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Preventive cardiology

Natalia A Trayanova, Patrick M Boyle, Plamen P Nikolov
The goal of this article is to review advances in computational modeling of the heart, with a focus on recent non-invasive clinical imaging- and simulation-based strategies aimed at improving the diagnosis and treatment of patients with arrhythmias and structural heart disease. Following a brief overview of the field of computational cardiology, we present recent applications of the personalized virtual-heart approach in predicting the optimal targets for infarct-related ventricular tachycardia and atrial fibrillation ablation, and in determining risk of sudden cardiac death in myocardial infarction patients...
March 2018: Current Opinion in Biomedical Engineering
Wilbert S Aronow, William H Frishman
The 2017 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association hypertension guidelines diagnose hypertension if systolic blood pressure (SBP) is ≥ 130 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) is ≥ 80 mmHg. Increased BP is SBP 120-129 mmHg with DBP < 80 mmHg. Lifestyle measures should be used to treat individuals with increased BP. Lifestyle measures plus BP-lowering drugs should be used for secondary prevention of recurrent cardiovascular events in individuals with clinical cardiovascular disease (coronary heart disease, congestive heart failure, or stroke) and an average SBP ≥ 130 mmHg or an average DBP ≥ 80 mmHg...
March 13, 2018: Drugs
Robert A Phillips, Jiaqiong Xu, Leif E Peterson, Ryan M Arnold, Joseph A Diamond, Adam E Schussheim
BACKGROUND: The lower rate of primary outcome events in the intensive treatment group in SPRINT (Systolic Pressure Intervention Trial) was associated with increased clinically significant serious adverse events (SAEs). In 2017, the American College of Cardiology and American Heart Association issued risk-based blood pressure treatment guidelines. The authors hypothesized that stratification of the SPRINT population by degree of future cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk might identify a group which could benefit the most from intensive treatment...
March 2, 2018: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
Yochai Schonmann, Oz Bleich, Andre Matalon, Hanny Yeshua
Aims The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of the US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) cholesterol recommendations in a contemporary non-US cohort. Methods and results This is a historical cohort analysis of electronic records from Israel's largest health provider. All patients in the Tel Aviv district eligible for primary cardiovascular prevention were followed between January 2005 and December 2015. Risk was estimated by the pooled cohort equations. Statin eligibility was determined by USPSTF and American College of Cardiology and American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) recommendations...
January 1, 2018: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology
S Klischies
The annual congress of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) is the largest medical congress in Europe for this area of research and took place this year in Barcelona, Spain. The ESC Congress 2017 gathered more than 30,000 registered participants from over 140 countries together to share their knowledge in all cardiovascular fields, from basic science to management and prevention of cardiovascular diseases. The congress comprised 5 days of science and education with over 11,000 abstracts submitted, 500 expert sessions and over 200 exhibiting companies, making it the prime meeting platform for the profession...
December 2017: Drugs of Today
Cori Russell, Samip Sheth, Douglas Jacoby
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We provide an overview of our current understanding of combination lipid-lowering therapies intended for dyslipidemia treatment and cardiovascular disease prevention. First, we analyze recent statin and non-statin combination therapy guidelines and clinical studies since the publication of 2013 American College of Cardiology Cholesterol Guidelines. Second, we examine the clinical utility of non-statin agents alone and in combination in terms of LDL-C lowering and ASCVD risk reduction...
March 7, 2018: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
Masahiko Sumi, Keijiro Sato, Nozomu Uematsu, Hiroko Kawaguchi, Tsutomu Shishido, Hiroko Kaiume, Wataru Takeda, Takehiko Kirihara, Toshimitsu Ueki, Yuki Hiroshima, Mayumi Ueno, Naoaki Ichikawa, Nobuyuki Urasawa, Hikaru Kobayashi
Vascular adverse events (VAEs) in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients treated with nilotinib (NIL) has become a; however, studies on strategies to prevent VAEs remain limited. Therefore, the present study investigated VAEs in 19 CML patients treated with NIL at our hospital. The median age of the patients was 65 years and median follow-up period was 55 months after the initiation of NIL. VAEs occurred in 8 patients (peripheral artery disease (PAD), n=6; cerebral infarction (CI), n=3; coronary artery disease (CAD), n=4)...
