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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156548/patient-provider-communication-and-counseling-about-gestational-weight-gain-and-physical-activity-a-qualitative-study-of-the-perceptions-and-experiences-of-latinas-pregnant-with-their-first-child
#1
Ana Cristina Lindsay, Sherrie F Wallington, Mary L Greaney, Marcia M Tavares Machado, Gabriela P De Andrade
Latina women in the United States (U.S.) are disproportionately affected by obesity and are more likely to begin pregnancy overweight and gain excessive weight during pregnancy. The prenatal care period represents a window of opportunity for women to access the healthcare system and receive preventive services, education, nutritional support, and other social services to improve pregnancy outcomes. Excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) has numerous negative short- and long-term consequences for both the mother and newborn...
November 18, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156418/characterization-of-domestic-pig-spermatogenesis-using-spermatogonial-stem-cell-markers-in-the-early-months-of-life
#2
Julio Almunia, Kotono Nakamura, Mami Murakami, Shigeo Takashima, Masaki Takasu
In pigs, spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs), which include gonocytes and undifferentiated spermatogonia, are classically defined as being present till up to 2 months of life. However, knowledge about this transition from gonocytes to undifferentiated spermatogonia in pigs is limited. In this study, we characterized pig SSCs in neonatal (n = 6), one-month-old (1-mo-old, n = 6), two-month-old (2-mo-old, n = 6), and adult testes (n = 6) anatomically, histologically, and immunohistologically. Anatomically, testicular circumference (TC) was measured at each development stage...
November 3, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156156/effects-of-arachidonic-acid-eicosapentaenoic-acid-and-docosahexaenoic-acid-on-brain-development-using-artificial-rearing-of-delta-6-desaturase-knockout-mice
#3
Akiko Harauma, Erisa Hatanaka, Hidemi Yasuda, Manabu T Nakamura, Norman Salem, Toru Moriguchi
This study focused on the effect of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) during the lactation period of delta-6-desaturase knockout (D6D-KO) mice using an artificial rearing method. Newborn pups of D6D-KO male mice were separated from their dams within 48h and were fed artificial milk. Six formulations of milk were used: Control (Cont) milk (3.9% α-linolenic acid and 18% linoleic acid), + 1.3% arachidonic acid (ARA), + 1.2% docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), + 1.3% eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), + 1.1% ARA + 1.3% DHA, and + 1...
December 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156093/functional-and-molecular-outcomes-of-the-human-masticatory-muscles
#4
REVIEW
Gaetano Isola, Giuseppe Anastasi, Giovanni Matarese, Ray C Williams, Giuseppina Cutroneo, Pietro Bracco, Maria Grazia Piancino
The masticatory muscles achieve a broad range of different activities such as chewing, sucking, swallowing and speech. In order to accomplish these duties, masticatory muscles have a unique and heterogeneous structure and fibre composition, enabling them to produce their strength and contraction speed largely dependent on their motor units and myosin proteins that can change in response to genetic and environmental factors. Human masticatory muscles express unique myosin isoforms, including a combination of thick fibers, expressing myosin light chains (MyLC) and myosin class I and II heavy chains (MyHC) -IIA, -IIX, α-cardiac, embryonic and neonatal and thin fibers, respectively...
