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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803222/biobanking-in-the-subcontinent-exploring-concerns
#1
Aamir M Jafarey, Sualeha Siddiq Shekhani, Bushra Shirazi
Biobanking is an important tool for biomedical research. However, it raises a variety of ethical issues, which are compounded in the developing world. This paper is based on data from three sources on the ethical issues associated with biobanking, including a mixed method pilot study conducted with students in Karachi, Pakistan, a workshop in Karachi, and another workshop held in Bengaluru, India. Findings from these sources reveal a unanimous lack of clarity about what constitutes a biobank. While informed consent was deemed necessary for storage of materials, participants were unsure of how this could be achieved for samples stored indefinitely for future research...
July 11, 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800212/abo-blood-group-phenotype-frequency-estimation-using-molecular-phenotyping-in-rhesus-and-cynomolgus-macaques
#2
S Kanthaswamy, J Ng, R Oldt, L Valdivia, P Houghton, D G Smith
A much larger sample (N = 2369) was used to evaluate a previously reported distribution of the A, AB and B blood group phenotypes in rhesus and cynomolgus macaques from six different regional populations. These samples, acquired from 15 different breeding and research facilities in the US, were analyzed using a real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay that targets single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) responsible for the macaque A, B and AB phenotypes. The frequency distributions of blood group phenotypes of the two species differ significantly from each other, and significant regional differentiation within the geographic ranges of each species was also observed...
August 11, 2017: HLA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747168/the-biobank-for-the-molecular-classification-of-kidney-disease-research-translation-and-precision-medicine-in-nephrology
#3
Daniel A Muruve, Michelle C Mann, Kevin Chapman, Josee F Wong, Pietro Ravani, Stacey A Page, Hallgrimur Benediktsson
BACKGROUND: Advances in technology and the ability to interrogate disease pathogenesis using systems biology approaches are exploding. As exemplified by the substantial progress in the personalized diagnosis and treatment of cancer, the application of systems biology to enable precision medicine in other disciplines such as Nephrology is well underway. Infrastructure that permits the integration of clinical data, patient biospecimens and advanced technologies is required for institutions to contribute to, and benefit from research in molecular disease classification and to devise specific and patient-oriented treatments...
July 26, 2017: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746751/cancer-donor-preferences-for-disposition-of-their-biospecimens-after-biobank-closure
#4
Samuel C Allen, Margie D Dixon, Jeffrey M Switchenko, Rebecca D Pentz
BACKGROUND: Biobank funding is unstable and biobank administrators are concerned about loss of funding and subsequent biobank closure. Nevertheless, only a minority of biobanks have policies regarding the distribution or destruction of tissue if the biobank were to close. To the authors' knowledge, the current study is the first to report on the preferences of oncology biospecimen donors regarding the handling of their biospecimens in the event of biobank closure. METHODS: A total of 98 biospecimen donors who were diagnosed with cancer at the Georgia Cancer Center for Excellence at Grady Memorial Hospital or the Winship Cancer Institute were interviewed concerning their preferences for the handling of their biospecimens in the event of biobank closure...
July 26, 2017: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743678/the-saliva-exposome-for-monitoring-of-individuals-health-trajectories
#5
Vincent Bessonneau, Janusz Pawliszyn, Stephen M Rappaport
BACKGROUND: There is increasing evidence that environmental, rather than genetic, factors are the major causes of most chronic diseases. By measuring entire classes of chemicals in archived biospecimens, exposome-wide association studies (EWAS) are being conducted to investigate associations between a myriad of exposures received during life and chronic diseases. OBJECTIVES: Because the intraindividual variability in biomarker levels, arising from changes in environmental exposures from conception onwards, leads to attenuation of exposure-disease associations, we posit that saliva can be collected repeatedly in longitudinal studies to reduce exposure-measurement errors in EWAS...
