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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102529/recovery-from-chemotherapy-induced-white-matter-changes-in-young-breast-cancer-survivors
#1
Thibo Billiet, Louise Emsell, Mathieu Vandenbulcke, Ronald Peeters, Daan Christiaens, Alexander Leemans, Wim Van Hecke, Ann Smeets, Frederic Amant, Stefan Sunaert, Sabine Deprez
In a previous longitudinal diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) study, we observed cerebral white matter (WM) alterations (reduced fractional anisotropy (FA)) related to decreased cognitive performance 3-5 months after chemotherapy-treatment (t2) when compared to baseline (t1) (Deprez et al. in Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology, 30(3), 274-281. doi:10.1200/JCO.2011.36.8571, 2012). The current study investigates the evolution and the nature of these previously observed microstructural changes...
January 19, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101895/on-the-rarity-of-dioecy-in-flowering-plants
#2
Jos Käfer, Gabriel A B Marais, John R Pannell
Dioecy, the co-existence of separate male and female individuals in a population, is a rare but phylogenetically widespread sexual system in flowering plants. While research has concentrated on why and how dioecy evolves from hermaphroditism, the question of why dioecy is rare, despite repeated transitions to it, has received much less attention. Previous phylogenetic and theoretical studies have suggested that dioecy might be an evolutionary dead end. However, recent research indicates that the phylogenetic support for this hypothesis is attributable to a methodological bias, and that there is no evidence for reduced diversification in dioecious angiosperms...
January 19, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100614/human-rhinovirus-diversity-and-evolution-how-strange-the-change-from-major-to-minor
#3
Nicole Lewis-Rogers, Jon Seger, Frederick R Adler
: Rhinoviruses are the most common cause of the common cold. Their many distinct lineages fall into "major" and "minor" groups that use different cell-surface receptors to enter host cells. Minor-group rhinoviruses are more immunogenic in laboratory studies, although their patterns of transmission and their cold symptoms are broadly similar to those of the major group. Here we present evolutionary evidence that minor-group viruses are also more immunogenic in humans. A key finding is that rates of amino-acid substitution at exposed sites in the capsid proteins VP2, VP3 and VP1 tend to be elevated in minor-group relative to major-group viruses, while rates at buried sites show no consistent differences...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100592/detecting-high-order-epistasis-in-nonlinear-genotype-phenotype-maps
#4
Zachary R Sailer, Michael J Harms
High-order epistasis has been observed in many genotype-phenotype maps. These multi-way interactions between mutations may be useful for dissecting complex traits and could have profound implications for evolution. Alternatively, they could be a statistical artifact. High-order epistasis models assume the effects of mutations should add, when they could in fact multiply or combine in some other nonlinear way. A mismatch in the "scale" of the epistasis model and the scale of the underlying map would lead to spurious epistasis...
January 18, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100280/erratum-to-the-whole-genome-sequence-of-the-mediterranean-fruit-fly-ceratitis-capitata-wiedemann-reveals-insights-into-the-biology-and-adaptive-evolution-of-a-highly-invasive-pest-species
#5
Alexie Papanicolaou, Marc F Schetelig, Peter Arensburger, Peter W Atkinson, Joshua B Benoit, Kostas Bourtzis, Pedro Castañera, John P Cavanaugh, Hsu Chao, Christopher Childers, Ingrid Curril, Huyen Dinh, HarshaVardhan Doddapaneni, Amanda Dolan, Shannon Dugan, Markus Friedrich, Giuliano Gasperi, Scott Geib, Georgios Georgakilas, Richard A Gibbs, Sarah D Giers, Ludvik M Gomulski, Miguel González-Guzmán, Ana Guillem-Amat, Yi Han, Artemis G Hatzigeorgiou, Pedro Hernández-Crespo, Daniel S T Hughes, Jeffery W Jones, Dimitra Karagkouni, Panagiota Koskinioti, Sandra L Lee, Anna R Malacrida, Mosè Manni, Kostas Mathiopoulos, Angela Meccariello, Monica Munoz-Torres, Shwetha C Murali, Terence D Murphy, Donna M Muzny, Georg Oberhofer, Félix Ortego, Maria D Paraskevopoulou, Monica Poelchau, Jiaxin Qu, Martin Reczko, Hugh M Robertson, Andrew J Rosendale, Andrew E Rosselot, Giuseppe Saccone, Marco Salvemini, Grazia Savini, Patrick Schreiner, Francesca Scolari, Paolo Siciliano, Sheina B Sim, George Tsiamis, Enric Ureña, Ioannis S Vlachos, John H Werren, Ernst A Wimmer, Kim C Worley, Antigone Zacharopoulou, Stephen Richards, Alfred M Handler
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 18, 2017: Genome Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100015/the-r-evolution-is-here
#6
EDITORIAL
Mohamed A F Noor
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098771/breast-cancer-brain-metastases-clonal-evolution-in-clinical-context
#7
REVIEW
Jodi M Saunus, Amy E McCart Reed, Zhun Leong Lim, Sunil R Lakhani
Brain metastases are highly-evolved manifestations of breast cancer arising in a unique microenvironment, giving them exceptional adaptability in the face of new extrinsic pressures. The incidence is rising in line with population ageing, and use of newer therapies that stabilise metastatic disease burden with variable efficacy throughout the body. Historically, there has been a widely-held view that brain metastases do not respond to circulating therapeutics because the blood-brain-barrier (BBB) restricts their uptake...
