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Dietary sources of apigenin

Raul Zamora-Ros, David Achaintre, Joseph A Rothwell, Sabina Rinaldi, Nada Assi, Pietro Ferrari, Michael Leitzmann, Marie-Christine Boutron-Ruault, Guy Fagherazzi, Aurélie Auffret, Tilman Kühn, Verena Katzke, Heiner Boeing, Antonia Trichopoulou, Androniki Naska, Effie Vasilopoulou, Domenico Palli, Sara Grioni, Amalia Mattiello, Rosario Tumino, Fulvio Ricceri, Nadia Slimani, Isabelle Romieu, Augustin Scalbert
Urinary excretion of 34 dietary polyphenols and their variations according to diet and other lifestyle factors were measured by tandem mass spectrometry in 475 adult participants from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cross-sectional study. A single 24-hour urine sample was analysed for each subject from 4 European countries. The highest median levels were observed for phenolic acids such as 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (157 μmol/24 h), followed by 3-hydroxyphenylacetic, ferulic, vanillic and homovanillic acids (20-50 μmol/24 h)...
2016: Scientific Reports
Gangcheng Wu, Stuart K Johnson, Janet F Bornman, Sarita J Bennett, Michael W Clarke, Vijaya Singh, Zhongxiang Fang
Polyphenols in sorghum grains are a source of dietary antioxidants. Polyphenols in six diverse sorghum genotypes grown under two day/night temperature regimes of optimal temperature (OT, 32/21 °C and high temperature (HT, 38/21 °C) were investigated. A total of 23 phenolic compounds were positively or tentatively identified by HPLC-DAD-ESIMS. Compared with other pigmented types, the phenolic profile of white sorghum PI563516 was simpler, since fewer polyphenols were detected. Brown sorghum IS 8525 had the highest levels of caffeic and ferulic acid, but apigenin and luteolin were not detected...
February 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
Kapil K Patil, Rohan J Meshram, Nagesh A Dhole, Rajesh N Gacche
Sugar induced cataractogenesis and visual impairment is more prominent ophthalmic problem in humans suffering from diabetes. Flavonoids have been identified as one of the therapeutically important class of phytochemicals possessing myriad of biological activities. Analyzing the anti-cataract effects of flavonoids from natural sources is an important aspect owing to their bioavailability in variety of dietary sources. In the present study a panel of ten dietary flavonoids like 3, 6-dihydroxy flavone, 3, 7-dihydroxy flavone, chrysin, 3-hydroxy-7-methoxy flavone, apigenin, genistein, baicalein, galangin, Biochanin-A, and diosmin were evaluated for their anti-cataract effects in sugar induced lens model studies...
March 1, 2016: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
Weicheng Hu, Xinfeng Wang, Lei Wu, Ting Shen, Lilian Ji, Xihong Zhao, Chuan-Ling Si, Yunyao Jiang, Gongcheng Wang
Apigenin-7-O-β-D-glucuronide (AG), an active flavonoid derivative isolated from the agricultural residue of Juglans sigillata fruit husks, possesses multiple pharmacological activities, including anti-oxidant, anti-complement, and aldose reductase inhibitory activities. To date, no report has identified the anti-inflammatory mechanisms of AG. This study was therefore designed to characterize the molecular mechanisms of AG on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory cytokines in RAW 264.7 cells and on endotoxin-induced shock in mice...
February 2016: Food & Function
Iva Boušová, Lenka Skálová, Pavel Souček, Petra Matoušková
Carbonyl reductase 1 (CBR1), an enzyme belonging to the short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases family, has been detected in all human tissues. CBR1 catalyzes the reduction of many xenobiotics, including important drugs (e.g. anthracyclines, nabumetone, bupropion, dolasetron) and harmful carbonyls and quinones. Moreover, it participates in the metabolism of a number of endogenous compounds and it may play a role in certain pathologies. Plant polyphenols are not only present in many human food sources, but are also a component of many popular dietary supplements and herbal medicines...
2015: Drug Metabolism Reviews
Noura Eid, Sumia Enani, Gemma Walton, Giulia Corona, Adele Costabile, Glenn Gibson, Ian Rowland, Jeremy P E Spencer
The fruit of the date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) is a rich source of dietary fibre and polyphenols. We have investigated gut bacterial changes induced by the whole date fruit extract (digested date extract; DDE) and its polyphenol-rich extract (date polyphenol extract; DPE) using faecal, pH-controlled, mixed batch cultures mimicking the distal part of the human large intestine, and utilising an array of microbial group-specific 16S rRNA oligonucleotide probes. Fluorescence microscopic enumeration indicated that there was a significant increase in the growth of bifidobacteria in response to both treatments, whilst whole dates also increased bacteroides at 24 h and the total bacterial counts at later fermentation time points when compared with DPE alone...
