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Acanthamoeba

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719947/efficient-liquid-media-for-encystation-of-pathogenic-free-living-amoebae
#1
Hae-Jin Sohn, Heekyoung Kang, Ga-Eun Seo, Jong-Hyun Kim, Suk-Yul Jung, Ho-Joon Shin
Pathogenic Naegleria fowleri, Acanthamoeba castellanii, and Acanthamoeba polyphaga, are distributed worldwide. They are causative agents of primary amoebic meningoencephalitis or acanthamoebic keratitis in humans, respectively. Trophozoites encyst in unfavorable environments, such as exhausted food supply and desiccation. Until recently, the method of N. fowleri encystation used solid non-nutrient agar medium supplemented with heat-inactivated Escherichia coli; however, for the amoebic encystment of Acanthamoeba spp...
June 2017: Korean Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709990/in-vitro-development-of-an-effective-treatment-for-acanthamoeba-keratitis
#2
A Ortillés, J Belloc, E Rubio, M T Fernández, M Benito, J A Cristóbal, B Calvo, P Goñi
The aim of this study was to develop an in-vitro topical treatment for acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) effective against cysts and trophozoites. Qualitative assays were performed with voriconazole, chlorhexidine, propamidine, cellulase, tobramycin, ciprofloxacin and paromomycin as monotherapy and various combinations. Riboflavin with ultraviolet-A (R+UV-A) as monotherapy or combined with voriconazole and moxifloxacin was also tested. Quantitative assays to assess cyst viability after treatment were performed for the chemicals that showed the highest activity in the qualitative assays...
July 11, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708218/microbial-characteristics-of-posttraumatic-infective-keratitis
#3
Blanche X Lim, Victor T C Koh, Manotosh Ray
PURPOSE: To determine the demographics, risk factors, clinical and microbiological characteristics, and treatment outcome of posttraumatic infective keratitis. METHODS: Consecutive patients with posttraumatic infective keratitis presenting to the Ophthalmology Department of a tertiary referral hospital in Singapore between March 2012 and March 2016 were prospectively identified. A standardized data collection form was used to document patient demographics, microbiological diagnosis, antibiotic sensitivity, and pretreatment and posttreatment ocular characteristics...
July 8, 2017: European Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707344/detection-of-viable-helicobacter-pylori-inside-free-living-amoebae-in-wastewater-and-drinking-water-samples-from-eastern-spain
#4
Laura Moreno-Mesonero, Yolanda Moreno, José Luis Alonso, M Antonia Ferrús
Helicobacter pylori is one of the most concerning emerging waterborne pathogens. It has been suggested that it could survive in water inside free-living amoebae (FLA), but nobody has studied this relationship in the environment yet. Thus, we aimed to detect viable H. pylori cells from inside FLA in water samples. Sixty-nine wastewater and 31 drinking water samples were collected. FLA were purified and identified by PCR and sequencing. For exclusively detecting H. pylori inside FLA, samples were exposed to sodium hypochlorite and assayed by specific PMA-qPCR, DVC-FISH and culture...
July 14, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704121/evaluation-of-in-vitro-antiamoebic-activity-of-antimicrobial-agents-against-clinical-acanthamoeba-isolates
#5
Hidemasa Nakaminami, Kentaro Tanuma, Kiichi Enomoto, Yukihiko Yoshimura, Tomoyo Onuki, Shin Nihonyanagi, Yukihiro Hamada, Norihisa Noguchi
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to elucidate in vitro antiamoebic activity of antimicrobial agents at short exposure times similar to those used for actual treatment against Acanthamoeba strains isolated from patients with keratitis. METHODS: The 5 clinical Acanthamoeba isolated in Japan were used in this study. Identification of genotypes for the Acanthamoeba isolates was performed using partial 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA), including the ASA.S1 region sequences...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700070/granulomatous-amebic-encephalitis-caused-by-acanthamoeba-sp-in-an-immunocompetent-mexican-adult
#6
Elba Guadalupe Rodríguez-Pérez, Kevin Escandón-Vargas, Adriana Ancer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691946/number-of-bacteria-and-time-of-coincubation-with-bacteria-required-for-the-development-of-acanthamoeba-keratitis
#7
Prabhakar Singh, Paavan Kalra, Bhupesh Bagga, Savitri Sharma
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 6, 2017: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676340/molecular-and-morphological-characterization-of-acanthamoeba-isolated-from-corneal-scrapes-and-contact-lens-wearers-in-argentina
#8
Rodolfo D Casero, Florencia Mongi, Laura Laconte, Fernando Rivero, Dario Sastre, Aníbal Teherán, Giovanny Herrera, Juan David Ramírez
In this study, we describe the frequency of Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) in patients that assisted in the Ophthalmology Department and determine the species/genotypes of free living amoebas (FLA) isolates. FLA from Corneal scrapes (CS) and contact lens (CL) wearers were studied by morphological and molecular characterization. A database was constructed with sociodemographic, clinical findings and history of use of CL variables. During January 2000 and September 2016 patients with corneal pathology admitted to the Ophthalmology Service of the University Hospital in Córdoba city, Argentina were included in the study...
