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Episodic Future Thought

Sanjay Bhandari, Thangam Venkatesan
Cyclic vomiting syndrome (CVS) is a chronic functional gastrointestinal disorder that is characterized by episodic nausea and vomiting. Initially thought to only affect children, CVS in adults was often misdiagnosed with significant delays in therapy. Over the last decade, there has been a considerable increase in recognition of CVS in adults but there continues to be a lack of knowledge about management of this disorder. This paper seeks to provide best practices in the treatment of CVS and also highlight some novel therapies that have the potential in better treating this disorder in the future...
October 18, 2016: Current Treatment Options in Gastroenterology
Stephanie T Lanza, Sara A Vasilenko, Michael A Russell
Time-varying effect modeling (TVEM), a statistical approach that enables researchers to estimate dynamic associations between variables across time, holds enormous potential to advance behavioral research. TVEM can address innovative questions about processes that unfold across different levels of time. We present a conceptual introduction to the approach and demonstrate 4 innovative ways to approach time in TVEM to advance research on the etiology of marijuana use. First, we examine changes in associations across historical time to understand how the link between marijuana use attitudes and marijuana use behavior has shifted from 1976 to present; gender differences in the relevance of attitudes diminished over time and were no longer significant after 2004...
October 13, 2016: Psychology of Addictive Behaviors: Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors
Péter Pajkossy, Attila Keresztes, Mihály Racsmány
Worrying is a key concept in describing the complex relationship between anxiety and cognitive control. On the one hand, cognitive control processes might underlie the specific tendency to engage in worrying (i.e. trait worry), conceptualized as a future-oriented mental problem-solving activity. On the other hand, the general tendency to experience the signs and symptoms of anxiety (i.e. trait anxiety) is suggested to impair cognitive control because worrisome thoughts interfere with task-relevant processing...
September 7, 2016: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Amy T Peters, Katie Burkhouse, Claudia C Feldhaus, Scott A Langenecker, Rachel H Jacobs
BACKGROUND: Resting state functional connectivity (RSFC) research among adults indicates abnormalities within and between neural networks during acute depressive episodes, some of which are likely to remain into remission. The examination of RSFC among adolescents within the remitted state of MDD may implicate markers of illness course during a critical developmental window wherein secondary prevention can be implemented. METHODS: RSFC data were collected on a 3...
August 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
Gilda E Ennis, Scott D Moffat, Christopher Hertzog
Although the hippocampus is thought to play a central role in the regulation of the cortisol awakening response (CAR), results from past studies examining the relationship between the CAR and hippocampal-mediated memory and cognition have been mixed. Inconsistent findings may be due to the use of cortisol samples collected on only 1-2days since reduced sampling can permit unstable situational factors to bias results. We used cortisol assessments from 10 consecutive days to test the relationship of the CAR to episodic memory, working memory, and processing speed in a sample of healthy young, middle-aged, and older adults (age range: 23-79years; N=56)...
June 2016: Brain and Cognition
Rachael O Oduyemi, Matthew Ayegboyin, Kabiru K Salami
The 2014 Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak was officially declared in the West Africa region by the World Health Organization (WHO) on 23 March 2014. This first episode of EVD in Nigeria on 20 July 2014 raised more intense panic globally than the seven occurrences of the disease in Zaire. Although Nigeria was declared Ebola free by the WHO within 3 months, it is imperative to understand people's perceptions of the disease in the country. A discussion of peoples' perception of EVD in Nigeria is the aim of this article...
June 2016: International Journal of Nursing Practice
Joshua L Rutt, Corinna E Löckenhoff
BACKGROUND/STUDY CONTEXT: Research suggests that mental representations of time encompass multiple distinct aspects that vary with age, but prior studies rarely assessed more than one aspect of time perception and did not systematically consider relevant covariates. This lack of integration across studies hampers theory building and limits a deeper understanding of underlying constructs. METHODS: Five widely used and conceptually distinct measures of time perception (i...
