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Pediatric hiv

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880749/early-diagnosis-of-hiv-infection-in-infants-one-caribbean-and-six-sub-saharan-african-countries-2011-2015
#1
Karidia Diallo, Andrea A Kim, Shirley Lecher, Dennis Ellenberger, R Suzanne Beard, Helen Dale, Mackenzie Hurlston, Molly Rivadeneira, Peter N Fonjungo, Laura N Broyles, Guoqing Zhang, Katrina Sleeman, Shon Nguyen, Steve Jadczak, Nadine Abiola, Raimi Ewetola, Jérémie Muwonga, Franck Fwamba, Christina Mwangi, Mary Naluguza, Charles Kiyaga, Isaac Ssewanyana, Deyde Varough, Domercant Wysler, David Lowrance, Frantz Jean Louis, Olbeg Desinor, Josiane Buteau, Francois Kesner, Vanessa Rouzier, Nat Segaren, Tessa Lewis, Abdoulaye Sarr, Geoffrey Chipungu, Sundeep Gupta, Daniel Singer, Reuben Mwenda, Hilary Kapoteza, Zawadi Chipeta, Nancy Knight, Sergio Carmona, William MacLeod, Gayle Sherman, Yogan Pillay, Clement B Ndongmo, Bridget Mugisa, Annie Mwila, James McAuley, Peter J Chipimo, Wezi Kaonga, Dailess Nsofwa, Davy Nsama, Fales Zulu Mwamba, Crispin Moyo, Clement Phiri, Marie-Yolande Borget, Leonard Ya-Kouadio, Abo Kouame, Christiane A Adje-Toure, John Nkengasong
Pediatric human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection remains an important public health issue in resource-limited settings. In 2015, 1.4 million children aged <15 years were estimated to be living with HIV (including 170,000 infants born in 2015), with the vast majority living in sub-Saharan Africa (1). In 2014, 150,000 children died from HIV-related causes worldwide (2). Access to timely HIV diagnosis and treatment for HIV-infected infants reduces HIV-associated mortality, which is approximately 50% by age 2 years without treatment (3)...
November 25, 2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863014/a-multicenter-study-of-diet-quality-on-birth-weight-and-gestational-age-in-infants-of-hiv-infected-women
#2
Tracie L Miller, Denise L Jacobson, Gabriel Somarriba, Daniela Neri, Joy Kurtz-Vraney, Patricia Graham, Matthew W Gillman, David C Landy, Suzanne Siminski, Laurie Butler, Kenneth C Rich, Kristy Hendricks, David A Ludwig
We determined factors associated with diet quality and assessed the relationship between diet quality, birth weight, and gestational age in a prospective national multicenter cohort study. We evaluated diet quality with the Healthy Eating Index (HEI, scale 0-100) in the third trimester of pregnancy with three 24-hr multiple-pass dietary recalls in 266 HIV+ women enrolled in the Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study. Covariates included demographics, food security, pre-pregnancy body mass index, HIV disease severity, substance use, and antiretroviral exposures...
November 8, 2016: Maternal & Child Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856770/update-from-the-advisory-committee-on-immunization-practices
#3
Jennifer E Schuster, Sean O'Leary, David W Kimberlin
The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) consists of medical and public health experts who develop recommendations on vaccine use in the United States. The ACIP meets 3 times per year, and members and Centers for Disease Control (CDC) staff present findings and discuss vaccine research, vaccine effectiveness (VE) and safety, clinical trial results, and labeling/package insert information. Outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases and vaccine shortages are also discussed. Nonvoting representatives from the American Academy of Pediatrics and the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society are present...
December 2016: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856674/longitudinal-evaluation-of-language-impairment-in-youth-with-perinatally-acquired-human-immunodeficiency-virus-hiv-and-youth-with-perinatal-hiv-exposure
#4
Sean M Redmond, Tzy-Jyun Yao, Jonathan S Russell, Mabel L Rice, Howard J Hoffman, George K Siberry, Toni Frederick, Murli Purswani, Paige L Williams
BACKGROUND: Language impairment (LI) risk is increased for perinatally acquired human immunodeficiency virus-infected (PHIV) and perinatally exposed to HIV but uninfected (PHEU) youth. This study evaluates the persistence of LI in these groups. METHODS: The Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals was repeated on participants of the Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study Adolescent Master Protocol 18 months postbaseline. Regression models identified factors associated with change in standardized score (SC) and the resolution or development of LI...
