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Acanthamoeba

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056478/survival-of-pathogenic-m-abscesssus-subsp-massiliense-in-acanthamoeba-castellanii
#1
J L DaSilva, Jan Nguyen, Kevin P Fennelly, Adrian M Zelazny, Kenneth N Olivier
We used an amoeba model to study the intracellular growth and cytotoxicity of clinical strains of M. abscessus subsp. massiliense (Mabsm) isolated from 2 patients (one with cystic fibrosis, the other one with idiopathic bronchiectasis) during the early (smooth colonies) and late stage (rough colonies) of chronic pulmonary infection. Acanthamoeba castellanii were infected with Mabsm (MOI 100) and samples collected every 24h for 72 h. Results showed Mabsm is able to survive in trophozoites and persist in cysts for at least 7 days...
October 19, 2017: Research in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042405/sterol-methyltransferase-a-target-for-anti-amoeba-therapy-towards-transition-state-analog-and-suicide-substrate-drug-design
#2
Medhanie E Kidane, Boden H Vanderloop, Wenxu Zhou, Crista D Thomas, Emilio Ramos, Ujjal Singha, Minu Chaudhuri, W David Nes
Ergosterol biosynthesis pathways essential to pathogenic protozoa growth (Haubrich, B. A. et al. 2015. J. Lipid Res. 56: 331-341) and absent from the human host offer new chokepoint targets. Here, we present characterization and cell-based interference of Acanthamoeba spp sterol 24/28methylases (SMT) that catalyze the committed step in C28- and C29-sterol synthesis. Intriguingly, our kinetic analyses suggest 24SMT prefers plant cycloartenol while 28SMT prefers 24(28)methylene lophenol in similar fashion to the substrate preferences of land plant SMT1 and SMT2...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042273/leptomyxa-valladaresi-n-sp-amoebozoa-tubulinea-leptomyxida-from-mount-teide-tenerife-spain
#3
Alvaro De Obeso Fernandez Del Valle, Jacob Lorenzo-Morales, Sutherland K Maciver
Leptomyxa valladaresi was isolated from soil in a pine forest on the southern flank of Mt Teide in Tenerife, Spain. It feeds on bacteria and on a range of other amoebae, and it was possible to establish bi-axenic cultures with L. valladaresi and Acanthamoeba. It is easily propagated on a E. coli also. 18S rDNA gene sequence analysis suggests that it is most closely related to Leptomyxa variabilis, however this amoeba differs in important detail. L. valladaresi is primarily mononucleate whereas L. variabilis is multinucleate...
October 14, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037504/an-investigation-of-virulence-factors-of-legionella-pneumophila-environmental-isolates
#4
Elif Özlem Arslan-Aydoğdu, Ayten Kimiran
Nine Legionella pneumophila strains isolated from cooling towers and a standard strain (L. pneumophila serogroup 1, ATCC 33152, Philadelphia 1) were analyzed and compared in terms of motility, flagella structure, ability to form biofilms, enzymatic activities (hemolysin, nucleases, protease, phospholipase A, phospholipase C, acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase and lipase), hemagglutination capabilities, and pathogenicity in various host cells (Acanthamoeba castellanii ATCC 30234, mouse peritoneal macrophages and human peripheral monocytes)...
July 22, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035854/genotyping-of-acanthamoeba-spp-from-water-sources-from-northwestern-iran
#5
Ali Haniloo, Ali Pezeshki, Abbas Mahmmodzadeh, Elnaz Kadkhodamohammadi
Acanthamoeba spp. are free-living amoebae which are ubiquitously distributed worldwide and can be found in the wide range of environments, particularly in various types of water sources, where they able to cause important health problems. In the present study, cultures containing Acanthamoeba from water samples were obtained from our earlier survey. For an analysis of the genetic pattern of Acanthamoeba isolates, DNA sequencing of nuclear small-subunit rRNA gene (18S rRNA or Rns) was applied. A phylogenetic analyses of the isolates displayed that all of them were belonged to the potentially pathogenic T4 genotype...
