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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925731/late-time-mixing-sensitivity-to-initial-broadband-surface-roughness-in-high-energy-density-shear-layers
#1
K A Flippo, F W Doss, J L Kline, E C Merritt, D Capelli, T Cardenas, B DeVolder, F Fierro, C M Huntington, L Kot, E N Loomis, S A MacLaren, T J Murphy, S R Nagel, T S Perry, R B Randolph, G Rivera, D W Schmidt
Using a large volume high-energy-density fluid shear experiment (8.5  cm^{3}) at the National Ignition Facility, we have demonstrated for the first time the ability to significantly alter the evolution of a supersonic sheared mixing layer by controlling the initial conditions of that layer. By altering the initial surface roughness of the tracer foil, we demonstrate the ability to transition the shear mixing layer from a highly ordered system of coherent structures to a randomly ordered system with a faster growing mix layer, indicative of strong mixing in the layer at a temperature of several tens of electron volts and at near solid density...
November 25, 2016: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925169/parasites-and-competitors-suppress-bacterial-pathogen-synergistically-due-to-evolutionary-trade-offs
#2
Xiaofang Wang, Zhong Wei, Mei Li, Xueqi Wang, Anqi Shan, Xinlan Mei, Alexandre Jousset, Qirong Shen, Yangchun Xu, Ville-Petri Friman
Parasites and competitors are important for regulating pathogen densities and subsequent disease dynamics. It is, however, unclear to what extent this is driven by ecological and evolutionary processes. Here we used experimental evolution to study the eco-evolutionary feedbacks between Ralstonia solanacearum bacterial pathogen, Ralstonia-specific phage parasite and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens competitor bacterium in the laboratory and plant rhizosphere. We found that while the phage had a small effect on pathogen densities on its own, it considerably increased the R...
December 7, 2016: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924829/diverse-specificity-of-cellulosome-attachment-to-the-bacterial-cell-surface
#3
Joana L A Brás, Benedita A Pinheiro, Kate Cameron, Fiona Cuskin, Aldino Viegas, Shabir Najmudin, Pedro Bule, Virginia M R Pires, Maria João Romão, Edward A Bayer, Holly L Spencer, Steven Smith, Harry J Gilbert, Victor D Alves, Ana Luísa Carvalho, Carlos M G A Fontes
During the course of evolution, the cellulosome, one of Nature's most intricate multi-enzyme complexes, has been continuously fine-tuned to efficiently deconstruct recalcitrant carbohydrates. To facilitate the uptake of released sugars, anaerobic bacteria use highly ordered protein-protein interactions to recruit these nanomachines to the cell surface. Dockerin modules located within a non-catalytic macromolecular scaffold, whose primary role is to assemble cellulosomal enzymatic subunits, bind cohesin modules of cell envelope proteins, thereby anchoring the cellulosome onto the bacterial cell...
December 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924410/does-antibiotic-resistance-evolve-in-hospitals
#4
Anna Seigal, Portia Mira, Bernd Sturmfels, Miriam Barlow
Nosocomial outbreaks of bacteria are well documented. Based on these incidents, and the heavy usage of antibiotics in hospitals, it has been assumed that antibiotic resistance evolves in hospital environments. To test this assumption, we studied resistance phenotypes of bacteria collected from patient isolates at a community hospital over a 2.5-year period. A graphical model analysis shows no association between resistance and patient information other than time of arrival. This allows us to focus on time-course data...
December 6, 2016: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924110/health-systems-in-india
#5
REVIEW
M Chokshi, B Patil, R Khanna, S B Neogi, J Sharma, V K Paul, S Zodpey
Health systems and polices have a critical role in determining the manner in which health services are delivered, utilized and affect health outcomes. 'Health' being a state subject, despite the issuance of the guidelines by the central government, the final prerogative on implementation of the initiatives on newborn care lies with the states. This article briefly describes the public health structure in the country and traces the evolution of the major health programs and initiatives with a particular focus on newborn health...
