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Ricardo Carrasco-Garcia, Patricia Barroso, Javier Perez-Olivares, Vidal Montoro, Joaquín Vicente
Understanding the role that facultative scavenger species may play in spreading infectious pathogens, and even becoming reservoirs for humans, domestic and wild ungulates or, on the contrary, preventing the spread of disease, requires a prior understanding of the pattern of carrion scavenging in specific scenarios. The objectives of this paper are (i) to describe the guild of vertebrate scavengers and (ii) to study the species-specific, habitat, and management-related factors involved in the usage of gut piles in South Central Spain (SCS), a tuberculosis (TB) endemic area...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Rebecca Garbett, Glyn Maude, Pete Hancock, David Kenny, Richard Reading, Arjun Amar
Lead (Pb) toxicity caused by the ingestion of Pb ammunition fragments in carcasses and offal is a threat to scavenging birds across the globe. African vultures are in critical decline, but research on whether Pb exposure is contributing to declines is lacking. In Africa, recreational hunting represents an important economic activity; however, Pb in leftover hunted carcasses and gut piles represents a dangerous food source for vultures. It is therefore important to establish whether recreational hunting is associated with Pb exposure in African vultures...
March 14, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Victoria Pile, Sally Robinson, Elystan Roberts, Marta Topor, Tammy Hedderly, Jennifer Y F Lau
OBJECTIVE: Depression is common in Tourette syndrome and Chronic Tic Disorders (TS/CTD) and contributes to significant impairment. The specificity of autobiographical memories is implicated in an individual's sense of self and their daily functioning but also in the onset and development of depression in the general population. Here, we examined whether memory specificity is reduced in young people with TS/CTD, relative to control participants, and whether memory specificity is associated with depression...
March 6, 2018: Comprehensive Psychiatry
Shi-Zeng Lin, Cristian D Batista
Skyrmions are disklike objects that typically form triangular crystals in two-dimensional systems. This situation is analogous to the so-called pancake vortices of quasi-two-dimensional superconductors. The way in which Skyrmion disks or "pancake Skyrmions" pile up in layered centrosymmetric materials is dictated by the interlayer exchange. Unbiased Monte Carlo simulations and simple stabilization arguments reveal face centered cubic and hexagonal close packed Skyrmion crystals for different choices of the interlayer exchange, in addition to the conventional triangular crystal of Skyrmion lines...
February 16, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Ning Liu, Ramana Pidaparti, Xianqiao Wang
Phosphorene, also known as monolayer black phosphorous, has been widely used in electronic devices due to its superior electrical properties. However, its relatively low Young's modulus, low fracture strength and susceptibility to structural failure has limited its application in nano devices. Therefore, in order to design more mechanically reliable devices that utilize phosphorene, it is necessary to explore the mechanical properties of polycrystalline phosphorene. Here molecular dynamics simulations are performed to study the effect of grain size on the mechanical performance of polycrystalline phosphorene sheets...
March 14, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Therese Adrian, Mads Hornum, Frank Eriksson, Jesper M Hansen, Katrine Pilely, Peter Garred, Bo Feldt-Rasmussen
Background: Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) have high morbidity and mortality rates, with cardiovascular diseases and infections being the major causes of death. Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) has been suggested to play a protective role in this regard. The aim of this study was to investigate a possible clinical association of MBL genotypes (MBL2) with outcome among patients on dialysis or with a functioning graft. Methods: A total of 98 patients with ESRD accepted for living-donor renal transplantation or on the waiting list for transplantation were included and prospectively followed for an average of 9 years (range 7...
March 3, 2018: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
Vikram Ravi, Allan H Gao, Natalie B Martinkus, Michael P Wolcott, Brian K Lamb
Forest residue is a major potential feedstock for second generation biofuel, however little knowledge exists about environmental impacts of development and production of biofuel from such a feedstock. Using a high-resolution regional air quality model, we estimate the air quality impacts of an aviation biofuel supply chain scenario in the Pacific Northwest of the United States that uses forest residue as the feedstock. Pollutant emissions for the major supply chain components including feedstock harvesting, transportation, and biorefinery operations were compiled...
