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Acanthamoeba

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429720/noumeavirus-replication-relies-on-a-transient-remote-control-of-the-host-nucleus
#1
Elisabeth Fabre, Sandra Jeudy, Sébastien Santini, Matthieu Legendre, Mathieu Trauchessec, Yohann Couté, Jean-Michel Claverie, Chantal Abergel
Acanthamoeba are infected by a remarkable diversity of large dsDNA viruses, the infectious cycles of which have been characterized using genomics, transcriptomics and electron microscopy. Given their gene content and the persistence of the host nucleus throughout their infectious cycle, the Marseilleviridae were initially assumed to fully replicate in the cytoplasm. Unexpectedly, we find that their virions do not incorporate the virus-encoded transcription machinery, making their replication nucleus-dependent...
April 21, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426414/amoebicidal-activity-of-%C3%AE-bisabolol-the-main-sesquiterpene-in-chamomile-matricaria-recutita-l-essential-oil-against-the-trophozoite-stage-of-acanthamoeba-castellani-neff
#2
Soumaya Hajaji, Ines Sifaoui, Atteneri López-Arencibia, María Reyes-Batlle, Basilio Valladares, José E Pinero, Jacob Lorenzo-Morales, Hafidh Akkari
Acanthamoeba genus includes opportunistic pathogens which are distributed worldwide and are causative agents of a fatal encephalitis and severe keratitis in humans and other animals. Until present there are not fully effective therapeutic agents against this pathogen and thus the need to search for novel anti-amoebic compounds is urgent. Recently, essential oils of aromatic and medicinal plants have shown activity against Acanthamoeba strains. Therefore, this study was aimed to evaluate the activity of main component of chamomile essential oil (a sesquiterpene) namely α-bisabolol against the Acanthamoeba castellani Neff strain...
June 1, 2017: Acta Parasitologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426408/isolation-and-molecular-characterization-of-a-naegleria-strain-from-a-recreational-water-fountain-in-tenerife-canary-islands-spain
#3
María Reyes-Batlle, Carolina Wagner, Atteneri López-Arencibia, Ines Sifaoui, Enrique Martínez-Carretero, Basilio Valladares, Jose E Piñero, Jacob Lorenzo-Morales
Free-Living Amoebae (FLA) are widely distributed protozoa in the environment and have been isolated from many sources such as dust, soil and water. Among the pathogenic genera included in this group Acanthamoeba spp., Naegleria fowleri and Balamuthia mandrillaris have been reported to be causative agents of lethal encephalitis, disseminated infections and keratitis. Naegleria fowleri is a pathogenic FLA species which causes Primary Amoebic Meningoencephalitis (PAM). At present there are not many available data on the distribution of Naegleria species in Spain from environmental sources...
June 1, 2017: Acta Parasitologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410356/water-exposure-is-a-common-risk-behavior-among-soft-and-gas-permeable-contact-lens-wearers
#4
Aaron B Zimmerman, Kathryn Richdale, Gladys Lynn Mitchell, Beth T Kinoshita, Dawn Y Lam, Heidi Wagner, Luigina Sorbara, Robin L Chalmers, Sarah A Collier, Jennifer R Cope, Maya M Rao, Michael J Beach, Jonathan S Yoder
PURPOSE: To understand soft contact lens (SCL) and gas-permeable (GP) lens wearers' behaviors and knowledge regarding exposure of lenses to water. METHODS: The Contact Lens Risk Survey (CLRS) and health behavior questions were completed online by a convenience sample of 1056 SCL and 85 GP lens wearers aged 20 to 76 years. Participants were asked about exposing their lenses to water and their understanding of risks associated with these behaviors. Chi-square analyses examined relationships between patient behaviors and perceptions...
