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chronic pulmonary disease

Keitaro Nakamoto, Masato Watanabe, Mitsuru Sada, Toshiya Inui, Masuo Nakamura, Kojiro Honda, Hiroo Wada, Yu Mikami, Hirotaka Matsuzaki, Masafumi Horie, Satoshi Noguchi, Yasuhiro Yamauchi, Hikari Koyama, Toshiyuki Kogane, Tadashi Kohyama, Hajime Takizawa
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Bronchial asthma (BA) is a chronic airway disease characterized by airway hyperresponsiveness and remodeling, which are intimately linked to chronic airway inflammation. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as hydrogen peroxide are generated by inflammatory cells that are involved in the pathogenesis of BA. However, the role of ROS in the management of BA patients is not yet clear. We attempted to determine the role of ROS as a biomarker in the clinical setting of BA...
2016: PloS One
Ellen Games, Marina Guerreiro, Fernanda R Santana, Nathalia M Pinheiro, Emerson A de Oliveira, Fernanda D T Q S Lopes, Clarice R Olivo, Iolanda F L C Tibério, Mílton A Martins, João Henrique G Lago, Carla M Prado
BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by irreversible airflow obstruction and inflammation. Natural products, such as monoterpenes, displayed anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activities and can be used as a source of new compounds to COPD treatment. Our aim was to evaluate, in an elastase-induced pulmonary emphysema in mice, the effects of and underlying mechanisms of three related natural monoterpenes (p-cymene, carvacrol and thymol) isolated from essential oil from leaves Lippia sidoides Cham...
October 20, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Jihyun Yoon, Hyeyoung Seo, In Hwan Oh, Seok Jun Yoon
In recognition of Korea's rising burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs), we investigated the nation's NCD status and extracted detailed information from the 2012 Korean Burden of Disease study. Consistent with that study, we used disability-adjusted life year (DALY) as a metric. Using national data sources and disability weights specific to the Korean population, we analyzed 116 disaggregated NCDs from the study's four-level disease and injury hierarchy for both sexes and nine age groups. Per 100,000 population, 21,019 DALYs were lost to 116 NCDs...
November 2016: Journal of Korean Medical Science
Jihyun Yoon, In Hwan Oh, Hyeyoung Seo, Eun Jung Kim, Young Hoon Gong, Minsu Ock, Dohee Lim, Won Kyung Lee, Ye Rin Lee, Dongwoo Kim, Min Woo Jo, Hyesook Park, Seok Jun Yoon
This study is part of a 5-year research project on the national burden of diseases, injuries, and risk factors in Korea. Using disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), a metric introduced by the 1990 Global Burden of Disease (GBD) project, we performed a comprehensive and detailed assessment of the magnitude and distribution of both fatal and non-fatal health problems in the Korean population. The concept and general approach were consistent with the original GBD study, with some methodological modifications to make the study more suitable for Korea...
November 2016: Journal of Korean Medical Science
Stefano Coiro, Nicolas Girerd, Patrick Rossignol, João Pedro Ferreira, Aldo Maggioni, Bertram Pitt, Isabella Tritto, Giuseppe Ambrosio, Kenneth Dickstein, Faiez Zannad
AIMS: To determine the influence of baseline beta-blocker use on long-term prognosis of myocardial infarction (MI) survivors complicated with heart failure (HF) or with left ventricular dysfunction and with history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). METHODS AND RESULTS: Among the 28 771 patients from the High-Risk MI Database Initiative we identified 1573 patients with a baseline history of COPD. We evaluated the association between beta-blocker use at baseline (822 with beta-blocker and 751 without) on the rates of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality...
October 24, 2016: European Journal of Heart Failure
Mahnaz Abbasi, Mohammadali Zohal, Banafsheh Atapour, Zohreh Yazdi
Introduction. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Proper diagnosis of osteoporosis as a systemic adverse effect of COPD is of significant importance. The present study aimed at evaluating the prevalence of osteoporosis and its risk factors in men suffering from COPD in Qazvin (2014). Methods. This descriptive-analytical study was conducted on 90 patients with COPD using random sampling. Anthropometric data and results from physical examination were collected...
