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Acanthamoeba

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915418/in-vivo-cns-infection-model-of-acanthamoeba-genotype-t4-the-early-stages-of-infection-lack-presence-of-host-inflammatory-response-and-are-a-slow-and-contact-dependent-process
#1
Maritza Omaña-Molina, Dolores Hernandez-Martinez, Raquel Sanchez-Rocha, Ulises Cardenas-Lemus, Citlaltepetl Salinas-Lara, Adolfo Rene Mendez-Cruz, Laura Colin-Barenque, Patricia Aley-Medina, Jesus Espinosa-Villanueva, Leticia Moreno-Fierros, Jacob Lorenzo-Morales
This study was developed in order to describe the early morphological events observed during the invasion of two pathogenic strains of Acanthamoeba (genotype T4); A. castellanii and A. culbertsoni, at the olfactory meatus and cerebral, pulmonary, renal, hepatic and splenic tissues levels, an in vivo invasion study. Histological and immunohistochemical description of the events at 24, 48, 72, and 96 h postintranasal inoculations of BALB/c mice was performed. A. castellanii showed a higher invasion rate than A...
December 3, 2016: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905281/identification-of-acanthamoeba-genotypes-in-pools-and-stagnant-water-in-ponds-in-sistan-region-in-southeast-iran
#2
Ali Aghajani, Mansour Dabirzadeh, Yahya Maroufi, Hossein Hooshyar
OBJECTIVE: Acanthamoeba is one of the most abundant free-living amoebas that is widely distributed in natural and artificial environment resources. Acanthamoeba pathogenic genotypes cause chronic human diseases including amoebic keratitis and granulomatous amoebic encephalitis. The aim of this study was to determine and identify Acanthamoeba genotypes residing in pools and stagnant water in ponds in Sistan region in southeast Iran. This descriptive study was conducted at the Parasitology Laboratory, School of Medicine, Zabol University of Medical Sciences...
September 2016: Türkiye Parazitolojii Dergisi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898739/environmental-free-living-amoebae-isolated-from-soil-in-khon-kaen-thailand-antagonize-burkholderia-pseudomallei
#3
Parumon Noinarin, Pisit Chareonsudjai, Pinich Wangsomnuk, Surasak Wongratanacheewin, Sorujsiri Chareonsudjai
Presence of Burkholderia pseudomallei in soil and water is correlated with endemicity of melioidosis in Southeast Asia and northern Australia. Several biological and physico-chemical factors have been shown to influence persistence of B. pseudomallei in the environment of endemic areas. This study was the first to evaluate the interaction of B. pseudomallei with soil amoebae isolated from B. pseudomallei-positive soil site in Khon Kaen, Thailand. Four species of amoebae, Paravahlkampfia ustiana, Acanthamoeba sp...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888770/the-effect-of-the-disulfideisomerase-domain-containing-protein-in-the-defense-against-polyhexamethylene-biguanide-of-highly-tolerant-acanthamoeba-at-the-trophozoite-stage
#4
Fu-Chin Huang, Tao-Shen Liu, Sung-Chou Li, Min-Hsiu Shih, Jyh-Wei Shin, Wei-Chen Lin
Acanthamoeba castellanii is a free-living protozoan pathogen capable of causing a blinding keratitis and fatal granulomatous encephalitis. Current treatment generally involves an hourly application of polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB) over a period of several days but this is not entirely effective against all strains/isolates. The tolerance mechanisms of PHMB in Acanthamoeba cells remain unclear. In this study, we found that the mRNA expression level of disulfideisomerase domain containing protein (PDI) increased rapidly in surviving cells of the highly PHMB-tolerant Acanthamoeba castellanii strain, NCKH_D, during PHMB treatment, but not in the ATCC standard strain...
November 14, 2016: International Journal for Parasitology, Drugs and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876971/isolation-of-acanthamoeba-spp-from-different-water-sources-in-isfahan-central-iran-2014
#5
Reza Mohammadi Manesh, Maryam Niyyati, Hossein Ali Yousefi, Abbas Ali Eskandarian
Acanthamoeba spp. are free-living amoeba found in a wide variety of natural habitats. The high percentage of the presence of Acanthamoeba in different environmental sources represents a sanitary risk for public health, especially immunocompromised patients and contact lens wearers. Acanthamoeba can cause granulomatous amoebic encephalitis, otitis, lung lesions, and skin infections in individuals with immune deficiencies. In the present study, the status of contamination of water sources in Isfahan, central Iran is analyzed through parasitological method...