April 13, 2017: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404683/brain-eating-amoebae-predilection-sites-in-the-brain-and-disease-outcome
#5
Timothy Yu Yee Ong, Naveed Ahmed Khan, Ruqaiyyah Siddiqui
Acanthamoeba spp. and Balamuthia mandrillaris are causative agents of granulomatous amoebic encephalitis (GAE), while Naegleria fowleri causes primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM). PAM is an acute infection lasting few days, while GAE is a chronic to subacute infection that can last up to several months. Here, we present a literature review of 86 case reports from 1968 to 2016 in order to explore affinity of these amoebae towards particular sites of the brain, diagnostic modalities, treatment options and the disease outcome in a comparative manner...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404679/evaluation-of-taqman-array-card-tac-for-the-detection-of-central-nervous-system-infections-in-kenya
#6
Clayton O Onyango, Vladimir Loparev, Shirley Lidechi, Vinod Bhullar, D Scott Schmid, Kay Radford, Michael K Lo, Paul Rota, Barbara W Johnson, Jorge Munoz, Martina Oneko, Deron Burton, Carolyn M Black, John Neatherlin, Joel M Montgomery, Barry Fields
Infections of the central nervous system (CNS) are often acute with significant morbidity and mortality. Routine diagnosis of such infections is limited in developing countries and requires modern equipment in advanced laboratories that may be unavailable to a number of patients in sub-Saharan Africa. We developed a TaqMan Array Card (TAC) that detects multiple pathogens simultaneously from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The 21-pathogen TAC assays include two parasites (Balamuthia mandrillaris and Acanthamoeba), six bacterial pathogens (Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria meningitidis, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and Bartonella) and 13 viruses (parechovirus, dengue, nipah, varicella zoster, mumps, measles, lyssa, herpes simplex virus 1 and 2, Epstein Barr virus, enterovirus, cytomegalovirus and chikungunya)...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393860/mycobacterium-llatzerense-a-waterborne-mycobacterium-that-resists-phagocytosis-by-acanthamoeba-castellanii
#7
Vincent Delafont, Ascel Samba-Louaka, Emmanuelle Cambau, Didier Bouchon, Laurent Moulin, Yann Héchard
Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are environmental bacteria increasingly associated to public health problems. In water systems, free-living amoebae (FLA) feed on bacteria by phagocytosis, but several bacteria, including many NTM, are resistant to this predation. Thus, FLA can be seen as a training ground for pathogenic bacteria. Mycobacterium llatzerense was previously described as frequently associated with FLA in a drinking water network. The present study aimed to characterize the interactions between M...
April 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390237/methodological-approaches-for-monitoring-opportunistic-pathogens-in-premise-plumbing-a-review
#8
REVIEW
Hong Wang, Emilie Bédard, Michèle Prévost, Anne K Camper, Vincent R Hill, Amy Pruden
Opportunistic premise (i.e., building) plumbing pathogens (OPPPs, e.g., Legionella pneumophila, Mycobacterium avium complex, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acanthamoeba, and Naegleria fowleri) are a significant and growing source of disease. Because OPPPs establish and grow as part of the native drinking water microbiota, they do not correspond to fecal indicators, presenting a major challenge to standard drinking water monitoring practices. Further, different OPPPs present distinct requirements for sampling, preservation, and analysis, creating an impediment to their parallel detection...
March 25, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386159/severe-reactive-ischemic-posterior-segment-inflammation-in-acanthamoeba-keratitis-case-report-of-a%C3%A2-patient-with-sj%C3%A3-gren-s-syndrome
#9
Christoph Palme, Bernhard Steger, Gertrud Haas, Barbara Teuchner, Nikolaos E Bechrakis
PURPOSE: We report on a case of Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK)-related reactive ischemic posterior segment inflammation following intraocular surgery in a patient with primary Sjögren's syndrome (PSS). CASE REPORT: A 48-year-old female patient with severe protracted AK underwent uneventful cataract surgery upon development of a corneal scar. Four weeks postoperatively, she experienced a rapid loss of vision to no light perception. Central retinal artery occlusion and ischemic optic neuropathy could be excluded, and a diagnosis of PSS was made...
2017: Spektrum der Augenheilkunde: Zeitschrift der Österreichischen Ophthalmologischen Gesellschaft, ÖOG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384032/in-vitro-evaluation-of-the-ophthalmic-toxicity-profile-of-chlorhexidine-and-propamidine-isethionate-eye-drops
#10
Anxo Fernández-Ferreiro, María Santiago-Varela, María Gil-Martínez, Miguel González-Barcia, Andrea Luaces-Rodríguez, Victoria Díaz-Tome, María Pardo, José Blanco Méndez, Antonio Piñeiro-Ces, María Teresa Rodríguez-Ares, Maria Jesus Lamas, Francisco J Otero-Espinar
PURPOSE: Acanthamoeba keratitis causes frequent epithelial lesions that fully expose the corneal stroma. The aim of this study was to determine the toxic profile of chlorhexidine and propamidine eye drops. METHODS: We used primary human keratocytes in cell culture in combination with a novel technology that evaluates dynamic real-time cytotoxicity through impedance analysis. Additional studies such as a classic cell viability test (WST-1(®)), a bovine corneal opacity and permeability assay, and an irritation eye study (Hen's Egg Test [HET]) have been made...
