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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099282/risk-factors-for-acanthamoeba-keratitis-a-multistate-case-control-study-2008-2011
#1
Allison C Brown, Jonathan Ross, Daniel B Jones, Sarah A Collier, Tracy L Ayers, Robert M Hoekstra, Bryon Backensen, Sharon L Roy, Michael J Beach, Jonathan S Yoder
OBJECTIVE: To identify modifiable risk factors contributing to Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) infection. METHODS: A case-control investigation was conducted. Case patients were soft contact lens wearers with laboratory-confirmed AK. Control were soft contact lens wearers ≥12 years of age, with no history of AK. Case patients were recruited from 14 ophthalmology referral centers and a clinical laboratory. Control were matched on state of residence and type of primary eye care provider (ophthalmologist or optometrist)...
January 17, 2017: Eye & Contact Lens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095653/efficacy-of-korean-multipurpose-contact-lens-disinfecting-solutions-against-acanthamoeba-castellanii
#2
Eun-Kyung Moon, Hye-Ryun Park, Fu-Shi Quan, Hyun-Hee Kong
Acanthamoeba keratitis has been increasing in recent years. Main risk factors are contact lens wear and their cleaning solutions. Most contact lens wearers use multipurpose disinfecting solutions (MPDS) for cleansing and disinfecting microorganisms because of its convenience. We determined amoebicidal effects of MPDS made in Korea and their cytotoxicity on human corneal epithelium cells. Fifteen commercial MPDS (A to O) were tested for their amoebicidal effects on Acanthamoeba castellanii trophozoites and cysts by using a most probable number (MPN) technique...
December 2016: Korean Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093213/characterization-of-the-efficiency-and-uncertainty-of-skimmed-milk-flocculation-for-the-simultaneous-concentration-and-quantification-of-water-borne-viruses-bacteria-and-protozoa
#3
Eloy Gonzales-Gustavson, Yexenia Cardenas-Youngs, Miquel Calvo, Marcelle Figueira Marques da Silva, Ayalkibet Hundesa, Inmaculada Amorós, Yolanda Moreno, Laura Moreno-Mesonero, Rosa Rosell, Lliliane Ganges, Rosa Araujo, Rosina Girones
In this study, the use of skimmed milk flocculation (SMF) to simultaneously concentrate viruses, bacteria and protozoa was evaluated. We selected strains of faecal indicator bacteria and pathogens, such as Escherichia coli and Helicobacter pylori. The viruses selected were adenovirus (HAdV 35), rotavirus (RoV SA-11), the bacteriophage MS2 and bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV). The protozoa tested were Acanthamoeba, Giardia and Cryptosporidium. The mean recoveries with q(RT)PCR were 66% (HAdV 35), 24% (MS2), 28% (RoV SA-11), 15% (BVDV), 60% (E...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Microbiological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092397/update-on-orthokeratology-in-managing-progressive-myopia-in-children-efficacy-mechanisms-and-concerns
#4
Xintong Li, Ilana B Friedman, Norman B Medow, Cheng Zhang
Myopia is an important public health issue, and high myopia may lead to severe complications if left untreated. Orthokeratology lenses, worn overnight to reshape the cornea, are one of many recent modalities used to slow down the progression of myopia in children. This treatment has been proven successful, as evidenced by decreased spherical refractive error and axial length relative to the control at interval follow-up ranging from 6 months to 5 years. In this systematic review, the authors collected published controlled studies that analyzed the efficacy of orthokeratology lens wear and calculated longitudinal relative changes in axial length, revealing a weighted average of -45...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087454/an-observational-study-of-phagocytes-and-klebsiella-pneumoniae-relationships-different-behaviors
#5
Elodie Maisonneuve, Estelle Cateau, Marion Delouche, Nathalie Quellard, Marie-Helene Rodier
Klebsiella pneumoniae is a bacterium that can be in relation with free living amoebae like Acanthamoeba castellanii in natural environments such as soil and water. This pathogen, which is responsible for community-acquired pneumonia and for nosocomial infections, also has interactions with host defense mechanisms like macrophages. As it has been shown that A. castellanii shares some traits with macrophages, in particular the ability to phagocyte bacteria, we have studied the uptake and the fate of the bacteria after contact with the two phagocytic cells...