March 5, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Christopher Power, Murugan Ramasamy, Martin Mkandawire
Cover systems are commonly applied to mine waste rock piles (WRPs) to control acid mine drainage (AMD). Single-layer covers utilize the moisture "store-and-release" concept to first store and then release moisture back to the atmosphere via evapotranspiration. Although more commonly used in semi-arid and arid climates, store-and-release covers remain an attractive option in humid climates due to the low cost and relative simplicity of installation. However, knowledge of their performance in these climates is limited...
March 3, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Jobst Wurl, Miguel Imaz Lamadrid, Lía Mendez-Rodriguez, Baudilio Acosta Vargas
The mining activity in the San Antonio-El Triunfo district, located in a mountainous region at 60 km southeast of La Paz, occured for more than 250 years and left behind severe contamination of soils and riverbed sediments which led to elevated concentrations of arsenic and other trace elements in the surface- and groundwater of the region. Although the main mining activity ended around 1911, contamination is still beeing distributed, especially from left behind tailings and mine waste piles. The contamination levels in the groundwater have been reported in several studies, but there is little information available on the surface water quality, and especially the temporal variation...
March 2, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
M Cóndor, T Rüberg, C Borau, J Piles, J M García-Aznar
Advances in microfabrication have allowed the development and popularization of microfluidic devices, which are powerful tools to recreate three-dimensional (3-D) biologically relevant in vitro models. These microenvironments are usually generated by using hydrogels and induced chemical gradients. Going further, computational models enable, after validation, the simulation of such conditions without the necessity of real experiments, thus saving costs and time. In this work we present a web-based application that allows, based on a previous numerical model, the assessment of different chemical gradients induced within a 3-D extracellular matrix...
February 6, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Xu Hong, Jianbin Zhou, Shijun Ni, Yingjie Ma, Jianfeng Yao, Wei Zhou, Yi Liu, Min Wang
High-precision measurement of X-ray spectra is affected by the statistical fluctuation of the X-ray beam under low-counting-rate conditions. It is also limited by counting loss resulting from the dead-time of the system and pile-up pulse effects, especially in a high-counting-rate environment. In this paper a detection system based on a FAST-SDD detector and a new kind of unit impulse pulse-shaping method is presented, for counting-loss correction in X-ray spectroscopy. The unit impulse pulse-shaping method is evolved by inverse deviation of the pulse from a reset-type preamplifier and a C-R shaper...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation
Suelen F Barros, Vito R Vanin, Alexandre A Malafronte, Nora L Maidana, Marcos N Martins
Dead-time effects in X-ray spectra taken with a digital pulse processor and a silicon drift detector were investigated when the number of events at the low-energy end of the spectrum was more than half of the total, at counting rates up to 56 kHz. It was found that dead-time losses in the spectra are energy dependent and an analytical correction for this effect, which takes into account pulse pile-up, is proposed. This and the usual models have been applied to experimental measurements, evaluating the dead-time fraction either from the calculations or using the value given by the detector acquisition system...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation
L Adamczyk, J R Adams, J K Adkins, G Agakishiev, M M Aggarwal, Z Ahammed, N N Ajitanand, I Alekseev, D M Anderson, R Aoyama, A Aparin, D Arkhipkin, E C Aschenauer, M U Ashraf, A Attri, G S Averichev, X Bai, V Bairathi, K Barish, A Behera, R Bellwied, A Bhasin, A K Bhati, P Bhattarai, J Bielcik, J Bielcikova, L C Bland, I G Bordyuzhin, J Bouchet, J D Brandenburg, A V Brandin, D Brown, I Bunzarov, J Butterworth, H Caines, M Calderón de la Barca Sánchez, J M Campbell, D Cebra, I Chakaberia, P Chaloupka, Z Chang, N Chankova-Bunzarova, A Chatterjee, S Chattopadhyay, X Chen, J H Chen, X Chen, J Cheng, M Cherney, W Christie, G Contin, H J Crawford, S Das, L C De Silva, T G Dedovich, J Deng, A A Derevschikov, L Didenko, C Dilks, X Dong, J L Drachenberg, J E Draper, L E Dunkelberger, J C Dunlop, L G Efimov, N Elsey, J Engelage, G Eppley, R Esha, S Esumi, O Evdokimov, J Ewigleben, O Eyser, R Fatemi, S Fazio, P Federic, P Federicova, J Fedorisin, Z Feng, P Filip, E Finch, Y Fisyak, C E Flores, J Fujita, L Fulek, C A Gagliardi, D Garand, F Geurts, A Gibson, M Girard, D Grosnick, D S Gunarathne, Y Guo, A Gupta, S Gupta, W Guryn, A I Hamad, A Hamed, A Harlenderova, J W Harris, L He, S Heppelmann, S Heppelmann, A Hirsch, S Horvat, X Huang, B Huang, T Huang, H Z Huang, T J Humanic, P Huo, G Igo, W W Jacobs, A Jentsch, J Jia, K Jiang, S Jowzaee, E G Judd, S Kabana, D Kalinkin, K Kang, D Kapukchyan, K Kauder, H W Ke, D Keane, A Kechechyan, Z Khan, D P Kikoła, C Kim, I Kisel, A Kisiel, L Kochenda, M Kocmanek, T Kollegger, L K Kosarzewski, A F Kraishan, L Krauth, P Kravtsov, K Krueger, N Kulathunga, L Kumar, J Kvapil, J H Kwasizur, R Lacey, J M Landgraf, K D Landry, J Lauret, A Lebedev, R Lednicky, J H Lee, C Li, X Li, Y Li, W Li, J Lidrych, T Lin, M A Lisa, P Liu, H Liu, Y Liu, F Liu, T Ljubicic, W J Llope, M Lomnitz, R S Longacre, S Luo, X Luo, Y G Ma, L Ma, R Ma, G L Ma, N Magdy, R Majka, D Mallick, S Margetis, C Markert, H S Matis, K Meehan, J C Mei, Z W Miller, N G Minaev, S Mioduszewski, D Mishra, S Mizuno, B Mohanty, M M Mondal, D A Morozov, M K Mustafa, Md Nasim, T K Nayak, J M Nelson, M Nie, G Nigmatkulov, T Niida, L V Nogach, T Nonaka, S B Nurushev, G Odyniec, A Ogawa, K Oh, V A Okorokov, D Olvitt, B S Page, R Pak, Y Pandit, Y Panebratsev, B Pawlik, H Pei, C Perkins, P Pile, J Pluta, K Poniatowska, J Porter, M Posik, N K Pruthi, M Przybycien, J Putschke, H Qiu, A Quintero, S Ramachandran, R L Ray, R Reed, M J Rehbein, H G Ritter, J B Roberts, O V Rogachevskiy, J L Romero, J D Roth, L Ruan, J Rusnak, O Rusnakova, N R Sahoo, P K Sahu, S Salur, J Sandweiss, M Saur, J Schambach, A M Schmah, W B Schmidke, N Schmitz, B R Schweid, J Seger, M Sergeeva, R Seto, P Seyboth, N Shah, E Shahaliev, P V Shanmuganathan, M Shao, A Sharma, M K Sharma, W Q Shen, S S Shi, Z Shi, Q Y Shou, E P Sichtermann, R Sikora, M Simko, S Singha, M J Skoby, N Smirnov, D Smirnov, W Solyst, L Song, P Sorensen, H M Spinka, B Srivastava, T D S Stanislaus, M Strikhanov, B Stringfellow, A A P Suaide, T Sugiura, M Sumbera, B Summa, Y Sun, X M Sun, X Sun, B Surrow, D N Svirida, Z Tang, A H Tang, A Taranenko, T Tarnowsky, A Tawfik, J Thäder, J H Thomas, A R Timmins, D Tlusty, T Todoroki, M Tokarev, S Trentalange, R E Tribble, P Tribedy, S K Tripathy, B A Trzeciak, O D Tsai, T Ullrich, D G Underwood, I Upsal, G Van Buren, G van Nieuwenhuizen, A N Vasiliev, F Videbæk, S Vokal, S A Voloshin, A Vossen, G Wang, Y Wang, F Wang, Y Wang, J C Webb, G Webb, L Wen, G D Westfall, H Wieman, S W Wissink, R Witt, Y Wu, Z G Xiao, G Xie, W Xie, J Xu, Z Xu, Q H Xu, Y F Xu, N Xu, S Yang, Y Yang, C Yang, Q Yang, Z Ye, Z Ye, L Yi, K Yip, I-K Yoo, N Yu, H Zbroszczyk, W Zha, Z Zhang, J B Zhang, J Zhang, S Zhang, Y Zhang, X P Zhang, J Zhang, S Zhang, J Zhao, C Zhong, C Zhou, L Zhou, X Zhu, Z Zhu, M Zyzak
Rapidity-odd directed-flow measurements at midrapidity are presented for Λ, Λ[over ¯], K^{±}, K_{s}^{0}, and ϕ at sqrt[s_{NN}]=7.7, 11.5, 14.5, 19.6, 27, 39, 62.4, and 200 GeV in Au+Au collisions recorded by the Solenoidal Tracker detector at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. These measurements greatly expand the scope of data available to constrain models with differing prescriptions for the equation of state of quantum chromodynamics. Results show good sensitivity for testing a picture where flow is assumed to be imposed before hadron formation and the observed particles are assumed to form via coalescence of constituent quarks...