December 2016: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874294/dacryoadenitis-and-extraocular-muscle-inflammation-associated-with-contact-lens-related-acanthamoeba-keratitis-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#6
Tomris Sengor, Erdal Yuzbasioglu, Sevda Aydın Kurna, Murat Irkec, Ahmet Altun, Kubra Kökcen, Nazli Gul Yalcin
The present report discusses a new case of dacryoadenitis with extraocular muscle inflammation associated with Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) in a contact lens wearer. A 41-year-old male, who has worn silicone hydrogel contact lenses on an extended basis for about 10 years, attended with the complaints of vision disturbance, hyperemia, and pain in his right eye. His history revealed that 1.5 month ago, he had been diagnosed with allergic conjunctivitis and had used steroid eye drops. Biomicroscopic examination revealed eyelid edema, chemosis, and ring infiltration, radial keratoneuritis and an epithelial defect in the cornea...
November 22, 2016: Orbit
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870779/painless-acanthamoeba-keratitis-with-normal-vision
#7
Pui Wai Rachel Kwok, Ka Wai Kam, Vishal Jhanji, Alvin L Young
PURPOSE: To report an atypical case of contact lens-related Acanthamoeba keratitis. CASE REPORT: A 15-year-old secondary school female student with a history of soft contact lens wear was referred to our hospital by a private general practitioner for management of right eye redness and discomfort for 2 weeks. Upon examination, the best-corrected visual acuity was 20/20 and 20/16 for her right and left eyes, respectively. There was diffuse radial keratoneuritis noted in the cornea of her right eye without any associated epithelial defect...
November 19, 2016: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867160/morphological-and-taxonomic-properties-of-tokyovirus-the-first-marseilleviridae-member-isolated-from-japan
#8
Masaharu Takemura
Members of the Marseilleviridae family are large DNA viruses with icosahedral particle structures that infect Acanthamoeba cells. The first Marseillevirus to be discovered was isolated in 2009. Since then, several other members of the Marseilleviridae family have been reported, including Lausannevirus, Senegalvirus, Cannes 8 virus, Insectomime virus, Tunisvirus, Melbournevirus, Port-Miou virus, and Brazilian Marseillevirus, which have been isolated from Europe, Africa, Australia, and South America. The morphological and genomic properties of a new Marseilleviridae family member, Tokyovirus, discovered in a water/soil sample from a Japanese river in Tokyo, were described in the present study...
November 19, 2016: Microbes and Environments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867026/artemisinin-and-its-derivatives-in-treating-protozoan-infections-beyond-malaria
#9
REVIEW
Cecilia Shi Ni Loo, Nelson Siu Kei Lam, Deying Yu, Xin-Zhuan Su, Fangli Lu
Many parasitic protozoan diseases continue to rank among the world's greatest global health problems, which are also common among poor populations. Currently available drugs for treatment present drawbacks, urging the need for more effective, safer, and cheaper drugs. Artemisinin (ART) and its derivatives are some of the most important classes of antimalarial agents originally derived from Artemisia annua L. However, besides the outstanding antimalarial and antischistosomal activities, ART and its derivatives also possess activities against other parasitic protozoa...
November 17, 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852393/-study-on-the-susceptibility-of-human-corneal-epithelial-cells-to-acanthamoeba-in-a-hypoxia-condition
#10
K P Pang, H Pan
Objective: To investigate the regulation mechanism of Acanthamoeba-induced immune responses of human corneal epithelial cells in a hypoxia condition. Methods: Telomerase-immortalized human epithelial cells (THCEs) challenged with Acanthamoeba (1×10(6)/ml) were incubated under normoxic (21% O2) (control group) or hypoxic (1% O2) (experiment group) conditions respectively. The mRNA of toll-like receptor (TLR4), myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88), nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-8 (IL-8), interferon-β (IFN-β), and the protein level of TLR4, inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa-Bα (IκBα), phosphorylated extracellular-signal related kinase 1/2 (p-ERK1/2) and phosphorylated IκBα (p-IκBα) were detected...