2016: International Journal of Chronic Diseases
Priya Muralidharan, Don Hayes, Stephen M Black, Heidi M Mansour
This systematic and comprehensive study reports for the first time on the successful rational design of advanced inhalable therapeutic dry powders containing dimethyl fumarate, a first-in-class Nrf2 activator drug to treat pulmonary inflammation, using particle engineering design technology for targeted delivery to the lungs as advanced spray dried (SD) one-component DPIs. In addition, two-component co-spray dried (co-SD) DMF:D-Man DPIs with high drug loading were successfully designed for targeted lung delivery as advanced DPIs using organic solution advanced spray drying in closed mode...
2016: Mol Syst Des Eng
Alexander J Sweidan, Navneet K Singh, Natasha Dang, Vinh Lam, Jyoti Datta
INTRODUCTION: Amiodarone is often used in the suppression of tachyarrhythmias. One of the more serious adverse effects includes amiodarone pulmonary toxicity (APT). Several pulmonary diseases can manifest including interstitial pneumonitis, organizing pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome, diffuse alveolar hemorrhage, pulmonary nodules or masses, and pleural effusion. Incidence of APT varies from 5-15% and is correlated to dosage, age of the patient, and preexisting lung disease...
2016: Clinical Medicine Insights. Case Reports
John Nixon, Paul Newbold, Tomas Mustelin, Gary P Anderson, Roland Kolbeck
Eosinophils have been linked with asthma for more than a century, but their role has been unclear. This review discusses the roles of eosinophils in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and describes therapeutic antibodies that affect eosinophilia. The aims of pharmacologic treatments for pulmonary conditions are to reduce symptoms, slow decline or improve lung function, and reduce the frequency and severity of exacerbations. Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) are important in managing symptoms and exacerbations in asthma and COPD...
October 20, 2016: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
S Harikrishnan, G Sanjay, M Ashishkumar, Jaideep Menon, G Rajesh, R Krishna Kumar
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a disease associated with a high morbidity and mortality. There is paucity of data regarding PH from the developing countries including India. Idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension is the most important etiological factor in the western world, but PH secondary to rheumatic heart disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and untreated congenital heart disease could well be the predominant causes in developing countries like India. The main objective of the PROKERALA study - Pulmonary hypertension Registry Of Kerala is to collect data regarding the etiology, practice patterns and one-year outcomes of patients diagnosed to have PH...
September 2016: Indian Heart Journal
Jiangquan Yu, Ruiqiang Zheng, Hua Lin, Qihong Chen, Jun Shao, Daxin Wang
PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate the clinical effects of early goal-directed therapy according to the global end-diastolic volume index (GEDI) on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients with septic shock. METHODS: A total of 71 COPD patients with septic shock were randomly assigned to 2 groups. In the control group (n = 37), fluid resuscitation was performed based on the central venous pressure. In the study group (n = 34), fluid resuscitation was performed until GEDI reached 800 mL/m(2)...
October 8, 2016: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Nimish Bhatt, J Mark Sloan, Carl J O'Hara, Roy Oommen, Katrina Steiling, Virginia R Litle
We describe two patients with hepatitis C and a diagnosis of pulmonary extranodal marginal zone B cell lymphoma. Both patients demonstrated a chronic nonproductive cough without hemoptysis. Diagnosis was obtained after a computed tomographic chest scan and flexible bronchoscopic biopsy. We discuss the staging and prognosis of this disease, its correlation with hepatitis C, and potential benefits of treating the associated hepatitis C.
November 2016: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
Helena Logotheti, Chryssa Pourzitaki, Georgia Tsaousi, Zoi Aidoni, Artemis Vekrakou, Amaniti Ekaterini, Konstantinos Gourgoulianis
BACKGROUND: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) has been associated with major perioperative morbidities or mortalities, especially in surgical patients receiving general anesthesia. The severity of the COPD and the degree of bronchial hyperreactivity can determine the perioperative anesthetic risk; therefore they have to be assessed by a thorough preoperative evaluation in order to give the rationale on which to decide for optimum anesthetic management. OBJECTIVE: Aim of the study was to assess the predictive applicability of exhaled Nitric Oxide (NO) in smoking surgical population with COPD, on the basis of morbidity and mortality...
