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Acanthamoeba

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542085/quantitative-analysis-of-depth-distribution-and-density-of-cysts-in-acanthamoeba-keratitis-using-confocal-microscopy
#1
Ping Huang, Tudor Tepelus, Laura A Vickers, Elmira Baghdasaryan, Jianyan Huang, John A Irvine, Hugo Y Hsu, Srinivas Sadda, Olivia L Lee
PURPOSE: To quantify the density, distribution, and depth of invasion of cysts in the corneas of eyes with acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) by in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM) with a novel scanning pattern. METHODS: The medical records of patients with AK evaluated at the Doheny Eye Center UCLA between September 2014 and July 2016 were reviewed retrospectively. Patients with clinically diagnosed AK underwent IVCM at various time points during their clinical course...
May 23, 2017: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534320/infectious-keratitis-and-orthokeratology-lens-use-a-systematic-review
#2
REVIEW
Ka Wai Kam, Wing Yung, Gabriel Ka Hin Li, Li Jia Chen, Alvin L Young
PURPOSE: Myopia is a prevalent condition among Asians. Orthokeratology lens has gained popularity as a method of myopia control. This systematic review is to summarize the clinical profile of infectious keratitis in association with orthokeratology lens wear. METHODS: We searched in the PubMed and EMBASE for articles adopting the search strategy "(orthokeratology lens OR orthokeratology) AND (bacterial eye infection OR keratitis OR cornea ulcer OR microbial keratitis OR bacterial keratitis)", from the start date of the databases to August 23, 2016...
May 22, 2017: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526786/impact-of-acanthamoeba-cysts-on-stress-resistance-of-salmonella-enterica-serovar-typhimurium-yersinia-enterocolitica-4-o-3-listeria-monocytogenes-1-2a-and-escherichia-coli-o-26
#3
Ellen Lambrecht, Julie Baré, Koen Sabbe, Kurt Houf
The formation of robust resting cysts enables Acanthamoeba to resist harsh environmental conditions. This study investigated to what extent these cysts are resistant to physical and chemical stresses as applied in food industry cleaning and disinfection procedures. Moreover it was assessed whether certain intracystic meatborne bacterial pathogens are more stress-resistant than free-living bacterial monocultures and if intracystic passage and subsequent association with trophozoites induces cross-tolerance towards other stressors...
May 19, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525571/one-year-genome-evolution-of-lausannevirus-in-allopatric-versus-sympatric-conditions
#4
Linda Mueller, Claire Bertelli, Trestan Pillonel, Nicolas Salamin, Gilbert Greub
Amoeba-resisting microorganisms (ARMs) raised a great interest during the last decade. Among them, some large DNA viruses present huge genomes up to 2.5 Mb long, exceeding the size of small bacterial genomes. The rate of genome evolution in terms of mutation, deletion and gene acquisition in these genomes is yet unknown. Given the suspected high plasticity of viral genomes, the microevolution of the 346 kb genome of Lausannevirus, a member of Megavirales, was studied. Hence, Lausannevirus was co-cultured within the amoeba Acanthamoeba castellanii over one year...
May 19, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506204/antibiotic-effects-of-loperamide-homology-of-human-targets-of-loperamide-with-targets-in-acanthamoeba-spp
#5
Abdul Mannan Baig, Zohaib Rana, M Mohsin Mannan, S Sumayya Tariq, H R Ahmad
BACKGROUND: Loperamide is an anti-diarrheal drug prescribed for non-infectious diarrhea. The drug is an opioid receptor agonist, a blocker of voltage-dependent calcium channel (Cav) and a calmodulin (CaM) inhibitor on human cells. Loperamide has been reported to exert anti-amoebic effects against pathogenic strains of Acanthamoeba castellanii. OBJECTIVES: The precise mode of antibiotic action, cellular target homology with human counterparts and the pattern of cell death induced by loperamide in Acanthamoeba castellanii remain to be established...
