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Hervé Seligmann
Mimivirus' genome includes parts of 5S, 16S and 23S ribosomal RNAs encoded by Acanthamoeba's mitogenome, the giant virus' host. Two non-exclusive hypotheses for rRNA remnants in giant viruses are examined: 1. mitogenomes invade viral genomes as they do for nuclear chromosomes (producing numts); 2. megaviral genomes evolved from an ancestral mitogenome. Alignment analyses confirm mitochondrial, rather than alphaproteobacterial origins of megaviral rRNAs. Other mitogenes have likely megaviral homologues. These megaviral homologues coevolve to much larger extents than candidate rRNA homologues, suggesting rRNA decay in viruses...
June 15, 2018: Virus Research
Rosa E Cárdenas-Guerra, Moisés Martínez-Castillo, Jaime Ortega-López, Mineko Shibayama, Rossana Arroyo
The recombinant TvCP4 prepro region (ppTvCP4r) acts as an exogenous inhibitor of cathepsin L-like CPs from Trichomonas vaginalis (Cárdenas-Guerra et al., 2015 [1]). Here, we present the dataset of the trichomonad ppTvCP4r inhibitory effect against the CP proteolytic activities from other microorganisms, such as Naegleria fowleri and Acanthamoeba castellanii free-living amoeba. The proteolytic activity inhibition of total crude extracts (TCEs) of N. fowleri and A. castellanii was determined and recorded using a fluorogenic substrate specific for cathepsin L CPs without or with a ppTvCP4r treatment at different concentrations and pH...
June 2018: Data in Brief
Matthieu Legendre, Elisabeth Fabre, Olivier Poirot, Sandra Jeudy, Audrey Lartigue, Jean-Marie Alempic, Laure Beucher, Nadège Philippe, Lionel Bertaux, Eugène Christo-Foroux, Karine Labadie, Yohann Couté, Chantal Abergel, Jean-Michel Claverie
With DNA genomes reaching 2.5 Mb packed in particles of bacterium-like shape and dimension, the first two Acanthamoeba-infecting pandoraviruses remained up to now the most complex viruses since their discovery in 2013. Our isolation of three new strains from distant locations and environments is now used to perform the first comparative genomics analysis of the emerging worldwide-distributed Pandoraviridae family. Thorough annotation of the genomes combining transcriptomic, proteomic, and bioinformatic analyses reveals many non-coding transcripts and significantly reduces the former set of predicted protein-coding genes...
June 11, 2018: Nature Communications
E A Alfonso-Muñoz, M J Roig-Revert, E Fernández-López, M Hernández-Díaz, R Araujo-Miranda, C Peris-Martínez
CLINICAL CASES: Cases are presented of 10 patients with Acanthamoeba keratitis treated between 2008 and 2017. All were contact lens wearers. All of them received treatment with a biguanide combined with a diamidine. In 3 cases the infestation did not exceed the superficial stroma, responding to topical treatment. In 7, the infection reached the deep stroma, with 6 of these cases requiring penetrating keratoplasty (PKP), 3 of them therapeutic PKP because of perforation risk or ocular spreading...
June 6, 2018: Archivos de la Sociedad Española de Oftalmología
Eun-Kyung Moon, Hyun-Seo Choi, Hyun-Hee Kong, Fu-Shi Quan
Several chemotherapeutic drugs have been described as amoebicidal agents acting against Acanthamoeba trophozoites and cysts. However, the underlying mechanism of action is poorly characterized. Here, we describe programmed cell death (PCD) in A. castellanii induced by polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB) and chloroquine. We used four types of amoebicidal agents including 0.02% PHMB, 0.02% chlorhexidine digluconate, 100 μM chloroquine, and 100 μM 2,6-dichlorobenzonitrile to kill Acanthamoeba trophozoites and cysts...
June 6, 2018: Experimental Parasitology
Samira Dodangeh, Maryam Niyyati, Mohammad Kamalinejad, Jacob Lorenzo-Morales, Abdolali Moshfe, Ali Haghighi, Eznolah Azargashb
Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) is a sight-threatening infection of the cornea disease that often presents with a lengthy and not fully effective treatment. Current therapeutic options against Acanthamoeba are not very effective against the cyst. Calibrated trophozoite/cyst suspension was incubated with the same volume of serial dilutions of the Trigonella foenum graecum aqueous extract (200, 250, 350, 450, 600, and 750 mg/mL) in microcentrifuge tubes and mixed by pipetting up and down. After that, the tubes were incubated at 26 ºC for 24, 48, and 72 h...