July 1, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669813/longamoebia-is-not-monophyletic-phylogenomic-and-cytoskeleton-analyses-provide-novel-and-well-resolved-relationships-of-amoebozoan-subclades
#9
Yonas I Tekle, Fiona C Wood
Longamoebia is one of the most morphologically diverse member of Amoebozoa. It includes the human pathogen Acanthamoeba, which causes minor skin and serious eye infections as well as fatal central nervous system complications. The taxonomy and phylogeny of Longamoebia is poorly understood partly due to the growing number of molecular studies that report unsuspected affiliations of lineages with extremely different morphotypes in the group. A recent molecular study questioned the monophyly of Longamoebia. In this study, we conducted a more comprehensive phylogenomic analysis including all of putative members of Longamoebia to assess its monophyly...
June 29, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664704/human-infections-caused-by-free-living-amoebae
#10
REVIEW
Katarzyna Król-Turmińska, Alina Olender
[b]Abstract Introduction[/b]. Among free-living amoebae that are widely distributed in nature only four genera/species are known as agents of human infections:[i] Acanthamoeba spp., Naegleriafowleri, Balamuthia mandrillaris[/i] and[i] Sappiniapedata[/i]. These amoebae are not well adapted to parasitism, and could exist in the human environment without the need for a host. Infections due to these amoebae, despite low morbidity, are characterized by relatively high mortality rate and pose serious clinical problems...
May 11, 2017: Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine: AAEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656012/pathobiology-and-immunobiology-of-acanthamoeba-keratitis-insights-from-animal-models%C3%A2
#11
REVIEW
Sudha Neelam, Jerry Y Niederkorn
Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) is a rare but sight-threatening disease caused by pathogenic species of Acanthamoeba. Despite its ubiquitous nature, the incidence of AK is relatively low compared to other forms of infectious keratitis. Although contact lens wear is a major risk factor, exposure to contaminated water and ocular trauma are also associated with AK. Once a patient develops AK the prognosis is very poor unless an aggressive treatment regimen is initiated early. Some of the intriguing features of AK are the lack of immunological memory, resistance of the dormant cyst form to treatment, differences between the pathogenic strains and soil isolates of Acanthamoeba and the unique role of the innate immune system in controlling this disease...
June 2017: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639141/survival-of-an-aids-patient-after-infection-with-acanthamoeba-sp-of-the-central-nervous-system
#12
Hana El Sahly, Michelle Udayamurthy, George Parkerson, Rodrigo Hasbun
CASE DESCRIPTION: A 38-year-old man presented with headaches and generalized weakness. He was found to have AIDS; a ring-enhancing central nervous system lesion was found on brain imaging and he had elevated serum Toxoplasma gondii IgG levels. A diagnosis of presumptive toxoplasma encephalitis was made and he received antiretrovirals and antitoxoplasma therapy for 4 years. Intermittent headaches and evidence of disease progression on neuroimaging warranted further evaluation and cerebrospinal fluid analysis revealed amebic forms on hematoxylin and eosin staining and positive polymerase chain reaction testing for Acanthamoeba spp...
June 21, 2017: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637420/bioinformatics-insights-on-targets-receptors-of-amiodarone-in-human-and-acanthamoeba-castellanii
#13
Abdul Baig, Zohaib Rana, H R Ahmad
BACKGROUND: Amiodarone is prescribed for certain cardiac arrhythmias in medical practice. The drug targets and inhibits voltage dependent sodium (Na+v), calcium (Ca+2v), potassium (K+v) channels, and enzymes like cytochrome P450 and oxidosqualene cyclase. Past studies have shown that amiodarone exerts anti-amoebic effects against Trypanosoma cruzi and Acanthamoeba castellanii. OBJECTIVES: The presence of aforementioned targets and the type of cell death induced by amiodarone in these pathogenic eukaryotes like Acanthamoeba castellanii remain to be verified...
June 21, 2017: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618143/cedratvirus-lausannensis-digging-into-pithoviridae-diversity
#14
Claire Bertelli, Linda Mueller, Vincent Thomas, Trestan Pillonel, Nicolas Jacquier, Gilbert Greub
Amoeba-infecting viruses have raised scientists' interest due to their novel particle morphologies, their large genome size, and their genomic content challenging previously established dogma. We report here the discovery and the characterization of Cedratvirus lausannensis, a novel member of the Megavirales, with a 0.75-1 µm long amphora-shaped particle closed by two striped plugs. Among numerous host cell types tested, the virus replicates only in Acanthamoeba castellanii leading to host cell lysis within 24 hours...