July 20, 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732082/osteosarcoma-enters-a-post-genomic-era-with-in-silico-opportunities-generation-of-the-high-dimensional-database-for-facilitating-sarcoma-biology-research-a-report-from-the-children-s-oncology-group-and-the-quadw-foundation
#6
Jason Glover, Tsz-Kwong Man, Donald A Barkauskas, David Hall, Tanya Tello, Mary Beth Sullivan, Richard Gorlick, Katherine Janeway, Holcombe Grier, Ching Lau, Jeffrey A Toretsky, Scott C Borinstein, Chand Khanna, Timothy M Fan
The prospective banking of osteosarcoma tissue samples to promote research endeavors has been realized through the establishment of a nationally centralized biospecimen repository, the Children's Oncology Group (COG) biospecimen bank located at the Biopathology Center (BPC)/Nationwide Children's Hospital in Columbus, Ohio. Although the physical inventory of osteosarcoma biospecimens is substantive (>15,000 sample specimens), the nature of these resources remains exhaustible. Despite judicious allocation of these high-value biospecimens for conducting sarcoma-related research, a deeper understanding of osteosarcoma biology, in particular metastases, remains unrealized...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726808/prevalence-of-germ-line-mutations-in-cancer-genes-among-pancreatic-cancer-patients-with-a-positive-family-history
#7
Kari G Chaffee, Ann L Oberg, Robert R McWilliams, Neil Majithia, Brian A Allen, John Kidd, Nanda Singh, Anne-Renee Hartman, Richard J Wenstrup, Gloria M Petersen
PurposePanel-based genetic testing has identified increasing numbers of patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) who carry germ-line mutations. However, small sample sizes or number of genes evaluated limit prevalence estimates of these mutations. We estimated prevalence of mutations in PDAC patients with positive family history.MethodsWe sequenced 25 cancer susceptibility genes in lymphocyte DNA from 302 PDAC patients in the Mayo Clinic Biospecimen Resource for Pancreatic Research Registry. Kindreds containing at least two first-degree relatives with PDAC met criteria for familial pancreatic cancer (FPC), while the remaining were familial, but not FPC...
July 20, 2017: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725790/biobanking-budgets-and-the-role-of-pathology-biobanks-in-precision-medicine
#8
Chris Andry, Elizabeth Duffy, Christopher A Moskaluk, Shannon McCall, Michael H A Roehrl, Daniel Remick
Biobanks have become an important component of the routine practice of pathology. At the 2016 meeting of the Association of Pathology Chairs, a series of presentations covered several important aspects of biobanking. An often overlooked aspect of biobanking is the fiscal considerations. A biobank budget must address the costs of consenting, procuring, processing, and preserving high-quality biospecimens. Multiple revenue streams will frequently be necessary to create a sustainable biobank; partnering with other key stakeholders has been shown to be successful at academic institutions which may serve as a model...
January 2017: Acad Pathol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723477/accuracy-of-self-reported-smoking-exposure-among-bladder-cancer-patients-undergoing-surveillance-at-a-tertiary-referral-center
#9
Alan E Thong, Stacey Petruzella, Irene Orlow, Emily C Zabor, Behfar Ehdaie, Jamie S Ostroff, Bernard H Bochner, Helena Furberg Barnes
BACKGROUND: Smoking is a risk factor for developing bladder cancer (BCa). Even though continued exposure after diagnosis may adversely affect prognosis, patients may be reluctant to disclose to their physicians that they are currently smoking, leading to inaccurate reporting of exposure and missed opportunities to deliver smoking-cessation advice and treatment in the context of cancer care. OBJECTIVE: We examined the extent of misclassification of recent smoking exposure among patients undergoing BCa surveillance...
October 2016: European Urology Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700829/fast-sensitive-and-quantitative-point-of-care-platform-for-the-assessment-of-drugs-of-abuse-in-urine-serum-and-whole-blood
#10
Ying Li, Uvaraj Uddayasankar, Bangshun He, Ping Wang, Lidong Qin
Drug abuse is a major public health problem in many countries in Europe and North America. Currently available platforms for drug abuse assessment are facing technical challenges of nonquantitation, inaccuracy, low throughput, incompatibility with diverse complex specimens, long assay times, and requirement of instrument and/or expertise for readout. Here, we report an integrated competitive volumetric-bar-chart chip (CV-Chip) to assay multiple drug targets at the point-of-care (POC). To the best of our knowledge, it is the first time that a POC platform has been demonstrated to fully address the above-mentioned limitations...