April 25, 2017: Recent Patents on Anti-infective Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506032/dna-methylation-of-gene-expression-in-acanthamoeba-castellanii-encystation
#6
Eun-Kyung Moon, Yeonchul Hong, Hae-Ahm Lee, Fu-Shi Quan, Hyun-Hee Kong
Encystation mediating cyst specific cysteine proteinase (CSCP) of Acanthamoeba castellanii is expressed remarkably during encystation. However, the molecular mechanism involved in the regulation of CSCP gene expression remains unclear. In this study, we focused on epigenetic regulation of gene expression during encystation of Acanthamoeba. To evaluate methylation as a potential mechanism involved in the regulation of CSCP expression, we first investigated the correlation between promoter methylation status of CSCP gene and its expression...
April 2017: Korean Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506031/identification-and-characterization-of-protein-arginine-methyltransferase-1-in-acanthamoeba-castellanii
#7
Eun-Kyung Moon, Hyun-Hee Kong, Yeonchul Hong, Hae-Ahm Lee, Fu-Shi Quan
Protein arginine methyltransferase (PRMT) is an important epigenetic regulator in eukaryotic cells. During encystation, an essential process for Acanthamoeba survival, the expression of a lot of genes involved in the encystation process has to be regulated in order to be induced or inhibited. However, the regulation mechanism of these genes is yet unknown. In this study, the full-length 1,059 bp cDNA sequence of Acanthamoeba castellanii PRMT1 (AcPRMT1) was cloned for the first time. The AcPRMT1 protein comprised of 352 amino acids with a SAM-dependent methyltransferase PRMT-type domain...
April 2017: Korean Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495034/-presence-of-acanthamoeba-spp-in-watering-trough-in-la-pampa-province-argentina
#8
María Del C Rojas, Marcelo Rodríguez Fermepín, Florencia Gracia Martínez, Sixto R Costamagna
Free-living Amoebae of Acanthamoeba genus include non-pathogenic and pathogenic strains that are currently classified in 18 different genotypes, T1-T18. In this study, a survey was carried out to evaluate the presence of Acanthamoeba strains inwatering trough sample in La Pampa province, Argentina. Sample were inoculated onto non-nutrient agar plates and were checked for the presence of Acanthamoeba. Polymerase chain reaction was performed with genus-specific primers JDP1/JDP2, followed by direct sequencing of the polymerase chain reaction product for molecular identification...
May 8, 2017: Revista Argentina de Microbiología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489721/tear-cytokine-levels-in-contact-lens-wearers-with-acanthamoeba-keratitis
#9
Nicole Carnt, Vicente M Montanez, Grazyna Galatowicz, Neyme Veli, Virginia Calder
PURPOSE: To determine differences in key tear film cytokines between mild and severe cases of acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) and control contact lens (CL) wearers. METHODS: This was a prospective study of CL wearers with AK attending Moorfields Eye Hospital and control CL wearers from the Institute of Optometry, London. Basal tear specimens were collected by 10-μL capillary tubes (BLAUBRAND intraMark, Wertheim, Germany), and tear protein levels were measured with a multiplex magnetic bead array (Luminex 100; Luminex Corporation, Austin, TX) for cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-17A, IL-17E, IL-17F, IL-22, and interferon gamma and with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Abcam, Cambridge, United Kingdom) for CXCL2...
May 9, 2017: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486311/free-living-amoebae-keratitis
#10
Antonio Pinna, Tiziana Porcu, Francesco Boscia, Antonella Cano, Giuseppe Erre, Antonella Mattana
PURPOSE: To describe the diagnostic and clinical features and treatment results in 43 consecutive patients with microbiologically proven free-living amoebae (FLA) keratitis. METHODS: In this hospital-based, prospective case series, corneal scrapings from 43 patients with presumed amoebic keratitis were plated on nonnutrient agar. Amoebic isolates were identified morphologically and by the polymerase chain reaction. All patients with culture-proven FLA keratitis were treated with polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB) 0...
