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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202365/optimising-the-use-of-medicines-to-reduce-acute-kidney-injury-in-children-and-babies
#1
REVIEW
L Oni, D B Hawcutt, M A Turner, M W Beresford, S McWilliam, C Barton, B K Park, P Murray, B Wilm, I Copple, R Floyd, M Peak, A Sharma, D J Antoine
The majority of medications in children are administered in an unlicensed or off-label manner. Paediatricians are obliged to prescribe using the limited evidence available. The 2007 EU regulation on the use of paediatric drugs means pharmaceutical companies are now obliged to (and receive incentives for) contributing to paediatric drug data and carrying out paediatric clinical trials. This is important, as the efficacy and adverse effect profiles of medicines vary across childhood. Additionally, there are significant age-related changes in the pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic activity of many drugs...
February 12, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187736/thrombocytopenia-on-the-first-day-of-emergency-department-visit-predicts-higher-risk-of-acute-kidney-injury-among-elderly-patients
#2
Chia-Ter Chao, Hung-Bin Tsai, Chih-Kang Chiang, Jenq-Wen Huang
BACKGROUND: Few studies have addressed risk factors for acute kidney injury (AKI) in geriatric patients. We investigated whether thrombocytopenia was a risk factor for AKI in geriatric patients with medical illnesses. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was conducted, by recruiting elderly (≥65 years) patients who visited the emergency department (ED) for medical illnesses during 2014. They all received hemogram for platelet count determination, and were stratified according to the presence of thrombocytopenia (platelets, <150 K/μL) during their initial ED evaluation...
February 10, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185988/effects-of-nonsteroidal-anti-inflammatory-drugs-on-the-renal-excretion-of-indoxyl-sulfate-a-nephro-cardiovascular-toxin-in-rats
#3
Chung-Ping Yu, Douglas H Sweet, Yu-Hsuan Peng, Yow-Wen Hsieh, Pei-Dawn Lee Chao, Yu-Chi Hou, Shiuan-Pey Lin
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a health problem worldwide. Indoxyl sulfate (IS) is a nephro-cardiovascular toxin accumulated in CKD patients and cannot be removed through hemodialysis. The renal excretion of IS was mediated by organic anion transporters (OATs) OAT 1 and OAT 3. Because a number of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been reported to inhibit OATs, we hypothesize that NSAIDs might inhibit the renal excretion of IS. Rats were intravenously injected IS with and without diclofenac, ketoprofen or salicylic acid, individually...
February 7, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179185/the-use-of-diclofenac-sodium-in-urological-practice-a-structural-and-neurochemical-based-review
#4
REVIEW
Mahmut Ulubay, Kıymet Kübra Yurt, Arife Ahsen Kaplan, Mustafa Kemal Atilla
Diclofenac sodium (DS) is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug with antipyretic and analgesic effects. It is mainly found in the form of sodium salt. The mechanism of action of DS operates by way of cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibition. The physiological effect of this substance derives from a decrease in prostaglandin production. DS is a benzeneacetic acid derivative with anti-inflammatory properties. As a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), DS binds to both forms of COX (COX-1 and COX-2) and inhibits the conversion of arachidonic acid into pro-inflammatory prostaglandins by means of chelation...
February 5, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158216/non-steroidal-anti-inflammatory-drugs-induce-severe-hematologic-toxicities-in-lung-cancer-patients-receiving-pemetrexed-plus-carboplatin-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#5
Hitoshi Kawazoe, Akiko Yano, Yuri Ishida, Kenshi Takechi, Hitoshi Katayama, Ryoji Ito, Yoshihiro Yakushijin, Toshihide Moriguchi, Mamoru Tanaka, Akihiro Tanaka, Hiroaki Araki
PURPOSE: As the major toxicity induced by pemetrexed plus carboplatin is severe hematologic toxicities, the aim of this study was to determine the risk factors for severe hematologic toxicities in lung cancer patients. METHODS: We retrospectively investigated data from lung cancer patients who had received pemetrexed plus carboplatin, with or without bevacizumab. This observational study was carried out at Ehime University Hospital using electronic medical records dating from July 2009 to March 2015...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28156624/a-study-of-discrepancy-between-laboratory-calculated-and-weight-based-glomerular-filtration-rate-gfr-as-a-marker-of-renal-function-in-a-palliative-care-population
#6
Miriam Colleran
: 58 Background: Renal function is important in a palliative care population and can impact on frequently-used medications including chemotherapeutic agents, opioids, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and neuropathic agents. In local practice, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), calculated on a presumed weight of 70kg, is displayed in laboratory results. However, the weight of palliative patients varies considerably, for example, due to cancer cachexia or malabsorption and a considerable population weigh less than 70kg...
