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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820892/maternal-autoimmune-antibodies-alter-the-dendritic-arbor-and-spine-numbers-in-the-infragranular-layers-of-the-cortex
#1
Jeanelle Ariza, Jesus Hurtado, Haille Rogers, Raymond Ikeda, Michael Dill, Craig Steward, Donnay Creary, Judy Van de Water, Verónica Martínez-Cerdeño
An association between maternal IgG antibodies reactive against proteins in fetal brain and an outcome of autism in the child has been identified. Using a mouse model of prenatal intraventricular administration of autism-specific maternal IgG, we demonstrated that these antibodies produce behavioral alterations similar to those in children with ASD. We previously demonstrated that these antibodies bind to radial glial stem cells (RG) and observed an increase in the number of divisions of translocating RG in the developing cortex...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820870/controversies-in-the-identification-and-management-of-acute-pulmonary-hypertension-in-preterm-neonates
#2
REVIEW
Regan E Giesinger, Kiran More, Jodie Odame, Amish Jain, Robert P Jankov, Patrick J McNamara
It is increasingly recognized that the abnormal physiologic consequences of pulmonary hypertension (PH) may contribute to poor cardiopulmonary health in premature babies. Conflicting literature has led to clinical uncertainty, pathological misinterpretation and variability in treatment approaches among practitioners. There are several disorders with overlapping and interrelated presentations and other disorders with a similar clinical phenotype but diverse pathophysiological contributors. In this review, we provide a diagnostic approach for acute HRF in the preterm neonate, outline the pathophysiological conditions that may present as acute PH and discuss the implications of high pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) on the cardiovascular system...
August 18, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820737/when-one-disease-is-not-enough-succinyl-coa-3-oxoacid-coenzyme-a-transferase-scot-deficiency-due-to-a-novel-mutation-in-oxct1-in-an-infant-with-known-phenylketonuria
#3
Jan-Niclas Schwade, Matthias Endmann, Thomas Hofmann, Stephan Rust, Jörn Oliver Sass, Frank Rutsch
A 9-month-old Turkish girl was admitted several times within 3 months to the hospital in reduced general condition and with extreme tachypnea. The patient had been diagnosed with phenylketonuria (PKU) in newborn screening and has been treated with a low phenylalanine diet and amino acid supplements. Each time an unexplained pronounced metabolic acidosis was noted, and the child was treated with sodium-bicarbonate and glucose-electrolyte infusions. The acidosis with only slightly abnormal glucose, normal lactate levels and pronounced ketonuria suggested a defect in ketone body utilization...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820654/locus-specific-dna-methylation-in-the-placenta-is-associated-with-levels-of-pro-inflammatory-proteins-in-cord-blood-and-they-are-both-independently-affected-by-maternal-smoking-during-pregnancy
#4
Sanne D van Otterdijk, Alexandra M Binder, Karin B Michels
We investigated the impact of maternal smoking during pregnancy on placental DNA methylation and how this may mediate the association between maternal smoking and pro-inflammatory proteins in cord blood. The study population consisted of 27 individuals exposed to maternal smoking throughout pregnancy, 32 individuals exposed during a proportion of the pregnancy, and 61 unexposed individuals. Methylation of 11 regions within 6 genes in placenta tissue was assessed by pyrosequencing. Levels of 7 pro-inflammatory proteins in cord blood were assessed by electrochemiluminescence...
August 18, 2017: Epigenetics: Official Journal of the DNA Methylation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820429/propofol-s-effects-on-the-fetal-brain-for-non-obstetric-surgery
#5
REVIEW
Ajay Malhotra, Emily Yosh, Ming Xiong
While the use of Propofol has been increasing in usage for general surgical procedures since its release to market, there has been little work done on its potential link to neurotoxicity in humans. Only recently, following the release of a warning label from the United States Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) regarding a potential link to "neurotoxicity" in the neonate, did the surgical and anesthesiology communities become more aware of its potential for harm. Given the widespread use of this drug in clinical practice, the warning label naturally raised controversy regarding intrapartum Propofol usage...
August 18, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820417/-neurosonographical-characteristics-of-dysmature-infants-depending-on-conducted-neuroprotection
#6
A Gasparyan
The actual problem of modern obstetrics is a preterm delivery (PD), its tactics as the matter of specialists' discussions. One of the main components of "preterm delivery considerate management" is the conduction of fetus neuroprotection. Currently, the only wide spread preparation for fetus neuroprotection is magnesium sulphate, the advisability of that is criticized by several authors. The 62 neonatals of recurrent delivering women with monocarpous pregnancy, who delivered with 27-28- week gestation, were examined...