October 19, 2016: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Lan-Eng Tan, Razak A M, Chor-Shen Lim
Patients with lung cancer often have chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but the impact of COPD on postresection survival of patients with lung cancer is unclear. This study evaluated the impact of COPD on survival of patients with lung cancer following pulmonary resection. Databases searched included PubMed, Cochrane, and Embase until March 2016. Study outcomes were overall survival and pulmonary complication rate (pneumonia, bronchial fistula, and prolonged mechanical ventilation). 6 studies with a total of 3761 patients were included...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Investigative Medicine: the Official Publication of the American Federation for Clinical Research
YanRui Wang, ShaoJie Yue, ZiQiang Luo, ChuanDing Cao, XiaoHe Yu, ZhengChang Liao, MingJie Wang
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have suggested that endogenous glutamate and its N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) play important roles in hyperoxia-induced acute lung injury in newborn rats. We hypothesized that NMDAR activation also participates in the development of chronic lung injury after withdrawal of hyperoxic conditions. METHODS: In order to rule out the anti-inflammatory effects of NMDAR inhibitor on acute lung injury, the efficacy of MK-801 was evaluated in vivo using newborn Sprague-Dawley rats treated starting 4 days after cessation of hyperoxia exposure (on postnatal day 8)...
October 21, 2016: Respiratory Research
Xu Chu, Xiao-Ju Liu, Jing-Man Qiu, Xiao-Li Zeng, Hai-Rong Bao, Juan Shu
Astragalus and Codonopsis pilosula are used for their immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects. Here, we investigated the effects of Astragalus polysaccharides (APS) and Codonopsis pilosula polysaccharides (CPP) on alveolar macrophage (AM) phagocytosis and inflammation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) associated with exposure to particulate matter with a mean aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5μm (PM2.5). A mouse model of COPD was established by cigarette smoke exposure. PM2.5 exposure was performed by inhalation of a PM2...
October 14, 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Michael E Rezaee, Elizabeth L Nichols, Mandeep Sidhu, Jeremiah R Brown
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a well-recognized complication of left ventricular heart failure (HF). HYPOTHESIS: Differences exist in demographic, clinical, hemodynamic, and survival characteristics of patients with left ventricular HF who have combined postcapillary and precapillary PH (CpcPH), isolated postcapillary PH, or no PH. METHODS: A secondary data analysis was conducted using a large prospective database of patients undergoing right heart catheterization from 1994 to 2012...
October 21, 2016: Clinical Cardiology
Christine M Freeman, Jeffrey L Curtis
Hallmarks of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) include innate inflammation and remodeling of small airways that begin in early disease and the development of lung lymphoid follicles (LLF), indicative of adaptive immunity, in more spirometrically-severe stages. Common to these processes in all stages is orchestration by dendritic cells (DC). Recently improved understanding of the analogous lung DC subsets in humans and mice has allowed for better integration and interpretation of the experimental and clinical pathological literature...
October 21, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
J R Baker, C Vuppusetty, T Colley, Andriana I Papaioannou, P Fenwick, Louise Donnelly, K Ito, P J Barnes
Sirtuin-1 (SIRT1) and SIRT6, NAD(+)-dependent Class III protein deacetylases, are putative anti-aging enzymes, down-regulated in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which is characterized by the accelerated ageing of the lung and associated with increased oxidative stress. Here, we show that oxidative stress (hydrogen peroxide) selectively elevates microRNA-34a (miR-34a) but not the related miR-34b/c, with concomitant reduction of SIRT1/-6 in bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS2B), which was also observed in peripheral lung samples from patients with COPD...
October 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
Vidya Ramachandraiah, Wilbert Aronow, Dipak Chandy
Sarcoidosis is a multisystem disease characterized by the presence of noncaseating granulomas, the exact etiology of which is yet to be determined. Pulmonary involvement occurs in the majority of patients and its severity ranges from asymptomatic involvement of mediastinal lymph nodes to progressive pulmonary fibrosis and chronic respiratory failure that is insensitive to treatment. Diagnosis of pulmonary sarcoidosis requires a compatible clinical picture supported by radiologic and pathologic data. A recent development in establishing the diagnosis of pulmonary sarcoidosis is endobronchial ultrasound that increases the yield of transbronchial needle aspiration of hilar and/or mediastinal lymph nodes...
October 21, 2016: Postgraduate Medicine
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