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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656775/the-nci-physical-sciences-oncology-network
#1
Nastaran Zahir
Nastaran Zahir is Associate Director of the Physical Sciences - Oncology Network in the Division of Cancer Biology at the National Cancer Institute. Dr. Zahir coordinates cross-cutting efforts to integrate physical sciences perspectives with cancer research by fostering transdisciplinary research collaborations, supporting education and outreach programs, and promoting resources for data sharing and biospecimen standards.
April 2018: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652094/from-in-vivo-to-in-vitro-how-the-guatemala-std-experiments-transformed-bodies-into-biospecimens
#2
Kayte Spector-Bagdady, Paul A Lombardo
Policy Points: While most scholarship regarding the US Public Health Service's STD experiments in Guatemala during the 1940s has focused on the intentional exposure experiments, secondary research was also conducted on biospecimens collected from these subjects. These biospecimen experiments continued after the Guatemala grant ended, and the specimens were used in conjunction with those from the Tuskegee syphilis experiments for ongoing research. We argue there should be a public accounting of whether there are still biospecimens from the Guatemala and Tuskegee experiments held in US government biorepositories today...
April 13, 2018: Milbank Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624852/cryopreserved-whole-blood-for-the-quantification-of-monocyte-t-cell-and-nk-cell-subsets-and-monocyte-receptor-expression-by-multi-color-flow-cytometry-a-methodological-study-based-on-participants-from-the-canadian-longitudinal-study-on-aging
#3
Chris P Verschoor, Vikas Kohli
Immunophenotyping by multi-color flow cytometry is arguably the best tool to identify and quantify distinct cell lineages from the peripheral blood and other biological fluids/tissues. Effective in both clinical and research settings, it can be used to estimate the frequency of a given cell type or measure its phenotypic or functional properties. Normally, immunophenotyping is performed in fresh or fractionated blood (i.e., PBMCs) the same day, or within 24 hours of collection; however, this may not be feasible for all study designs...
April 6, 2018: Cytometry. Part A: the Journal of the International Society for Analytical Cytology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621457/beyond-consent-building-trusting-relationships-with-diverse-populations-in-precision-medicine-research
#4
Stephanie A Kraft, Mildred K Cho, Katherine Gillespie, Meghan Halley, Nina Varsava, Kelly E Ormond, Harold S Luft, Benjamin S Wilfond, Sandra Soo-Jin Lee
With the growth of precision medicine research on health data and biospecimens, research institutions will need to build and maintain long-term, trusting relationships with patient-participants. While trust is important for all research relationships, the longitudinal nature of precision medicine research raises particular challenges for facilitating trust when the specifics of future studies are unknown. Based on focus groups with racially and ethnically diverse patients, we describe several factors that influence patient trust and potential institutional approaches to building trustworthiness...
April 2018: American Journal of Bioethics: AJOB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29611768/patient-perspectives-on-compensation-for-biospecimen-donation
#5
Samuel C Allen, Minisha Lohani, Kristopher A Hendershot, Travis R Deal, Taylor White, Margie D Dixon, Rebecca D Pentz
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to determine whether biospecimen donors believe they should receive compensation. This is the first study to report biospecimen donors' views on compensation and can potentially improve informed consent and recruitment practices. METHODS: Researchers asked patients undergoing surgical removal of tissue to donate biological materials to a biobank at their pre-surgical appointment or in the preoperative clinic of the Emory University Hospital...
