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Glutamate mood disorders

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081090/sinomenine-an-alkaloid-derived-from-sinomenium-acutum-potentiates-pentobarbital-induced-sleep-behaviors-and-non-rapid-eye-movement-nrem-sleep-in-rodents
#1
Jae Hyeon Yoo, Tae-Woo Ha, Jin Tae Hong, Ki-Wan Oh
Sinomenium acutum has been long used in the preparations of traditional medicine in Japan, China and Korea for the treatment of various disorders including rheumatism, fever, pulmonary diseases and mood disorders. Recently, it was reported that Sinomenium acutum, has sedative and anxiolytic effects mediated by GABA-ergic systems. These experiments were performed to investigate whether sinomenine (SIN), an alkaloid derived from Sinomenium acutum enhances pentobarbital-induced sleep via γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic systems, and modulates sleep architecture in mice...
November 1, 2017: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079138/a-homer-1-gene-variant-influences-brain-structure-and-function-lithium-effects-on-white-matter-and-antidepressant-response-in-bipolar-disorder-a-multimodal-genetic-imaging-study
#2
Francesco Benedetti, Sara Poletti, Clara Locatelli, Elena Mazza, Cristina Lorenzi, Alice Vitali, Martina Riberto, Silvia Brioschi, Benedetta Vai, Irene Bollettini, Elisa Melloni, Veronica Aggio, Andrea Falini, Andrea De Bartolomeis, Cristina Colombo
BACKGROUND: The Homer family of postsynaptic scaffolding proteins plays a crucial role in glutamate-mediated synaptic plasticity, a phenotype associated with Bipolar Disorder (BD). Homer is a target for antidepressants and mood stabilizers. The AA risk genotype of the Homer rs7713917 A>G SNP has been associated with mood disorders and suicide, and in healthy humans with brain function. Despite the evidence linking Homer 1 gene and function to mood disorder, as well as its involvement in animal models of depression, no study has yet investigated the role of Homer in bipolar depression and treatment response...
October 27, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986865/nmda-receptors-in-the-central-nervous-system
#3
Kasper B Hansen, Feng Yi, Riley E Perszyk, Frank S Menniti, Stephen F Traynelis
NMDA-type glutamate receptors are ligand-gated ion channels that mediate a major component of excitatory neurotransmission in the central nervous system (CNS). They are widely distributed at all stages of development and are critically involved in normal brain functions, including neuronal development and synaptic plasticity. NMDA receptors are also implicated in the pathophysiology of numerous neurological and psychiatric disorders, such as ischemic stroke, traumatic brain injury, Alzheimer's disease, epilepsy, mood disorders, and schizophrenia...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939975/ketamine-induced-glutamatergic-mechanisms-of-sleep-and-wakefulness-insights-for-developing-novel-treatments-for-disturbed-sleep-and-mood
#4
Wallace C Duncan, Elizabeth D Ballard, Carlos A Zarate
Ketamine, a drug with rapid antidepressant effects and well-described effects on slow wave sleep (SWS), is a useful intervention for investigating sleep-wake mechanisms involved in novel therapeutics. The drug rapidly (within minutes to hours) reduces depressive symptoms in individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD) or bipolar disorder (BD), including those with treatment-resistant depression. Ketamine treatment elevates extracellular glutamate in the prefrontal cortex. Glutamate, in turn, plays a critical role as a proximal element in a ketamine-initiated molecular cascade that increases synaptic strength and plasticity, which ultimately results in rapidly improved mood...
September 23, 2017: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935587/glutamatergic-synapses-in-neurodevelopmental-disorders
#5
REVIEW
Edoardo Moretto, Luca Murru, Giuseppe Martano, Jenny Sassone, Maria Passafaro
Neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) are a group of diseases whose symptoms arise during childhood or adolescence and that impact several higher cognitive functions such as learning, sociability and mood. Accruing evidence suggests that a shared pathogenic mechanism underlying these diseases is the dysfunction of glutamatergic synapses. We summarize present knowledge on autism spectrum disorders (ASD), intellectual disability (ID), Down syndrome (DS), Rett syndrome (RS) and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), highlighting the involvement of glutamatergic synapses and receptors in these disorders...