December 2016: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856673/associations-of-memory-and-executive-functioning-with-academic-and-adaptive-functioning-among-youth-with-perinatal-hiv-exposure-and-or-infection
#5
Patricia A Sirois, Miriam C Chernoff, Kathleen M Malee, Patricia A Garvie, Lynnette L Harris, Paige L Williams, Steven P Woods, Molly L Nozyce, Betsy L Kammerer, Cenk Yildirim, Sharon L Nichols
BACKGROUND: Perinatally acquired HIV (PHIV) confers risk for neurocognitive impairment, which potentially affects school performance and functional independence of infected children. In this study, we examined the associations of 2 key neurocognitive domains, memory and executive function (EF), with academic and adaptive skills among youth with PHIV and perinatally HIV-exposed but uninfected (PHEU) youth. METHODS: Participants ages 9 to <19 years enrolled in the Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study's Memory and Executive Functioning Study completed standardized measures of reading and math...
December 2016: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856672/executive-functioning-in-children-and-adolescents-with-perinatal-hiv-infection-and-perinatal-hiv-exposure
#6
Sharon L Nichols, Miriam C Chernoff, Kathleen M Malee, Patricia A Sirois, Steven P Woods, Paige L Williams, Cenk Yildirim, Dean Delis, Betsy Kammerer
BACKGROUND: Executive functions (EFs) are critical for management of life activities, but few studies have evaluated EFs in children and adolescents with perinatally acquired HIV (PHIV), who are at risk for problems in academics, behavior, and medication adherence. We compared EFs in youth with PHIV and in perinatally HIV-exposed but uninfected (PHEU) youth. METHODS: Four Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS) subtests were administered to 173 youth with PHIV and 85 PHEU youth, aged 9 to <19 years, who were enrolled in the Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study (PHACS) Memory and Executive Functioning Study...
December 2016: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856671/deformed-subcortical-structures-are-related-to-past-hiv-disease-severity-in-youth-with-perinatally-acquired-hiv-infection
#7
C Paula Lewis-de Los Angeles, Kathryn I Alpert, Paige L Williams, Kathleen Malee, Yanling Huo, John G Csernansky, Ram Yogev, Russell B Van Dyke, Elizabeth R Sowell, Lei Wang
BACKGROUND: Combination antiretroviral therapy has led to increased survival among youth with perinatally acquired HIV (PHIV). However, cognitive deficits continue to be common. Histopathological studies in adults have found HIV concentrated in subcortical structures, which are involved in sensory processing, movement, and higher-order cognition that emerges with development. METHODS: We conducted magnetic resonance imaging and cognitive testing in 40 youth with PHIV at one site of the Adolescent Master Protocol of the Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study...
December 2016: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856670/brain-and-cognitive-development-among-u-s-youth-with-perinatally-acquired-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infection
#8
Kathleen M Malee, Renee A Smith, Claude A Mellins
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846074/implementation-and-operational-research-active-referral-of-children-of-hiv-positive-adults-reveals-high-prevalence-of-undiagnosed-hiv
#9
Anjuli D Wagner, Cyrus Mugo, Irene N Njuguna, Elizabeth Maleche-Obimbo, Kenneth Sherr, Irene W Inwani, James P Hughes, Dalton C Wamalwa, Grace C John-Stewart, Jennifer A Slyker
OBJECTIVES: Few routine systems exist to test older, asymptomatic children for HIV. Testing all children in the population has high uptake but is inefficient, whereas testing only symptomatic children increases efficiency but misses opportunities to optimize outcomes. Testing children of HIV-infected adults in care may efficiently identify previously undiagnosed HIV-infected children before symptomatic disease. METHODS: HIV-infected parents in HIV care in Nairobi, Kenya were systematically asked about their children's HIV status and testing history...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846070/implementation-and-operational-research-an-integrated-and-comprehensive-service-delivery-model-to-improve-pediatric-and-maternal-hiv-care-in-rural-africa
#10
Anna Gamell, Tracy R Glass, Lameck B Luwanda, Herry Mapesi, Leila Samson, Tom Mtoi, Angelo Nyamtema, Lukas Muri, Alex Ntamatungiro, Marcel Tanner, Christoph Hatz, Manuel Battegay, Emilio Letang
BACKGROUND: Strategies to improve HIV diagnosis and linkage into care, antiretroviral treatment coverage, and treatment outcomes of mothers and children are urgently needed in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: From December 2012, we implemented an intervention package to improve prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) and pediatric HIV care in our rural Tanzanian clinic, consisting of: (1) creation of a PMTCT and pediatric unit integrated within the reproductive and child health clinic; (2) implementation of electronic medical records; (3) provider-initiated HIV testing and counseling in the hospital wards; and (4) early infant diagnosis test performed locally...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832021/adiponectin-leptin-and-inflammatory-markers-in-hiv-associated-metabolic-syndrome-in-children-and-adolescents
#11
María Espiau, Diego Yeste, Antoni Noguera-Julian, Pere Soler-Palacín, Clàudi Fortunyc, Roser Ferrer, Immaculada Comas, Andrea Martín-Nalda, Ángela Deyà-Martínez, Concepció Figueras, Antonio Carrascosa
BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is more common in HIV-infected adults and children than in the general population. Adipocytokines and inflammatory markers may contribute to the pathophysiology of this condition and could be useful indices for monitoring MetS. The objective of this study was to provide information on the prevalence of MetS and investigate the role of adipocytokines and other biomarkers in this syndrome in HIV-infected pediatric patients. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted between October 2013 and March 2014 in the outpatient clinics of two tertiary pediatric referral hospitals...