2018: [Rinshō Ketsueki] the Japanese Journal of Clinical Hematology
(no author information available yet)
In recent years, wide ranging biomedical innovation has provided powerful new approaches for prevention, diagnosis and management of diseases. In order to translate such innovation into effective practice, physicians must frequently update their knowledge base and skills through continuing medical education and training. Medical Professional Societies, run as not-for-profit organizations led by peers, are uniquely placed to deliver balanced, disease oriented and patient centred education. The medical industry has a major role in the development of new, improved technology, devices and medication...
February 28, 2018: European Heart Journal
Marcello Arca, David Ansell, Maurizio Averna, Francesca Fanelli, Katherine Gorcyca, Şerban R Iorga, Aldo P Maggioni, Georges Paizis, Radovan Tomic, Alberico L Catapano
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Statin utilization and lipid goal achievement were estimated in a large sample of Italian patients at high/very-high cardiovascular (CV) risk. METHODS: Patients aged ≥18 years with a valid low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) measurement in 2015 were selected from the IMS Health Real World Data database; non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) was assessed in those with available total cholesterol measurements. Index dates were defined as the last valid lipid measurement in 2015...
February 17, 2018: Atherosclerosis
Kaartiga Sivanesan, Subhi J Al'Aref, James K Min, Jessica M Peña, Fay Lin, Erica C Jones
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Ischemic heart disease is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality for women and men around the world. However, traditional cardiovascular risk factors do not fully capture cardiac risk in women. This review summarizes sex-based differences in the clinical presentation, pathophysiology, and risk assessment of ischemic heart disease. We also examine the use of anatomic and functional imaging modalities in the diagnosis of ischemic heart disease in women. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies with women subjects have bolstered the predictive value of the coronary artery calcium (CAC) score in predicting atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk and major adverse cardiac events in a graded fashion...
March 2, 2018: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
Chao Wang, Hongsen Du, Jiqiu Hou, Shasha Yan, Jingjing Yang, Yun Wang, Xiujing Zhang, Lili Zhu, Haibin Zhao
Ischemic myocardium initiates the mobilization and homing of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) to promote myocardial regeneration after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Inflammation caused by necrotic cardiomyocytes induce major pathological changes (cardiac remodeling and myocardial apoptosis) as well as anxiety disorder. This process may be inhibited by the differentiation and paracrine effects of BM-MSCs. However, the spontaneous mobilization of BMSCs is insufficient to prevent this effect. Given the anti-inflammatory effects of BM-MSCs, ventricular remodeling and anxiety following AMI, methods focused on enhancing BMSCs mobilization are promising...
February 27, 2018: Scientific Reports
S Gasser, H Reichenspurner, E Girdauskas
BACKGROUND: Myxomatous mitral valve prolapse is a common cardiac abnormality. Morbus Barlow is characterized by excess myxomatous leaflet tissue, bileaflet prolapse or billowing, chordae elongation and annular dilatation with or without calcification. Extensive myxoid degeneration with destruction of the normal three-layered leaflet tissue architecture is observed histologically in such patients. Autosomal dominant inheritance with an age and sex-dependent expression has long been recognised...
February 27, 2018: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
Uwe Zeymer, Peter Ludman, Nicolas Danchin, Petr Kala, Aldo P Maggioni, Franz Weidinger
Treatment of patients with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction has improved over past decades, with reperfusion therapy being the cornerstone in the acute phase. Based on the results of large randomised trials the current ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction guidelines of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) recommend acute treatments and secondary prevention therapies. However, there are large variations between ESC countries in the treatment of patients presenting with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction...