September 19, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882088/slc7a11-xct-protein-expression-is-not-altered-in-the-depressed-brain-and-system-xc-deficiency-does-not-affect-depression-associated-behaviour-in-the-corticosterone-mouse-model
#6
Thomas Demuyser, Lauren Deneyer, Eduard Bentea, Giulia Albertini, Teresa Femenia, Laura Walrave, Hideyo Sato, Niels C Danbolt, Dimitri De Bundel, Alex Michotte, Maria Lindskog, Ann Massie, Ilse Smolders
OBJECTIVES: The cystine/glutamate antiporter (system xc-) is believed to contribute to nonvesicular glutamate release from glial cells in various brain areas. Although recent investigations implicate system xc- in mood disorders, unambiguous evidence has not yet been established. Therefore, we evaluated the possible role of system xc- in the depressive state. METHODS: We conducted a protein expression analysis of the specific subunit of system xc- (xCT) in brain regions of the corticosterone mouse model, Flinders Sensitive Line rat model and post-mortem tissue of depressed patients...
September 8, 2017: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857657/opioid-system-contribution-to-the-antidepressant-like-action-of-m-trifluoromethyl-diphenyl-diselenide-in-mice-a-compound-devoid-of-tolerance-and-withdrawal-syndrome
#7
Suzan G Rosa, Ana P Pesarico, Carolina F Tagliapietra, Sônia C A da Luz, Cristina W Nogueira
Animal and clinical researches indicate that the opioid system exerts a crucial role in the etiology of mood disorders and is a target for intervention in depression treatment. This study investigated the contribution of the opioid system to the antidepressant-like action of acute or repeated m-trifluoromethyl-diphenyl diselenide administration to Swiss mice. m-Trifluoromethyl-diphenyl diselenide (50 mg/kg, intragastric) produced an antidepressant-like action in the forced swimming test from 30 min to 24 h after treatment...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851991/upregulation-of-prefrontal-metabotropic-glutamate-receptor-5-mediates-neuropathic-pain-and-negative-mood-symptoms-after-spinal-nerve-injury-in-rats
#8
Geehoon Chung, Chae Young Kim, Yeong-Chan Yun, Sang Ho Yoon, Myoung-Hwan Kim, Yu Kyeong Kim, Sang Jeong Kim
Patients with chronic pain easily accompany the negative mood symptoms such as depression and anxiety, and these disturbances in turn affect the aversive perception of pain. However, the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. We hypothesized that the alteration of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) in the brain region underlies such a comorbidity of aversive states. We scanned the brain of chronic neuropathic pain model rats using positron emission tomography (PET) technique with an mGluR5-selective radiotracer [11C] ABP688 and found various brain regions with higher or lower level of mGluR5 compared to control rats...
August 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843752/molecular-and-cellular-dissection-of-nmda-receptor-subtypes-as-antidepressant-targets
#9
REVIEW
Elisabeth Lang, Anne S Mallien, Andrei-Nicolae Vasilescu, Dimitri Hefter, Alessia Luoni, Marco A Riva, Stefan Borgwardt, Rolf Sprengel, Undine E Lang, Peter Gass, Dragos Inta
A growing body of evidence supports the idea that drugs targeting the glutamate system may represent a valuable therapeutic alternative in major depressive disorders (MDD). The rapid and prolonged mood elevating effect of the NMDA receptor (NMDAR) antagonist ketamine has been studied intensely. However, its clinical use is hampered by deleterious side-effects, such as psychosis. Therefore, a better understanding of the mechanisms of the psychotropic effects after NMDAR blockade is necessary to develop glutamatergic antidepressants with improved therapeutic profile...
August 23, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835770/a-network-pharmacology-based-strategy-deciphers-the-underlying-molecular-mechanisms-of-qixuehe-capsule-in-the-treatment-of-menstrual-disorders
#10
Yanqiong Zhang, Xia Mao, Jing Su, Ya Geng, Rui Guo, Shihuan Tang, Junfang Li, Xuefeng Xiao, Haiyu Xu, Hongjun Yang
BACKGROUND: QiXueHe Capsule (QXHC) is a Chinese patent drug that is extensively used for the treatment of menstrual disorders. However, its underlying pharmacological mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. METHODS: A list of QXHC putative targets were predicted using MetaDrug. An interaction network using links between QXHC putative targets and the known therapeutic targets of menstrual disorders was constructed. QXHC candidate targets were also identified via calculating the topological feature values of nodes in the network...
