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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700829/fast-sensitive-and-quantitative-point-of-care-platform-for-the-assessment-of-drugs-of-abuse-in-urine-serum-and-whole-blood
#1
Ying Li, Uvaraj Uddayasankar, Bangshun He, Ping Wang, Lidong Qin
Drug abuse is a major public health problem in many countries in Europe and North America. Currently available platforms for drug abuse assessment are facing technical challenges of non-quantitation, inaccuracy, low throughput, incompatible with diverse complex specimens, long assay time and requirement of instrument and/or expertise for readout. Here, we report an integrated Competitive Volumetric-bar-chart Chip (CV-Chip) to assay multiple drug targets at the point-of-care (POC). To the best of our knowledge, it is the first time that a POC platform has been demonstrated to fully address the above-mentioned limitations...
July 12, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683736/security-controls-in-an-integrated-biobank-to-protect-privacy-in-data-sharing-rationale-and-study-design
#2
Takako Takai-Igarashi, Kengo Kinoshita, Masao Nagasaki, Soichi Ogishima, Naoki Nakamura, Sachiko Nagase, Satoshi Nagaie, Tomo Saito, Fuji Nagami, Naoko Minegishi, Yoichi Suzuki, Kichiya Suzuki, Hiroaki Hashizume, Shinichi Kuriyama, Atsushi Hozawa, Nobuo Yaegashi, Shigeo Kure, Gen Tamiya, Yoshio Kawaguchi, Hiroshi Tanaka, Masayuki Yamamoto
BACKGROUND: With the goal of realizing genome-based personalized healthcare, we have developed a biobank that integrates personal health, genome, and omics data along with biospecimens donated by volunteers of 150,000. Such a large-scale of data integration involves obvious risks of privacy violation. The research use of personal genome and health information is a topic of global discussion with regard to the protection of privacy while promoting scientific advancement. The present paper reports on our plans, current attempts, and accomplishments in addressing security problems involved in data sharing to ensure donor privacy while promoting scientific advancement...
July 6, 2017: BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665754/challenges-in-the-treatment-of-sarcomas-of-adolescents-and-young-adults
#3
Seth J Rotz, Rajaram Nagarajan, Joel I Sorger, Joseph G Pressey
Adolescent and young adult (AYA) sarcoma patients do not fare as well as their younger counterparts. A variety of factors theorized to underlie such disparate outcomes have been identified including distinct tumor and host biology. Compared to younger patients, AYA patients often develop genetically distinct tumors and are more likely to suffer characteristic therapy-related toxicities. Compounding factors faced by AYA patients include education, finances, employment, and obstacles to treatment adherence. Lack of clinical trial participation among AYA patients has slowed the establishment of optimized age-specific treatment protocols and hindered the collection of biospecimens for scientific investigation...
June 30, 2017: Journal of Adolescent and Young Adult Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664917/harmonisation-of-biobanking-standards-in-endometrial-cancer-research
#4
M Adishesh, A Fyson, S B DeCruze, J Kirwan, H M J Werner, D K Hapangama
BACKGROUND: Endometrial cancer is the most common gynaecological cancer and its incidence is predicted to escalate by 50-100% in 2025 with a parallel increase in associated mortality. Variations in the collection, processing and storage of biospecimens can affect the generalisability of the scientific data. We aimed to harmonise the collection of biospecimens, clinical data relevant to endometrial cancer and to develop standard operative procedures for the collection, processing and storage of endometrial cancer biospecimens...
June 29, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661280/negotiating-commercial-interests-in-biospecimens
#5
Jessica L Roberts
Proposed changes to the Common Rule would require publicly funded researchers to disclose whether a subject's biospecimens could be used for commercial profit and whether the subject will share in those proceeds. Disclosing commercial interests will inform research participants that their tissue may have commercial value, a possibility that those individuals might not have previously considered. The proposed changes may then provide people with an opportunity to negotiate commercial rights in their biospecimens despite the well-accepted legal precedent that individuals maintain no interests in their excised tissue...
March 2017: Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics: a Journal of the American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648083/temporal-signal-pattern-recognition-in-mass-spectrometry-a-method-for-rapid-identification-and-accurate-quantification-of-biomarkers-for-inborn-errors-of-metabolism-with-quality-assurance
#6
Alicia DiBattista, Nathan McIntosh, Monica Lamoureux, Osama Y Al-Dirbashi, Pranesh Chakraborty, Philip Britz-McKibbin
Mass spectrometry (MS)-based metabolomic initiatives that use conventional separation techniques are limited by low sample throughput and complicated data processing that contribute to false discoveries. Herein, we introduce a new strategy for unambiguous identification and accurate quantification of biomarkers for inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) from dried blood spots (DBS) with quality assurance. A multiplexed separation platform based on multisegment injection-capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry (MSI-CE-MS) was developed to provide comparable sample throughput to flow injection analysis-tandem MS (FIA-MS/MS) but with greater selectivity as required for confirmatory testing and discovery-based metabolite profiling of volume-restricted biospecimens...
