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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918415/treatment-options-and-barriers-to-case-management-of-neonatal-pneumonia-in-india-a-protocol-for-a-scoping-review
#1
N Sreekumaran Nair, Leslie Edward Lewis, Shruti Murthy, Myron Anthony Godinho, Theophilus Lakiang, Bhumika T Venkatesh
INTRODUCTION: India contributes to the highest neonatal deaths globally. Case management is said to be the cornerstone of pneumonia control. Much of the published evidence focuses on children aged 1 to 59 months. This scoping review, thus, aims to identify the treatment options for and barriers to case management of neonatal pneumonia in India. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This protocol is part of a series of three reviews on neonatal pneumonia in India. Studies addressing treatment of or barriers to case management of neonatal pneumonia in Indian context, published in English in peer-reviewed and indexed journals will be eligible for inclusion...
September 15, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918395/non-invasive-high-frequency-oscillatory-ventilation-in-preterm-infants-a-randomised-controlled-cross-over-trial
#2
Daniel Klotz, Hendryk Schneider, Stefan Schumann, Benjamin Mayer, Hans Fuchs
OBJECTIVE: Non-invasive high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (nHFOV) has recently been described as a novel mode of respiratory support for premature infants. This study was designed to determine whether nHFOV decreases CO2 partial pressure (pCO2) in premature infants more effectively than non-invasive continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP). DESIGN: Non-blinded prospective randomised controlled cross-over study. SETTING: University Medical Center tertiary neonatal intensive care unit...
September 16, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918207/the-association-between-cardiac-physiology-acquired-brain-injury-and-postnatal-brain-growth-in-critical-congenital-heart-disease
#3
Shabnam Peyvandi, Hosung Kim, Joanne Lau, A James Barkovich, Andrew Campbell, Steven Miller, Duan Xu, Patrick McQuillen
OBJECTIVE: To assess the trajectory of perioperative brain growth in relationship to cardiac diagnosis and acquired brain injuries. METHODS: This was a cohort study of term neonates with hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) and transposition of the great arteries (TGA). Subjects underwent magnetic resonance imaging of the brain pre- and postoperatively to determine the severity of brain injury and total and regional brain volumes by the use of automated morphometry...
August 24, 2017: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918156/exploration-of-the-bovine-colostrum-proteome-and-effects-of-heat-treatment-time-on-colostrum-protein-profile
#4
R Tacoma, S L Gelsinger, Y W Lam, R A Scuderi, D B Ebenstein, A J Heinrichs, S L Greenwood
Heat treatment of colostrum is performed on modern dairy farms to reduce pathogenic contamination before hand-feeding the colostrum to newborn calves; however, limited data are available concerning effects of heat treatment on biologically active proteins in colostrum. The objective of this exploratory study was to investigate effects of heat treatment and length of heat treatment on colostrum protein profile. Colostrum samples were collected from Holstein cows within 12 h after parturition and assigned to the following groups: heat treatment at 60°C for 0 (untreated control), 30, 60, or 90 min...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918148/mammalian-target-of-rapamycin-signaling-and-ubiquitin-proteasome-related-gene-expression-in-3-different-skeletal-muscles-of-colostrum-versus-formula-fed-calves
#5
H Sadri, J Steinhoff-Wagner, Harald M Hammon, R M Bruckmaier, S Görs, H Sauerwein
The rates of protein turnover are higher during the neonatal period than at any other time in postnatal life. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and the ubiquitin-proteasome system are key pathways regulating cellular protein turnover. The objectives of this study were (1) to elucidate the effect of feeding colostrum versus milk-based formula on the mRNA abundance of key components of the mTOR pathway and of the ubiquitin-proteasome system in skeletal muscle of neonatal calves and (2) to compare different muscles...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918142/mortality-and-health-treatment-rates-of-dairy-calves-in-automated-milk-feeding-systems-in-the-upper-midwest-of-the-united-states
#6
M W Jorgensen, A Adams-Progar, A M de Passillé, J Rushen, J A Salfer, M I Endres
Automated calf feeding systems are increasing in use across the United States, yet information regarding health and mortality outcomes of animals in these systems is limited. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between farm management practices, housing, and environmental factors with mortality and health treatment rates of preweaned dairy calves housed in groups with automated feeding systems. Farm records were collected for health treatments and mortality on 26 farms in the Upper Midwest of the United States...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918141/validation-of-commercial-luminometry-swabs-for-total-bacteria-and-coliform-counts-in-colostrum-feeding-equipment
#7
D L Renaud, D F Kelton, S J LeBlanc, D B Haley, A B Jalbert, T F Duffield
A sufficient quantity and quality of colostrum must be fed quickly to the newborn calf while minimizing bacterial contamination. Adenosine triphosphate bioluminescence swabs offer a potential rapid on-farm alternative to assess bacterial contamination of colostrum. The objective of this study was to validate the Hygiena (Camarillo, CA) AquaSnap Total (AS), SuperSnap (SS), PRO-Clean (PC), and MicroSnap Coliform (MS) swabs as well as visual hygiene assessment for detection of elevated bacterial counts in or on colostrum-feeding equipment...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918065/the-role-of-epigenetics-in-lysosomal-storage-disorders-uncharted-territory
#8
REVIEW
Shahzeb Hassan, Ellen Sidransky, Nahid Tayebi
The study of the contribution of epigenetic mechanisms, including DNA methylation, histone modifications, and microRNAs, to human disease has enhanced our understanding of different cellular processes and diseased states, as well as the effect of environmental factors on phenotypic outcomes. Epigenetic studies may be particularly relevant in evaluating the clinical heterogeneity observed in monogenic disorders. The lysosomal storage disorders are Mendelian disorders characterized by a wide spectrum of associated phenotypes, ranging from neonatal presentations to symptoms that develop in late adulthood...