January 10, 2017: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079686/number-of-bacteria-and-time-of-coincubation-with-bacteria-required-for-the-development-of-acanthamoeba-keratitis
#6
Hayate Nakagawa, Takaaki Hattori, Naohito Koike, Tomoko Ehara, Akitomo Narimatsu, Shigeto Kumakura, Tetsuya Matsumoto, Hiroshi Goto
PURPOSE: We hypothesized that bacteria may be a factor contributing to the development of Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK). We investigated interactions between Acanthamoeba and Pseudomonas aeruginosa for the development of keratitis in rabbit corneas. METHODS: Acanthamoeba castellanii (ATCC50492) and P. aeruginosa (PAO-1) were used. Two densities of P. aeruginosa (high, 1 × 10/mL; low, 3 × 10/mL) and 2 durations of coincubation (long, 6 h; short, 2 h) of Acanthamoeba with 1 × 10/mL of P...
January 11, 2017: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079476/mimiviruses-and-the-human-interferon-system-viral-evasion-of-classical-antiviral-activities-but-inhibition-by-a-novel-interferon-%C3%AE-regulated-immunomodulatory-pathway
#7
Gabriel Magno de Freitas Almeida, Lorena C Ferreira Silva, Philippe Colson, Jonatas Santos Abrahao
In this review we discuss the role of mimiviruses as potential human pathogens focusing on clinical and evolutionary evidence. We also propose a novel antiviral immunomodulatory pathway controlled by interferon-β (IFN-β) and mediated by immune-responsive gene 1 (IRG1) and itaconic acid, its product. Acanthamoeba polyphaga Mimivirus (APMV) was isolated from amoebae in a hospital while investigating a pneumonia outbreak. Mimivirus ubiquity and role as protist pathogens are well understood, and its putative status as a human pathogen has been gaining strength as more evidence is being found...
January 2017: Journal of Interferon & Cytokine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074027/a-unique-cis-encoded-small-noncoding-rna-is-regulating-legionella-pneumophila-hfq-expression-in-a-life-cycle-dependent-manner
#8
Giulia Oliva, Tobias Sahr, Monica Rolando, Maike Knoth, Carmen Buchrieser
: Legionella pneumophila is an environmental bacterium that parasitizes protozoa, but it may also infect humans, thereby causing a severe pneumonia called Legionnaires' disease. To cycle between the environment and a eukaryotic host, L. pneumophila is regulating the expression of virulence factors in a life cycle-dependent manner: replicating bacteria do not express virulence factors, whereas transmissive bacteria are highly motile and infective. Here we show that Hfq is an important regulator in this network...
January 10, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070335/prevalence-and-diversity-of-chlamydiales-and-other-amoeba-resisting-bacteria-in-domestic-drinking-water-systems
#9
J Lienard, A Croxatto, A Gervaix, Y Lévi, J-F Loret, K M Posfay-Barbe, G Greub
A growing number of human infections incriminate environmental bacteria that have evolved virulent mechanisms to resist amoebae and use them as a replicative niche. These bacteria are designated amoeba-resisting bacteria (ARB). Despite the isolation of these ARB in various human clinical samples, the possible source of infection remains undetermined in most cases. However, it is known that the ARB Legionella pneumophila, for instance, causes a respiratory infection in susceptible hosts after inhalation of contaminated water aerosols from various sources...
January 2017: New Microbes and New Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067969/disseminated-acanthamoeba-infection-in-a-heart-transplant-recipient-treated-successfully-with-a-miltefosine-containing-regimen-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#10
Max N Brondfield, Michael J A Reid, Rachel L Rutishauser, Jennifer R Cope, Jevon Tang, Jana M Ritter, Almea Matanock, Ibne Ali, Sarah B Doernberg, Alexandra Hilts-Horeczko, Teresa DeMarco, Liviu Klein, Jennifer M Babik
Disseminated acanthamoebiasis is a rare, often fatal, infection most commonly affecting immunocompromised patients. We report a case involving sinuses, skin, and bone in a 60-year-old woman 5 months after heart transplantation. She improved with a combination of flucytosine, fluconazole, miltefosine, and decreased immunosuppression. To our knowledge, this is the first case of successfully treated disseminated acanthamoebiasis in a heart transplant recipient and only the second successful use of miltefosine for this infection among solid organ transplant recipients...
