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N E Mohamed, S E Ashour
PURPOSE: The present study aimed to evaluate the protective role of "Morus alba Linn. (Family: Moraceae) commonly known as mulberry" leaves extract against hazardous effects of gamma rays in male rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty six male albino rats were divided into six groups (6 rats/group); 1 - control group received 1 ml distilled water, 2- low dose of extract (100 mg/Kg) group treated daily with low oral dose of ethanolic extract of mulberry leaves (100 mg/kg body weight (b...
February 2, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Biology
Arpita Chatterjee, Yuxiang Zhu, Qiang Tong, Elizabeth A Kosmacek, Eliezer Z Lichter, Rebecca E Oberley-Deegan
Radiation therapy is commonly used for prostate cancer treatment; however, normal tissues can be damaged from the reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by radiation. In separate reports, we and others have shown that manganese porphyrins (MnPs), ROS scavengers, protect normal cells from radiation-induced damage but inhibit prostate cancer cell growth. However, there have been no studies demonstrating that MnPs protect normal tissues, while inhibiting tumor growth in the same model. LNCaP or PC3 cells were orthotopically implanted into athymic mice and treated with radiation (2 Gy, for 5 consecutive days) in the presence or absence of MnPs...
January 25, 2018: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
R Fardid, Zh Ghorbani, Gh Haddadi, A Behzad-Behbahani, R Arabsolghar, E Kazemi, M A Okhovat, S J Hosseinimehr
INTRODUCTION: Hesperidin (HES), as the most abundant flavonoid existing in the citrus, is widely used by human daily. The radio-protective effects of Hesperidin have been confirmed in various measurement systems. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of Hesperidin on the changes in the apoptosis level and expression of apoptotic genes target (bax, bcl-2 and ration of bax/bcl-2) in the peripheral blood lymphocytes of male rats after gamma radiation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 64 male rats were divided into eight groups: Control, HES (100 mg/kg b...
December 2016: Journal of Biomedical Physics & Engineering
Mohamed Anwar K Abdelhalim, Sherif Aa Moussa, Al-Ayed Ms
The blood serum rheological properties open the door to find suitable radio-protectors and convenient therapy for many cases of radiation exposure. The present study aimed to investigate the rheological properties of rat blood serum at wide range of shear rates after whole body irradiation with different gamma radiation doses in vivo. Healthy male rats were divided into five groups; one control group and 4 irradiated groups. The irradiation process was carried out using Co60 source with dose rate of 0.883cG/sec...
January 2016: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Qiang Tong, Michael R Weaver, Elizabeth A Kosmacek, Brian P O'Connor, Laura Harmacek, Sujatha Venkataraman, Rebecca E Oberley-Deegan
To improve radiation therapy-induced quality of life impairments for prostate cancer patients, the development of radio-protectors is needed. Our previous work has demonstrated that MnTE-2-PyP significantly protects urogenital tissues from radiation-induced damage. So, in order for MnTE-2-PyP to be used clinically as a radio-protector, it is fully necessary to explore the effect of MnTE-2-PyP on human prostate cancer progression. MnTE-2-PyP inhibited prostate cancer growth in the presence and absence of radiation and also inhibited prostate cancer migration and invasion...
May 2016: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Alireza Shirazi, Ehsan Mihandoost, Seied Rabie Mahdavi, Mehran Mohseni
Ionizing radiation interacts with biological systems to produce reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species which attack various cellular components. Radio-protectors act as prophylactic agents to shield healthy cells and tissues from the harmful effects of radiation. Past research on synthetic radio-protectors has brought little success, primarily due to the various toxicity-related problems. Results of experimental research show that antioxidant nutrients, such as vitamin E and herbal products and melatonin, are protective against the damaging effects of radiation, with less toxicity and side effects...
October 2, 2012: Oncology Reviews
Jalil Pirayesh Islamian, Habib Mehrali
Radio-protectors are agents that protect human cells and tissues from undesirable effects of ionizing radiation by mainly scavenging radiation-induced free radicals. Although chemical radio-protectors diminish these deleterious side effects they induce a number of unwanted effects on humans such as blood pressure modifications, vomiting, nausea, and both local and generalized cutaneous reactions. These disadvantages have led to emphasis on the use of some botanical radio-protectants as alternatives. This review has collected and organized studies on a plant-derived radio-protector, lycopene...