July 2017: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820404/responding-professionally-to-requests-for-cesarean-delivery
#7
F Chervenak, L McCullough
Patients' requests for non-indicated cesarean delivery challenge the professionalism of obstetricians. This is because physicians should not provide clinical management in the absence of an evidence-based indication for it. The ethics of responding professionally to requests for non-indicated cesarean delivery would appear to be simple: just say "No." This paper presents an ethically and clinically more nuanced approach, on the basis of the professional responsibility model of obstetric ethics, emphasizinga preventive ethics approach...
July 2017: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820340/effect-of-support-supervision-on-maternal-and-newborn-health-services-and-practices-in-rural-eastern-uganda
#8
Angela N Kisakye, Rornald Muhumuza Kananura, Elizabeth Ekirapa-Kiracho, John Bua, Martha Akulume, Gertrude Namazzi, Suzanne Namusoke Kiwanuka
BACKGROUND: Support supervision is one of the strategies used to check the quality of services provided at health facilities. From 2013 to 2015, Makerere University School of Public Health strengthened support supervision in the district of Kibuku, Kamuli and Pallisa in Eastern Uganda to improve the quality of maternal and newborn services. OBJECTIVE: This article assesses quality improvements in maternal and newborn care services and practices during this period...
August 2017: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820078/effects-of-excitotoxic-lesion-with-inhaled-anesthetics-on-nervous-system-cells-of-rodents
#9
Maria Fernanda Quiroz Padilla, Gemma Guillazo-Blanch, Magdy Sanchez, Maria Andrea Dominguez, Rosa Margaria Gomez
Different anesthesia methods can variably influence excitotoxic lesion effects on the brain. The main purpose of this review is to identify potential differences in the toxicity to nervous system cells of two common inhalation anesthesia methods, isoflurane and sevoflurane, used in combination with an excitotoxic lesion procedure in rodents. The use of bioassays in animal models has provided the opportunity to examine the role of specific molecules and cellular interactions that underlie important aspects of neurotoxic effects relating to calcium homeostasis and apoptosis activation...
August 17, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820046/-nurture-the-sprouting-bud-do-not-uproot-it-using-saving-groups-to-save-for-maternal-and-newborn-health-lessons-from-rural-eastern-uganda
#10
Elizabeth Ekirapa-Kiracho, Ligia Paina, Rornald Muhumuza Kananura, Aloysius Mutebi, Pacuto Jane, Juliet Tumuhairwe, Moses Tetui, Suzanne N Kiwanuka
BACKGROUND: Saving groups are increasingly being used to save in many developing countries. However, there is limited literature about how they can be exploited to improve maternal and newborn health. OBJECTIVES: This paper describes saving practices, factors that encourage and constrain saving with saving groups, and lessons learnt while supporting communities to save through saving groups. METHODS: This qualitative study was done in three districts in Eastern Uganda...
August 2017: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819941/maternal-and-neonatal-outcomes-of-pregnancy-at-39-weeks-and-beyond-with-mild-gestational-diabetes-mellitus
#11
Hanqing Chen, Suhua Zou, Jianbo Yang, Songqing Deng, Jian Cai, Zilian Wang
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to retrospectively analyze maternal and neonatal outcomes in pregnant women with mild gestational diabetes mellitus at 39 weeks compared to 40 weeks. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Clinical data of 372 cases of mild gestational diabetes mellitus form First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University were analyzed retrospectively. There were 108 mild GDM patients that delivered at 40-40+6 weeks in our research group, and 264 patients that delivered in 39-39+6 weeks in the control group...