May 8, 2017: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472161/adhesion-forces-and-mechanics-in-mannose-mediated-acanthamoeba-interactions
#11
Steven Huth, Julia F Reverey, Matthias Leippe, Christine Selhuber-Unkel
The human pathogenic amoeba Acanthamoeba castellanii (A. castellanii) causes severe diseases, including acanthamoeba keratitis and encephalitis. Pathogenicity arises from the killing of target-cells by an extracellular killing mechanism, where the crucial first step is the formation of a close contact between A. castellanii and the target-cell. This process is mediated by the glycocalix of the target-cell and mannose has been identified as key mediator. The aim of the present study was to carry out a detailed biophysical investigation of mannose-mediated adhesion of A...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466971/apoptosis-in-acanthamoeba-castellanii-belonging-to-the-t4-genotype
#12
Abdul M Baig, Salima Lalani, Naveed A Khan
Here we describe features of apoptosis in unicellular Acanthamoeba castellanii belonging to the T4 genotype. When exposed to apoptosis-inducing compounds such as doxorubicin, A. castellanii trophozoites exhibited cell shrinkage and membrane blebbing as observed microscopically, DNA fragmentation using agarose gel electrophoresis, and phosphatidylserine (PS) externalization using annexin V immunostaining. Overall, these findings suggest the existence of apoptosis in A. castellanii possibly mediated by intrinsic apoptotic cascade...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Basic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463965/ancient-bacteria-amoeba-relationships-and-pathogenic-animal-bacteria
#13
Joan E Strassmann, Longfei Shu
Long before bacteria infected humans, they infected amoebas, which remain a potentially important reservoir for human disease. Diverse soil amoebas including Dictyostelium and Acanthamoeba can host intracellular bacteria. Though the internal environment of free-living amoebas is similar in many ways to that of mammalian macrophages, they differ in a number of important ways, including temperature. A new study in PLOS Biology by Taylor-Mulneix et al. demonstrates that Bordetella bronchiseptica has two different gene suites that are activated depending on whether the bacterium finds itself in a hot mammalian or cool amoeba host environment...
May 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455335/yersinia-pestis-resists-predation-by-acanthamoeba-castellanii-and-exhibits-prolonged-intracellular-survival
#14
Javier A Benavides-Montaño, Viveka Vadyvaloo
Plague is a flea-borne rodent-associated zoonotic disease caused by Yersinia pestis The disease is characterized by epizootics with high rodent mortalities, punctuated by inter-epizootic periods when the bacterium persists in an unknown reservoir. This study investigates the interaction between Y. pestis and the ubiquitous soil free-living amoeba (FLA), Acanthamoeba castellanii, to assess if the bacterium can survive within soil amoeba and whether intracellular mechanisms are conserved between infection of mammalian macrophages and soil amoeba...
April 28, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452995/twelve-year-analysis-of-microbial-keratitis-trends-at-a-uk-tertiary-hospital
#15
S Z Tan, A Walkden, L Au, C Fullwood, A Hamilton, A Qamruddin, M Armstrong, A K Brahma, F Carley
PurposeTo investigate the frequencies, trends, and in vitro drug susceptibilities of the causative pathogens in microbial keratitis in Manchester Royal Eye Hospital.Patients and methodsCorneal scrape results recorded by the microbiology service between 2004 and 2015 were extracted from an established database. A total of 4229 corneal scrape specimens were identified from an established database. First-line antibiotic treatment in our centre during the study period was ofloxacin and second line was cefuroxime and gentamicin...