November 20, 2017: Oral Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156049/management-of-pregnant-women-and-children-focusing-on-preventing-mother-to-infant-transmission
#5
Huey-Ling Chen, Wan-Hsin Wen, Mei-Hwei Chang
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) immunization has been effectively preventing chronic HBV infection with >90% efficacy in countries with universal neonatal immunization. Perinatal mother-to-infant transmission of HBV remains the major cause of chronic HBV infection despite immunization. Maternal hepatitis B e-antigen (HBeAg) and high viral load have been noted to be the most important risk factors for transmission. In recent years, short-term antiviral therapy for pregnant women in the third trimester has been shown to be highly effective in reducing 90% of vaccine failure in children...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155986/prenatal-high-estradiol-exposure-induces-sex-specific-and-dietarily-reversible-insulin-resistance-through-decreased-hypothalamic-insr
#6
Hui-Hui Wang, Cheng-Liang Zhou, Min Lv, Qian Yang, Ju-Xue Li, Min Hou, Jing Lin, Xin-Mei Liu, Yan-Ting Wu, Jian-Zhong Sheng, He-Feng Huang
Adverse intrauterine environment may induce adult disease in offspring, but the mechanisms are not well understood. It is reported that fresh embryo transfer (ET) in assisted reproductive technology presents extra-high maternal estradiol (E2) and prenatal high E2 exposure increases the risk of organ disorders in later life. We found male newborns and children of fresh ET showed increased fasting insulin and the homeostasis model of assessment for insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR). Prenatal high E2 exposed (HE) male mice grew heavier than control and developed insulin resistance, they also showed increased food intake with enhanced orexigenic hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (NPY) expression...
November 15, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155939/group-b-streptococcus-activates-transcriptomic-pathways-related-to-premature-birth-in-human-extraplacental-membranes-in-vitro
#7
Hae-Ryung Park, Sean M Harris, Erica Boldenow, Richard C McEachin, Maureen Sartor, Mark Chames, Rita Loch-Caruso
Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus, GBS) infection in pregnant women is the leading cause of infectious neonatal morbidity and mortality in the United States. Although inflammation during infection has been associated with preterm birth, the contribution of GBS to preterm birth is less certain. Moreover, the early mechanisms by which GBS interacts with the gestational tissue to affect adverse pregnancy outcomes are poorly understood. We hypothesized that short term GBS inoculation activates pathways related to inflammation and premature birth in human extraplacental membranes...
November 16, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155919/neonatal-outcomes-in-a-medicaid-population-with-opioid-dependence
#8
Susan B Brogly, Sonia Hernández-Diaz, Emily Regan, Ela Fadli, Kristen A Hahn, Martha M Werler
Confounding may account for the apparent improved infant outcomes after prenatal exposure to buprenorphine versus methadone. We used Massachusetts Medicaid Analytic eXtract (MAX) data to identify a cohort of opioid dependent mother-infant pairs (2006-2011) supplemented with confounder data from an external Boston cohort (2015-2016). Associations between prenatal buprenorphine versus methadone exposure and infant outcomes in the MAX Cohort were adjusted for measured MAX confounders, and unmeasured confounders with bias analysis using External Cohort data...
November 16, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155840/indications-and-determinants-of-caesarean-section-delivery-evidence-from-a-population-based-study-in-matlab-bangladesh
#9
Tahmina Begum, Aminur Rahman, Herfina Nababan, Dewan Md Emdadul Hoque, Al Fazal Khan, Taslim Ali, Iqbal Anwar
BACKGROUND AND METHODS: Caesarean section (C-section) is a major obstetric intervention for saving lives of women and their newborns from pregnancy and childbirth related complications. Un-necessary C-sections may have adverse impact upon maternal and neonatal outcomes. In Bangladesh there is paucity of data on clinical indication of C-section at population level. We conducted a retrospective study in icddr,b Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) area of Matlab to look into the indications and determinants of C-sections...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155711/monitoring-astrocyte-reactivity-and-proliferation-in-vitro-under-ischemic-like-conditions
#10
Yancy Ferrer-Acosta, Maxine N Gonzalez-Vega, David E Rivera-Aponte, Solianne M Martinez-Jimenez, Antonio H Martins
Ischemic stroke is a complex brain injury caused by a thrombus or embolus obstructing blood flow to parts of the brain. This leads to deprivation of oxygen and glucose, which causes energy failure and neuronal death. After an ischemic stroke insult, astrocytes become reactive and proliferate around the injury site as it develops. Under this scenario, it is difficult to study the specific contribution of astrocytes to the brain region exposed to ischemia. Therefore, this article introduces a methodology to study primary astrocyte reactivity and proliferation under an in vitro model of an ischemia-like environment, called oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD)...