July 11, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635997/a-spin-column-free-approach-to-sodium-hydroxide-based-glycan-permethylation
#7
Yueming Hu, Chad R Borges
Glycan permethylation was introduced as a tool to facilitate the study of glycans in 1903. Since that time, permethylation procedures have been continually modified to improve permethylation efficiency and qualitative applicability. Typically, however, either laborious preparation steps or cumbersome and uneconomical spin columns have been needed to obtain decent permethylation yields on small glycan samples. Here we describe a spin column-free (SCF) glycan permethylation procedure that is applicable to both O- and N-linked glycans and can be employed upstream to intact glycan analysis by MALDI-MS, ESI-MS, or glycan linkage analysis by GC-MS...
June 21, 2017: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628741/amplicon-competition-enables-end-point-quantitation-of-nucleic-acids-following-isothermal-amplification
#8
Yu Sherry Jiang, Apollo Stacy, Marvin Whiteley, Andrew D Ellington, Sanchita Bhadra
It is inherently difficult to quantitate nucleic acid analytes with most isothermal amplification assays. We have now developed loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) reactions in which competition between defined numbers of 'false' and 'true' amplicons leads to order of magnitude quantitation via a single end-point determination. These thresholded LAMP reactions were successfully used to directly and quantitatively estimate the numbers of nucleic acids in complex biospecimens, including directly from cells and in sewage, with the values obtained closely correlating with qPCR quantitations...
June 19, 2017: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614402/providing-researchers-with-online-access-to-nhlbi-biospecimen-collections-the-results-of-the-first-six-years-of-the-nhlbi-biolincc-program
#9
Carol A Giffen, Elizabeth L Wagner, John T Adams, Denise M Hitchcock, Lisbeth A Welniak, Sean P Brennan, Leslie E Carroll
The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI), within the United States' National Institutes of Health (NIH), established the Biologic Specimen and Data Repository Information Coordinating Center (BioLINCC) in 2008 to develop the infrastructure needed to link the contents of the NHLBI Biorepository and the NHLBI Data Repository, and to promote the utilization of these scientific resources by the broader research community. Program utilization metrics were developed to measure the impact of BioLINCC on Biorepository access by researchers, including visibility, program efficiency, user characteristics, scientific impact, and research types...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604319/establishing-an-academic-biobank-in-a-resource-challenged-environment
#10
Cassandra Claire Soo, Freedom Mukomana, Scott Hazelhurst, Michele Ramsay
Past practices of informal sample collections and spreadsheets for data and sample management fall short of best-practice models for biobanking, and are neither cost effective nor efficient to adequately serve the needs of large research studies. The biobank of the Sydney Brenner Institute for Molecular Bioscience serves as a bioresource for institutional, national and international research collaborations. It provides high-quality human biospecimens from African populations, secure data and sample curation and storage, as well as monitored sample handling and management processes, to promote both non-communicable and infectious-disease research...
May 24, 2017: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594242/attitudes-and-perceptions-of-cancer-patients-toward-biospecimen-donation-for-cancer-research-a-cross-sectional-survey-among-chinese-cancer-patients
#11
Na He, Yan Guo, Min He, Wanmin Qiang, Haixin Li
BACKGROUND: High-quality biospecimen collection from consented patients is crucial for cancer research activities. Patients' attitudes and willingness toward specimen donation influence high-quality biospecimen collection for cancer research activities. METHODS: We carried out a cross-sectional study among randomly selected patients from 11 cancer departments of Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital between August 2014 and August 2015. A total of 784 patients were included to complete a 30-item self-administered survey...
June 8, 2017: Biopreservation and Biobanking
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578174/maternal-marijuana-use-adverse-pregnancy-outcomes-and-neonatal-morbidity
#12
Torri D Metz, Amanda A Allshouse, Carol J Hogue, Robert L Goldenberg, Donald J Dudley, Michael W Varner, Deborah L Conway, George R Saade, Robert M Silver
BACKGROUND: The Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Stillbirth Collaborative Research Network previously demonstrated an association between stillbirth and maternal marijuana use as defined by the presence of 11-nor-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid in the umbilical cord homogenate. However, the relationship between marijuana use and perinatal complications in live births is uncertain. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to examine if maternal marijuana use is associated with increased odds of adverse pregnancy outcomes and neonatal morbidity among live-born controls in the Stillbirth Collaborative Research Network cohort...