January 9, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040888/a-seasonal-assessment-of-opportunistic-premise-plumbing-pathogens-in-roof-harvested-rainwater-tanks
#11
Kerry A Hamilton, Warish Ahmed, Andrew Palmer, Kylie Smith, Simon Toze, Charles N Haas
A seasonal study on the occurrence of six opportunistic premise plumbing pathogens (OPPPs) in 24 roof-harvested rainwater (RHRW) tanks repeatedly sampled over six monthly sampling events (n = 144) from August 2015 to March 2016 was conducted using quantitative qPCR. Fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Enterococcus spp. were enumerated using culture-based methods. All tank water samples over the six events were positive for at least one OPPP (Legionella spp., Legionella pneumophila, Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium intracellulare, Pseudmonas aeruginosa, or Acanthamoeba spp...
January 2, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031045/expansion-of-the-molecular-and-morphological-diversity-of-acanthamoebidae-centramoebida-amoebozoa-and-identification-of-a-novel-life-cycle-type-within-the-group
#12
Alexander K Tice, Lora L Shadwick, Anna Maria Fiore-Donno, Stefan Geisen, Seungho Kang, Gabriel A Schuler, Frederick W Spiegel, Katherine A Wilkinson, Michael Bonkowski, Kenneth Dumack, Daniel J G Lahr, Eckhard Voelcker, Steffen Clauß, Junling Zhang, Matthew W Brown
BACKGROUND: Acanthamoebidae is a "family" level amoebozoan group composed of the genera Acanthamoeba, Protacanthamoeba, and very recently Luapeleamoeba. This clade of amoebozoans has received considerable attention from the broader scientific community as Acanthamoeba spp. represent both model organisms and human pathogens. While the classical composition of the group (Acanthamoeba + Protacanthamoeba) has been well accepted due to the morphological and ultrastructural similarities of its members, the Acanthamoebidae has never been highly statistically supported in single gene phylogenetic reconstructions of Amoebozoa either by maximum likelihood (ML) or Bayesian analyses...
December 28, 2016: Biology Direct
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998732/pathogenesis-of-microbial-keratitis
#13
REVIEW
Sahreena Lakhundi, Ruqaiyyah Siddiqui, Naveed Ahmed Khan
Microbial keratitis is a sight-threatening ocular infection caused by bacteria, fungi, and protist pathogens. Epithelial defects and injuries are key predisposing factors making the eye susceptible to corneal pathogens. Among bacterial pathogens, the most common agents responsible for keratitis include Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Streptococcus pneumonia and Serratia species. Fungal agents of corneal infections include both filamentous as well as yeast, including Fusarium, Aspergillus, Phaeohyphomycetes, Curvularia, Paecilomyces, Scedosporium and Candida species, while in protists, Acanthamoeba spp...
December 17, 2016: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994017/legionella-pneumophila-oxyr-is-a-redundant-transcriptional-regulator-that-contributes-to-expression-control-of-the-two-component-cpxra-system
#14
Jennifer R Tanner, Palak G Patel, Jacqueline R Hellinga, Lynda J Donald, Celine Jimenez, Jason J LeBlanc, Ann Karen C Brassinga
: Nominally an environmental organism, Legionella pneumophila is an intracellular parasite of protozoa, but is also the causative agent of the pneumonia termed Legionnaires' disease that results from inhalation of aerosolized bacteria by susceptible humans. Coordination of gene expression by a number of identified regulatory factors, including OxyR, assist L. pneumophila in adapting to the stresses of these changing environments. L. pneumophila OxyR (OxyRLp) is an ortholog of E. coli OxyR; however, OxyRLp was shown elsewhere to be functionally divergent such that it acts as a transcription regulator independent of the oxidative stress response...
December 19, 2016: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989423/-diagnostic-and-therapeutic-contribution-of-microbiological-analysis-in-severe-microbial-keratitis-at-reims-university-hospital-between-2012%C3%A2-and-2014
#15
J Caliot, D Guindolet, A Ducasse, L Andreoletti, C Arndt
PURPOSE: To investigate the contribution of microbial analysis in the diagnosis and management of severe microbial keratitis. MATERIAL AND METHOD: This is a monocentric retrospective study at the University Hospital of Reims from January 2012 to December 2014. Corneal scrapings with infectious keratitis were subjected to routine bacterial and fungal culture. PCR was also performed to detect various viral DNA (VZV, CMV, EBV, HSV 1 & 2, adenovirus) and Acanthamoeba sp...