October 9, 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124306/gastrointestinal-bleeding-in-patients-with-renal-failure-under-hemodialysis-treatment-a-single-center-experience
#7
Özgür Can, Gözde Koç, Sema Berk Ocak, Nursel Akbay, Emel Ahishali, Mustafa Canbakan, Gülizar Manga Şahin, Süheyla Apaydin
PURPOSE: Gastrointestinal bleeding remains the leading cause of morbidity and mortality for patients who need hemodialysis treatment. Our aim was to evaluate patients who needed hemodialysis and presented with bleeding during their hospital stay (uremic bleeding patients). Factors that increased the risk of bleeding and death were evaluated. Additionally, uremic bleeding patients were compared to non-uremic bleeding patients regarding gastrointestinal findings. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Fifty-one uremic bleeding patients were compared to two control groups which included uremic (hemodialysis dependent and non-bleeding) and non-uremic (no renal insufficiency and bleeding) patients...
January 25, 2017: International Urology and Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123620/patterns-of-ketorolac-dosing-by-emergency-physicians
#8
Emil Soleyman-Zomalan, Sergey Motov, Antonios Likourezos, Victor Cohen, Illya Pushkar, Christian Fromm
BACKGROUND: Ketorolac tromethamine is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAIDs) that is widely used in the emergency department (ED) for the treatment of moderate-to-severe pain. Ketorolac, like other NSAIDs, exhibits an analgesic ceiling effect and previous research suggests that 10 mg is possibly the ceiling dose. Do the patterns of ketorolac dosing by emergency physicians follow its analgesic ceiling dose? METHODS: This was a single center retrospective, descriptive study to characterize patterns of ketorolac administration in ED patients...
2017: World Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101448/acetylsalicylic-acid-interferes-with-embryonic-kidney-growth-and-development-by-a-prostaglandin-independent-mechanism
#9
Simon J M Welham, Alexander J Sparrow, David S Gardner, Matthew J Elmes
AIM: To evaluate the effects of the non-selective, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), on ex vivo embryonic kidney growth and development. METHODS: Pairs of fetal mouse kidneys at embryonic day 12.5 were cultured ex vivo in increasing concentrations of ASA (0.04-0.4 mg/mL) for up to 7 d. One organ from each pair was grown in control media and was used as the internal control for the experimental contralateral organ. In some experiments, organs were treated with ASA for 48 h and then transferred either to control media alone or control media containing 10 μmol/L prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) for a further 5 d...
January 6, 2017: World Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092840/suppressive-effect-of-spirulina-fusiformis-on-diclofenac-induced-hepato-renal-injury-and-gastrointestinal-ulcer-in-wistar-albino-rats-a-biochemical-and-histological-approach
#10
Jerine Peter S, Kadar Basha S, R Giridharan, Udhaya Lavinya B, Evan Prince Sabina
CONTEXT: The non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), diclofenac causes hepato-renal toxicity and gastric ulcer. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effect of Spirulina fusiformis on Diclofenac-induced toxicity in Wistar albino rats. METHODS: Rats were treated as follows: normal control (group I); diclofenac (50mg/kgb.w., i.p.) treated rats (group II); diclofenac-induced (50mg/kgb.w., i.p.) rats treated with Spirulina fusiformis (400mg/kgb...