June 15, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611430/-candidatus-cochliophilus-cryoturris-coxiellaceae-a-symbiont-of-the-testate-amoeba-cochliopodium-minus
#15
Han-Fei Tsao, Ute Scheikl, Jean-Marie Volland, Martina Köhsler, Monika Bright, Julia Walochnik, Matthias Horn
Free-living amoebae are well known for their role in controlling microbial community composition through grazing, but some groups, namely Acanthamoeba species, also frequently serve as hosts for bacterial symbionts. Here we report the first identification of a bacterial symbiont in the testate amoeba Cochliopodium. The amoeba was isolated from a cooling tower water sample and identified as C. minus. Fluorescence in situ hybridization and transmission electron microscopy revealed intracellular symbionts located in vacuoles...
June 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609649/resistance-of-legionella-and-acanthamoeba-mauritaniensis-to-heat-treatment-as-determined-by-relative-and-quantitative-polymerase-chain-reactions
#16
Penelope H Dobrowsky, Sehaam Khan, Wesaal Khan
Legionella and Acanthamoeba spp. persist in harvested rainwater pasteurized at high temperatures (> 72°C) and the interaction mechanisms exhibited between these organisms need to be elucidated. The resistance of two Legionella reference strains (Legionella pneumophila ATCC 33152 and Legionella longbeachae ATCC 33462), three environmental strains [Legionella longbeachae (env.), Legionella norrlandica (env.) and Legionella rowbothamii (env.)] and Acanthamoeba mauritaniensis ATCC 50676 to heat treatment (50-90°C) was determined by monitoring culturability and viability [ethidium monoazide quantitative polymerase chain reaction (EMA-qPCR)]...
June 10, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606355/analysis-of-multiple-components-involved-in-the-interaction-between-cryptococcus-neoformans-and-acanthamoeba-castellanii
#17
Juliana Rizzo, Priscila C Albuquerque, Julie M Wolf, Renata Nascimento, Marcos D Pereira, Joshua D Nosanchuk, Marcio L Rodrigues
Cryptococcus neoformans is an environmental fungus that can cause lethal meningoencephalitis in immunocompromised individuals. The mechanisms by which environmental microbes become pathogenic to mammals are still obscure, but different studies suggest that fungal virulence evolved from selection imposed by environmental predators. The soil-living Acanthamoeba castellanii is a well-known predator of C. neoformans. In this work, we evaluated the participation of C. neoformans virulence-associated structures in the interaction of fungal cells with A...
June 2017: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593198/biphasic-metabolism-and-host-interaction-of-a-chlamydial-symbiont
#18
Lena König, Alexander Siegl, Thomas Penz, Susanne Haider, Cecilia Wentrup, Julia Polzin, Evelyne Mann, Stephan Schmitz-Esser, Daryl Domman, Matthias Horn
Chlamydiae are obligate intracellular bacteria comprising well-known human pathogens and ubiquitous symbionts of protists, which are characterized by a unique developmental cycle. Here we comprehensively analyzed gene expression dynamics of Protochlamydia amoebophila during infection of its Acanthamoeba host by RNA sequencing. This revealed a highly dynamic transcriptional landscape, where major transcriptional shifts are conserved among chlamydial symbionts and pathogens. Our data served to propose a time-resolved model for type III protein secretion during the developmental cycle, and we provide evidence for a biphasic metabolism of P...
May 2017: MSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591260/presence-of-rotavirus-and-free-living-amoebae-in-the-water-supplies-of-karachi-pakistan
#19
Farzana Abubakar Yousuf, Ruqaiyyah Siddiqui, Naveed Ahmed Khan
Rotavirus and pathogenic free-living amoebae are causative agents of important health problems, especially for developing countries like Pakistan where the population has limited access to clean water supplies. Here, we evaluated the prevalence of rotavirus and free-living amoebae (Acanthamoeba spp., Balamuthia mandrillaris, Naegleria fowleri) in drinking water supplies of Karachi, Pakistan. Six water filtration plants that supply drinking water to the population of Karachi were investigated. Additionally, drinking water samples from households were analyzed for the presence of rotavirus and free-living amoebae...
June 1, 2017: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591183/acanthamoeba-castellanii-is-not-be-an-adequate-model-to-study-human-adenovirus-interactions-with-macrophagic-cells
#20
Elodie Maisonneuve, Estelle Cateau, Nicolas Leveque, Sihem Kaaki, Agnès Beby-Defaux, Marie-Hélène Rodier
Free living amoebae (FLA) including Acanthamoeba castellanii, are protozoa that feed on different microorganisms including viruses. These microorganisms show remarkable similarities with macrophages in cellular structures, physiology or ability to phagocyte preys, and some authors have therefore wondered whether Acanthamoeba and macrophages are evolutionary related. It has been considered that this amoeba may be an in vitro model to investigate relationships between pathogens and macrophagic cells. So, we intended in this study to compare the interactions between a human adenovirus strain and A...
2017: PloS One
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