December 15, 2016: Journal Français D'ophtalmologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27978822/acanthamoeba-containing-endosymbiotic-chlamydia-isolated-from-hospital-environments-and-its-potential-role-in-inflammatory-exacerbation
#16
Tatsuya Fukumoto, Junji Matsuo, Torahiko Okubo, Shinji Nakamura, Kentaro Miyamoto, Kentaro Oka, Motomichi Takahashi, Kouji Akizawa, Hitoshi Shibuya, Chikara Shimizu, Hiroyuki Yamaguchi
BACKGROUND: Environmental chlamydiae belonging to the Parachlamydiaceae are obligate intracellular bacteria that infect Acanthamoeba, a free-living amoeba, and are a risk for hospital-acquired pneumonia. However, whether amoebae harboring environmental chlamydiae actually survive in hospital environments is unknown. We therefore isolated living amoebae with symbiotic chlamydiae from hospital environments. RESULTS: One hundred smear samples were collected from Hokkaido University Hospital, Sapporo, Japan; 50 in winter (February to March, 2012) and 50 in summer (August, 2012), and used for the study...
December 15, 2016: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965659/evolution-and-phylogeny-of-large-dna-viruses-mimiviridae-and-phycodnaviridae-including-newly-characterized-heterosigma-akashiwo-virus
#17
Fumito Maruyama, Shoko Ueki
Nucleocytoplasmic DNA viruses are a large group of viruses that harbor double-stranded DNA genomes with sizes of several 100 kbp, challenging the traditional concept of viruses as small, simple 'organisms at the edge of life.' The most intriguing questions about them may be their origin and evolution, which have yielded the variety we see today. Specifically, the phyletic relationship between two giant dsDNA virus families that are presumed to be close, Mimiviridae, which infect Acanthamoeba, and Phycodnaviridae, which infect algae, is still obscure and needs to be clarified by in-depth analysis...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932662/nearly-complete-genome-sequences-of-two-mimivirus-strains-isolated-from-a-japanese-freshwater-pond-and-river-mouth
#18
Masaharu Takemura, Tatsuya Mikami, Shingo Murono
Members of the Mimiviridae family are large DNA viruses that infect Acanthamoeba cells. Here, we report the genome sequences of two new Mimiviridae family members, isolated from water samples from Shirakoma Pond and the mouth of the Arakawa River in Japan, with nearly complete genome sizes of 1,182,849 and 1,182,801 bp, respectively.
December 8, 2016: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929353/enhanced-survival-but-not-amplification-of-francisella-spp-in-the-presence-of-free-living-amoebae
#19
Helen Y Buse, Frank W Schaefer, Eugene W Rice
Transmission of Francisella tularensis, the etiologic agent of tularemia, has been associated with various water sources. Survival of many waterborne pathogens within free-living amoeba (FLA) is well documented; however, the role of amoebae in the environmental persistence of F. tularensis is unclear. In this study, axenic FLA cultures of Acanthamoeba castellanii, Acanthamoeba polyphaga, and Vermamoeba vermiformis were each inoculated with virulent strains of F. tularensis (Types A and B), the attenuated live vaccine strain, and Francisella novicida...
December 8, 2016: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918833/effects-of-lead-phytochemicals-of-radix-scutellariae-on-acanthamoeba
#20
Pauline Cho, Guangsen Shi, Maurice Yap, Maureen V Boost
Purpose: Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK), which is associated with noncompliant use of contact lenses, remains difficult to treat due to delayed diagnosis and paucity of therapeutic agents. Although improvements in activity against Acanthamoeba infection have been achieved in disinfecting solutions for soft contact lenses, such modifications have not been extended to those for special rigid gas permeable (RGP) contact lenses, which are increasingly used for myopia control in children. Phytochemicals present in herbs used for traditional Chinese medicine may be effective as therapeutic or preventive agents...
December 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
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