October 21, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155685/infant-mortality-rates-in-rural-and-urban-areas-in-the-united-states-2014
#11
Danielle M Ely, Anne K Driscoll, T J Matthews
Key findings Data from the National Vital Statistics System ● Infant mortality rates decreased as urbanization level increased, from 6.55 deaths per 1,000 births in rural counties to 6.20 in small and medium urban counties and 5.44 in large urban counties. ● Neonatal mortality rates were higher in rural counties than in large urban counties, and postneonatal mortality rates decreased as urbanization level increased. ● Mortality rates decreased as urbanization level increased for infants of mothers aged 20-29, 30-39, and 40 and over...
September 2017: NCHS Data Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155636/hepatic-imaging-in-neonates-and-young-infants-state-of-the-art
#12
Stephanie B Shamir, Jessica Kurian, Debora Kogan-Liberman, Benjamin H Taragin
Neonatal liver disease is an important source of morbidity in the pediatric population. The manifestation of liver disease in young infants may be different than in older patients, and there are a number of diagnoses that are unique to this age group. Familiarity with these entities is important as imaging plays a key role in the diagnostic workup, and prompt diagnosis is necessary to prevent complications. This article reviews the spectrum of liver pathologies that can manifest in the first 6 months of life and is intended to educate the general radiologist who may be faced with interpretation of neonatal liver imaging...
December 2017: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155634/how-does-imaging-of-congenital-zika-compare-with-imaging-of-other-torch-infections
#13
Deborah Levine, Jacques C Jani, Ilse Castro-Aragon, Mieke Cannie
The acronym TORCH is used to refer to congenital infections, such as toxoplasmosis, other infections (such as syphillis, varicella-zoster, and parvovirus B19), cytomegalovirus, and herpes simplex virus. The classic findings in patients with TORCH infections include rash in the mother during pregnancy and ocular findings in the newborn. Zika virus has emerged as an important worldwide congenital infection. It fits well with other congenital TORCH infections since there is a rash in the mother and there are commonly ocular abnormalities in the newborn...
December 2017: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155474/visual-biofeedback-using-trans-perineal-ultrasound-during-the-second-stage-of-labor
#14
Yinon Gilboa, Tahl I Frenkel, Yael Schlesinger, Sofie Rousseau, Daniel Hamiel, Reuven Achiron, Sharon Perlman
OBJECTIVES: to assess the obstetrical and psychological effect of visual biofeedback using trans-perineal ultrasound (TPU) during the second stage of labor. METHODS: Visual biofeedback using TPU was performed prospectively during the second stage of labor in twenty-six low risk nulliparous women. Pushing efficacy was assessed by the angle of progression at rest and during pushing efforts before and after observing the ultrasound screen. Obstetrical outcomes included level of perineal tearing, mode of delivery and length of the second stage...
November 20, 2017: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155292/24-7-in-house-attending-staff-coverage-improves-neonatal-short-term-outcomes-a-retrospective-study
#15
Brahim Bensouda, Jessica Boucher, Mandel Romain, Jean Lachapelle, Nabeel Ali
OBJECTIVES: to compare short-term outcomes of newborns over 36 weeks with Apgar scores ≤3 at 1minute, following the adoption of a 24/7 in house coverage schedule STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective chart review comparing two 12-month epochs. Epoch 1: coverage provided by residents with availability on call at home of attending staff. Epoch 2: On site coverage by attending staff. RESULTS: 71 and 60 charts were reviewed from Epoch 1 and 2 respectively. The number of infants receiving chest compressions was reduced during Epoch 2 (from 19% to 1...