2017: Ginekologia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819748/lipoxin-a4-attenuates-bronchopulmonary-dysplasia-via-upregulation-of-let-7c-and-downregulation-of-tgf-%C3%AE-1-signaling-pathway
#12
Xiao-Qing Chen, Sheng-Hua Wu, Yan-Yan Luo, Bing-Jie Li, Shu-Jun Li, Hong-Yan Lu, Rui Jin, Zhong-Yi Sun
Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) superfamily members are key regulators for lung development and progress of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). The mechanisms by which lipoxin A4 (LXA4) attenuates development of BPD have not been clarified. Neonatal murine BPD models were inducted by hyperoxia treatment. Neonatal mice were exposed to room air or 85% O2 hyperoxia with or without treatment with 5S,6R-methyl-LXA4 or anti-TGF-β antibodies. Mouse lung epithelial cells (MLE-12 cells) and mouse embryonic fibroblasts (NIH/3T3 cells) were cultured in room air or 85% O2 followed by treatment of LXA4, anti-TGF-β antibodies, and let-7c mimic/anti-microRNA transfections...
August 17, 2017: Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819628/abnormal-biomarkers-of-homocysteine-metabolism-in-neonates-with-conotruncal-heart-defects
#13
Piotr Surmiak, Małgorzata Baumert, Magdalena Paprotny
OBJECTIVES: The etiology of conotruncal heart defects (CHD) remains unknown; however relation between homocysteine, folate levels, and congenital heart disease was found. With this perspective in mind, the aim of the study was to investigate biomarkers of homosyteine metabolism pathway in mothers and their neonates with CHD. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forty-three pairs of mothers and their neonates with CHD and forty pairs of mothers and neonates with nonconotruncal heart defects (non-CHD) were enrolled...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819234/transcriptome-of-neonatal-preb%C3%A3-tzinger-complex-neurones-in-dbx1-reporter-mice
#14
John A Hayes, Andrew Kottick, Maria Cristina D Picardo, Andrew D Halleran, Ronald D Smith, Gregory D Smith, Margaret S Saha, Christopher A Del Negro
We sequenced the transcriptome of brainstem interneurons in the specialized respiratory rhythmogenic site dubbed preBötzinger Complex (preBötC) from newborn mice. To distinguish molecular characteristics of the core oscillator we compared preBötC neurons derived from Dbx1-expressing progenitors that are respiratory rhythmogenic to neighbouring non-Dbx1-derived neurons, which support other respiratory and non-respiratory functions. Results in three categories are particularly salient. First, Dbx1 preBötC neurons express κ-opioid receptors in addition to μ-opioid receptors that heretofore have been associated with opiate respiratory depression, which may have clinical applications...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819195/human-cytomegalovirus-escapes-immune-recognition-by-nk-cells-through-the-downregulation-of-b7-h6-by-the-viral-genes-us18-and-us20
#15
Yoav Charpak-Amikam, Tobias Kubsch, Einat Seidel, Esther Oiknine-Djian, Noemi Cavaletto, Rachel Yamin, Dominik Schmiedel, Dana Wolf, Giorgio Gribaudo, Martin Messerle, Luka Cicin-Sain, Ofer Mandelboim
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a major human pathogen, causing serious diseases in immunocompromised populations and congenially infected neonates. One of the main immune cells acting against the virus are Natural Killer (NK) cells. Killing by NK cells is mediated by a small family of activating receptors such as NKp30 that interact with the cellular ligand B7-H6. The outcome of B7-H6-NKp30 interaction was, so far, mainly studied with regard to NK recognition and killing of tumors. Here, we demonstrated that the expression of B7-H6 is upregulated following HCMV infection and that HCMV uses two of its genes: US18 and US20, to interfere with B7-H6 surface expression, in a mechanism involving endosomal degradation, in order to evade NK cell recognition...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819071/genetic-and-non-genetic-factors-associated-with-protein-abundance-of-flavin-containing-monooxygenase-3-in-human-liver
#16
Meijuan Xu, Deepak Kumar Bhatt, Catherine K Yeung, Katrina G Claw, Amarjit S Chaudhry, Andrea Gaedigk, Robin E Pearce, Ulrich Broeckel, Roger Gaedigk, Debbie Nickerson, Erin Schuetz, Allan E Rettie, Steven Leeder, Kenneth E Thummel, Bhagwat Prasad