January 13, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073136/-proton-pump-inhibitor-side-effects-and-complications-of%C3%A2-long-term-proton-pump-inhibitor-administration
#11
Hendrik Ueberschaer, Hans-Dieter Allescher
Proton Pump Inhibitors are among the most common drugs taken. The indication is for treatment of heartburn, reflux disease, prophylaxis and treatment of peptic ulcers, in combination with NSAIDs and steroids as well as H. pylori-eradication. PPI's are widely used, even with non-specific symptoms. This certainly has to do with good tolerability and a previously considered low side effect profile. At the moment, there is growing evidence that the long-term intake of PPI's may not be as safe as assumed. In addition to interactions with some drugs, including platelet aggregation inhibitors, recent studies have shown an increased risk of myocardial infarction, interstitial nephritis, chronic renal injury, infections, vitamin deficiencies and electrolyte shifts as well developing dementia...
January 2017: Zeitschrift Für Gastroenterologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028830/retrospective-evaluation-of-postoperative-adverse-drug-events-in-patients-receiving-rivaroxaban-after-major-orthopedic-surgery-compared-with-standard-therapy-in-a-community-hospital
#12
Nicole E Cieri, Kristen Kusmierski, Cynthia Lackie, August Van Opdorp, Amany K Hassan
STUDY OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the occurrence of bleeding and venous thromboembolic (VTE) events in patients receiving rivaroxaban, warfarin, or warfarin with the addition of enoxaparin during the immediate postoperative period following major orthopedic surgery. METHODS: Patients older than 18 years who received at least one dose of rivaroxaban the morning following surgery, adjusted dose warfarin, or adjusted dose warfarin with the addition of enoxaparin for VTE prophylaxis after major orthopedic surgery between October 1, 2011, and February 28, 2015, were included...
December 27, 2016: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025372/a-pooled-analysis-evaluating-renal-safety-in-placebo-and-active-comparator-controlled-phase-iii-trials-of-multiple-dose-injectable-hp%C3%AE-cd-diclofenac-in-subjects-with-acute-postoperative-pain
#13
Stephen E Daniels, Tong J Tj Gan, Douglas A Hamilton, Neil Singla, Peter G Lacouture, Olufunmibi Johnson, Lauren H Min, Christian R D Reyes, Daniel B Carr
OBJECTIVE : While injectable nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are a key component of postoperative multimodal analgesia, renal safety concerns may limit use in some patients. This study examined the renal safety of injectable HPβCD-diclofenac when given for ≤ 5 days following orthopedic or abdominal/pelvic surgery. METHODS : Pooled analysis of data from two randomized, placebo- and active comparator-controlled phase III trials in 608 total patients was conducted. Renal safety was assessed by examining treatment-emergent adverse events (AEs) and postoperative blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine shifts...
December 2016: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995343/pre-procedural-renal-resistive-index-accurately-predicts-contrast-induced-acute-kidney-injury-in-patients-with-preserved-renal-function-submitted-to-coronary-angiography
#14
Maciej T Wybraniec, Maria Bożentowicz-Wikarek, Jerzy Chudek, Katarzyna Mizia-Stec
The study aimed to evaluate the clinical utility of ultrasonographic intra-renal blood flow parameters, together with the wide range of different risk factors, for the prediction of contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) in patients with preserved renal function, referred for coronary angiography or percutaneous coronary interventions (CA/PCI). This prospective study covered 95 consecutive patients (69.5% men; median age 65 years) subject to elective or urgent CA/PCI. Data regarding 128 peri-procedural variables were collected...
December 19, 2016: International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987281/a-rare-case-of-lamotrigine-induced-acute-interstitial-nephritis
#15
Atul Matta, Nour Abou Assalie, Rajib K Gupta, Maria Del Pilar Morales, Ricardo Conti
Medications, especially non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and antimicrobials, have been most commonly associated with acute interstitial nephritis (AIN); antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are rarely known to cause AIN. This is a case of a 27-year-old male who was recently started on treatment with lamotrigine for bipolar disorder and was found to have rapidly progressive renal failure. Renal biopsy features were suggestive of AIN. Lamotrigine-induced AIN was suspected to be the most likely cause. Discontinuation of the drug and treatment with steroids resulted in complete renal recovery...