November 16, 2017: Resuscitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155192/external-genital-development-urethra-formation-and-hypospadias-induction-in-guinea-pig-a-double-zipper-model-for-human-urethral-development
#16
Shanshan Wang, Mingxin Shi, Dongqing Zhu, Ranjiv Mathews, Zhengui Zheng
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether the guinea pig phallus would be an appropriate model of human penile development, we characterized the embryology and sexual differentiation of guinea pig external genitalia and attend to induce hypospadias in males and tubular urethra formation in females pharmacologically. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The external genitalia of guinea pig were collected from genital swelling initiation to newborn stages and Scanning Electronic Microscopy and histology were performed to visualize the morphology and structure...
November 16, 2017: Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155163/antifungal-azoles-itraconazole-and-posaconazole-exhibit-potent-in-vitro-antiviral-activity-against-clinical-isolates-of-parechovirus-a3-picornaviridae
#17
Eric Rhoden, W Allan Nix, William C Weldon, Rangaraj Selvarangan
Parechovirus A3 (Par-A3, formerly human parechovirus 3) is an emerging viral infection of the central nervous system in children. We used an automated, homogeneous, cell based assay to identify itraconazole and posaconazole as inhibitors of Par-A3, with antiviral activity below concentrations clinically attainable in pediatric patients. Currently, there is no approved antiviral treatment for Par-A3 infection, despite numerous reports of serious Par-A3 disease in neonates and infants.
November 15, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155142/microrna-30a-3p-is-overexpressed-in-the-placentas-of-patients-with-preeclampsia-and-affects-trophoblast-invasion-and-apoptosis-by-its-effects-on-igf-1
#18
Zi-Ru Niu, Tao Han, Xiao-Luan Sun, Li-Xia Luan, Wen-Li Gou, Xiao-Ming Zhu
BACKGROUND: Preeclampsia (PE) affects many women globally and remains as a primary cause for neonatal and maternal morbidity and mortality. Aberrant placental microRNAs (miRNAs) expression might associated with PE. Previously, thirty-three PE-related miRNAs, with eleven up-regulated and twenty-three down-regulated were detected in severe-PE placentas when compared with normal patients. One of the most up-regulated miRNAs in PE is miR-30a-3p. The predicted target of it, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), which has been reported to have a relatively low expression level in PE patients...
November 16, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155093/histone-acetylation-of-oligodendrocytes-protects-against-white-matter-injury-induced-by-inflammation-and-hypoxia-ischemia-through-activation-of-bdnf-trkb-signaling-pathway-in-neonatal-rats
#19
Jichong Huang, Li Zhang, Yi Qu, Yan Zhou, Jianghu Zhu, Yafei Li, Tingting Zhu, Fengyan Zhao, Jun Tang, Dezhi Mu
The major pathological damage in encephalopathy of prematurity is white matter injury (WMI). Perinatal hypoxic-ischemia (HI) and inflammation are two major risk factors in the development of WMI. To study the cellular and molecular mechanisms of WMI, we set up a WMI model using lipopolysaccharide-sensitized HI injury in 2-day postnatal rats. Immunofluorescence staining was used to measure the expression of acetylated histone H3 (AH3) in oligodendrocytes, the target cells of WMI; the oligodendrocyte protein markers, NG2, O4, MBP, PLP, and MAG, were detected at different developmental stages...
November 16, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155014/resveratrol-dimer-trans-%C3%AE%C2%B5-viniferin-prevents-rotaviral-diarrhea-in-mice-by-inhibition-of-the-intestinal-calcium-activated-chloride-channel
#20
Bo Yu, Yu Jiang, Bo Zhang, Hong Yang, Tonghui Ma
We previously identified, by a natural-product screen, resveratrol oligomers as inhibitors of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) chloride channel. Here, we report the resveratrol dimer trans-ε-viniferin (TV) and tetramer r-2-viniferin (RV) as inhibitors of the intestinal calcium-activated chloride channel (CaCC) and demonstrate their antisecretory efficacy in a neonatal mouse model of rotaviral diarrhea. Short-circuit measurements show inhibition of CaCC current in the human colonic cell line HT-29 by TV and RV with IC50∼1 and 20μM, respectively...
November 14, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
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