November 8, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824723/a-thirty-year-perspective-of-the-long-term-survival-cd4-percentage-and-social-achievements-of-perinatally-hiv-infected-children-as-a-function-of-their-birth-era
#12
Sharon Vuppula, Donna Tyungu, Aditya Kaul, Sulachni Chandwani, Mona Rigaud, William Borkowsky
BACKGROUND: Pediatric HIV has evolved from a pre-antiretroviral era (pre-1989 or Pre-ART) to an antiretroviral (ART) era (1989-1996) & to a highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) era (post-1996). As we have passed the 3rd decade following these individuals, we thought it useful to review clinical, laboratory, & social outcomes. METHODS: A retrospective, cross-sectional study of 399 children infected perinatally. They were divided into Pre-ART, ART & HAART groups...
November 7, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814690/characteristics-and-outcomes-of-cryptococcal-meningitis-in-hiv-seronegative-children-in-beijing-china-2002-2013
#13
Ling-Yun Guo, Lin-Lin Liu, Yue Liu, Tian-Ming Chen, Shao-Ying Li, Yong-Hong Yang, Gang Liu
BACKGROUND: Data regarding HIV-seronegative pediatric patients with cryptococcal meningitis (CM) have been very limited. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed non-HIV-infected in patients with CM from January 2002 through December 2013 in Beijing Children's Hospital. Records of the all patients were obtained and compared. RESULTS: The 34 children had a median age of 5.6 years. Most of the patients were male (67.6 %). Only 23.5 % of the cases had identifiable underlying diseases...
November 4, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812166/survival-outcomes-in-a-pediatric-antiretroviral-treatment-cohort-in-southern-malawi
#14
Jason C Brophy, Michael T Hawkes, Edson Mwinjiwa, Gabriel Mateyu, Sumeet K Sodhi, Adrienne K Chan
BACKGROUND: Pediatric uptake and outcomes in antiretroviral treatment (ART) programmes have lagged behind adult programmes. We describe outcomes from a population-based pediatric ART cohort in rural southern Malawi. METHODS: Data were analyzed on children who initiated ART from October/2003 -September/2011. Demographics and diagnoses were described and survival analyses conducted to assess the impact of age, presenting features at enrolment, and drug selection. RESULTS: The cohort consisted of 2203 children <15 years of age...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802773/costs-and-benefits-of-secrecy-the-dilemma-experienced-by-adolescents-seropositive-for-hiv
#15
Eliana Galano, Egberto Ribeiro Turato, Regina Célia Succi, Heloisa Helena de Souza Marques, Marinella Della Negra, Mariliza Henrique da Silva, Fabiana Bononi do Carmo, Aida de Fátima Barbosa Gouvea, Philippe Delmas, José Côté, Daisy Maria Machado
This study explored the experiences of the first generation of adolescents who acquired HIV through vertical transmission when disclosing their diagnosis to friends and romantic partners. The study sample was selected by convenience, with 20 patients (13-20 years old) participating in a qualitative investigation using individual interviews (language: Portuguese; duration: 45 minutes). The participants were followed in specialized clinics for the treatment of pediatric AIDS in São Paulo, Brazil. The results suggest that families who live with HIV tend to keep it a secret, and such behavior is learned and accepted unquestioningly as natural...