April 28, 2017: Eye
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451034/free-living-amoebae-isolated-in-the-central-african-republic-epidemiological-and-molecular-aspects
#16
Alain Farra, Claudine Bekondi, Vianney Tricou, Jean Robert Mbecko, Antoine Talarmin
Among the many species of free-living amoebae infecting humans, only Naegleria fowleri, a few species of Acanthamoeba, Balamuthia mandrillaris recently Sappinia diploïdea and Paravahlkampfia Francina are responsible for human diseases especially deadly encephalitis outside of Acanthamoeba keratitis related. In the Central African Republic (CAR), no studies have previously been conducted about free amoebae and no suspicious cases of encephalitis or amoebic keratitis was reported even though the ecosystem supported the proliferation of these microorganisms...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446675/comparative-genomics-of-chrysochromulina-ericina-virus-cev-and-other-microalgae-infecting-large-dna-viruses-highlight-their-intricate-evolutionary-relationship-with-the-established-mimiviridae-family
#17
Lucie Gallot-Lavallee, Guillaume Blanc, Jean-Michel Claverie
Chrysochromulina Ericina Virus CeV-01B (CeV) was isolated from Norwegian coastal waters in 1998. Its icosahedral particle is 160 nm in diameter and encloses a 474-kb dsDNA genome. This virus, although infecting a microalgae (the haptophyceae Haptolina ericina, formerly Chrysochromulina ericina), is phylogenetically related to members of the Mimiviridae family, initially established with the acanthamoeba-infecting Mimivirus and Megavirus as prototypes. This family was latter split into two genera (Mimivirus and Cafetariavirus) following the characterization of a virus infecting the heterotrophic stramenopile Cafeteria roenbergensis (CroV)...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446673/pacmanvirus-a-new-giant-icosahedral-virus-at-the-crossroads-between-asfarviridae-and-faustoviruses
#18
Julien Andreani, Jacques Yaacoub Bou Khalil, Madhumati Sevvana, Samia Benamar, Fabrizio Di Pinto, Idir Bitam, Philippe Colson, Thomas Klose, Michael G Rossmann, Didier Raoult, Bernard La Scola
African swine fever virus, a double stranded DNA virus infecting pigs, is the only known member of the Asfarviridae family. Nevertheless, during our isolation and sequencing of the complete genome of Faustovirus followed by the description of Kaumoebavirus, carried out over the past two years, we observed the emergence of previously unknown related viruses within this group of viruses. Here, we describe the isolation of Pacmanvirus, a fourth member in this group, capable of infecting Acanthamoeba castellanii...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429720/noumeavirus-replication-relies-on-a-transient-remote-control-of-the-host-nucleus
#19
Elisabeth Fabre, Sandra Jeudy, Sébastien Santini, Matthieu Legendre, Mathieu Trauchessec, Yohann Couté, Jean-Michel Claverie, Chantal Abergel
Acanthamoeba are infected by a remarkable diversity of large dsDNA viruses, the infectious cycles of which have been characterized using genomics, transcriptomics and electron microscopy. Given their gene content and the persistence of the host nucleus throughout their infectious cycle, the Marseilleviridae were initially assumed to fully replicate in the cytoplasm. Unexpectedly, we find that their virions do not incorporate the virus-encoded transcription machinery, making their replication nucleus-dependent...
April 21, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426414/amoebicidal-activity-of-%C3%AE-bisabolol-the-main-sesquiterpene-in-chamomile-matricaria-recutita-l-essential-oil-against-the-trophozoite-stage-of-acanthamoeba-castellani-neff
#20
Soumaya Hajaji, Ines Sifaoui, Atteneri López-Arencibia, María Reyes-Batlle, Basilio Valladares, José E Pinero, Jacob Lorenzo-Morales, Hafidh Akkari
Acanthamoeba genus includes opportunistic pathogens which are distributed worldwide and are causative agents of a fatal encephalitis and severe keratitis in humans and other animals. Until present there are not fully effective therapeutic agents against this pathogen and thus the need to search for novel anti-amoebic compounds is urgent. Recently, essential oils of aromatic and medicinal plants have shown activity against Acanthamoeba strains. Therefore, this study was aimed to evaluate the activity of main component of chamomile essential oil (a sesquiterpene) namely α-bisabolol against the Acanthamoeba castellani Neff strain...
June 1, 2017: Acta Parasitologica
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