August 1, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917991/enhanced-expression-of-pd-l1-and-ifn-%C3%AE-on-dendritic-cells-is-associated-with-bcg-induced-th2-inhibition
#9
A C C Gouveia, F G Braga, M Mota, F M C Silva, A S S Brugiolo, E E Oliveira, M C Ayupe, H C Teixeira, A P Ferreira
Accumulating evidence indicates that the exposure to Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) prevents the development of allergy and the airway dendritic cells (DCs) may be involved in this protective effect. However, studies to better characterize the specific interactions between BCG and DCs and their role in this mycobacteria-mediated Th2 cell suppression are still ongoing. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of the neonatal BCG vaccination in the innate immune response in a mouse model of ovalbumin (OVA)-induced airway inflammation...
September 14, 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917833/values-based-shared-decision-making-in-the-antenatal-period
#10
REVIEW
Stephanie K Kukora, Renee D Boss
Despite advances in life-saving technology for critically ill neonates, challenges continue to arise for infants delivered with extreme prematurity, congenital anomalies, and genetic conditions that exceed the limits of currently available interventions. In these situations, parents are forced to make cognitively and emotionally difficult decisions, in discussion with a neonatologist, regarding how aggressively to provide supportive measures at the time of delivery and at what point burdens of therapy outweigh benefits...
September 13, 2017: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917582/preterm-pre-eclampsia-what-every-neonatologist-should-know
#11
REVIEW
Lisa Story, Lucy C Chappell
Although pre-eclampsia affects 5-10% of pregnancies globally and is responsible for substantial maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality, currently there is no cure other than delivery of the baby. Predictive screening tests based on clinical risk factors, with or without the addition of biomarkers and imaging, have been developed, but adoption into clinical practice is limited by suboptimal test performance. Once established pre-eclampsia is diagnosed, a woman is usually managed expectantly prior to 37weeks' gestation to reduce perinatal morbidity and mortality associated with iatrogenic prematurity until maternal or fetal triggers for delivery mean that risks of pregnancy prolongation outweigh the benefits...
September 13, 2017: Early Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917264/expression-of-kisspeptin-protein-in-hypothalamus-and-lh-profile-of-growing-female-lambs
#12
Jolanta Polkowska, Anna Wójcik-Gładysz, Natalia Chmielewska, Marta Wańkowska
Kisspeptin (kp) is considered to be one of the major regulators of the induction of pubertal events via the activation of the gonadotrophin-releasing hormone-LH system. The aim of the present study was to analyse expression of immunoreactive (ir) kp in the hypothalamic neurons of female lambs from the neonatal to the peripubertal period (5 days to 32 weeks) in relation to the plasma LH pattern using immunohistochemistry and image analysis. Hypothalami were collected from female lambs (n=33) from the infantile, juvenile, prepubertal and peripubertal periods...
September 18, 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917208/prenatal-exposure-to-perfluoroalkyl-substances-and-birth-outcomes-in-a-spanish-birth-cohort
#13
Cyntia B Manzano-Salgado, Maribel Casas, Maria-Jose Lopez-Espinosa, Ferran Ballester, Carmen Iñiguez, David Martinez, Olga Costa, Loreto Santa-Marina, Eva Pereda-Pereda, Thomas Schettgen, Jordi Sunyer, Martine Vrijheid
BACKGROUND: Prenatal perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) exposure has been associated with reduced birth weight but maternal glomerular filtration rate (GFR) may attenuate this association. Further, this association remains unclear for other perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), such as perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), and perfluorononanoate (PFNA). We estimated associations between prenatal PFAS exposure and birth outcomes, and the influence of GFR, in a Spanish birth cohort...
September 13, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917206/maternal-and-infant-outcomes-following-third-trimester-exposure-to-marijuana-in-opioid-dependent-pregnant-women-maintained-on-buprenorphine
#14
Alane B O'Connor, Brandon K Kelly, Liam M O'Brien
BACKGROUND: To determine whether maternal and infant outcomes are associated with exposure to marijuana during the third trimester in a population of opioid dependent pregnant women maintained on buprenorphine. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study of 191 maternal-infant dyads exposed to buprenorphine during pregnancy examines a variety of variables including gestational age, birthweight, method of delivery, Apgar scores at one and five minutes, duration of infant hospital stay, peak neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) score, duration of NAS and incidence of pharmacologic treatment of NAS in infants exposed to marijuana during the third trimester as compared to infants not exposed to marijuana during the third trimester...
