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Timothy J Genovese, Jun J Mao
Objective: To evaluate the associations between polymorphisms in two genes, catechol-O-methyltransferase and T-cell leukemia/lymphoma 1 A, and acupuncture-mediated pain reduction among breast cancer survivors with aromatase inhibitor-associated arthralgia. Design, Setting, and Subjects: Biospecimens were obtained from 38 patients enrolled in a clinical trial of acupuncture for aromatase inhibitor-associated arthralgia in postmenopausal hormone receptor-positive breast cancer survivors...
April 17, 2018: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
Xiaodun Li, Sam Kleeman, Sally B Coburn, Carlo Fumagalli, Juliane Perner, Sriganesh Jammula, Ruth M Pfeiffer, Linda Orzolek, Haiping Hao, Philip R Taylor, Ahmad Miremadi, Núria Galeano-Dalmau, Pierre Lao-Sirieix, Maria Tennyson, Shona MacRae, Michael B Cook, Rebecca C Fitzgerald
BACKGROUND & AIMS: MicroRNA (miRNA) is highly stable in biospecimens and provides tissue-specific profiles, making it a useful biomarker of carcinogenesis. We aimed to discover a set of miRNAs that could accurately discriminate Barrett's esophagus (BE) from normal esophageal tissue and to test its diagnostic accuracy when applied to samples collected by a non-invasive esophageal cell sampling device. METHODS: We analyzed miRNA expression profiles of 2 independent sets of esophageal biopsy tissues collected during endoscopy from 38 patients with BE and 26 patients with normal esophagus (controls) using Agilent microarray and Nanostring counter assays...
June 12, 2018: Gastroenterology
Nicole C Lockhart, Carol J Weil, Latarsha J Carithers, Susan E Koester, A Roger Little, Simona Volpi, Helen M Moore, Benjamin E Berkman
The active debate about the return of incidental or secondary findings in research has primarily focused on return to research participants, or in some cases, family members. Particular attention has been paid to return of genomic findings. Yet, research may generate other types of findings that warrant consideration for return, including findings related to the pathology of donated biospecimens. In the case of deceased biospecimen donors who are also organ and/or tissue transplant donors, pathology incidental findings may be relevant not to family members, but to potential organ or tissue transplant recipients...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Medical Ethics
Bo Yang, Xiao L Ren, Zhi Y Wang, Liang Wang, Feng Zhao, Xiao J Guo, Duo Li
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to summarize the up-to-date epidemiology evidence on biomarkers of long-chain (LC) n-3 fatty acid (FA) intake in relation to breast cancer (BC). METHODS: Epidemiology studies determining FA levels in biospecimen (circulating blood or adipose tissue (AT)) were identified from PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases until March 2018. Multivariate-adjusted risk ratios (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were pooled using a random-effect model...
June 14, 2018: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Mathias Kunz, Nathalie Lisa Albert, Marcus Unterrainer, Christian la Fougere, Rupert Egensperger, Ulrich Schüller, Juergen Lutz, Simone Kreth, Jörg-Christian Tonn, Friedrich-Wilhelm Kreth, Niklas Thon
Background: We aimed to elucidate the place of dynamic 18F-FET-PET in prognostic models of gadolinium (Gd)-negative gliomas. Methods: In 98 patients with Gd-negative gliomas undergoing 18F-FET-PET guided biopsy, time activity curves (TAC) of each tumor were qualitatively categorized as either increasing or decreasing. Additionally, post-hoc quantitative analyses were done using minimal time-to-peak (TTPmin) measurements. Prognostic factors were obtained from multivariate hazards models...
June 9, 2018: Neuro-oncology
Byeong Hwa Yun, Jingshu Guo, Medjda Bellamri, Robert J Turesky
Hazardous chemicals in the environment and diet or their electrophilic metabolites can form adducts with genomic DNA, which can lead to mutations and the initiation of cancer. In addition, reactive intermediates can be generated in the body through oxidative stress and damage the genome. The identification and measurement of DNA adducts are required for understanding exposure and the causal role of a genotoxic chemical in cancer risk. Over the past three decades, 32 P-postlabeling, immunoassays, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) methods have been established to assess exposures to chemicals through measurements of DNA adducts...