2015: Cell Journal
G Kirakosyan, H Torgomyan, M Malakyan, S Bajinyan, A Trchounian
The protective effects of novel synthesized derivatives of some amino acids--nicotinyl-L-tyrosinate and nicotinyl-L-tryptophanate schiff bases and their Cu(II) and Mn(II) chelates on growth, survival and membrane-associated ATPase activity of E. coli under X-ray irradiation were investigated. The specific growth rate and survival of E. coli were decreased at 10, 20 and 30 Gy doses. However, as 30 Gy was found to be the most effective irradiation dose, it was chosen for studying the radio-protective properties of different compounds...
August 2013: Indian Journal of Biochemistry & Biophysics
Kashinath Metri, Hemant Bhargav, Praerna Chowdhury, Prasad S Koka
Chemotherapy drugs and radiotherapy are highly toxic and both damage adjacent healthy cells. Side effects may be acute (occurring within few weeks after therapy), intermediate or late (occurring months or years after the therapy). Some important side effects of chemotherapy are: nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, mucositis, alopecia, constipation etc; whereas radiation therapy though administered locally, can produce systemic side effects such as fatigue, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, alteration in the taste, sleep disturbance, headache, anemia, dry skin, constipation etc...
2013: Journal of Stem Cells
Peng Li, Qing-Li Zhao, Li-Hua Wu, Paras Jawaid, Yu-Fei Jiao, Makoto Kadowaki, Takashi Kondo
Ionizing radiation (IR) leads to oxidizing events such as excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the exposed cells, resulting in further oxidative damage to lipids, proteins and DNA. To screen the potential radio-protective drug, the intracellular ROS was measured in irradiated U937 cells pretreated with 80 candidate traditional herbal medicine, respectively. Isofraxidin (IF) was one possible radio-protector in these 80 drugs. This study investigated the radio-protective role of IF, a Coumarin compound, in human leukemia cell lines, for the first time...
June 2014: Apoptosis: An International Journal on Programmed Cell Death
Soumik Goswami, Shweta Sharma, Chandana Haldar
Data suggests that UV radiation causes oxidative damage of the cells due to the release of inflammatory cytokines which in turn generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) that damages lipids, proteins and DNA. On the other hand, melatonin a potent antioxidant from the pineal gland under most of the conditions acts as a free radical scavenger. Our data suggests that melatonin pre-treatment (s.c. injections) significantly protected the diurnal squirrels from oxidative damages caused by UVC irradiation of 1528 mJ cm(-2) that induced suppression of delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) responses...
August 5, 2013: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Ahmed El Kaffas, Anoja Giles, Gregory J Czarnota
PURPOSE: Large doses of radiation (8-20 Gy) preferentially target tumor vasculature. This vascular response is suggested to regulate tumor response to radiotherapy. Here, we investigate the relative contributions of direct cell killing by radiation versus tumor cell death due to radiation effects on the vasculature. We also examine Sunitinib's mechanism of action as a tumor radiosensitizer. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: MDA-MB-231 xenografts were treated with radiation doses of 2-16 Gy alone, or in combination with bFGF (endothelial radio-protector) or Sunitinib as pharmacological modulators of the vasculature...
April 2013: Angiogenesis
Jieying Liu, Siyuan Chen, Li Lv, Lei Song, Shengrong Guo, Shengtang Huang
A hydrophobic polyphenol compound extracted from turmeric, curcumin has been widely utilized as traditional medicines for centuries in China and India. Over the last decades, because of its low toxicity, extensive studies have been focused on its physicochemical properties and pharmacological activities on various diseases, such as cancer, cardio-vascular disease, inflammatory bowel, wound healing, Alzheimer's disease, rheumatoid arthritis, and diabetes. In particular, bioactivities of curcumin as an effective chemopreventive agent, chemo-/radio-sensitizer for tumor cells, and chemo-/radio-protector for normal organs, are of extraordinary research interests in the literature...
2013: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Jian-hui Chang, Heng Zhang, Fang-xia Guan, Yue-ying Wang, De-guan Li, Hong-ying Wu, Cheng-chun Wang, Chang-hui Zhou, Zhi-bin Zhai, Lu Lu, Xiao-chun Wang, Qi Hou, Ai-min Meng
This study is to investigate the protective effects of the SB203580 against radiation induced mortality and intestinal injury of mice. A total of 67 male C57BL/6 mice (20.0-22.0 g) were matched according to body weight and randomly assigned to one of three groups: control, total body irradiation exposure (IR, 7.2 Gy) only, and IR (7.2 Gy) + SB203580 (15 mg x kg(-1)). 30 days survival rate was observed in the experiment. In intestinal injury experiment, the expression levels of caspase-3, Ki67, p53 and p-p38 were assayed in the mice intestine crypts...