April 3, 2018: AJOB Empirical Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29611143/biospecimen-education-among-pacific-islanders-in-southern-california
#6
Nasya S Tan, Harold Custodio, Mandy LaBreche, Cleo Carlos Fex, Vanessa Tui'one May, Jane Ka'ala Pang, Victor Kaiwi Pang, Lola Sablan-Santos, Tupou Toilolo, Alisi Tulua, Dorothy Schmidt Vaivao, Melanie Sabado-Liwag, James Russell Pike, Bin Xie, Patchareeya P Kwan, Paula Healani Palmer, Sora Park Tanjasiri
Despite increasing rates of cancer, biospecimen donations for cancer research remains low among Pacific Islanders (PIs). To address this disparity, researchers partnered with PI community organizations to develop and test a theory-based culturally tailored educational intervention designed to raise awareness about the issues surrounding biospecimen research. A total of 219 self-identified PI adults in Southern California were recruited to participate in a one-group pre-post design study. Participants completed questionnaires that assessed their knowledge and attitude regarding biospecimen research before and after viewing an educational video and receiving print materials...
April 3, 2018: Journal of Cancer Education: the Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606560/biospecimens-and-the-abcd-study-rationale-methods-of-collection-measurement-and-early-data
#7
REVIEW
Kristina A Uban, Megan K Horton, Joanna Jacobus, Charles Heyser, Wesley K Thompson, Susan F Tapert, Pamela A F Madden, Elizabeth R Sowell
Biospecimen collection in the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study - of hair samples, shed deciduous (baby) teeth, and body fluids - will serve dual functions of screening for study eligibility, and providing measures of biological processes thought to predict or correlate with key study outcomes on brain and cognitive development. Biosamples are being collected annually to screen for recency of drug use prior to the neuroimaging or cognitive testing visit, and to store for the following future studies: (1) on the effects of exposure to illicit and recreational drugs (including alcohol and nicotine); (2) of pubertal hormones on brain and cognitive developmental trajectories; (3) on the contribution of genomics and epigenomics to child and adolescent development and behavioral outcomes; and (4) with pre- and post-natal exposure to environmental neurotoxicants and drugs of abuse measured from novel tooth analyses...
March 16, 2018: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601333/circulating-tumor-cells-strategies-for-capture-analyses-and-propagation
#8
Ashutosh Agarwal, Marija Balic, Dorraya El-Ashry, Richard J Cote
Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) play a central role in tumor dissemination and metastases, which are ultimately responsible for most cancer deaths. Technologies that allow for identification and enumeration of rare CTC from cancer patients' blood have already established CTC as an important clinical biomarker for cancer diagnosis and prognosis. Indeed, current efforts to robustly characterize CTC as well as the associated cells of the tumor microenvironment such as circulating cancer associated fibroblasts (cCAF), are poised to unmask key insights into the metastatic process...
March 2018: Cancer Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29578601/time-trust-and-transparency-lessons-learned-from-collecting-blood-biospecimens-for-cancer-research-from-the-asian-american-community
#9
Julie H T Dang, Moon S Chen
BACKGROUND: Biospecimens from racially diverse groups are needed to advance cancer research. The Asian American Cancer Education Study was developed to increase the number and proportion of blood biospecimen donations from Asian Americans for cancer research. METHODS: The authors' targeted approach included 2 types of community engagement, in-reach (within institution to Asian American patients with cancer) and outreach (external to institution to the general Asian American community)...
April 1, 2018: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29578592/impact-of-a-cancer-education-seminar-on-knowledge-and-screening-intent-among-chinese-americans-results-from-a-randomized-controlled-community-based-trial
#10
Lei-Chun Fung, Kim H Nguyen, Susan L Stewart, Moon S Chen, Elisa K Tong
BACKGROUND: Cancer is the leading cause of death for Asian Americans. The authors evaluated the status of cancer prevention for Chinese Americans in San Francisco, which has had years of cancer prevention efforts. METHODS: Through a community-based clinic serving Chinese Americans, a randomized, controlled trial (n = 395) was conducted among participants who attended either a cancer prevention seminar or biospecimen education seminar. Changes in knowledge, attitudes, and screening completion/intent were measured across and between seminar groups...