June 11, 2018: Mass Spectrometry Reviews
Cindy Chen, Regina T Wulff, Evan T Sholle, Gail J Roboz, David A Kraemer, Thomas R Campion
To enable clinical and translational research, academic medical centers increasingly implement biospecimen information management systems. At our institution, one laboratory successfully implemented a multi-system solution that enabled collection and reporting of specimen- and aliquot-level data. The objective of this study was to assess the solution against the laboratory's requirements and with respect to support of best practices for biospecimen information management systems defined by the International Society for Biological and Environmental Repositories (ISBER)...
2018: AMIA Summits on Translational Science Proceedings
Sandra S-J Lee, Mildred K Cho, Stephanie A Kraft, Nina Varsava, Katie Gillespie, Kelly E Ormond, Benjamin S Wilfond, David Magnus
PURPOSE: To determine whether patients distinguish between biospecimens and electronic health records (EHRs) when considering research participation to inform research protections. METHODS: We conducted 20 focus groups with individuals who identified as African American, Hispanic, Chinese, South Asian, and non-Hispanic white on the collection of biospecimens and EHR data for research. RESULTS: Our study found that many participants did not distinguish between biospecimens and EHR data...
June 11, 2018: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
(no author information available yet)
On June 5, President Donald Trump signed the Childhood Cancer Survivorship, Treatment, Access and Research Act, which aims to support pediatric cancer research by expanding the collection of patient biospecimens and records, improving surveillance, and investigating pediatric survivorship.
June 7, 2018: Cancer Discovery
B A Konkle, J M Johnsen, M Wheeler, C Watson, M Skinner, G F Pierce
INTRODUCTION: Information from the genes encoding factor VIII (F8) and IX (F9) is used in reproductive planning and to inform inhibitor formation, bleeding severity and response to therapies. Advances in technology and our understanding of the human genome now allows more comprehensive methods to study genomic variation and its impact on haemophilia. AIMS: The My Life Our Future (MLOF) programme was begun in 2012 to provide genetic analysis and to expand research in haemophilia through a research repository...
May 2018: Haemophilia: the Official Journal of the World Federation of Hemophilia
Eric M Robinson, Brooke E Rosenbaum, Yilong Zhang, Robert Rogers, Jeremy Tchack, Russell S Berman, Farbod Darvishian, Iman Osman, Richard L Shapiro, Yongzhao Shao, David Polsky
BACKGROUND: Patients with thick primary melanomas (≥4 mm) have highly variable survival outcomes. Cell proliferation marker Ki-67 has been identified as promising biomarker in thick melanoma but has not been evaluated since the wide spread adoption of sentinel lymph node biopsy. We revisit its prognostic relevance in the sentinel node era. METHODS: We studied patients with thick (≥4 mm) primary melanoma prospectively enrolled in a clinicopathological biospecimen database from 2002 to 2015, and evaluated the prognostic value of Ki-67 expression while controlling for features included in the existing staging criteria...
June 7, 2018: Journal of Surgical Oncology
Dagmar Kollmann, Desislava Ignatova, Julia Jedamzik, Yun-Tsan Chang, Gerd Jomrich, Andreas Baierl, Dmitry Kazakov, Michal Michal, Lars E French, Wolfram Hoetzenecker, Tobias Schatton, Reza Asari, Matthias Preusser, Michael Gnant, Emmanuella Guenova, Sebastian F Schoppmann
Background . The outcome of patients with adenocarcinoma of the esophagogastric junction (AEG) remains poor. The programmed cell-death-protein-1 (PD-1), a co-inhibitory receptor primarily expressed by T-cells, represents a potential new therapeutic target. PD-1, PD-1 ligand 1 (PD-L1), and PD-L2 expression have all been described as prognostic factors in a variety of cancers. Their expression patterns in AEG, however, are poorly understood. We analyzed PD-L1, PD-L2 and PD-1 expression by tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and cancer-cells in tumor-biospecimens in AEG-patients...
2018: Oncoimmunology
Gail Musen, Liane J Tinsley, Katrina A Marcinkowski, David Pober, Jennifer K Sun, Maya Khatri, Richie Huynh, Annie Lu, George L King, Hillary A Keenan
OBJECTIVE: Patients with type 1 diabetes now live long enough to experience cognitive decline. During middle age, they show mild cognitive deficits, but it is unknown whether severity increases with aging or whether cognitive profiles are similar to those of age-matched peers with and without diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We tested and compared cognition in 82 individuals with 50 or more years of type 1 diabetes (Medalists), 31 age-matched individuals with type 2 diabetes, and 30 age-matched control subjects without diabetes...