February 1, 2018: European Heart Journal. Acute Cardiovascular Care
Shamir R Mehta, Kevin R Bainey, Warren J Cantor, Marie Lordkipanidzé, Guillaume Marquis-Gravel, Simon D Robinson, Matthew Sibbald, Derek Y So, Graham C Wong, Joseph G Abunassar, Margaret L Ackman, Alan D Bell, Raymond Cartier, James D Douketis, Patrick R Lawler, Michael S McMurtry, Jacob A Udell, Sean van Diepen, Subodh Verma, G B John Mancini, John A Cairns, Jean-François Tanguay
Antiplatelet therapy (APT) has become an important tool in the treatment and prevention of atherosclerotic events, particularly those associated with coronary artery disease. A large evidence base has evolved regarding the relationship between APT prescription in various clinical contexts and risk/benefit relationships. The Guidelines Committee of the Canadian Cardiovascular Society and Canadian Association of Interventional Cardiology publishes regular updates of its recommendations, taking into consideration the most recent clinical evidence...
March 2018: Canadian Journal of Cardiology
Vinai C Bhagirath, Bernard Cosyns, John W Eikelboom
The 2016 European Society of Cardiology Guidelines recommend non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) in preference to vitamin K antagonists (VKA) for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation. A recent report from the Belgian Healthcare Knowledge Centre (KCE) raised concerns about the results of the phase 3 randomised trials that led to the approval of the NOACs for this indication and concluded that NOACs should only be used for patients who fail or cannot undergo treatment with a vitamin K antagonist because they cannot achieve stable INR values...
February 23, 2018: Acta Cardiologica
Jamaal L Benjamin, Quinn C Meisinger
Interventional radiology is a constantly evolving specialty overlapping with multiple other specialties, including cardiology, vascular surgery, orthopedic surgery, urology, and minimally invasive surgery. Unique ergonomic considerations for interventional radiology include utilization of intraoperative viewing monitors and personal radiation protection equipment. Work-related injuries are common in interventional radiologists,1 often leading to pain while performing procedures or during time away from work...
March 2018: Techniques in Vascular and Interventional Radiology
Puthiery Va, Cecily Luncheon, Angela M Thompson-Paul, Jing Fang, Robert Merritt, Mary E Cogswell
Hypertension is a major cardiovascular disease risk factor (1,2). Advice given by health professionals can result in lower sodium intake and lower blood pressure (3).The 2017 Hypertension Guideline released by the American College of Cardiology and the American Heart Association emphasizes nonpharmacologic approaches, including sodium reduction, as important components of hypertension prevention and treatment (4). Data from 50,576 participants in the sodium module of the 2015 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) in nine states and Puerto Rico were analyzed to determine the prevalence of reported sodium reduction advice and action among participants with and without self-reported hypertension...
February 23, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Malin Johansson Östbring, Tommy Eriksson, Göran Petersson, Lina Hellström
BACKGROUND: Preventive treatment goals for blood pressure and cholesterol levels continue to be unmet for many coronary patients. The effect of drug treatment depends on both its appropriateness and the patients' adherence to the treatment regimen. There is a need for adherence interventions that have a measurable effect on clinical outcomes. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to evaluate the effects on treatment goals of an intervention designed to improve patient adherence and treatment quality in secondary prevention of coronary heart disease...
February 20, 2018: JMIR Research Protocols
J Cosin-Sales, D Orozco Beltrán, R Ledesma Rodríguez, A Barbon Ortiz Casado, G Fernández
OBJECTIVE: To determine the perception of Primary Care (PC) physicians on the integration with cardiology (CA) through continuity of healthcare programs. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cross-sectional and multicentre study was conducted, in which a total of 200 PC physicians from all over Spain completed a qualitative survey that evaluated the level of integration with CA in secondary prevention. Physicians were grouped according to the level of PC-CA integration. RESULTS: The integration between CA and PC was good, but it was better in those centres with a higher integration (74...
February 17, 2018: Semergen
Roland von Känel, Jürgen Barth, Mary Princip, Rebecca E Meister-Langraf, Jean-Paul Schmid, Hansjörg Znoj, Claudia Herbert, Ulrich Schnyder
BACKGROUND: Acute coronary syndrome (ACS)-induced posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and clinically significant PTSD symptoms (PTSS) are found in 4 and 12% of patients, respectively. We hypothesized that trauma-focused counseling prevents the incidence of ACS-induced PTSS. METHODS: Within 48 h of hospital admission, 190 patients with high distress during ACS were randomized to a single-session intervention of either trauma-focused counseling or an active control intervention targeting the general role of stress in patients with heart disease...
February 21, 2018: Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics
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