December 20, 2017: Acta Parasitologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033270/a-survey-of-contact-lens-related-complications-in-a-tertiary-hospital-in-china
#6
Weiwei Li, Xuguang Sun, Zhiqun Wang, Yang Zhang
PURPOSE: To describe the type of complications related to contact lens (CL) wear in a tertiary hospital in XX, China. METHODS: A retrospective study of 141 patients who complained discomfort after wearing contact lens on an outpatient basis of XX Hospital were conducted from the January 2012 to December 2015. The data included patients' demographics, lens type, history, slit-lamp examination, reports of corneal scrapings, culture, and examination of in vivo confocal microscopy...
October 12, 2017: Contact Lens & Anterior Eye: the Journal of the British Contact Lens Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988383/diversity-of-free-living-amoebae-in-soils-and-their-associated-human-opportunistic-bacteria
#7
Elodie Denet, Bénédicte Coupat-Goutaland, Sylvie Nazaret, Michel Pélandakis, Sabine Favre-Bonté
Free-living amoebae (FLA) are ubiquitous protozoa found worldwide in the environment. They feed by phagocytosis on various microorganisms. However, some bacteria, i.e., amoebae-resistant bacteria (ARB) or bacterial endocytobionts, can resist phagocytosis and even multiply inside FLA. This study investigated the diversity of culturable FLA in various soils from agricultural and mining sites and their bacterial endocytobionts. FLA were cultured on non-nutrient agar with alive Escherichia coli and identified by PCR and sequencing...
October 7, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979352/assessment-of-two-different-drinking-water-treatment-plants-for-the-removal-of-free-living-amoebae-egypt
#8
Ahmad Z Al-Herrawy, Mahmoud A Gad
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to compare between slow and rapid sand filters for the removal of free-living amoebae during drinking water treatment production. METHODS: Overall, 48 water samples were collected from two drinking water treatment plants having two different filtration systems (slow and rapid sand filters) and from inlet and outlet of each plant. Water samples were collected from Fayoum Drinking Water and Wastewater Holding Company, Egypt, during the year 2015...
July 2017: Iranian Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979345/molecular-characterization-of-acanthamoeba-isolates-from-surface-resting-waters-in-northwest-iran
#9
Esmaeil Fallah, Zahra Jafarpour, Mahmoud Mahami-Oskouei, Ali Haghighi, Maryam Niyyati, Adel Spotin, Aram Khezri
BACKGROUND: Acanthamoeba is an opportunistic amphizoic protozoan found in different fresh water sources. The aim of this study was to identify and characterize Acanthamoeba isolates from surface resting waters, in Northwest Iran. METHODS: Samples were collected from twenty-two different areas, between May and Sep 2014. After filtration, samples were cultivated on non-nutrient agar. The extracted DNAs were amplified and sequenced using partial 18S rRNA in order to genotype and phylogenetic analyses...
July 2017: Iranian Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974450/acanthamoeba-culbertsoni-isolated-from-a-clinical-case-with-intraocular-dissemination-structure-and-in%C3%A2-vitro-analysis-of-the-interaction-with-hamster-cornea-and-mdck-epithelial-cell-monolayers
#10
Arturo González-Robles, Maritza Omaña-Molina, Lizbeth Salazar-Villatoro, Catalina Flores-Maldonado, Jacob Lorenzo-Morales, María Reyes-Batlle, Francisco Arnalich-Montiel, Adolfo Martínez-Palomo
Acanthamoeba culbertsoni trophozoites, previously isolated from a human keratitis case with severe intraocular damage, were maintained in axenic culture. Co-incubation of amoebae with MDCK cell monolayers demonstrated an apparent preference of the amoebae to introduce themselves between the cells. The trophozoites appeared to cross the cell monolayer through the tight junctions, which resulted in decreased trans-epithelial resistance (TER) measurements. Unexpectedly, after co-incubation of amoebae with hamster corneas, we observed that the trophozoites were able to cross the different cell layers and reach the corneal stroma after only 12 h of interaction, in contrast to other Acanthamoeba species...