January 13, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098528/spread-and-evolution-of-respiratory-syncytial-virus-a-genotype-on1-coastal-kenya-2010-2015
#8
James R Otieno, Everlyn M Kamau, Charles N Agoti, Clement Lewa, Grieven Otieno, Ann Bett, Mwanajuma Ngama, Patricia A Cane, D James Nokes
In February 2012, the novel respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) group A, genotype ON1, was detected in Kilifi County, coastal Kenya. ON1 is characterized by a 72-nt duplication within the highly variable G gene (encoding the immunogenic attachment surface protein). Cases were diagnosed through surveillance of pneumonia in children at the county hospital. Analysis of epidemiologic, clinical, and sequence data of RSV-A viruses detected over 5 RSV seasons (2010/2011 to 2014/2015) indicated the following: 1) replacement of previously circulating genotype GA2 ON1, 2) an abrupt expansion in the number of ON1 variants detected in the 2014/2015 epidemic, 3) recently accumulation of amino acid substitutions within the ON1 duplicated sequence, and 4) no clear evidence of altered pathogenicity relative to GA2...
February 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098366/the-evolution-of-clinical-guidelines-for-dermatologists-grade-agree-and-occasionally-consensus-by-experts
#9
EDITORIAL
J R Ingram, A Anstey
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: British Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098347/evolutionary-origin-of-phytochrome-responses-and-signaling-in-land-plants
#10
REVIEW
Keisuke Inoue, Ryuichi Nishihama, Takayuki Kohchi
Phytochromes comprise one of the major photoreceptor families in plants, and they regulate many aspects of plant growth and development throughout the plant life cycle. A canonical land plant phytochrome originated in the common ancestor of streptophytes. Phytochromes have diversified in seed plants and some basal land plants due to lineage-specific gene duplications that occurred during the course of land plant evolution. Molecular genetic analyses using Arabidopsis thaliana suggested that there are two types of phytochromes in angiosperms, light-labile type I and light-stable type II, which have different signaling mechanisms and which regulate distinct responses...
January 18, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098306/effective-viscosity-and-dynamics-of-spreading-epithelia-a-solvable-model
#11
C Blanch-Mercader, R Vincent, E Bazellières, X Serra-Picamal, X Trepat, J Casademunt
Collective cell migration in spreading epithelia in controlled environments has become a landmark in our current understanding of fundamental biophysical processes in development, regeneration, wound healing or cancer. Epithelial monolayers are treated as thin layers of a viscous fluid that exert active traction forces on the substrate. The model is exactly solvable and shows a broad range of applicabilities for the quantitative analysis and interpretation of force microscopy data of monolayers from a variety of experiments and cell lines...
January 18, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098299/vacancies-in-functional-materials-for-clean-energy-storage-and-harvesting-the-perfect-imperfection
#12
Guowei Li, Graeme R Blake, Thomas T M Palstra
Vacancies exist throughout nature and determine the physical properties of materials. By manipulating the density and distribution of vacancies, it is possible to influence their physical properties such as band-gap, conductivity, magnetism, etc. This can generate exciting applications in the fields of water treatment, energy storage, and physical devices such as resistance-change memories. In this review, we focus on recent progress in vacancy engineering for the design of materials for energy harvesting applications...
January 18, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098137/origin-and-evolution-of-the-deep-thermochemical-structure-beneath-eurasia
#13
N Flament, S Williams, R D Müller, M Gurnis, D J Bower
A unique structure in the Earth's lowermost mantle, the Perm Anomaly, was recently identified beneath Eurasia. It seismologically resembles the large low-shear velocity provinces (LLSVPs) under Africa and the Pacific, but is much smaller. This challenges the current understanding of the evolution of the plate-mantle system in which plumes rise from the edges of the two LLSVPs, spatially fixed in time. New models of mantle flow over the last 230 million years reproduce the present-day structure of the lower mantle, and show a Perm-like anomaly...
January 18, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097757/palladium-catalyzed-hydrolytic-cleavage-of-aromatic-c-o-bonds
#14
Meng Wang, Hui Shi, Donald M Camaioni, Johannes A Lercher
Metallic palladium surfaces are highly selective in promoting the reductive hydrolysis of aromatic ethers in aqueous phase at relatively mild temperatures and pressures of H2 . At quantitative conversions, the selectivity to hydrolysis products of PhOR ethers was observed to range from 50 % (R=Ph) to greater than 90 % (R=n-C4 H9 , cyclohexyl, and PhCH2 CH2 ). By analysis of the evolution of products with and without incorporation of H2(18) O, the pathway was concluded to be initiated by palladium metal catalyzed partial hydrogenation of the phenyl group to an enol ether...