Hepatic flavin-containing monooxygenase 3 (FMO3) metabolizes a broad array of nucleophilic heteroatom (e.g., N or S)-containing xenobiotics (e.g., amphetamine, sulindac, benzydamine, ranitidine, tamoxifen, nicotine, and ethioniamide), as well as endogenous compounds (e.g., catecholamine and trimethylamine). To predict the effect of genetic and non-genetic factors on the hepatic metabolism of FMO3 substrates, we quantified FMO3 protein abundance in human liver microsomes (HLM; n=445) by LC-MS/MS proteomics. Genotyping/gene-resequencing, mRNA expression, and functional activity (with benzydamine as a probe substrate) of FMO3 were also performed...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819030/estimates-of-burden-and-consequences-of-infants-born-small-for-gestational-age-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-with-intergrowth-21-st-standard-analysis-of-cherg%C3%A2-datasets
#17
Anne Cc Lee, Naoko Kozuki, Simon Cousens, Gretchen A Stevens, Hannah Blencowe, Mariangela F Silveira, Ayesha Sania, Heather E Rosen, Christentze Schmiegelow, Linda S Adair, Abdullah H Baqui, Fernando C Barros, Zulfiqar A Bhutta, Laura E Caulfield, Parul Christian, Siân E Clarke, Wafaie Fawzi, Rogelio Gonzalez, Jean Humphrey, Lieven Huybregts, Simon Kariuki, Patrick Kolsteren, John Lusingu, Dharma Manandhar, Aroonsri Mongkolchati, Luke C Mullany, Richard Ndyomugyenyi, Jyh Kae Nien, Dominique Roberfroid, Naomi Saville, Dianne J Terlouw, James M Tielsch, Cesar G Victora, Sithembiso C Velaphi, Deborah Watson-Jones, Barbara A Willey, Majid Ezzati, Joy E Lawn, Robert E Black, Joanne Katz
Objectives To estimate small for gestational age birth prevalence and attributable neonatal mortality in low and middle income countries with the INTERGROWTH-21(st) birth weight standard.Design Secondary analysis of data from the Child Health Epidemiology Reference Group (CHERG), including 14 birth cohorts with gestational age, birth weight, and neonatal follow-up. Small for gestational age was defined as infants weighing less than the 10th centile birth weight for gestational age and sex with the multiethnic, INTERGROWTH-21(st) birth weight standard...
August 17, 2017: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819007/effects-of-antenatal-melatonin-therapy-on-lung-structure-in-growth-restricted-newborn-lambs
#18
Graeme R Polglase, Jade Barbuto, Beth J Allison, Tamara Yawno, Amy Elizabeth Sutherland, Atul Malhotra, Keith E Schulze, Euan M Wallace, Graham Jenkin, Sharon D Ricardo, Suzanne L Miller
BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress arising from suboptimal placental function contributes to a multitude of pathologies in infants compromised by fetal growth restriction (FGR). FGR infants are at high risk for respiratory dysfunction after birth and poor long-term lung function. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the contribution of oxidative stress to adverse lung development and the effects of melatonin administration, a powerful anti-oxidant, on lung structure in FGR lambs...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818871/sexual-dimorphism-of-the-pulmonary-transcriptome-in-neonatal-hyperoxic-lung-injury-identification-of-angiogenesis-as-a-key-pathway
#19
Cristian Coarfa, Yuhao Zhang, Suman Maity, Dimuthu Perera, Weiwu Jiang, Lihua Wang, Xanthi Couroucli, Bhagavatula Moorthy, Krithika Lingappan
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is characterized by impaired alveolar secondary septation and vascular growth. Exposure to high concentrations of oxygen (hyperoxia) contributes to the development of BPD. Male sex is considered an independent risk factor for the development of BPD. The reasons underlying sexually dimorphic outcomes in premature neonates are not known. We hypothesized that sex-specific modulation of biological processes in the lung under hyperoxic conditions, contributes to sex-based differences...
August 17, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818854/nasal-midazolam-vs-ketamine-for-neonatal-intubation-in-the-delivery-room-a-randomised-trial
#20
Christophe Milési, Julien Baleine, Thibault Mura, Fernando Benito-Castro, Félicie Ferragu, Gérard Thiriez, Pierre Thévenot, Clémentine Combes, Ricardo Carbajal, Gilles Cambonie
OBJECTIVE: To compare the effectiveness of sedation by intranasal administration of midazolam (nMDZ) or ketamine (nKTM) for neonatal intubation. DESIGN: A multicentre, prospective, randomised, double-blind study. SETTING: Delivery rooms at four tertiary perinatal centres in France. PATIENTS: Preterm neonates with respiratory distress requiring non-emergent endotracheal intubation for surfactant instillation. INTERVENTIONS: Treatment was randomly allocated, with each neonate receiving a bolus of 0...
August 17, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
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