December 2016: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923932/nucleobase-modification-by-an-rna-enzyme
#6
Raghav R Poudyal, Phuong D M Nguyen, Melissa P Lokugamage, Mackenzie K Callaway, Jesse V Gavette, Ramanarayanan Krishnamurthy, Donald H Burke
Ribozymes can catalyze phosphoryl or nucleotidyl transfer onto ribose hydroxyls of RNA chains. We report a single ribozyme that performs both reactions, with a nucleobase serving as initial acceptor moiety. This unprecedented combined reaction was revealed while investigating potential contributions of ribose hydroxyls to catalysis by kinase ribozyme K28. For a 58nt, cis-acting form of K28, each nucleotide could be replaced with the corresponding 2'F analog without loss of activity, indicating that no particular 2'OH is specifically required...
December 6, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923349/assessing-the-effects-of-hybridization-and-precipitation-on-invasive-weed-demography-using-strength-of-selection-on-vital-rates
#7
Zachary Teitel, Agnieszka Klimowski, Lesley G Campbell
BACKGROUND: As global climate change transforms average temperature and rainfall, species distributions may meet, increasing the potential for hybridization and altering individual fitness and population growth. Altered rainfall specifically may shift the strength and direction of selection, also manipulating population trajectories. Here, we investigated the role of interspecific hybridization and selection imposed by rainfall on the evolution of weedy life-history in non-hybrid (Raphanus raphanistrum) and hybrid (R...
December 7, 2016: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923045/tumor-evolution-in-two-patients-with-basal-like-breast-cancer-a-retrospective-genomics-study-of-multiple-metastases
#8
Katherine A Hoadley, Marni B Siegel, Krishna L Kanchi, Christopher A Miller, Li Ding, Wei Zhao, Xiaping He, Joel S Parker, Michael C Wendl, Robert S Fulton, Ryan T Demeter, Richard K Wilson, Lisa A Carey, Charles M Perou, Elaine R Mardis
BACKGROUND: Metastasis is the main cause of cancer patient deaths and remains a poorly characterized process. It is still unclear when in tumor progression the ability to metastasize arises and whether this ability is inherent to the primary tumor or is acquired well after primary tumor formation. Next-generation sequencing and analytical methods to define clonal heterogeneity provide a means for identifying genetic events and the temporal relationships between these events in the primary and metastatic tumors within an individual...
December 2016: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923043/clonal-evolutionary-analysis-during-her2-blockade-in-her2-positive-inflammatory-breast-cancer-a-phase-ii-open-label-clinical-trial-of-afatinib-vinorelbine
#9
Gerald Goh, Ramona Schmid, Kelly Guiver, Wichit Arpornwirat, Imjai Chitapanarux, Vinod Ganju, Seock-Ah Im, Sung-Bae Kim, Arunee Dechaphunkul, Jedzada Maneechavakajorn, Neil Spector, Thomas Yau, Mehdi Afrit, Slim Ben Ahmed, Stephen R Johnston, Neil Gibson, Martina Uttenreuther-Fischer, Javier Herrero, Charles Swanton
BACKGROUND: Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is a rare, aggressive form of breast cancer associated with HER2 amplification, with high risk of metastasis and an estimated median survival of 2.9 y. We performed an open-label, single-arm phase II clinical trial (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01325428) to investigate the efficacy and safety of afatinib, an irreversible ErbB family inhibitor, alone and in combination with vinorelbine in patients with HER2-positive IBC. This trial included prospectively planned exome analysis before and after afatinib monotherapy...