November 1, 2016: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836717/therapeutic-agents-and-biocides-for-ocular-infections-by-free-living-amoebae-of-acanthamoeba-genus
#11
REVIEW
Linda Christian Carrijo-Carvalho, Viviane Peracini Sant'ana, Annette Silva Foronda, Denise de Freitas, Fabio Ramos de Souza Carvalho
Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) is a sight-threatening infectious disease. Resistance of the cystic form of the protozoan to biocides and the potential toxicity of chemical compounds to corneal cells are the main concerns related to long-term treatment with the clinically available ophthalmic drugs. Currently, a limited number of recognized antimicrobial agents are available to treat ocular amoebic infections. Topical application of biguanide and diamidine antiseptic solutions is the first-line therapy. We consider the current challenges when treating AK and review the chemical properties, toxicities, and mechanisms of action of the available biocides...
November 8, 2016: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827884/cedratvirus-a-double-cork-structured-giant-virus-is-a-distant-relative-of-pithoviruses
#12
Julien Andreani, Sarah Aherfi, Jacques Yaacoub Bou Khalil, Fabrizio Di Pinto, Idir Bitam, Didier Raoult, Philippe Colson, Bernard La Scola
Most viruses are known for the ability to cause symptomatic diseases in humans and other animals. The discovery of Acanthamoeba polyphaga mimivirus and other giant amoebal viruses revealed a considerable and previously unknown area of uncharacterized viral particles. Giant viruses have been isolated from various environmental samples collected from very distant geographic places, revealing a ubiquitous distribution. Their morphological and genomic features are fundamental elements for classifying them. Herein, we report the isolation and draft genome of Cedratvirus, a new amoebal giant virus isolated in Acanthamoeba castellanii, from an Algerian environmental sample...
November 3, 2016: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825484/acanthamoeba-spp-as-a-universal-host-for-pathogenic-microorganisms-one-bridge-from-environment-to-host-virulence
#13
REVIEW
Allan J Guimaraes, Kamilla Xavier Gomes, Juliana Reis Cortines, José Mauro Peralta, Regina H Saramago Peralta
Free-living amoebas (FLA) are ubiquitous environmental protists that have enormously contributed to the microbiological contamination of water sources. FLAs have displayed resistance to environmental adversities and germicides and have played important roles in the population control of microbial communities due to its predatory behavior and microbicidal activity. However, some organisms have developed resistance to the intracellular milieu of amoebas, as in the case of Acanthamoebas, which in turn, have been functioning as excellent reservoirs for amoeba-resistant microorganisms (ARMs), such as bacteria, viruses and fungi...
December 2016: Microbiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815848/annual-variations-and-effects-of-temperature-on-legionella-spp-and-other-potential-opportunistic-pathogens-in-a-bathroom
#14
Jingrang Lu, Helen Buse, Ian Struewing, Amy Zhao, Darren Lytle, Nicholas Ashbolt
Opportunistic pathogens (OPs) in drinking water, like Legionella spp., mycobacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and free-living amobae (FLA) are a risk to human health, due to their post-treatment growth in water systems. To assess and manage these risks, it is necessary to understand their variations and environmental conditions for the water routinely used. We sampled premise tap (N cold = 26, N hot = 26) and shower (N shower = 26) waters in a bathroom and compared water temperatures to levels of OPs via qPCR and identified Legionella spp...
November 4, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811174/study-of-gene-trafficking-between-acanthamoeba-and-giant-viruses-suggests-an-undiscovered-family-of-amoeba-infecting-viruses
#15
Florian Maumus, Guillaume Blanc
The nucleocytoplasmic large DNA viruses (NCLDV) are a group of extremely complex double-stranded DNA viruses, which are major parasites of a variety of eukaryotes. Recent studies showed that certain unicellular eukaryotes contain fragments of NCLDV DNA integrated in their genome, when surprisingly many of these organisms were not previously shown to be infected by NCLDVs. These findings prompted us to search the genome of Acanthamoeba castellanii strain Neff (Neff), one of the most prolific hosts in the discovery of giant NCLDVs, for possible DNA inserts of viral origin...