September 30, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969610/associated-factors-diagnosis-and-management-of-acanthamoeba-keratitis-in-a-referral-center-in-southern-china
#11
Jing Zhong, Xingyi Li, Yuqing Deng, Ling Chen, Shiyou Zhou, Weilan Huang, Shiqi Lin, Jin Yuan
BACKGROUND: To analyse the associated factors, diagnosis, clinical manifestations and therapeutic effects of Acanthamoeba keratitis at a tertiary ophthalmic centre in Southern China. METHODS: A retrospective clinical study was performed in fifteen patients who were admitted to Zhongshan Ophthalmic Centre (ZOC) from January 2004 to December 2014. The patients' pathogenesis-associated factors were analysed, and preoperative diagnoses were determined using corneal scraping cultures and/or confocal microscopy followed...
October 2, 2017: BMC Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967947/roles-for-rpos-in-survival-of-escherichia-coli-during-protozoan-predation-and-in-reduced-moisture-conditions-highlight-its-importance-in-soil-environments
#12
Yinka Somorin, Guillaume Bouchard, Joseph Gallagher, Florence Abram, Fiona Brennan, Conor O'Byrne
The soil is a complex ecosystem where interactions between biotic and abiotic factors determine the survival and fate of microbial inhabitants of the system. Having previously shown that Escherichia coli requires the general stress response regulator, RpoS, to survive long term in soil, it was important to determine what specific conditions in this environment necessitate a functional RpoS. This study investigated the susceptibility of soil-persistent E. coli to predation by the single-celled eukaryotes Acanthamoeba polyphaga and Tetrahymena pyriformis, and the role RpoS plays in resisting this predation...
October 16, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965795/acanthamoeba-keratitis-in-noncompliant-soft-contact-lenses-users-genotyping-and-risk-factors-a-study-from-cairo-egypt
#13
Eman E Taher, Eman M H Méabed, Islam Abdallah, Wafaa Y Abdel Wahed
Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) is a severe corneal infection that may occur as a serious outcome of improper use of contact lenses (CL). OBJECTIVES: The study aimed to diagnose AK in soft CL users presenting with infectious keratitis, and to identify the prevalent genotypes isolated from different cases. Another aim was to determine the CL hygiene-related risk behaviors, and to explore the risk of water exposure for developing AK. METHODS: A cross sectional study was performed...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965660/assessment-of-confocal-microscopy-for-the-diagnosis-of-polymerase-chain-reaction-positive-acanthamoeba-keratitis-a-case-control-study
#14
Sophie De Craene, Juliette Knoeri, Cristina Georgeon, Philippe Kestelyn, Vincent M Borderie
PURPOSE: To determine in vivo confocal microscopy diagnostic criteria to diagnose Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) as the reference diagnostic technique. DESIGN: Retrospective case-control study. Data were recorded prospectively and analyzed retrospectively. PARTICIPANTS: Fifty patients with PCR-positive AK (study group) and 50 patients with bacterial, fungal, viral, or immune keratitis featuring negative Acanthamoeba PCR results (control group)...