April 1, 2018: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29576601/genome-database-of-the-latvian-population-lgdb-design-goals-and-primary-results
#11
Vita Rovite, Yael Wolff-Sagi, Linda Zaharenko, Liene Nikitina-Zake, Elmars Grens, Janis Klovins
BACKGROUND: The Genome Database of the Latvian Population (LGDB) is a national biobank that collects, maintains, and processes health information, data, and biospecimens collected from representatives of the Latvian population. These specimens serve as a foundation for epidemiological research and prophylactic and therapeutic purposes. METHODS: Participant recruitment and biomaterial and data processing were performed according to specifically designed standard protocols, taking into consideration international quality requirements...
March 24, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29573159/patients-experiences-and-preferences-for-opt-in-models-and-health-professional-involvement-in-biobanking-consent-a-cross-sectional-survey-of-australian-cancer-outpatients
#12
Elizabeth A Fradgley, Shu Er Chong, Martine E Cox, Craig Gedye, Christine L Paul
BACKGROUND: Many biobanks rely upon patients' willingness to donate biospecimens and healthcare professionals to initiate opt-in consent processes. This study explored if: (1) patients accept opt-in or opt-out consent models with varying levels of professional involvement; (2) professionals discuss participation with specific patient groups; and (3) this discussion is associated with patient knowledge of biobanking processes. METHODS: Outpatients completed surveys at a tertiary cancer center in New South Wales, Australia...
March 23, 2018: Asia-Pacific Journal of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29553460/within-day-between-day-and-between-week-variability-of-urinary-concentrations-of-phenol-biomarkers-in-pregnant-women
#13
Céline Vernet, Claire Philippat, Antonia M Calafat, Xiaoyun Ye, Sarah Lyon-Caen, Valérie Siroux, Enrique F Schisterman, Rémy Slama
BACKGROUND: Toxicology studies have shown adverse effects of developmental exposure to industrial phenols. Evaluation in humans is challenged by potentially marked within-subject variability of phenol biomarkers in pregnant women, which is poorly characterized. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to characterize within-day, between-day, and between-week variability of phenol urinary biomarker concentrations during pregnancy. METHODS: In eight French pregnant women, we collected all urine voids over a 1-wk period (average, 60 samples per week per woman) at three occasions (15±2, 24±2, and 32±1 gestational weeks) in 2012-2013...
March 16, 2018: Environmental Health Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29515789/mutational-landscape-of-radiation-associated-angiosarcoma-of-the-breast
#14
Bryan J Thibodeau, Vincent Lavergne, Nayana Dekhne, Pamela Benitez, Mitual Amin, Samreen Ahmed, Jean L Nakamura, Philip R Davidson, Alice O Nakamura, Inga S Grills, Peter Y Chen, Jessica Wobb, George D Wilson
Purpose: Radiation-associated breast angiosarcomas are a rare complication of radiation therapy for breast carcinoma. With relatively little is known about the genetic abnormalities present in these secondary tumors, we examined genomic variation in biospecimens from radiation-associated breast angiosarcomas. Experimental Design: Patients were identified that had a previous breast cancer diagnosis, received radiation therapy, and developed angiosarcoma in the ipsilateral breast as the earlier cancer...
February 9, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29513089/an-empirical-assessment-of-the-short-term-impacts-of-a-reading-of-deborah-zoe-laufer-s-drama-informed-consent-on-attitudes-and-intentions-to-participate-in-genetic-research
#15
Erin Rothwell, Jeffrey R Botkin, Sydney Cheek-O'Donnell, Bob Wong, Gretchen A Case, Erin Johnson, Trent Matheson, Alena Wilson, Nicole R Robinson, Jared Rawlings, Brooke Horejsi, Ana Maria Lopez, Carrie L Byington
OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the short-term impact of the play "Informed Consent" by Deborah Zoe Laufer (a fictionalized look at the controversy over specimens collected from the Havasupai Tribe for diabetes research in 1989) on perceptions of trust, willingness to donate biospecimens, attitudes toward harm and privacy among the medical and undergraduate students, faculty and the public in the intermountain west. METHODS: Surveys were administered before and after a staged reading of the play by professional actors...
