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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329521/a-rare-case-of-cutaneous-acanthamoebiasis-in-a-renal-transplant-patient
#1
Frank Winsett, Jessica Dietert, Jaime Tschen, Michael Swaby, Carolyn A Bangert
A 35-year-old woman receiving immunosuppressionfor renal transplantation presented with a onemonthhistory of tender skin nodules on herbilateral upper extremities. A skin biopsy revealedgranulomatous inflammation in the deep dermisand the subcutaneous fat with foci of necrosis.Within the foci of necrosis were large histiocytoidstructures with prominent nuclei. Periodic acid-Schiffstain revealed a round organism with a thick capsule,consistent with amoebal trophozoites. Testing withthe Center for Disease Control revealed the organismto be Acanthamoeba...
March 15, 2017: Dermatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329001/experimental-demonstration-of-the-possible-role-of-acanthamoeba-polyphaga-in-the-infection-and-disease-progression-in-buruli-ulcer-bu-using-icr-mice
#2
Bright K Azumah, Phyllis G Addo, Alfred Dodoo, Gordon Awandare, Lydia Mosi, Daniel A Boakye, Michael D Wilson
The transmission of Buruli ulcer (BU), caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans (MU), remains puzzling although a number of hypothesis including through bites of infected aquatic insects have been proposed. We report the results of experiments using ICR mice that give credence to our hypothesis that Acanthamoeba species may play a role in BU transmission. We cocultured MU N2 and MU 1615 which expresses red fluorescent protein (RFP) and Acanthamoeba polyphaga (AP), and confirmed infected AP by Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) staining...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326448/anaerobic-metabolism-in-t4-acanthamoeba-genotype
#3
Daniella de Sousa Mendes Moreira Alves, Luciano Moreira Alves, Tatiane Luiza da Costa, Ana Maria de Castro, Marina Clare Vinaud
Members of the genus Acanthamoeba are of the most common protozoa that has been isolated from a variety of environment and affect immunocompromised individuals, causing granulomatous amoebic encephalitis and skin lesions. Acanthamoeba, in immunocompetent patients, may cause a keratitis related to corneal microtrauma. These free-living amoebas easily adapt to the host environment and wield metabolic pathways such as the energetic and respiratory ones in order to maintain viability for long periods. The energetic metabolism of cysts and trophozoites remains mostly unknown...
March 22, 2017: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320723/amoebicidal-activity-of-caffeine-and-maslinic-acid-by-the-induction-of-programmed-cell-death-in-acanthamoeba
#4
Carmen M Martín-Navarro, Atteneri López-Arencibia, Ines Sifaoui, María Reyes-Battle, Emilie Fouque, Antonio Osuna, Basilio Valladares, José E Piñero, Yann Héchard, Sutherland K Maciver, Jacob Lorenzo-Morales
Free living amoebae of the genus Acanthamoeba are the causal agents of a sight threatening ulceration of the cornea called Acanthamoeba keratitis, and the rare but usually fatal granulomatous amoebic encephalitis. Although there are many therapeutic options for the treatment of Acanthamoeba infections, they are generally lengthy and/or have limited efficacy. For the best clinical outcome, the treatments should target both the trophozoite and the cyst stages as the later are known to confer resistance to treatment...
March 20, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306562/chlamydia-trachomatis-and-chlamydia-like-bacteria-new-enemies-of-human-pregnancies
#5
Anne Ammerdorffer, Miloš Stojanov, Gilbert Greub, David Baud
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review provides an update on the roles of Chlamydia trachomatis and the related Waddlia chondrophila and Parachlamydia acanthamoebae in miscarriage, stillbirths and preterm labour in humans. A broad audience, including microbiologist, infectiologists, obstetricians and gynaecologists, should be aware of the potential threat of these Chlamydiales for human reproduction. RECENT FINDINGS: Despite increasing laboratory techniques and possibilities to perform diagnostic tests, the cause of miscarriage is only identified in 50% of the cases...