September 28, 2017: Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964757/risk-factors-and-clinical-features-of-acanthamoeba-keratitis-in-a-tunisian-tertiary-eye-care-center
#15
Mejdi Boukari, Khalil Erraïs, Imen Ammous, Khaoula El Amri-Mezghanni, Imen Zhioua-Braham, Meriam Bouchekoua, Sonia Trabelsi, Dorsaf Aloui, Samira Khaled, Mabrouka Saidani, Sonia Mabrouk, Ilhem Mili-Boussen, Raja Zhioua
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 28, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961787/grazing-resistance-of-bacterial-biofilms-a-matter-of-predators-feeding-trait
#16
Claudia Seiler, Ellen van Velzen, Thomas R Neu, Ursula Gaedke, Thomas U Berendonk, Markus Weitere
Biofilm formation in bacteria is considered to be one strategy to avoid protozoan grazing. However, this assumption is largely based on experiments with suspension-feeding protozoans. Here we test the hypothesis that grazing resistance depends on both the grazers' feeding trait and the bacterial phenotype, rather than being a general characteristic of bacterial biofilms. We combined batch experiments with mathematical modelling, considering the bacterium Pseudomonas putida and either a suspension-feeding (i...
September 1, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954958/role-of-fatty-acid-salts-as-anti-acanthamoeba-agents-for-disinfecting-contact-lens
#17
Aya Tanaka, Mariko Era, Yumeho Obata, Manami Masuda, Takayoshi Kawahara, Takahide Kanyama, Hiroshi Morita
 Acanthamoeba is found in seawater, fresh water, and soil and is an opportunistic pathogen that causes a potentially blinding corneal infection known as Acanthamoeba keratitis. The anti-amoeba activity of 9 fatty acid salts (potassium butyrate (C4K), caproate (C6K), caprylate (C8K), caprate (C10K), laurate (C12K), myristate (C14K), oleate (C18:1K), linoleate (C18:2K), and linolenate (C18:3K)) was tested on Acanthamoeba castellanii ATCC 30010 (trophozoites and cysts). Fatty acid salts (350 mM and pH 10.5) were prepared by mixing fatty acids with the appropriate amount of KOH...
2017: Biocontrol Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942073/update-on-the-management-of-infectious-keratitis
#18
REVIEW
Ariana Austin, Tom Lietman, Jennifer Rose-Nussbaumer
Infectious keratitis is a major global cause of visual impairment and blindness, often affecting marginalized populations. Proper diagnosis of the causative organism is critical, and although culture remains the prevailing diagnostic tool, newer techniques such as in vivo confocal microscopy are helpful for diagnosing fungus and Acanthamoeba. Next-generation sequencing holds the potential for early and accurate diagnosis even for organisms that are difficult to culture by conventional methods. Topical antibiotics remain the best treatment for bacterial keratitis, and a recent review found all commonly prescribed topical antibiotics to be equally effective...
November 2017: Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933530/future-priorities-in-tackling-infections-due-to-brain-eating-amoebae
#19
Naveed Ahmed Khan, Ayaz Anwar, Ruqaiyyah Siddiqui
Brain-eating amoebae (Acanthamoeba spp., Balamuthia mandrillaris, and Naegleria fowleri) can cause opportunistic infections involving the central nervous system. It is troubling that the mortality rate is more than 90% despite advances in antimicrobial chemotherapy over the last few decades. Here, we describe urgent key priorities for improving outcomes from infections due to brain-eating amoebae.
September 21, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921764/acanthamoeba-granulomatous-amoebic-encephalitis-after-pediatric-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplant
#20
Scott L Coven, Eunkyung Song, Sarah Steward, Christopher R Pierson, Jennifer R Cope, Ibne K Ali, Monica I Ardura, Mark W Hall, Melissa G Chung, Rajinder P S Bajwa
Acanthamoeba encephalitis is a rare, often fatal condition, particularly after HSCT, with 9 reported cases to date in the world literature. Our case was originally diagnosed with ALL at age 3 years, and after several relapses underwent HSCT at age 9 years. At 17 years of age, he was diagnosed with secondary AML for which he underwent a second allogeneic HSCT. He presented with acute-onset worsening neurological deficits on day +226 after the second transplant and a post-mortem diagnosis of Acanthamoeba encephalitis was established, with the aid of the CDC...
September 17, 2017: Pediatric Transplantation
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