2016: Experimental Aging Research
Alexandra Ernst, Marion Sourty, Daniel Roquet, Vincent Noblet, Daniel Gounot, Frédéric Blanc, Jérôme De Seze, Liliann Manning
Increasingly studied, episodic future thought (EFT) impairment negatively affects patients' daily life. Along these lines, working with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RR-MS) patients, we documented the clinical effectiveness of a mental visual imagery (MVI)-based facilitation programme on EFT impairment related to executive function difficulties. We aimed at improving the characterisation of the cognitive and neural underpinnings of RR-MS patients' EFT amelioration, by exploring the structural and functional brain changes following the MVI programme...
June 2016: Brain and Cognition
Felipe De Brigard, Kelly S Giovanello, Gregory W Stewart, Amber W Lockrow, Margaret M O'Brien, R Nathan Spreng
Recent evidence demonstrates remarkable overlap in the neural and cognitive mechanisms underlying episodic memory, episodic future thinking, and episodic counterfactual thinking. However, the extent to which the phenomenological characteristics associated with these mental simulations change as a result of ageing remains largely unexplored. The current study employs adapted versions of the Memory Characteristics Questionnaire and the Autobiographical Interview to compare the phenomenological characteristics associated with both positive and negative episodic past, future, and counterfactual simulations in younger and older adults...
March 30, 2016: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Joseph C Franklin, Kathryn R Fox, Christopher R Franklin, Evan M Kleiman, Jessica D Ribeiro, Adam C Jaroszewski, Jill M Hooley, Matthew K Nock
OBJECTIVE: Self-injurious thoughts and behaviors (SITBs) are a major public health problem that traditional interventions have been unable to address on a large scale. The goal of this series of studies was to take initial steps toward developing an effective SITB treatment that can be easily delivered on a very large scale. METHOD: We created a brief (1-2 min), game-like app called Therapeutic Evaluative Conditioning (TEC), designed to increase aversion to SITBs and decrease aversion to the self...
June 2016: Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology
Valentina La Corte, Pascale Piolino
The ability to project the self forward in time to pre-experience personal events is referred to as episodic future thinking. Different theories have been proposed to try to explain the neurocognitive mechanisms underlying episodic future thinking. In this paper we focus on studies concerning the episodic prospection capacity in cognitive aging and in neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and semantic dementia. Older adults usually produce fewer episodic details than young adults when recalling past events and when imagining future events...
March 2016: Gériatrie et Psychologie Neuropsychiatrie du Vieillissement
Aidan J Horner, James A Bisby, Ewa Zotow, Daniel Bush, Neil Burgess
Grid cells in the entorhinal cortex (EC) of rodents [1] and humans [2] fire in a hexagonally distributed spatially periodic manner. In concert with other spatial cells in the medial temporal lobe (MTL) [3-6], they provide a representation of our location within an environment [7, 8] and are specifically thought to allow the represented location to be updated by self-motion [9]. Grid-like signals have been seen throughout the autobiographical memory system [10], suggesting a much more general role in memory [11, 12]...
March 21, 2016: Current Biology: CB
Lenny R Vartanian, William H Chen, Natalie M Reily, Alan D Castel
This research examined the effects of both episodic memory and episodic future thinking (EFT) on snack food intake. In Study 1, female participants (n = 158) were asked to recall their lunch from earlier in the day, to think about the dinner they planned to have later in the day, or to think about a non-food activity before taking part in a cookie taste test. Participants who recalled their lunch or who thought about their dinner ate less than did participants who thought about non-food activities. These effects were not explained by group differences in the hedonic value of the food...