November 3, 2016: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805070/legionella-pneumophila-prevents-proliferation-of-its-natural-host-acanthamoeba-castellanii
#16
Luce Mengue, Matthieu Régnacq, Willy Aucher, Emilie Portier, Yann Héchard, Ascel Samba-Louaka
Legionella pneumophila is a ubiquitous, pathogenic, Gram-negative bacterium responsible for legionellosis. Like many other amoeba-resistant microorganisms, L. pneumophila resists host clearance and multiplies inside the cell. Through its Dot/Icm type IV secretion system, the bacterium injects more than three hundred effectors that modulate host cell physiology in order to promote its own intracellular replication. Here we report that L. pneumophila prevents proliferation of its natural host Acanthamoeba castellanii...
November 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793130/repertoire-of-free-living-protozoa-in-contact-lens-solutions
#17
Ibtissem Bouchoucha, Aurore Aziz, Louis Hoffart, Michel Drancourt
BACKGROUND: The repertoire of free-living protozoa in contact lens solutions is poorly known despite the fact that such protozoa may act as direct pathogens and may harbor intra-cellular pathogens. METHODS: Between 2009 and 2014, the contact lens solutions collected from patients presenting at our Ophthalmology Department for clinically suspected keratitis, were cultured on non-nutrient agar examined by microscope for the presence of free-living protozoa. All protozoa were identified by 18S rRNA gene sequencing...
October 29, 2016: BMC Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27787218/genotyping-of-clinical-isolates-of-acanthamoeba-genus-in-venezuela
#18
Carolina Wagner, María Reyes-Batlle, María Alejandra Vethencourt Ysea, Mónica V Galindo Pérez, Carmen Guzmán de Rondón, Anaibeth J Nessi Paduani, Angelyseb Dorta Pérez, Atteneri López-Arencibia, Ines Sifaoui, María Virginia Pérez de Galindo, Eva Pérez de Suárez, Enrique Martínez-Carretero, Basilio Valladares, José E Piñero, Jacob Lorenzo-Morales
Free-living amoebae of Acanthamoeba genus are opportunistic pathogens distributed worldwide. Strains included in this genus are causative agents of a fatal encephalitis and a sight-threating keratitis in humans and other animals. In this study, 550 clinical samples which were collected between 1984 and 2014 from different patients with suspected infections due to Acanthamoeba were initially screened for the presence of this amoebic genus at the Laboratorio de Amibiasis-Escuela de Bioanálisis at the Universidad Central de Venezuela...
December 1, 2016: Acta Parasitologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27787217/isolation-and-molecular-characterization-of-acanthamoeba-genotypes-isolated-from-soil-sources-of-public-and-recreational-areas-in-iran
#19
Seyed Ahmad Karamati, Maryam Niyyati, Jacob Lorenzo-Morales, Zohreh Lasjerdi
Pathogenic strains of Acanthamoeba are causative agents of a sight threating infection of the cornea known as Acanthamoeba keratitis. AK cases have been reported in Iran recently due to inappropriate usage of contact lens maintenance and most patients report a contact with contaminated sources such as dust, water or soil. Sixty soil samples were collected from public and recreational areas in the province of East Azerbaijan, Iran and checked for the presence of Acanthamoeba spp. Samples were cultured on non-nutrient agar plates seeded with heat killed Escherichia coli...
December 1, 2016: Acta Parasitologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777806/ochrobactrum-anthropi-keratitis-with-focal-descemet-s-membrane-detachment-and-intracorneal-hypopyon
#20
Nandini Venkateswaran, Rachel A F Wozniak, Holly B Hindman
Purpose. To describe a unique case of O. anthropi keratitis associated with a rare manifestation of Descemet's membrane detachment and intracorneal hypopyon and to discuss challenges in diagnosis and management. Methods. Best-corrected visual acuity was measured with Snellen letters. Corneal scrapings were performed and aerobic, viral, herpetic, acid-fast bacilli, Acanthamoeba, and fungal stains and cultures were obtained. Following evisceration, tissue was evaluated for histologic features and again stained for bacteria, mycobacteria, Acanthamoeba, fungi, and viral particles...
2016: Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine
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