March 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304329/a-student-s-guide-to-giant-viruses-infecting-small-eukaryotes-from-acanthamoeba-to-zooxanthellae
#6
REVIEW
Steven W Wilhelm, Jordan T Bird, Kyle S Bonifer, Benjamin C Calfee, Tian Chen, Samantha R Coy, P Jackson Gainer, Eric R Gann, Huston T Heatherly, Jasper Lee, Xiaolong Liang, Jiang Liu, April C Armes, Mohammad Moniruzzaman, J Hunter Rice, Joshua M A Stough, Robert N Tams, Evan P Williams, Gary R LeCleir
The discovery of infectious particles that challenge conventional thoughts concerning "what is a virus" has led to the evolution a new field of study in the past decade. Here, we review knowledge and information concerning "giant viruses", with a focus not only on some of the best studied systems, but also provide an effort to illuminate systems yet to be better resolved. We conclude by demonstrating that there is an abundance of new host-virus systems that fall into this "giant" category, demonstrating that this field of inquiry presents great opportunities for future research...
March 17, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303825/evaluation-of-loop-mediated-isothermal-amplification-assay-for-rapid-diagnosis-of-acanthamoeba-keratitis
#7
Abhishek Mewara, Sumeeta Khurana, Shakila Yoonus, Kirti Megha, Parveen Tanwar, Amit Gupta, Rakesh Sehgal
BACKGROUND: The clinical features of Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) are non-specific and closely resemble bacterial, viral and fungal keratitis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We compared loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) with microscopy, non-nutrient agar (NNA) culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in clinical suspects of AK. RESULTS: Of 52 clinical samples (42 AK suspects and 10 proven bacterial, viral or fungal keratitis), 3 were positive by direct microscopy (sensitivity 60%, confidence interval [CI]: 17%-92...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282487/establishment-of-multiplex-solid-phase-strip-pcr-test-for-detection-of-24-ocular-infectious-disease-pathogens
#8
Satoko Nakano, Sunao Sugita, Yasuhiro Tomaru, Ayumi Hono, Takako Nakamuro, Toshiaki Kubota, Hiroshi Takase, Manabu Mochizuki, Masayo Takahashi, Norio Shimizu
Purpose: To establish and evaluate a new multiplex solid-phase strip polymerase chain reaction (strip PCR) for concurrent detection of common ocular infectious disease pathogens. Methods: A new multiplex strip PCR was established to detect 24 common ocular infectious disease pathogens: herpes simplex virus (HSV) 1, HSV2, varicella-zoster virus (VZV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), human herpes virus (HHV) 6, HHV7, HHV8, human T-cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV)-1, adenovirus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Treponema pallidum, Propionibacterium acnes (P...
March 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279734/protochlamydia-phocaeensis-sp-nov-a-new-chlamydiales-species-with-host-dependent-replication-cycle
#9
Jacques Y Bou Khalil, Samia Benamar, Fabrizio Di Pinto, Caroline Blanc-Tailleur, Didier Raoult, Bernard La Scola
Chlamydiae are pathogenic and symbiotic bacteria, which form an important part of amoeba-associated microorganisms. In this paper, we report the isolation, developmental cycle and genome analysis of Protochlamydia phocaeensis sp. nov., an obligate intracellular parasite with a large host spectrum, able to infect Acanthamoeba castellanii, Acanthamoeba polyphaga, and Vermamoeba vermiformis. The genome size is 3,424,182 bp with a GC content of 42%. This bacterium displayed a particular developmental cycle depending on the infected host...
March 7, 2017: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271013/ultrahigh-resolution-oct-imaging-of-the-human-cornea
#10
René M Werkmeister, Sabina Sapeta, Doreen Schmidl, Gerhard Garhöfer, Gerald Schmidinger, Valentin Aranha Dos Santos, Gerold C Aschinger, Isabella Baumgartner, Niklas Pircher, Florian Schwarzhans, Anca Pantalon, Harminder Dua, Leopold Schmetterer
We present imaging of corneal pathologies using optical coherence tomography (OCT) with high resolution. To this end, an ultrahigh-resolution spectral domain OCT (UHR-OCT) system based on a broad bandwidth Ti:sapphire laser is employed. With a central wavelength of 800 nm, the imaging device allows to acquire OCT data at the central, paracentral and peripheral cornea as well as the limbal region with 1.2 µm x 20 µm (axial x lateral) resolution at a rate of 140 000 A-scans/s. Structures of the anterior segment of the eye, not accessible with commercial OCT systems, are visualized...