June 1, 2016: Appetite
Xiaoxiao Xu, Hong Yuan, Xu Lei
Future-oriented thought, a projection of the self into the future to pre-experience an event, has been linked to default mode network (DMN). Previous studies showed that the DMN was generally divided into two subsystems: anterior part (aDMN) and posterior part (pDMN). The former is mostly related to self-referential mental thought and latter engages in episodic memory retrieval and scene construction. However, functional contribution of these two subsystems and functional connectivity between them during future-oriented thought has rarely been reported...
2016: Scientific Reports
Helen G Jing, Kevin P Madore, Daniel L Schacter
Previous research has demonstrated that an episodic specificity induction--brief training in recollecting details of a recent experience--enhances performance on various subsequent tasks thought to draw upon episodic memory processes. Existing work has also shown that mental simulation can be beneficial for emotion regulation and coping with stressors. Here we focus on understanding how episodic detail can affect problem solving, reappraisal, and psychological well-being regarding worrisome future events. In Experiment 1, an episodic specificity induction significantly improved participants' performance on a subsequent means-end problem solving task (i...
April 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
Daniel Moualed, Liam Masterson, Sanjiv Kumar, Neil Donnelly
BACKGROUND: Following middle ear ventilation tube (tympanostomy tube or grommet) insertion, most surgeons advise that a child's ears should be kept dry during the immediate postoperative period. Following the initial period some surgeons will permit swimming or bathing, whereas other surgeons will recommend ongoing water precautions. A large number of studies have been conducted to explore the association between water exposure and ear infections in children with ventilation tubes, however a range of differing conclusions exist regarding the need for water precautions and there is wide variation in clinical practice...
2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Thomas R Wojda, Pamela L Valenza, Kristine Cornejo, Thomas McGinley, Sagar C Galwankar, Dhanashree Kelkar, Richard P Sharpe, Thomas J Papadimos, Stanislaw P Stawicki
The Ebola outbreak of 2014-2015 exacted a terrible toll on major countries of West Africa. Latest estimates from the World Health Organization indicate that over 11,000 lives were lost to the deadly virus since the first documented case was officially recorded. However, significant progress in the fight against Ebola was made thanks to a combination of globally-supported containment efforts, dissemination of key information to the public, the use of modern information technology resources to better track the spread of the outbreak, as well as more effective use of active surveillance, targeted travel restrictions, and quarantine procedures...
October 2015: Journal of Global Infectious Diseases
Julie Demblon, Mohamed Ali Bahri, Arnaud D'Argembeau
When remembering the past or envisioning the future, events often come to mind in organized sequences or stories rather than in isolation from one another. The aim of the present fMRI study was to investigate the neural correlates of such event clusters. Participants were asked to consider pairs of specific past or future events: in one condition, the two events were part of the same event cluster (i.e., they were thematically and/or causally related to each other), whereas in another condition the two events only shared a surface feature (i...
February 15, 2016: NeuroImage
George Anderson, Aude Jacob, Frank Bellivier, Pierre Alexis Geoffroy
Bipolar disorder (BD) is a long-recognized severe and common psychiatric disorder, with a complex and often diverse range of presentations. BD is a heterogenous disorder that has traditionally, if rather simply, been defined by the recurrences of manic and depressive episodes, and presents with numerous immune-inflammatory and circadian/sleep abnormalities. A number of different lines of research have investigated the biological underpinnings of BD and demonstrate a heritability of about 80-90%. This genetic contribution is thought to be mediated by a wide array of genetic factors, rather than being strongly influenced by a couple of genes...
2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Eva Pirogovsky-Turk, J Vincent Filoteo, Irene Litvan, Deborah L Harrington
BACKGROUND: Changes in episodic memory are common early in Parkinson's disease (PD) and may be a risk factor for future cognitive decline. Although medial temporal lobe (MTL) memory and frontostriatal (FS) executive systems are thought to play different roles in distinct components of episodic memory impairment in PD, no study has investigated whether different aspects of memory functioning are differentially associated with MTL and FS volumes in nondemented patients without mild cognitive impairment (PD-woMCI)...
2015: Journal of Parkinson's Disease
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