i...
September 28, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
Fernando A Martínez, Gustavo A Aucar
The influence of pi-stacking on the magnetic properties of atoms that belong to adenine-thymine and guanine-cytosine pairs in sequences of three and five layers of DNA base pairs was analysed. As probes we used NMR spectroscopic parameters, which are among the most useful tools to learn about the transmission of magnetic interactions in molecules. Four DFT functionals were employed: B3LYP, BHANDLYP, KT2 and KT3, together with the SOPPA method. Besides, given that the number of non-hydrogen atoms of the supramolecular systems studied here is larger than 50 we applied a locally dense basis set scheme...
October 18, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
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