February 1, 2017: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264171/role-of-the-luxr-family-transcriptional-regulator-lpg2524-in-the-survival-of-i-legionella-pneumophila-i-in-water
#11
Laam Li, Sébastien P Faucher
The water-borne Gram-negative bacterium <i>Legionella pneumophila</i> (<i>Lp</i>) is the causative agent of Legionnaires' disease. <i>Lp</i> is typically transmitted to human from water systems, where it grows inside amoebae. Survival of <i>Lp</i> in water is central to its transmission to humans. A transcriptomic study previously identified many genes induced by <i>Lp</i> in water. One of such gene, <i>lpg2524</i>, encodes a putative LuxR family transcriptional regulator...
March 6, 2017: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258293/interaction-between-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-mrsa-and-acanthamoeba-polyphaga
#12
Thamires Klein de Souza, Scheila Silva Soares, Lisianne Brittes Benitez, Marilise Brittes Rott
The interactions that occur between bacteria and amoebae can give through mutual relations, where both organisms benefit from the association or parasitic in which one organism benefits at the expense of the other. When these organisms share the same environment, it can result in some changes in the growth of organisms, in adaptation patterns, in morphology, development or even in their ability to synthesize proteins and other substances. In this study, the interaction between Acanthamoeba polyphaga and Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was evaluated using a co-culture model at different incubation times...
March 3, 2017: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251314/molecular-diagnosis-of-acanthamoeba-keratitis-evaluation-in-rat-model-and-application-in-suspected-human-cases
#13
Adriana Oliveira Costa, Cinthia Furst, Lucas Oliveira Rocha, Cecília Cirelli, Carolina Neris Cardoso, Fagner Salmazo Neiva, Cynara Oliveira Possamai, Daniel de Assis Santos, Vanete Thomaz-Soccol
Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) is a progressive corneal infection that demands rapid and sensitive techniques for diagnosis to avoid risk of visual impairment. We evaluated two DNA extraction techniques and a semi-nested-PCR (snPCR) targeting the 18S rRNA gene to detect Acanthamoeba cysts and trophozoites. The most effective protocol was evaluated in samples of corneal scrapings and biopsies from an AK rat model and applied to diagnosis of human cases of AK. DNA extraction performed with a commercial kit based on DNA binding to magnetic beads was more efficient than a method based on alkaline lysis, allowing the detection of one trophozoite and one cyst of Acanthamoeba in samples prepared from cultures...
March 1, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241309/a-rabbit-model-of-acanthamoeba-keratitis-use-of-infected-soft-contact-lenses-after-corneal-epithelium-debridement-with-a-diamond-burr
#14
Ángel Ortillés, Pilar Goñi, Encarnación Rubio, Marta Sierra, Ekaterina Gámez, María T Fernández, María Benito, José Á Cristóbal, Begoña Calvo
Purpose: To develop a rabbit model of Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) as the best method to reproduce the natural course of this disease. Methods: To induce AK, infected contact lenses (1000 amoebae/mm2, 90% trophozoites) were placed over the previously debrided corneal surface, in combination with a temporary tarsorrhaphy. Environmental and clinical strains of Acanthamoeba spp. (genotype T4) were used. Three groups (1L, n = 32; 2L-21d, n = 5; 2L-3d, n = 23) were established according to the number of contact lenses used (1L, 1 lens; 2L-21d and 2L-3d, 2 lenses) and the placement day of these (1L, day 1; 2L-21d, days 1 and 21; 2L-3d, days 1 and 3)...
February 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239153/mimivirus-leading-the-way-in-the-discovery-of-giant-viruses-of-amoebae
#15
REVIEW
Philippe Colson, Bernard La Scola, Anthony Levasseur, Gustavo Caetano-Anollés, Didier Raoult
The accidental discovery of the giant virus of amoeba - Acanthamoeba polyphaga mimivirus (APMV; more commonly known as mimivirus) - in 2003 changed the field of virology. Viruses were previously defined by their submicroscopic size, which probably prevented the search for giant viruses, which are visible by light microscopy. Extended studies of giant viruses of amoebae revealed that they have genetic, proteomic and structural complexities that were not thought to exist among viruses and that are comparable to those of bacteria, archaea and small eukaryotes...