September 7, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917084/evaluation-of-neurodevelopment-of-children-with-congenital-hypothyroidism-by-the-denver-developmental-screening-test
#15
Ayşe Derya Buluş, Esra Tiftik
BACKGROUND: Thyroid hormones are essential for growth and brain development in childhood. Although congenital hypothyroidism (CH) is the most common reason for mental retardation, normal neurological development can be achieved through early and effective treatment. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the neurological development of CH patients aged 24-56 months. METHODS: The study included a total of 116 healthy control subjects and 112 patients aged 24-56 months who were diagnosed with CH during the neonatal period and were being followed up at the Pediatric Endocrinology Department, Keçiören Training and Research Hospital, between 2012 and 2015...
September 16, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917066/effectiveness-of-the-critical-congenital-heart-disease-screening-program-for-early-diagnosis-of-cardiac-abnormalities-in-newborn-infants
#16
Abdulmajid M Almawazini, Hamdi K Hanafi, Hasan A Madkhali, Noura B Majrashi
To evaluate the effectiveness of critical congenital heart disease (CCHD) screening program for early diagnosis of cardiac anomalies in newborn infants.  Methods: This is a hospital-based prospective cross-sectional study conducted in the Pediatric and Neonatology Department, King Fahad Hospital at  Albaha, Saudi Arabia, between February 2016 and February 2017. Results: We screened 2961 (95.4%) of 3103 patients in a nursery unit; 142 (4.6%) patients were not screened. The test was positive in 114 (3.9%) patients and negative in 2847 (96...
October 2017: Saudi Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916928/newborn-screening-in-the-era-of-precision-medicine
#17
Lan Yang, Jiajia Chen, Bairong Shen
As newborn screening success stories gained general confirmation during the past 50 years, scientists quickly discovered diagnostic tests for a host of genetic disorders that could be treated at birth. Outstanding progress in sequencing technologies over the last two decades has made it possible to comprehensively profile newborn screening (NBS) and identify clinically relevant genomic alterations. With the rapid developments in whole-genome sequencing (WGS) and whole-exome sequencing (WES) recently, we can detect newborns at the genomic level and be able to direct the appropriate diagnosis to the different individuals at the appropriate time, which is also encompassed in the concept of precision medicine...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916875/traumatic-injuries-to-the-pregnant-patient-a-critical-literature-review
#18
REVIEW
P Petrone, P Jiménez-Morillas, A Axelrad, C P Marini
INTRODUCTION: Trauma during pregnancy is the leading non-obstetrical cause of maternal death and a significant public health burden. This study reviews the most common causes of trauma during pregnancy, morbidity, and mortality, and the impact upon perinatal outcomes associated with trauma, providing a management approach to pregnant trauma patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic review of the current literature from January 2006 to July 2016 was performed...
September 15, 2017: European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery: Official Publication of the European Trauma Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916742/haplotype-of-the-interleukin-17a-gene-is-associated-with-osteitis-after-bacillus-calmette-guerin-vaccination
#19
Matti Korppi, Johanna Teräsjärvi, Milla Liehu-Martiskainen, Eero Lauhkonen, Juho Vuononvirta, Kirsi Nuolivirta, Liisa Kröger, Laura Pöyhönen, Minna K Karjalainen, Qiushui He
Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) osteitis was more common in Finland than elsewhere at the time when universal BCG vaccinations were given to Finnish newborns. There is evidence that IL-17 plays a role in the defense against tuberculosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the associations of IL17A rs4711998, IL17A rs8193036 and IL17A rs2275913 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with the risk of BCG osteitis after newborn vaccination. IL17A rs4711998, rs8193036 and rs2275913 SNPs were determined in 131 adults had presented with BCG osteitis after newborn BCG vaccination...
September 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916629/histone-deacetylase-inhibition-induces-odor-preference-memory-extension-and-maintains-enhanced-ampa-receptor-expression-in-the-rat-pup-model
#20
Sriya Bhattacharya, Bandhan Mukherjee, Jules J E Doré, Qi Yuan, Carolyn W Harley, John H McLean
Histone deacetylase (HDAC) plays a role in synaptic plasticity and long-term memory formation. We hypothesized that trichostatin-A (TSA), an HDAC inhibitor, would promote long-term odor preference memory and maintain enhanced GluA1 receptor levels that have been hypothesized to support memory. We used an early odor preference learning model in neonate rat pups that normally produces only 24-h memory to test behavior and examine receptor protein expression. Our behavioral studies showed that intrabulbar infusion of TSA, prior to pairing of the conditioned stimulus (peppermint odor) with the unconditioned stimulus (tactile stimulation), prolonged 24-h odor preference memory for at least 9 d...
October 2017: Learning & Memory
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