February 9, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Seunggun Won, Naveed Ahmed, Byung-Gu You, Soomin Shim, Seung-Su Kim, Changsix Ra
Background: Poultry breeding has increased by 306% in Korea, inevitably increasing the production of manure which may contribute to environmental pollution. The nutrients (NP) in the manure are essential for crop cultivation and soil fertility when applied as compost. Excess nutrients from manure can be accumulated on the land and can lead to eutrophication. Therefore, a nutrient load on the finite land should be calculated. Methods: This study calculates the nutrient production from Korean poultry by investigating 11 broiler and 16 laying hen farms...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Technology
Mariya Vizireanu, Daniel Hruschka
OBJECTIVE: This study examined perceptions of healthy eating styles among US respondents to determine whether eating styles are defined as a distinct set of people's healthy eating beliefs and how different aspects of eating styles are perceived to affect health. DESIGN: In-person pile sort activities were used to identify key dimensions of healthy eating beliefs, and online surveys were used to confirm these dimensions and examine perceived health benefits of healthy eating styles...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior
Ahmed Rashid
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: British Journal of General Practice: the Journal of the Royal College of General Practitioners
Ke-Ling Wang, Shu-Fang Ma, Ling-Yu Pang, Meng-Na Zhang, Lin-Yan Hu, Meng-Jia Liu, Li-Ping Zou
RATIONALE: Blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome (BRBNS) is a rare disease characterized by multiple venous malformations. The gastrointestinal bleeding and secondary iron deficiency anemia are the most common complications. There are currently no effective treatments for BRBNS. Here, we report a case of successful treatment with a small dose of sirolimus of a BRBN patient with a de novo gene mutation. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 12-year-old female was admitted to our hospital with multiple hemangiomas for 12 years...
February 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Stefano Stacul, Nunziante Squeglia
A Boundary Element Method (BEM) approach was developed for the analysis of pile groups. The proposed method includes: the non-linear behavior of the soil by a hyperbolic modulus reduction curve; the non-linear response of reinforced concrete pile sections, also taking into account the influence of tension stiffening; the influence of suction by increasing the stiffness of shallow portions of soil and modeled using the Modified Kovacs model; pile group shadowing effect, modeled using an approach similar to that proposed in the Strain Wedge Model for pile groups analyses...
February 15, 2018: Materials
Haizhou Li, Min Li, Xinrui Yang, Xin Gui, Guofeng Chen, Jiuyun Chu, Xingwang He, Weitao Wang, Feng Han, Ping Li
Xiaguan Tuo Tea is largely consumed by the Chinese, but there is little research into the microbial diversity and component changes during the fermentation of this tea. In this study, we first used fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), next-generation sequencing (NGS) and chemical analysis methods to determine the microbial abundance and diversity and the chemical composition during fermentation. The FISH results showed that the total number of microorganisms ranges from 2.3×102 to 4.0×108 cells per gram of sample during fermentation and is mainly dominated by fungi...
2018: PloS One
Kristofer Lasko, Krishna Vadrevu
In Southeast Asia and Vietnam, rice residues are routinely burned after the harvest to prepare fields for the next season. Specific to Vietnam, the two prevalent burning practices include: a). piling the residues after hand harvesting; b). burning the residues without piling, after machine harvesting. In this study, we synthesized field and laboratory studies from the literature on rice residue burning emission factors for PM2.5 . We found significant differences in the resulting burning-practice specific emission factors, with 16...
February 16, 2018: Environmental Pollution
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