April 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225265/targeting-brain-eating-amoebae-infections
#16
Naveed Ahmed Khan, Timothy Yu Yee Ong, Ruqaiyyah Siddiqui
Brain infections due to Acanthamoeba spp., Balamuthia mandrillaris, and Naegleria fowleri often lead to death. Despite differences in the preferential sites of infection in the brain, the mode of delivery of drugs is often intravenous. Here, we discuss targeted therapeutic approach to affect parasite viability without affecting the host cells, with an eye to improve formulation of drugs and/or administration of drugs against brain-eating amoebae.
February 22, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212409/pathogenic-waterborne-free-living-amoebae-an-update-from-selected-southeast-asian-countries
#17
Mohamad Azlan Abdul Majid, Tooba Mahboob, Brandon G J Mong, Narong Jaturas, Reena Leeba Richard, Tan Tian-Chye, Anusorn Phimphila, Panomphanh Mahaphonh, Kyaw Nyein Aye, Wai Lynn Aung, Joon Chuah, Alan D Ziegler, Atipat Yasiri, Nongyao Sawangjaroen, Yvonne A L Lim, Veeranoot Nissapatorn
Data on the distribution of free-living amoebae is still lacking especially in Southeast Asian region. The aquatic environment revealed a high occurrence of free-living amoebae (FLA) due to its suitable condition and availability of food source, which subsequently causes infection to humans. A total of 94 water samples consisted of both treated and untreated from Laos (31), Myanmar (42), and Singapore (21) were investigated for the presence of pathogenic FLA. Each water sample was filtered and cultured onto non-nutrient agar seeded with live suspension of Escherichia coli and incubated at room temperature...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182670/killing-of-diverse-eye-pathogens-acanthamoeba-spp-fusarium-solani-and-chlamydia-trachomatis-with-alcohols
#18
Yousuf Aqeel, Raquel Rodriguez, Aparajita Chatterjee, Robin R Ingalls, John Samuelson
BACKGROUND: Blindness is caused by eye pathogens that include a free-living protist (Acanthamoeba castellanii, A. byersi, and/or other Acanthamoeba spp.), a fungus (Fusarium solani), and a bacterium (Chlamydia trachomatis). Hand-eye contact is likely a contributor to the spread of these pathogens, and so hand washing with soap and water or alcohol-based hand sanitizers (when water is not available) might reduce their transmission. Recently we showed that ethanol and isopropanol in concentrations present in hand sanitizers kill walled cysts of Giardia and Entamoeba, causes of diarrhea and dysentery, respectively...
February 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149778/epidemiological-clinical-and-laboratory-findings-of-infectious-keratitis-at-mansoura-ophthalmic-center-egypt
#19
Amani E Badawi, Dalia Moemen, Nora L El-Tantawy
AIM: To analyze the epidemiological, clinical and laboratory findings of infectious keratitis. METHODS: A retrospective study on cases of infective keratitis, attended our institution from Mar. 2013 to Feb. 2015, was done at Mansoura Ophthalmic Center, Egypt. Corneal scrapings were performed and processed for direct microscopy and culture in appropriate media using standard laboratory protocols. RESULTS: Out of 245 patients enrolled for study, 247 corneal scrapings were obtained...
2017: International Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28140621/effects-of-lactoferrin-on-the-viability-and-the-encystment-of-acanthamoeba-trophozoites
#20
Shinichi Tomita, Chie Suzuki, Hitomi Wada, Miya Nomachi, Masaki Imayasu, Kaoru Araki-Sasaki
Lactoferrin (LF) is an iron-binding basic glycoprotein that has an antimicrobial effect against certain microbes. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the amoebicidal effect of bovine milk LF (bLF) against Acanthamoeba clinical-isolate trophozoites, which cause severe keratitis. Most of the risk factor for Acanthamoeba keratitis is from wearing soft contact lenses (SCLs). Acanthamoeba trophozoites were incubated in bovine LF (bLF) solution, and the ratios of viability and encystment were determined with microscopic analysis of cyst formation...
February 2017: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
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