2017: Chinese Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830794/regulation-of-gene-transcription-in-bipolar-disorders-role-of-dna-methylation-in-the-relationship-between-prodynorphin-and-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor
#11
Claudio D'Addario, Maria Carlotta Palazzo, Beatrice Benatti, Benedetta Grancini, Mariangela Pucci, Andrea Di Francesco, Giulia Camuri, Daniela Galimberti, Chiara Fenoglio, Elio Scarpini, A Carlo Altamura, Mauro Maccarrone, Bernardo Dell'Osso
Bipolar Disorder (BD) is a prevalent and disabling condition, determined by gene-environment interactions, possibly mediated by epigenetic mechanisms. The present study aimed at investigating the transcriptional regulation of BD selected target genes by DNA methylation in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients with a DSM-5 diagnosis of type I (BD-I) and type II (BD-II) Bipolar Disorders (n=99), as well as of healthy controls (CT, n=42). The analysis of gene expression revealed prodynorphin (PDYN) mRNA levels significantly reduced in subjects with BD-II but not in those with BD-I, when compared to CT...
August 19, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823105/understanding-peripartum-depression-through-neuroimaging-a-review-of-structural-and-functional-connectivity-and-molecular-imaging-research
#12
REVIEW
Christy Duan, Jessica Cosgrove, Kristina M Deligiannidis
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Imaging research has sought to uncover brain structure, function, and metabolism in women with postpartum depression (PPD) as little is known about its underlying pathophysiology. This review discusses the imaging modalities used to date to evaluate postpartum depression and highlights recent findings. RECENT FINDINGS: Altered functional connectivity and activity changes in brain areas implicated in executive functioning and emotion and reward processing have been identified in PPD...
August 19, 2017: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800512/metabotropic-glutamate-receptors-as-emerging-research-targets-in-bipolar-disorder
#13
REVIEW
Caren J Blacker, Charles P Lewis, Mark A Frye, Marin Veldic
Glutamatergic dysregulation is implicated in the neuropathology of bipolar disorder (BD). There is increasing interest in investigating the role of metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) in BD and as a target for treatment intervention. Bipolar mGluR studies (published January 1992-April 2016) were identified via PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and Scopus. Full-text screening, data extraction, and quality appraisal were conducted in duplicate, with strict inclusion and exclusion criteria. The initial literature search for mGluRs in BD, including non-bipolar mood disorders and primary psychotic disorders, identified 1544 articles...
November 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780133/altered-glua1-gria1-function-and-accumbal-synaptic-plasticity-in-the-clock%C3%AE-19-model-of-bipolar-mania
#14
Puja K Parekh, Darius Becker-Krail, Poornima Sundaravelu, Shinsuke Ishigaki, Haruo Okado, Gen Sobue, Yanhua Huang, Colleen A McClung
BACKGROUND: Disruptions in circadian rhythms are associated with an increased risk for bipolar disorder. Moreover, studies show that the circadian protein CLOCK (circadian locomotor output cycles kaput) is involved in regulating monoaminergic systems and mood-related behavior. However, the molecular and synaptic mechanisms underlying this relationship remain poorly understood. METHODS: Using ex vivo whole-cell patch-clamp electrophysiology in ClockΔ19 mutant and wild-type mice we characterized alterations in excitatory synaptic transmission, strength, and intrinsic excitability of nucleus accumbens (NAc) neurons...
June 27, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777756/long-term-effects-of-safinamide-on-mood-fluctuations-in-parkinson-s-disease
#15
Carlo Cattaneo, Thomas Müller, Erminio Bonizzoni, Gabriele Lazzeri, Ioannis Kottakis, Charlotte Keywood
BACKGROUND: Mood disorders are very frequent in Parkinson's Disease (PD), and their effective treatment is still a major unresolved issue: growing evidence suggests that glutamatergic system dysfunction is directly involved. Safinamide is a drug with an innovative mechanism of action, dopaminergic and non-dopaminergic, that includes the reversible inhibition of the monoamine oxidase-B (MAO-B) enzyme and the modulation of excessive glutamate release through the use- and state-dependent blockade of the sodium channels...