June 5, 2018: Diabetes Care
Byeong Hwa Yun, Jingshu Guo, Robert J Turesky
The measurement of DNA adducts provides important information about human exposure to genotoxic chemicals and can be employed to elucidate mechanisms of DNA damage and repair. DNA adducts can serve as biomarkers for interspecies comparisons of the biologically effective dose of procarcinogens and permit extrapolation of genotoxicity data from animal studies for human risk assessment. One major challenge in DNA adduct biomarker research is the paucity of fresh frozen biopsy samples available for study. However, archived formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues with clinical diagnosis of disease are often available...
June 1, 2018: Toxics
Jialu Li, Chunxiao Fu, Terence P Speed, Wenyi Wang, W Fraser Symmans
Purpose: Accurate transcriptional sequencing (RNA-seq) from formalin-fixation and paraffin-embedding (FFPE) tumor samples presents an important challenge for translational research and diagnostic development. In addition, there are now several different protocols to prepare a sequencing library from total RNA. We evaluated the accuracy of RNA-seq data generated from FFPE samples in terms of expression profiling. Methods: We designed a biospecimen study to directly compare gene expression results from different protocols to prepare libraries for RNA-seq from human breast cancer tissues, with randomization to fresh-frozen (FF) or FFPE conditions...
2018: JCO precision oncology
Tomoko Fujii
Several population-based studies on osteoarthritis(OA)have been conducted, and its risk factors have been examined. Other prospective studies on knee OA recruited individuals with OA and those without but highly at risk of OA. Osteoarthritis Initiative(OAI)in the United States is one of these studies that aimed to identify biochemical, genetic, and imaging biomarkers for the onset and progression of knee OA. In OAI, a total of 4,796 male and female participants aged 45-79 years at baseline have been followed since 2004...
2018: Clinical Calcium
Lucas A Salas, Devin C Koestler, Rondi A Butler, Helen M Hansen, John K Wiencke, Karl T Kelsey, Brock C Christensen
Genome-wide methylation arrays are powerful tools for assessing cell composition of complex mixtures. We compare three approaches to select reference libraries for deconvoluting neutrophil, monocyte, B-lymphocyte, natural killer, and CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell fractions based on blood-derived DNA methylation signatures assayed using the Illumina HumanMethylationEPIC array. The IDOL algorithm identifies a library of 450 CpGs, resulting in an average R2  = 99.2 across cell types when applied to EPIC methylation data collected on artificial mixtures constructed from the above cell types...
May 29, 2018: Genome Biology
Adana A Llanos, Gregory S Young, Ryan Baltic, Eugene J Lengerich, Betsy B Aumiller, Mark B Dignan, Electra D Paskett
BACKGROUND: Rural residents in the U.S., particularly residents of Appalachia, are underrepresented in biomedical research, limiting the generalizability of research findings. OBJECTIVE: To examine factors associated with Appalachian adults' willingness to participate in biospecimen donation and banking. METHODS: A survey assessing willingness to donate blood, saliva, and buccal specimens and to have these biospecimens stored for future use in genetic studies was conducted among 493 Appalachian adults...
2018: Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved
Keith Unger, Khyati Y Mehta, Prabhjit Kaur, Yiwen Wang, Smrithi S Menon, Shreyans K Jain, Rose A Moonjelly, Shubhankar Suman, Kamal Datta, Rajbir Singh, Paul Fogel, Amrita K Cheema
The availability of robust classification algorithms for the identification of high risk individuals with resectable disease is critical to improving early detection strategies and ultimately increasing survival rates in PC. We leveraged high quality biospecimens with extensive clinical annotations from patients that received treatment at the Medstar-Georgetown University hospital. We used a high resolution mass spectrometry based global tissue profiling approach in conjunction with multivariate analysis for developing a classification algorithm that would predict early stage PC with high accuracy...
May 1, 2018: Oncotarget
Muhammad-Afiq Osman, Hui-Min Neoh, Nurul-Syakima Ab Mutalib, Siok-Fong Chin, Rahman Jamal
The human gut holds the densest microbiome ecosystem essential in maintaining a healthy host physiology, whereby disruption of this ecosystem has been linked to the development of colorectal cancer (CRC). The advent of next-generation sequencing technologies such as the 16S rRNA gene sequencing has enabled characterization of the CRC gut microbiome architecture in an affordable and culture-free approach. Nevertheless, the lack of standardization in handling and storage of biospecimens, nucleic acid extraction, 16S rRNA gene primer selection, length, and depth of sequencing and bioinformatics analyses have contributed to discrepancies found in various published studies of this field...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
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