December 2016: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922482/evolution-of-quality-assurance-for-clinical-immunohistochemistry-in-the-era-of-precision-medicine-part-1-fit-for-purpose-approach-to-classification-of-clinical-immunohistochemistry-biomarkers
#10
Carol C Cheung, Corrado D'Arrigo, Manfred Dietel, Glenn D Francis, C Blake Gilks, Jacqueline A Hall, Jason L Hornick, Merdol Ibrahim, Antonio Marchetti, Keith Miller, J Han van Krieken, Soren Nielsen, Paul E Swanson, Clive R Taylor, Mogens Vyberg, Xiaoge Zhou, Emina E Torlakovic
Technical progress in immunohistochemistry (IHC) as well as the increased utility of IHC for biomarker testing in precision medicine avails us of the opportunity to reassess clinical IHC as a laboratory test and its proper characterization as a special type of immunoassay. IHC, as used in current clinical applications, is a descriptive, qualitative, cell-based, usually nonlinear, in situ protein immunoassay, for which the readout of the results is principally performed by pathologists rather than by the instruments on which the immunoassay is performed...
January 2017: Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology: AIMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922024/improvements-in-the-long-term-outcome-of-crohn-s-disease-over-the-past-two-decades-and-the-relation-to-changes-in-medical-management-results-from-the-population-based-ibdsl-cohort
#11
Steven F G Jeuring, Tim R A van den Heuvel, Limmie Y L Liu, Maurice P Zeegers, Wim H Hameeteman, Mariëlle J L Romberg-Camps, Liekele E Oostenbrug, Ad A M Masclee, Daisy M A E Jonkers, Marieke J Pierik
OBJECTIVES: Medical treatment options and strategies for Crohn's disease (CD) have changed over the past decades. To assess its impact, we studied the evolution of the long-term disease outcome in the Dutch Inflammatory Bowel Disease South Limburg (IBDSL) cohort. METHODS: In total, 1,162 CD patients were included. Three eras were distinguished: 1991-1998 (n=316), 1999-2005 (n=387), and 2006-2011 (n=459), and patients were followed until 2014. Medication exposure and the rates of hospitalization, surgery, and phenotype progression were estimated using Kaplan-Meier survival analyses and compared between eras by multivariable Cox regression models...
December 6, 2016: American Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921308/fish-genes-and-genomes-contributions-to-ecology-evolution-and-management
#12
EDITORIAL
G R Carvalho, L Hauser, J Martinsohn, K Naish
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Journal of Fish Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920783/genomic-tools-in-pearl-millet-breeding-for-drought-tolerance-status-and-prospects
#13
REVIEW
Desalegn D Serba, Rattan S Yadav
Pearl millet [Penisetum glaucum (L) R. Br.] is a hardy cereal crop grown in the arid and semiarid tropics where other cereals are likely to fail to produce economic yields due to drought and heat stresses. Adaptive evolution, a form of natural selection shaped the crop to grow and yield satisfactorily with limited moisture supply or under periodic water deficits in the soil. Drought tolerance is a complex polygenic trait that various morphological and physiological responses are controlled by 100s of genes and significantly influenced by the environment...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920574/combined-epidural-morphine-and-bupivacaine-in-the-treatment-of-lumbosacral-radicular-neuropathic-pain-a-noncontrolled-prospective-study
#14
Simone Vigneri, Gianfranco Sindaco, Marco La Grua, Matteo Zanella, Laura Ravaioli, Valentina Paci, Gilberto Pari
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the therapeutic effectiveness of epidural morphine and bupivacaine in patients with chronic lumbosacral radicular neuropathic pain after the cessation of treatment. METHODS: Twenty-two patients with chronic lumbosacral pain with neuropathic features were enrolled. An indwelling catheter was placed into the epidural space, and each patient received an epidural injection of morphine chlorhydrate and bupivacaine up to three times a day...