April 2017: Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375115/methanolic-extract-of-peganum-harmala-exhibit-potent-activity-against-acanthamoeba-castellanii-cysts-and-its-encystment-in-vitro
#11
Hafiz Muhammad Shohaib, Salik Nawaz, Abdul Matin
Acanthamoeba castellanii is member of free living amoeba that may cause painful sight-threatening keratitis and life threatening encephalitis which involves central nervous system. Treatments for both infections are problematic because of the amoebic cysts resistance to therapeutic agents. Here we evaluated in vitro strength of methanolic seed extract of Peganum harmala on Acanthamoeba cysts and its encystment mechanism. Our results revealed seed extracts (1 to 30mg/ml) exhibited amoebicidal effects against Acanthamoeba cysts...
November 2016: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371196/cytoarchitecture-of-epithelial-inflammatory-infiltration-indicates-the-aetiology-of-infectious-keratitis
#12
Adrian Smedowski, Dorota Tarnawska, Michal Orski, Ewa Wroblewska-Czajka, Kai Kaarniranta, Pasquale Aragona, Edward Wylegala
PURPOSE: To analyse cytological features of corneal epithelium in infectious keratitis. METHODS: One hundred and eighteen patients (53 males and 65 females) diagnosed with acute stage of infectious keratitis (45 viral, 40 bacterial, 23 fungal, 10 Acanthamoeba keratitis) were included in study. We performed retrospective analysis of bright and blue-light slit-lamp photographs and in vivo corneal confocal microscopy scans of the corneal epithelium from five corneal regions (superior, inferior, temporal, nasal and central)...
April 3, 2017: Acta Ophthalmologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366172/the-effects-of-phosphanegold-i-thiolates-on-the-biological-properties-of-acanthamoeba-castellanii-belonging-to-the-t4-genotype
#13
Ruqaiyyah Siddiqui, Farhat Abjani, Chien Ing Yeo, Edward R T Tiekink, Naveed Ahmed Khan
BACKGROUND: Gold compounds have shown promise in the treatment of non-communicable diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and cancer, and are considered of value as anti-microbial agents against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, and have anti-parasitic properties against Schistosoma mansoni, Trypanosoma brucei, Plasmodium falciparum, Leishmania infantinum, Giardia lamblia, and Entamoeba histolytica. They are known to affect enzymatic activities that are required for the cellular respiration processes...
April 3, 2017: Journal of Negative Results in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348053/acanthamoeba-activates-macrophages-predominantly-through-tlr4-and-myd88-dependent-mechanisms-to-induce-il-12-and-il-6
#14
Antonella Cano, Antonella Mattana, Stuart Woods, Fiona L Henriquez, James Alexander, Craig W Roberts
Acanthamoeba castellanii is a free-living ubiquitous amoeba, with a worldwide distribution, that can occasionally infect humans, causing particularly severe infections in immune compromised individuals. Dissecting the immunology of Acanthamoeba infections has been considered problematic due to the very low incidence of disease despite the high exposure rates. Whilst macrophages are acknowledged as playing a significant role in Acanthamoeba infections little is known about how this facultative parasite influences macrophage activity...
March 27, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329521/a-rare-case-of-cutaneous-acanthamoebiasis-in-a-renal-transplant-patient
#15
Frank Winsett, Jessica Dietert, Jaime Tschen, Michael Swaby, Carolyn A Bangert
A 35-year-old woman receiving immunosuppressionfor renal transplantation presented with a onemonthhistory of tender skin nodules on herbilateral upper extremities. A skin biopsy revealedgranulomatous inflammation in the deep dermisand the subcutaneous fat with foci of necrosis.Within the foci of necrosis were large histiocytoidstructures with prominent nuclei. Periodic acid-Schiffstain revealed a round organism with a thick capsule,consistent with amoebal trophozoites. Testing withthe Center for Disease Control revealed the organismto be Acanthamoeba...