2018: Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research: IJPR
Ines Sifaoui, María Reyes-Batlle, Atteneri López-Arencibia, Olfa Chiboub, Javier Rodríguez-Martín, Pedro Rocha-Cabrera, Basilio Valladares, José E Piñero, Jacob Lorenzo-Morales
Amoebae of the genus Acanthamoeba are ubiquitous protists that have been isolated from many sources such as soils, water and the air. They are responsible for infections including fatal encephalitis and a severe keratitis in humans. To date, there is no satisfactorily effective therapeutic agent against this pathogen and the infections it causes are exacerbated by the existence of a resistant cyst stage produced by this amoeba. As dry eye syndrome is a risk factor for Acanthamoeba keratitis, we aimed to evaluate the anti-Acanthamoeba activity of a variety of proprietary eye drops intended to treat dry eye syndrome...
June 4, 2018: Scientific Reports
W Zbiba, N Ben Abdesslem
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of AK among microbial keratitis as well as their clinical features and to compare their risk factors to those of other infectious keratitis, over the last five years in a referral center in the region of Cap Bon, Tunisia, North Africa. METHODS: A retrospective review of the charts of 230 patients (230 eyes) diagnosed with presumed infectious keratitis between January 2011 and December 2016 at the department of ophthalmology of the university hospital of Nabeul in Tunisia...
May 30, 2018: Experimental Parasitology
Mehdi Roozbahani, Kristin M Hammersmith, Christopher J Rapuano, Parveen K Nagra, Qiang Ed Zhang, Sophia Y Siu
PURPOSE: To identify a recent change in disease severity and visual outcomes of patients with Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) at Wills Eye Hospital (WEH). METHODS: A retrospective chart review was performed of all cases diagnosed with AK at WEH between January 1, 2009, and December 31, 2015. Failure of treatment was defined as having a final best-corrected visual acuity worse than 20/100 and/or requiring keratoplasty. The patients were grouped into 2 outcome categories: successfully treated and those who failed treatment; and prognostic factors associated with failure status were evaluated...
May 25, 2018: Cornea
Ashley Best, Snake Jones, Yousef Abu Kwaik
Acquisition of nutrients during intra-vacuolar growth of L. pneumophila within macrophages or amoebae is poorly understood. Since many genes of L. pneumophila are acquired by inter-kingdom horizontal gene transfer from eukaryotic hosts, we examined the presence of human solute carrier (SLC)-like transporters in the L. pneumophila genome using I-TASSER to assess structural alignments. We identified 11 SLC-like putative transporters in L. pneumophila that are structurally similar to SLCs, eight of which are amino acid transporters, and one is a tricarboxylate transporter...
May 29, 2018: Scientific Reports
Muhammad Arslan Gill, Muhammad Wasim Rafique, Talha Manan, Sidrah Slaeem, Ute Römling, Abdul Matin, Irfan Ahmad
Pathogenic bacteria share their natural habitat with many other organisms such as animals, plants, insects, parasites and amoeba. Interactions between these organisms influence not only the life style of the host organisms, but also modulate bacterial physiology. Adaptation can include biofilm formation, capsule formation, and production of virulence factors. Although biofilm formation is a dominant mode of bacterial life in environmental settings, its role in host-pathogen interactions is not extensively studied...
May 24, 2018: Parasitology Research
Meredith S Baker, Amanda C Maltry, Nasreen A Syed, Richard C Allen
Purpose: Acanthamoeba is a protozoa that can lead to severe ocular disease and sequelae. Although intraocular Acanthamoeba infection is rare, the following case demonstrates an unusual presentation of recurrent Acanthamoeba infection in a 30 year old contact lens wearing male. Observations: After presenting with recurrent Acanthamoeba keratitis and undergoing various treatments, the patient developed nodular scleritis, which evolved into panophthalmitis, and ultimately, required enucleation...