July 26, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683736/security-controls-in-an-integrated-biobank-to-protect-privacy-in-data-sharing-rationale-and-study-design
#11
Takako Takai-Igarashi, Kengo Kinoshita, Masao Nagasaki, Soichi Ogishima, Naoki Nakamura, Sachiko Nagase, Satoshi Nagaie, Tomo Saito, Fuji Nagami, Naoko Minegishi, Yoichi Suzuki, Kichiya Suzuki, Hiroaki Hashizume, Shinichi Kuriyama, Atsushi Hozawa, Nobuo Yaegashi, Shigeo Kure, Gen Tamiya, Yoshio Kawaguchi, Hiroshi Tanaka, Masayuki Yamamoto
BACKGROUND: With the goal of realizing genome-based personalized healthcare, we have developed a biobank that integrates personal health, genome, and omics data along with biospecimens donated by volunteers of 150,000. Such a large-scale of data integration involves obvious risks of privacy violation. The research use of personal genome and health information is a topic of global discussion with regard to the protection of privacy while promoting scientific advancement. The present paper reports on our plans, current attempts, and accomplishments in addressing security problems involved in data sharing to ensure donor privacy while promoting scientific advancement...
July 6, 2017: BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665754/challenges-in-the-treatment-of-sarcomas-of-adolescents-and-young-adults
#12
Seth J Rotz, Rajaram Nagarajan, Joel I Sorger, Joseph G Pressey
Adolescent and young adult (AYA) sarcoma patients do not fare as well as their younger counterparts. A variety of factors theorized to underlie such disparate outcomes have been identified including distinct tumor and host biology. Compared to younger patients, AYA patients often develop genetically distinct tumors and are more likely to suffer characteristic therapy-related toxicities. Compounding factors faced by AYA patients include education, finances, employment, and obstacles to treatment adherence. Lack of clinical trial participation among AYA patients has slowed the establishment of optimized age-specific treatment protocols and hindered the collection of biospecimens for scientific investigation...
June 30, 2017: Journal of Adolescent and Young Adult Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664917/harmonisation-of-biobanking-standards-in-endometrial-cancer-research
#13
M Adishesh, A Fyson, S B DeCruze, J Kirwan, H M J Werner, D K Hapangama
BACKGROUND: Endometrial cancer is the most common gynaecological cancer and its incidence is predicted to escalate by 50-100% in 2025 with a parallel increase in associated mortality. Variations in the collection, processing and storage of biospecimens can affect the generalisability of the scientific data. We aimed to harmonise the collection of biospecimens, clinical data relevant to endometrial cancer and to develop standard operative procedures for the collection, processing and storage of endometrial cancer biospecimens...
August 8, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661280/negotiating-commercial-interests-in-biospecimens
#14
Jessica L Roberts
Proposed changes to the Common Rule would require publicly funded researchers to disclose whether a subject's biospecimens could be used for commercial profit and whether the subject will share in those proceeds. Disclosing commercial interests will inform research participants that their tissue may have commercial value, a possibility that those individuals might not have previously considered. The proposed changes may then provide people with an opportunity to negotiate commercial rights in their biospecimens despite the well-accepted legal precedent that individuals maintain no interests in their excised tissue...
March 2017: Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics: a Journal of the American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648083/temporal-signal-pattern-recognition-in-mass-spectrometry-a-method-for-rapid-identification-and-accurate-quantification-of-biomarkers-for-inborn-errors-of-metabolism-with-quality-assurance
#15
Alicia DiBattista, Nathan McIntosh, Monica Lamoureux, Osama Y Al-Dirbashi, Pranesh Chakraborty, Philip Britz-McKibbin
Mass spectrometry (MS)-based metabolomic initiatives that use conventional separation techniques are limited by low sample throughput and complicated data processing that contribute to false discoveries. Herein, we introduce a new strategy for unambiguous identification and accurate quantification of biomarkers for inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) from dried blood spots (DBS) with quality assurance. A multiplexed separation platform based on multisegment injection-capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry (MSI-CE-MS) was developed to provide comparable sample throughput to flow injection analysis-tandem MS (FIA-MS/MS) but with greater selectivity as required for confirmatory testing and discovery-based metabolite profiling of volume-restricted biospecimens...