April 2011: Yao Xue Xue Bao, Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica
Maria Grazia Andreassi, Angelo Cioppa, Samantha Manfredi, Maria Giovanna Neri, Ilenia Foffa, Eugenio Picano
BACKGROUND: N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is considered a promising radio-protector for its antioxidant and anticarcinogenic properties. We examined the ability of NAC to confer protection against radiation-induced chromosomal DNA damage during cardiac catheterization procedures. METHODS: Sixty-five patients (52 males, age 64.4 ± 11.9 years) undergoing invasive cardiovascular procedures (peripheral transluminal angioplasty, n=45; cardiac resynchronization therapy, n=15 and ablation therapy n=5) were enrolled: 35 patients (26 males, age 63...
November 15, 2012: International Journal of Cardiology
D Bharat Reddy, T C M Reddy, G Jyotsna, Satish Sharan, Nalini Priya, V Lakshmipathi, Pallu Reddanna
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Terminalia chebula has an esteemed origin in Indian mythology; its fruits are used to treat many diseases such as digestive, diabetes, colic pain, chronic cough, sore throat, asthma, etc. AIM OF THE STUDY: The water or ethanolic extracts of the fruits were reported to have anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer and radio-protector properties. The present study is to isolate and identify the compounds that inhibit COX and 5-LOX, the key enzymes involved in inflammation and carcinogenesis...
July 30, 2009: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Elzbieta Staroslawska, Krzysztof J Czarnocki, Maria Koziol-Montewka, Helena Donica, Agnieszka Magrys
TGF-beta is supposed to be the major cytokine responsible for post-radiation fibrosis of healthy tissues and actively modifies post-radiation changes. The growth of TGF-beta level induces the expression of collagen synthesis gene which triggers off the production of fibrosis of hyaline membranes. The main purpose of this study was to discover the way and methods of reducing post-radiation damage of normal tissues and provide an adequate scientific justification for using Infliximab as an effective radio protector in the neoplasm radiotherapy...
2008: Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica
Hélène Terryn, Aubert Maquille, Chantal Houée-Levin, Bernard Tilquin
The degradation of irradiated human insulin in aqueous solutions was investigated in order to protect the protein against ionizing radiation. The influence of the drug concentration, excipients and irradiation temperature were studied. Aqueous solutions at pH 2 were irradiated by gamma rays or by accelerated electrons. Two different high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods were used: reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC)/UV and size exclusion liquid chromatography (SEC/UV) to investigate both the fragmentation and the formation of higher molecular weight proteins...
October 1, 2007: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
T Sandhya, K M Lathika, B N Pandey, H N Bhilwade, R C Chaubey, K I Priyadarsini, K P Mishra
Protection against whole body gamma-irradiation (WBI) of Swiss mice orally fed with Triphala (TPL), an Ayurvedic formulation, in terms of mortality of irradiated animals as well as DNA damage at cellular level has been investigated. It was found that radiation induced mortality was reduced by 60% in mice fed with TPL (1g/kg body weight/day) orally for 7 days prior to WBI at 7.5 Gy followed by post-irradiation feeding for 7 days. An increase in xanthine oxidoreductase activity and decrease in superoxide dismutase activity was observed in the intestine of mice exposed to WBI, which, however, reverted back to those levels of sham-irradiated controls, when animals were fed with TPL for 7 days prior to irradiation...
October 10, 2006: Mutation Research
Zhongchun Chen, Shengzi Wang, Shuyi Wang, Qingfang Cheng, Shenbin Lu
OBJECTIVE: To assess the radio-protective effect of amifostine on the middle ear in animal models by observing the morphological changes of middle ear mucosa. METHOD: Adult guinea pigs (n=38) were divided into the radiation group, the radiation-amifostine group and the control group. The first two groups were exposed to total 45 Gy of Gamma radiation which was administered to the right ear of each guinea pig with 3.0 Gy/fraction, 5 times per week, using a cobalt-60 machine...
August 2005: Lin Chuang Er Bi Yan Hou Ke za Zhi, Journal of Clinical Otorhinolaryngology
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