March 7, 2018: AJOB Empirical Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29510662/successful-use-of-whole-genome-amplified-dna-from-multiple-source-types-for-high-density-illumina-snp-microarrays
#16
Casey L Dagnall, Lindsay M Morton, Belynda D Hicks, Shengchao Li, Weiyin Zhou, Eric Karlins, Kedest Teshome, Salma Chowdhury, Kerrie S Lashley, Joshua N Sampson, Leslie L Robison, Gregory T Armstrong, Smita Bhatia, Gretchen A Radloff, Stella M Davies, Margaret A Tucker, Meredith Yeager, Stephen J Chanock
BACKGROUND: The recommended genomic DNA input requirements for whole genome single nucleotide polymorphism microarrays can limit the scope of molecular epidemiological studies. We performed a large-scale evaluation of whole genome amplified DNA as input into high-density, whole-genome Illumina® Infinium® SNP microarray. RESULTS: Overall, 6622 DNA samples from 5970 individuals were obtained from three distinct biospecimen sources and genotyped using gDNA and/or wgaDNA inputs...
March 6, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29496157/a-review-of-brain-biorepository-management-and-operations
#17
H Ronald Zielke, Deborah C Mash
Brain biospecimen banking requires centralized resources, national networks for referral of donors, trained personnel to interact with grieving families, and scientific staff to process the biospecimens. Process development of quality control standards is needed to meet the specific requirements of emerging genomic and proteomic technologies. Attention has to be paid to agonal factors and postmortem interval, tissue processing, neuropathology review, and long-term storage. Samples of both diseased and unaffected normal tissues are required with age- and gender-matched control tissues...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29494219/molecular-diagnostics-in-pathology-time-for-a-next-generation-pathologist
#18
Matteo Fassan
CONTEXT: - Comprehensive molecular investigations of mainstream carcinogenic processes have led to the use of effective molecular targeted agents in most cases of solid tumors in clinical settings. OBJECTIVE: - To update readers regarding the evolving role of the pathologist in the therapeutic decision-making process and the introduction of next-generation technologies into pathology practice. DATA SOURCES: - Current literature on the topic, primarily sourced from the PubMed (National Center for Biotechnology Information, Bethesda, Maryland) database, were reviewed...
March 2018: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29487749/assessment-of-salivary-adipokines-resistin-visfatin-and-ghrelin-as-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-biomarkers
#19
Mythily Srinivasan, Melinda L Meadows, Lisa Maxwell
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is emerging as a metabolic epidemic worldwide. Pathologically, dysregulation of many biological pathways precedes hyperglycemia and the clinical diagnosis of T2DM. Changing trajectories along the process of T2DM development necessitates frequent measurement of biomarkers for early identification of at-risk individuals and successful prevention. Increase in circulating inflammatory adipokines has been suggested as predictive of T2DM. Human saliva is an easily accessible biospecimen amenable for painless frequent collection and possesses nearly 50% of serum proteome...
2018: Biochemistry Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29475516/exposure-to-microgravity-for-30-days-onboard-bion-m1-caused-muscle-atrophy-and-impaired-regeneration-in-murine-femoral-quadriceps
#20
E A Radugina, E A C Almeida, E Blaber, V A Poplinskaya, Y V Markitantova, E N Grigoryan
Mechanical unloading in microgravity during spaceflight is known to cause muscular atrophy, changes in muscle fiber composition, gene expression, and reduction in regenerative muscle growth. Although some limited data exists for long-term effects of microgravity in human muscle, these processes have mostly been studied in rodents for short periods of time. Here we report on how long-term (30-day long) mechanical unloading in microgravity affects murine muscles of the femoral Quadriceps group. To conduct these studies we used muscle tissue from 6 microgravity mice, in comparison to habitat (7), and vivarium (14) ground control mice from the NASA Biospecimen Sharing Program conducted in collaboration with the Institute for Biomedical Problems of the Russian Academy of Sciences, during the Russian Bion M1 biosatellite mission in 2013...
February 2018: Life Sciences in Space Research
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