January 18, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097046/molecular-classification-of-tissue-from-a-transformed-non-hogkin-s-lymphoma-case-with-unexpected-long-time-remission
#15
Julie Støve Bødker, Marianne Tang Severinsen, Tarec Christoffer El-Galaly, Rasmus Froberg Brøndum, Maria Bach Laursen, Steffen Falgreen, Mette Nyegaard, Alexander Schmitz, Lasse Hjort Jakobsen, Anna Amanda Schönherz, Hanne Due, Linn Reinholdt, Martin Bøgsted, Karen Dybkær, Hans Erik Johnsen
BACKGROUND: The concept of precision medicine in cancer includes individual molecular studies to predict clinical outcomes. In the present N = 1 case we retrospectively have analysed lymphoma tissue by exome sequencing and global gene expression in a patient with unexpected long-term remission following relaps. The goals were to phenotype the diagnostic and relapsed lymphoma tissue and evaluate its pattern. Furthermore, to identify mutations available for targeted therapy and expression of genes to predict specific drug effects by resistance gene signatures (REGS) for R-CHOP as described at http://www...
2017: Experimental Hematology & Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096484/evolutionary-dynamics-of-pandemic-methicillin-sensitive-staphylococcus-aureus-st398-and-its-international-spread-via-routes-of-human-migration
#16
Anne-Catrin Uhlemann, Paul R McAdam, Sean B Sullivan, Justin R Knox, Hossein Khiabanian, Raul Rabadan, Peter R Davies, J Ross Fitzgerald, Franklin D Lowy
: Methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) accounts for the majority of S. aureus infections globally, and yet surprisingly little is known about its clonal evolution. We applied comparative whole-genome sequencing (WGS) analyses to epidemiologically and geographically diverse ST398-MSSA, a pandemic lineage affecting both humans and livestock. Bayesian phylogenetic analysis predicted divergence of human-associated ST398-MSSA ~40 years ago. Isolates from Midwestern pigs and veterinarians differed substantially from those in New York City (NYC)...
January 17, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096374/phylogenetic-analysis-of-the-human-antibody-repertoire-reveals-quantitative-signatures-of-immune-senescence-and-aging
#17
Charles F A de Bourcy, Cesar J Lopez Angel, Christopher Vollmers, Cornelia L Dekker, Mark M Davis, Stephen R Quake
The elderly have reduced humoral immunity, as manifested by increased susceptibility to infections and impaired vaccine responses. To investigate the effects of aging on B-cell receptor (BCR) repertoire evolution during an immunological challenge, we used a phylogenetic distance metric to analyze Ig heavy-chain transcript sequences in both young and elderly individuals before and after influenza vaccination. We determined that BCR repertoires become increasingly specialized over a span of decades, but less plastic...
January 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096304/antibiotic-cycling-and-antibiotic-mixing-which-one-best-mitigates-antibiotic-resistance
#18
R E Beardmore, R Pena-Miller, F Gori, J Iredell
Can we exploit our burgeoning understanding of molecular evolution to slow the progress of drug resistance? One role of an infection clinician is exactly that: to foresee trajectories to resistance during antibiotic treatment and to hinder that evolutionary course. But can this be done at a hospital-wide scale? Clinicians and theoreticians tried to when they proposed two conicting behavioural strategies that are expected to curb resistance evolution in the clinic, these are known as 'antibiotic cycling' and 'antibiotic mixing'...
January 17, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096247/order-matters-the-order-of-somatic-mutations-influences-cancer-evolution
#19
David G Kent, Anthony R Green
Cancers evolve as a consequence of multiple somatic lesions, with competition between subclones and sequential subclonal evolution. Some driver mutations arise either early or late in the evolution of different individual tumors, suggesting that the final malignant properties of a subclone reflect the sum of mutations acquired rather than the order in which they arose. However, very little is known about the cellular consequences of altering the order in which mutations are acquired. Recent studies of human myeloproliferative neoplasms show that the order in which individual mutations are acquired has a dramatic impact on the cell biological and molecular properties of tumor-initiating cells...
January 17, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096087/diffuse-large-b-cell-lymphoma-genotyping-on-the-liquid-biopsy
#20
Davide Rossi, Fary Diop, Elisa Spaccarotella, Sara Monti, Manuela Zanni, Silvia Rasi, Clara Deambrogi, Valeria Spina, Alessio Bruscaggin, Chiara Favini, Roberto Serra, Antonio Ramponi, Renzo Boldorini, Robin Foa', Gianluca Gaidano
Accessible and real-time genotyping for diagnostic, prognostic or treatment purposes is increasingly impelling in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Cell-free DNA (cfDNA) is shed into the blood by tumor cells undergoing apoptosis and can be used as source of tumor DNA for the identification of DLBCL mutations, clonal evolution, and genetic mechanisms of resistance. Here we aimed at tracking the basal DLBCL genetic profile and its modification upon treatment using plasma cfDNA. Ultra-deep targeted next generation sequencing of pre-treatment plasma cfDNA from DLBCL patients correctly discovered DLBCL-associated mutations that were represented in >20% of the alleles of the tumor biopsy with a >90% sensitivity and a ~100% specificity...
January 17, 2017: Blood
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