2016: Journal of Community Hospital Internal Medicine Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981527/examination-of-the-pharmacodynamics-and-pharmacokinetics-of-a-diclofenac-poly-lactic-co-glycolic-acid-nanoparticle-formulation-in-the-rat
#16
S Harirforoosh, K O West, D E Murrell, J W Denham, P C Panus, G A Hanley
OBJECTIVE: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are assembled into two categories; cyclooxygenase (COX-1) sparing inhibitors of COX-2 and non-selective NSAIDs. Diclofenac (DICLO) is a non-selective NSAID that has been linked to serious side effects including gastric ulcers and renal injury. In this study, we examine the effect of poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid nanoformulation on DICLO-associated adverse events and pharmacokinetics using a nanoparticle (NP) formulation previously developed in our laboratory...
December 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959716/cardiovascular-safety-of-celecoxib-naproxen-or-ibuprofen-for-arthritis
#17
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Steven E Nissen, Neville D Yeomans, Daniel H Solomon, Thomas F Lüscher, Peter Libby, M Elaine Husni, David Y Graham, Jeffrey S Borer, Lisa M Wisniewski, Katherine E Wolski, Qiuqing Wang, Venu Menon, Frank Ruschitzka, Michael Gaffney, Bruce Beckerman, Manuela F Berger, Weihang Bao, A Michael Lincoff
Background The cardiovascular safety of celecoxib, as compared with nonselective nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), remains uncertain. Methods Patients who required NSAIDs for osteoarthritis or rheumatoid arthritis and were at increased cardiovascular risk were randomly assigned to receive celecoxib, ibuprofen, or naproxen. The goal of the trial was to assess the noninferiority of celecoxib with regard to the primary composite outcome of cardiovascular death (including hemorrhagic death), nonfatal myocardial infarction, or nonfatal stroke...
29, 2016: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939860/a-quick-reference-on-hyperkalemia
#18
REVIEW
Márcia Mery Kogika, Helio Autran de Morais
The clinical signs of hyperkalemia usually are less evident than hypokalemia. Arrhythmia and bradycardia could be the first changes noticed. Most cases of persistent hyperkalemia are associated with renal retention of potassium. Common causes for hyperkalemia include hypoadrenocorticism, ruptured bladder, and urethral or bilateral ureteral obstruction. Drug such as angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, potassium-sparing diuretics, and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs can also lead to hyperkalemia...
December 8, 2016: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920801/implications-of-analgesics-use-in-osteoporotic-related-pain-treatment-focus-on-opioids
#19
REVIEW
Renato Vellucci, Consalvo Mattia, Ludovica Celidonio, Rocco Domenico Mediati
Bone loss is asymptomatic and will progress without pain and other symptoms until the occurrence of a fracture. The occurrence of a breaking bone induce acute pain determined and supported by a mechanical, inflammatory and neuropathic component. Very often the acute component evolves in a chronic musculoskeletal component. Overall objectives of the analgesic therapy can be summarized in pain relief, improving sleep, improve mobility, reduce anxiety, emotional component and depression. Osteoporosis is predominantly a condition of the elderly, more likely to have coexisting cardiovascular disease and age-related decline in renal function, receiving treatment for one or more comorbid conditions, taking multiple medications...
May 2016: Clinical Cases in Mineral and Bone Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906418/assessment-of-celecoxib-poly-lactic-co-glycolic-acid-nanoformulation-on-drug-pharmacodynamics-and-pharmacokinetics-in-rats
#20
S Harirforoosh, K O West, D E Murrell, J W Denham, P C Panus, G A Hanley
OBJECTIVE:  Celecoxib (CEL) is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) showing selective cycloxygenase-2 inhibition. While effective as a pain reducer, CEL exerts some negative influence on renal and gastrointestinal parameters. This study examined CEL pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics following drug reformulation as a poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid nanoparticle (NP). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rats were administered either vehicle (VEH) (methylcellulose solution), blank NP, 40 mg/kg CEL in methylcellulose, or an equivalent NP dose (CEL-NP)...
November 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
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