November 1, 2016: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801947/prevalence-of-periodontal-diseases-in-a-multicenter-cohort-of-perinatally-hiv-infected-and-hiv-exposed-and-uninfected-youth
#16
Mark I Ryder, Tzy-Jyun Yao, Jonathan S Russell, Anna-Barbara Moscicki, Caroline H Shiboski
AIMS: To compare the prevalence and severity of periodontal diseases between 180 perinatally HIV-infected (PHIV) and 118 perinatally HIV-exposed and uninfected (PHEU) youth in a cross-sectional study conducted at 11 clinical sites in the United States and Puerto Rico from the Adolescent Master Protocol study of the Pediatric HIV/AIDS cohort study (PHACS) network. METHODS: Several analyses were conducted, employing the current CDC/AAP classification for periodontitis and incorporating a definition of gingivitis based on a bleeding on probing (BOP) threshold, and analyses based on more detailed whole-mouth, intra-oral regionally, site-based and tooth-based criteria of BOP, plaque levels, pockets depths and clinical attachment levels...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Clinical Periodontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798548/growth-at-two-years-of-age-in-hiv-exposed-uninfected-children-in-the-us-by-trimester-of-maternal-antiretroviral-initiation
#17
Denise L Jacobson, Kunjal Patel, Paige L Williams, Mitchell E Geffner, George K Siberry, Linda A Dimeglio, Marilyn J Crain, Ayesha Mirza, Janet S Chen, Elizabeth McFarland, Deborah Kacanek, Margarita Silio, Kenneth Rich, William Borkowsky, Russell B Van Dyke, Tracie L Miller
BACKGROUND: Abnormal childhood growth may affect future health. Maternal tenofovir (TFV) use was associated with lower body length and head circumference at one year of age in HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) US children. METHODS: We studied 509 HEU children in the US-based Surveillance Monitoring of ART Toxicities cohort whose HIV-infected mothers were not using antiretrovirals at the last menstrual period and began combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in pregnancy (cART-initiators)...
October 27, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27791275/molar-incisor-hypomineralization-in-hiv-infected-children-and-adolescents
#18
Natália Silva Andrade, Alessandra Silva Pontes, Hélvis Enri de Sousa Paz, Marcoeli Silva de Moura, Lúcia de Fátima Almeida de Deus Moura, Marina de Deus Moura de Lima
The objective was to determine the prevalence of molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH) among individuals between 7 and 15 years old infected or noninfected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The study was conducted with 33 HIV-infected individuals (study group; SG) and 66 non-HIV-infected schoolchildren (control group; CG), paired by gender and age. Data collection was based on medical records (SG), a questionnaire for caregivers and oral examination for diagnosis of MIH (European Academy of Pediatric Dentistry criteria) and caries (DMFT index and ICDAS)...
October 28, 2016: Special Care in Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765020/demographic-and-mortality-analysis-of-hospitalized-children-at-a-referral-hospital-in-addis-ababa-ethiopia
#19
J A Bohn, B M Kassaye, D Record, B C Chou, I L Kraft, J C Purdy, K A Hilton, D A Miller, S Getachew, A Addissie, J A Robison
BACKGROUND: Global childhood mortality rates remain high. Millennium Development Goal 4 focused efforts on reducing rates by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015. In Ethiopia, child mortality rates dropped 71 % from 1990 to 2015, however it is estimated that 184,000 Ethiopian children die each year. There is limited information about pediatric hospital admissions in Ethiopia. Our aims were to examine the temporal relationship of mortality to admission, describe the demographics, and identify cause mortality of children admitted to the Zewditu Memorial Hospital (ZMH)...
October 21, 2016: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755108/insulin-resistance-in-hiv-infected-youth-is-associated-with-decreased-mitochondrial-respiration
#20
Jody K Takemoto, Tracie L Miller, Jiajia Wang, Denise L Jacobson, Mitchell E Geffner, Russell B Van Dyke, Mariana Gerschenson
OBJECTIVE: To identify relationships between insulin resistance (IR) and mitochondrial respiration in perinatally HIV-infected youth. DESIGN: Case-control study. METHODS: Mitochondrial respiration was assessed in perinatally HIV-infected youth in Tanner stages 2-5, 25 youth with IR (IR+) and 50 without IR (IR-) who were enrolled in the Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study. IR was defined as a homeostatic model of assessment for IR value at least 4...
January 2, 2017: AIDS
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