June 2018: American Journal of Ophthalmology Case Reports
Takahiro Matsui, Tetsuo Maeda, Shinsuke Kusakabe, Hideyuki Arita, Kenji Yagita, Eiichi Morii, Yuzuru Kanakura
BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of granulomatous amoebic encephalitis is challenging for clinicians because it is a rare and lethal disease. Previous reports have indicated that Acanthamoeba with some specific genotypes tend to cause the majority of human infections. We report a case of granulomatous amoebic encephalitis caused by Acanthamoeba spp. with genotype T18 in an immunodeficient patient in Japan after allogenic bone marrow transplantation, along with the morphological characteristics and genetic analysis...
May 10, 2018: Diagnostic Pathology
Naveed Ahmed Khan, Ayaz Anwar, Ruqaiyyah Siddiqui
BACKGROUND: First discovered in the early 1970s, Acanthamoeba keratitis has remained a major eye infection and presents a significant threat to the public health, especially in developing countries. The aim is to present a timely review of our current understanding of the advances made in this field in a comprehensible manner and includes novel concepts and provides clear directions for immediate research priorities. METHOD: We undertook a search of bibliographic databases for peer-reviewed research literature and also summarized our published results in this field...
May 10, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Vincent Delafont, Marie-Helene Rodier, Elodie Maisonneuve, Estelle Cateau
Free-living amoebae are protists that are widely distributed in the environment including water, soil, and air. Although the amoebae of the genus Acanthamoeba are still the most studied, other species, such as Vermamoeba vermiformis (formerly Hartmannella vermiformis), are the subject of increased interest. Found in natural or man-made aquatic environments, V. vermiformis can support the multiplication of other microorganisms and is able to harbor and potentially protect pathogenic bacteria or viruses. This feature is to be noted because of the presence of this thermotolerant amoeba in hospital water networks...
May 8, 2018: Microbial Ecology
Tania Martín-Pérez, Angel Criado-Fornelio, Manuel Ávila-Blanco, Jorge Pérez-Serrano
The isolation and growth in axenic liquid media of Acanthamoeba strains is necessary in order to carry out primary in vitro drug screening. Amoebic isolates which are hard to grow in the current liquid media have been reported. Such circumstances hampers the ability of conducting drug sensitivity tests. Therefore, finding suitable universal growth media for Acanthamoeba species is required. The present study was aimed at the development of liquid medium suitable for growing a fastidious (F) genotype T3 Acanthamoeba isolate, and eventually for other genotypes of this genus as well...
April 12, 2018: European Journal of Protistology
Marwa A Hasby Saad, Haidy S M Khalil
PURPOSE: To detect co-infections in the culture-proven acanthamoebic keratitis (AK) cases, and to test the capability of biofilm formation in the isolated microbiota. The clinical findings, habit of wearing contact lens and in-vitro antibiotic resistance were analyzed further according to the biofilm formation capability. METHODS: After clinical examination, corneal scraps and swabs were taken from 240 clinically suspected AK cases, for Acanthamoeba and microbiological cultures...
May 3, 2018: Parasitology International
Andrea Gyenes, Erika Orosz, Gábor László Sándor, Fabian Norbert Fries, Berthold Seitz, Nagy Zsolt Zoltán, Nóra Szentmáry
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 3, 2018: Klinische Monatsblätter Für Augenheilkunde
Nisrine Chelkha, Philippe Colson, Anthony Levasseur, Bernard La Scola
Giant viruses infect protozoa, especially amoebae of the genus Acanthamoeba. These viruses possess genetic elements named Mobilome. So far, this mobilome comprises provirophages which are integrated into the genome of their hosts, transpovirons, and Maverick/Polintons. Virophages replicate inside virus factories within Acanthamoeba and can decrease the infectivity of giant viruses. The virophage infecting CroV was found to be integrated in the host of CroV, Cafeteria roenbergensis, thus protecting C. roenbergensis by reduction of CroV multiplication...
April 28, 2018: Virus Research
Cynara Oliveira Possamai, Ana Carolina Loss, Adriana Oliveira Costa, Aloisio Falqueto, Cinthia Furst
The authors recognized a mistake in Abstract and in the Discussion section.
April 30, 2018: Parasitology Research
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