July 11, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635997/a-spin-column-free-approach-to-sodium-hydroxide-based-glycan-permethylation
#16
Yueming Hu, Chad R Borges
Glycan permethylation was introduced as a tool to facilitate the study of glycans in 1903. Since that time, permethylation procedures have been continually modified to improve permethylation efficiency and qualitative applicability. Typically, however, either laborious preparation steps or cumbersome and uneconomical spin columns have been needed to obtain decent permethylation yields on small glycan samples. Here we describe a spin column-free (SCF) glycan permethylation procedure that is applicable to both O- and N-linked glycans and can be employed upstream to intact glycan analysis by MALDI-MS, ESI-MS, or glycan linkage analysis by GC-MS...
July 24, 2017: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628741/amplicon-competition-enables-end-point-quantitation-of-nucleic-acids-following-isothermal-amplification
#17
Yu Sherry Jiang, Apollo Stacy, Marvin Whiteley, Andrew D Ellington, Sanchita Bhadra
It is inherently difficult to quantitate nucleic acid analytes with most isothermal amplification assays. We have now developed loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) reactions in which competition between defined numbers of 'false' and 'true' amplicons leads to order of magnitude quantitation via a single end-point determination. These thresholded LAMP reactions were successfully used to directly and quantitatively estimate the numbers of nucleic acids in complex biospecimens, including directly from cells and in sewage, with the values obtained closely correlating with qPCR quantitations...
June 19, 2017: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614402/providing-researchers-with-online-access-to-nhlbi-biospecimen-collections-the-results-of-the-first-six-years-of-the-nhlbi-biolincc-program
#18
Carol A Giffen, Elizabeth L Wagner, John T Adams, Denise M Hitchcock, Lisbeth A Welniak, Sean P Brennan, Leslie E Carroll
The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI), within the United States' National Institutes of Health (NIH), established the Biologic Specimen and Data Repository Information Coordinating Center (BioLINCC) in 2008 to develop the infrastructure needed to link the contents of the NHLBI Biorepository and the NHLBI Data Repository, and to promote the utilization of these scientific resources by the broader research community. Program utilization metrics were developed to measure the impact of BioLINCC on Biorepository access by researchers, including visibility, program efficiency, user characteristics, scientific impact, and research types...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604319/establishing-an-academic-biobank-in-a-resource-challenged-environment
#19
Cassandra Claire Soo, Freedom Mukomana, Scott Hazelhurst, Michele Ramsay
Past practices of informal sample collections and spreadsheets for data and sample management fall short of best-practice models for biobanking, and are neither cost effective nor efficient to adequately serve the needs of large research studies. The biobank of the Sydney Brenner Institute for Molecular Bioscience serves as a bioresource for institutional, national and international research collaborations. It provides high-quality human biospecimens from African populations, secure data and sample curation and storage, as well as monitored sample handling and management processes, to promote both non-communicable and infectious-disease research...
May 24, 2017: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594242/attitudes-and-perceptions-of-cancer-patients-toward-biospecimen-donation-for-cancer-research-a-cross-sectional-survey-among-chinese-cancer-patients
#20
Na He, Yan Guo, Min He, Wanmin Qiang, Haixin Li
BACKGROUND: High-quality biospecimen collection from consented patients is crucial for cancer research activities. Patients' attitudes and willingness toward specimen donation influence high-quality biospecimen collection for cancer research activities. METHODS: We carried out a cross-sectional study among randomly selected patients from 11 cancer departments of Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital between August 2014 and August 2015. A total of 784 patients were included to complete a 30-item self-administered survey...
August 2017: Biopreservation and Biobanking
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