May 31, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575264/knowledge-and-beliefs-about-biospecimen-research-among-chinese-older-women-in-chicago-s-chinatown
#13
Melissa A Simon, Laura S Tom, XinQi Dong
Background: Enhancing the participation of Chinese older women in biobanking efforts is important for precision medicine efforts, as underrepresented groups risk benefiting less than others from medical advancements in individualized therapies. Focusing on a sample of Chinese older women in Chicago's Chinatown, this qualitative study seeks to describe attitudes toward, and barriers and facilitators of, participation in biospecimen research. Method: We conducted six focus groups among Chinese-speaking adult women age 45 and above...
July 1, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573389/effect-of-multiple-cycles-of-freeze-thawing-on-the-rna-quality-of-lung-cancer-tissues
#14
Keke Yu, Jie Xing, Jie Zhang, Ruiying Zhao, Ye Zhang, Lanxiang Zhao
RNA degradation is a major problem in tissue banking. We explored the effect of thawing flash-frozen biospecimens on the quality and integrity of RNA for genetic testing as well as for other cancer research studies. The histological quality of the frozen tumor sections was evaluated by using hematoxylin and eosin staining. RNA extraction from 60 lung cancer tissue samples subjected to various freeze/thaw cycles was performed using the RNeasy Plus isolation kit. RNA integrity was assessed by using an Agilent bioanalyzer to obtain RNA integrity numbers (RIN)...
June 1, 2017: Cell and Tissue Banking
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557243/the-use-of-electronic-health-records-for-psychiatric-phenotyping-and-genomics
#15
REVIEW
Jordan W Smoller
The widespread adoption of electronic health record (EHRs) in healthcare systems has created a vast and continuously growing resource of clinical data and provides new opportunities for population-based research. In particular, the linking of EHRs to biospecimens and genomic data in biobanks may help address what has become a rate-limiting study for genetic research: the need for large sample sizes. The principal roadblock to capitalizing on these resources is the need to establish the validity of phenotypes extracted from the EHR...
May 30, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555937/market-driven-production-of-biospecimens-and-the-role-of-nhs-hospital-led-biobanks
#16
Stephen Timmons, Paraskevas Vezyridis
Biobanks are vital for biospecimen production in research, despite the regulatory, recruitment and commercial difficulties they face. We conducted interviews with clinicians, researchers, volunteers who recruit biobank participants, regulators and NHS managers about the integration of a biobank into an NHS hospital. We show that medical waste collected for biomedical research acquires its socio-ethical and economic value from the level of integration (both technologically and organisationally) of the biobank into the NHS hospital...
May 27, 2017: Sociology of Health & Illness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549077/clinical-criteria-for-subtyping-parkinson-s-disease-biomarkers-and-longitudinal-progression
#17
Seyed-Mohammad Fereshtehnejad, Yashar Zeighami, Alain Dagher, Ronald B Postuma
Parkinson's disease varies widely in clinical manifestations, course of progression and biomarker profiles from person to person. Identification of distinct Parkinson's disease subtypes is of great priority to illuminate underlying pathophysiology, predict progression and develop more efficient personalized care approaches. There is currently no clear way to define and divide subtypes in Parkinson's disease. Using data from the Parkinson's Progression Markers Initiative, we aimed to identify distinct subgroups via cluster analysis of a comprehensive dataset at baseline (i...
May 25, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544737/revisions-to-common-rule-regarding-human-research-issued-final-version-abandons-proposal-requiring-consent-for-all-biospecimens
#18
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543413/regulating-research-with-biospecimens-under-the-revised-common-rule
#19
Holly Fernandez Lynch, Michelle N Meyer
Since 2011, the research community had waited with bated breath as regulators contemplated for the first time bringing secondary research with nonidentifiable biospecimens under the Common Rule and dramatically tightening the criteria for waiving consent to biospecimen research. After considerable pushback from both researchers and patients and amid rumors of intractable disagreement among Common Rule agencies, the Final Rule published on the last day of President Obama's administration left out these troubling changes, and there was a collective sigh of relief...
May 2017: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479327/a-review-of-metabolomics-approaches-and-their-application-in-identifying-causal-pathways-of-childhood-asthma
#20
Kedir N Turi, Lindsey Romick-Rosendale, Kelli K Ryckman, Tina V Hartert
Because asthma is a disease that results from host-environment interactions, an approach that allows assessment of the effect of the environment on the host is needed to understand the disease. Metabolomics has appealing potential as an application to study pathways to childhood asthma development. The objective of this review is to provide an overview of metabolomics methods and their application to understanding host-environment pathways in asthma development. We reviewed recent literature on advances in metabolomics and their application to study pathways to childhood asthma development...
May 4, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
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