2016: Journal of Pain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920428/mitigating-herding-in-hierarchical-crowdsourcing-networks
#15
Han Yu, Chunyan Miao, Cyril Leung, Yiqiang Chen, Simon Fauvel, Victor R Lesser, Qiang Yang
Hierarchical crowdsourcing networks (HCNs) provide a useful mechanism for social mobilization. However, spontaneous evolution of the complex resource allocation dynamics can lead to undesirable herding behaviours in which a small group of reputable workers are overloaded while leaving other workers idle. Existing herding control mechanisms designed for typical crowdsourcing systems are not effective in HCNs. In order to bridge this gap, we investigate the herding dynamics in HCNs and propose a Lyapunov optimization based decision support approach - the Reputation-aware Task Sub-delegation approach with dynamic worker effort Pricing (RTS-P) - with objective functions aiming to achieve superlinear time-averaged collective productivity in an HCN...
December 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920389/resistance-in-persisting-bat-populations-after-white-nose-syndrome-invasion
#16
Kate E Langwig, Joseph R Hoyt, Katy L Parise, Winifred F Frick, Jeffrey T Foster, A Marm Kilpatrick
Increases in anthropogenic movement have led to a rise in pathogen introductions and the emergence of infectious diseases in naive host communities worldwide. We combined empirical data and mathematical models to examine changes in disease dynamics in little brown bat (Myotis lucifugus) populations following the introduction of the emerging fungal pathogen Pseudogymnoascus destructans, which causes the disease white-nose syndrome. We found that infection intensity was much lower in persisting populations than in declining populations where the fungus has recently invaded...
January 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920387/adaptive-capabilities-and-fitness-consequences-associated-with-pollution-exposure-in-fish
#17
REVIEW
Patrick B Hamilton, Gregor Rolshausen, Tamsyn M Uren Webster, Charles R Tyler
Many fish populations are exposed to harmful levels of chemical pollution and selection pressures associated with these exposures have led to the evolution of tolerance. Our understanding of the physiological basis for these adaptations is limited, but they are likely to include processes involved with the absorption, distribution, metabolism and/or excretion of the target chemical. Other potential adaptive mechanisms include enhancements in antioxidant responses, an increased capacity for DNA and/or tissue repair and alterations to the life cycle of fish that enable earlier reproduction...
January 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920379/domestication-impacts-on-plant-herbivore-interactions-a-meta-analysis
#18
Susan R Whitehead, Martin M Turcotte, Katja Poveda
For millennia, humans have imposed strong selection on domesticated crops, resulting in drastically altered crop phenotypes compared with wild ancestors. Crop yields have increased, but a long-held hypothesis is that domestication has also unintentionally decreased plant defences against herbivores. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a phylogenetically controlled meta-analysis comparing insect herbivore resistance and putative plant defence traits between crops and their wild relatives. Our database included 2098 comparisons made across 73 crops in 89 studies...
January 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920378/the-eco-evolutionary-impacts-of-domestication-and-agricultural-practices-on-wild-species
#19
REVIEW
Martin M Turcotte, Hitoshi Araki, Daniel S Karp, Katja Poveda, Susan R Whitehead
Agriculture is a dominant evolutionary force that drives the evolution of both domesticated and wild species. However, the various mechanisms of agriculture-induced evolution and their socio-ecological consequences are not often synthetically discussed. Here, we explore how agricultural practices and evolutionary changes in domesticated species cause evolution in wild species. We do so by examining three processes by which agriculture drives evolution. First, differences in the traits of domesticated species, compared with their wild ancestors, alter the selective environment and create opportunities for wild species to specialize...
January 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920376/invasions-and-extinctions-through-the-looking-glass-of-evolutionary-ecology
#20
REVIEW
Robert I Colautti, Jake M Alexander, Katrina M Dlugosch, Stephen R Keller, Sonia E Sultan
Invasive and endangered species reflect opposite ends of a spectrum of ecological success, yet they experience many similar eco-evolutionary challenges including demographic bottlenecks, hybridization and novel environments. Despite these similarities, important differences exist. Demographic bottlenecks are more transient in invasive species, which (i) maintains ecologically relevant genetic variation, (ii) reduces mutation load, and (iii) increases the efficiency of natural selection relative to genetic drift...
January 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
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