2017: Journal of Parkinson's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758582/potential-novel-treatments-for-bipolar-depression-ketamine-fatty-acids-anti-inflammatory-agents-and-probiotics
#16
G H Vázquez, S Camino, L Tondo, Ross J Baldessarini
BACKGROUND: Treatments for depression in bipolar disorder (BD) are far less well developed than for unipolar major depressive disorder. Several innovative and experimental approaches have been emerging recently, including use of the dissociative anesthetic ketamine and other antagonists of central NMDA glutamate receptors, as well as unsaturated fatty acids, anti-inflammatory agents, and possibly probiotic methods. METHODS: We reviewed relevant reports from the past decade...
July 28, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738353/inflammation-effects-on-glutamate-as-a-pathway-to-neuroprogression-in-mood-disorders
#17
Ebrahim Haroon, Andrew H Miller
Neuroprogression is a term used to describe worsening psychopathology, poor treatment response, and declining cognitive and functional outcomes among patients with chronic mental disorders. Chronic inflammatory activation and glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity are two key etiological factors implicated in the development of neuroprogression. In this chapter, we hypothesize that the association between chronic inflammatory activation, neuroprogression, and glutamate dysregulation might be mediated by glial dysfunction...
2017: Modern Trends in Pharmacopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711661/mechanisms-of-action-and-clinical-efficacy-of-nmda-receptor-modulators-in-mood-disorders
#18
REVIEW
Mehdi Ghasemi, Cristy Phillips, Atoossa Fahimi, Margaret Windy McNerney, Ahmad Salehi
Although the biogenic amine models have provided meaningful links between clinical phenomena and pharmacological management of mood disorders (MDs), the onset of action of current treatments is slow and a proportion of individuals fail to adequately respond. A growing number of investigations have focused on the glutamatergic system as a viable target. Herein we review the putative role of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) signaling in the pathophysiology of MDs. Prompting this focus are several lines of evidence: 1) altered glutamate and NMDA receptor (NMDAR) expression and functioning; 2) antidepressant effects of NMDAR signaling blockers; 3) interaction between conventional therapeutic regimens and NMDAR signaling modulators; 4) biochemical evidence of interaction between monoaminergic system and NMDAR signaling; 5) interaction between neurotrophic factors and NMDAR signaling in mood regulation; 6) cross-talk between NMDAR signaling and inflammatory processes; and 7) antidepressant effects of a number of NMDA modulators in recent clinical trials...
July 13, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670127/suicide-and-lyme-and-associated-diseases
#19
Robert C Bransfield
PURPOSE: The aim of this paper is to investigate the association between suicide and Lyme and associated diseases (LAD). No journal article has previously performed a comprehensive assessment of this subject. INTRODUCTION: Multiple case reports and other references demonstrate a causal association between suicidal risk and LAD. Suicide risk is greater in outdoor workers and veterans, both with greater LAD exposure. Multiple studies demonstrate many infections and the associated proinflammatory cytokines, inflammatory-mediated metabolic changes, and quinolinic acid and glutamate changes alter neural circuits which increase suicidality...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534301/effects-of-acetyl-l-carnitine-in-diabetic-neuropathy-and-other-geriatric-disorders
#20
REVIEW
G Sergi, S Pizzato, F Piovesan, C Trevisan, N Veronese, E Manzato
A long history of diabetes mellitus and increasing age are associated with the onset of diabetic neuropathy, a painful and highly disabling complication with a prevalence peaking at 50% among elderly diabetic patients. Acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC) is a molecule derived from the acetylation of carnitine in the mitochondria that has an essential role in energy production. It has recently been proposed as a therapy to improve the symptoms of diabetic neuropathy. ALC is widely distributed in mammalian tissues, including the brain, blood-brain barrier, brain neurons, and astrocytes...
May 22, 2017: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research
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