March 15, 2017: Dermatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329001/experimental-demonstration-of-the-possible-role-of-acanthamoeba-polyphaga-in-the-infection-and-disease-progression-in-buruli-ulcer-bu-using-icr-mice
#16
Bright K Azumah, Phyllis G Addo, Alfred Dodoo, Gordon Awandare, Lydia Mosi, Daniel A Boakye, Michael D Wilson
The transmission of Buruli ulcer (BU), caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans (MU), remains puzzling although a number of hypothesis including through bites of infected aquatic insects have been proposed. We report the results of experiments using ICR mice that give credence to our hypothesis that Acanthamoeba species may play a role in BU transmission. We cocultured MU N2 and MU 1615 which expresses red fluorescent protein (RFP) and Acanthamoeba polyphaga (AP), and confirmed infected AP by Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) staining...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326448/anaerobic-metabolism-in-t4-acanthamoeba-genotype
#17
Daniella de Sousa Mendes Moreira Alves, Luciano Moreira Alves, Tatiane Luiza da Costa, Ana Maria de Castro, Marina Clare Vinaud
Members of the genus Acanthamoeba are of the most common protozoa that has been isolated from a variety of environment and affect immunocompromised individuals, causing granulomatous amoebic encephalitis and skin lesions. Acanthamoeba, in immunocompetent patients, may cause a keratitis related to corneal microtrauma. These free-living amoebas easily adapt to the host environment and wield metabolic pathways such as the energetic and respiratory ones in order to maintain viability for long periods. The energetic metabolism of cysts and trophozoites remains mostly unknown...
March 22, 2017: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320723/amoebicidal-activity-of-caffeine-and-maslinic-acid-by-the-induction-of-programmed-cell-death-in-acanthamoeba
#18
Carmen M Martín-Navarro, Atteneri López-Arencibia, Ines Sifaoui, María Reyes-Battle, Emilie Fouque, Antonio Osuna, Basilio Valladares, José E Piñero, Yann Héchard, Sutherland K Maciver, Jacob Lorenzo-Morales
Free living amoebae of the genus Acanthamoeba are the causal agents of a sight threatening ulceration of the cornea called Acanthamoeba keratitis, and the rare but usually fatal granulomatous amoebic encephalitis. Although there are many therapeutic options for the treatment of Acanthamoeba infections, they are generally lengthy and/or have limited efficacy. For the best clinical outcome, the treatments should target both the trophozoite and the cyst stages as the later are known to confer resistance to treatment...
March 20, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306562/chlamydia-trachomatis-and-chlamydia-like-bacteria-new-enemies-of-human-pregnancies
#19
Anne Ammerdorffer, Miloš Stojanov, Gilbert Greub, David Baud
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review provides an update on the roles of Chlamydia trachomatis and the related Waddlia chondrophila and Parachlamydia acanthamoebae in miscarriage, stillbirths and preterm labour in humans. A broad audience, including microbiologist, infectiologists, obstetricians and gynaecologists, should be aware of the potential threat of these Chlamydiales for human reproduction. RECENT FINDINGS: Despite increasing laboratory techniques and possibilities to perform diagnostic tests, the cause of miscarriage is only identified in 50% of the cases...
March 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304329/a-student-s-guide-to-giant-viruses-infecting-small-eukaryotes-from-acanthamoeba-to-zooxanthellae
#20
REVIEW
Steven W Wilhelm, Jordan T Bird, Kyle S Bonifer, Benjamin C Calfee, Tian Chen, Samantha R Coy, P Jackson Gainer, Eric R Gann, Huston T Heatherly, Jasper Lee, Xiaolong Liang, Jiang Liu, April C Armes, Mohammad Moniruzzaman, J Hunter Rice, Joshua M A Stough, Robert N Tams, Evan P Williams, Gary R LeCleir
The discovery of infectious particles that challenge conventional thoughts concerning "what is a virus" has led to the evolution a new field of study in the past decade. Here, we review knowledge and information concerning "giant viruses", with a focus not only on some of the best studied systems, but also provide an effort to illuminate systems yet to be better resolved. We conclude by demonstrating that there is an abundance of new host-virus systems that fall into this "giant" category, demonstrating that this field of inquiry presents great opportunities for future research...
March 17, 2017: Viruses
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