2014: Journal of Nutritional Science
Isabella D'Antuono, Antonella Garbetta, Vito Linsalata, Fiorenza Minervini, Angela Cardinali
Artichoke is a rich source of health promoting compounds such as polyphenols, important for their pharmaceutical and nutritional properties. In this study, the potential for bioavailability of the artichoke polyphenols was estimated by using both in vitro digestion and Caco-2 human intestinal cell models. In vitro digestive recoveries (bio-accessibility) were found to be 55.8% for total artichoke phenolics and in particular, 70.0% for chlorogenic acid, 41.3% for 3,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid, and 50.3% for 1,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid, highlighting potential sensitivity of these compounds to gastric and small intestinal digestive conditions...
April 2015: Food & Function
Seyed Mohammad Nabavi, Solomon Habtemariam, Maria Daglia, Seyed Fazel Nabavi
Breast cancer is one of the most common causes of the death among women worldwide. Metabolic disorders, alcohol consumption, hormone replacement therapy, genetic susceptibility and not having children are well known risk factors for breast cancer. Surgical resection, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy are among the limited treatment options for breast cancer. Thus, there is growing need to find new chemopreventive agents that may be effective in prevention and/or management of breast cancer. Natural products such as flavonoids provide a variety of anticancer compounds which can be useful for prevention or treatment of breast cancer...
2015: Anti-cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
Gaetano Pandino, Sara Lombardo, Andrea Moglia, Ezio Portis, Sergio Lanteri, Giovanni Mauromicale
The dietary value of many plant polyphenols lies in the protection given against degenerative pathologies. Their in planta role is associated with the host's defense response against biotic and abiotic stress. The polyphenol content of a given plant tissue is strongly influenced by the growing environment, but is also genetically determined. Plants belonging to the Cynara cardunculus species (globe artichoke and the cultivated and wild cardoon) accumulate substantial quantities of polyphenols mainly mono and di-caffeoylquinic acid (CQA) in their foliage...
2014: Frontiers in Plant Science
V A Tutel'ian, N V Lashneva
Flavonoids are the most numerous group of natural polyphenolic compounds, the secondary metabolites of plants that may play an important role in human health protection. Flavonols and flavones constitute the main two classes of flavonoids, whose antioxidant properties and high biological activity have been proofed both in vitro and in vivo. This review summarizes data, concerning the structure, occurrence and content of the main flavonols (quercetin, kaempherol, myricetin, isorhamnetin) and flavones (apigenin, luteolin) in some most widely consumed foodstuffs, including vegetables, fruits, berries, nuts, beverages and other products of plant origin...
2013: Voprosy Pitaniia
M Zulfiquer Hossain, Samuel F Gilbert, Kalpesh Patel, Soma Ghosh, Anil K Bhunia, Scott E Kern
Population differences in age-related diseases and cancer could stem from differences in diet. To characterize DNA strand-breaking activities in selected foods/beverages, flavorings, and some of their constituent chemicals, we used p53R cells, a cellular assay sensitive to such breaks. Substances testing positive included reference chemicals: quinacrine (peak response, 51×) and etoposide (33×); flavonoids: EGCG (19×), curcumin (12×), apigenin (9×), and quercetin (7×); beverages: chamomile (11×), green (21×), and black tea (26×) and coffee (3-29×); and liquid smoke (4-28×)...
May 2013: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Xin Tong, Jill C Pelling
Natural products are important sources of anti-cancer lead molecules, and high dietary consumption of fruits and vegetables is associated with a reduced risk of certain cancers. Many efforts have been devoted to identifying and developing plant-derived dietary constituents as chemopreventive agents. Among them, apigenin, a naturally occurring flavonoid found in a variety of fruits and leafy vegetables, has been shown to possess remarkable anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-carcinogenic properties. This review summarizes the anti-cancer and chemopreventive effects of apigenin at cellular and molecular levels, its chemical structure and properties, with focus on mechanism related to apigenin's inhibition of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathways...
September 2013: Anti-cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
Émilie C Lefort, Jonathan Blay
Apigenin (4',5,7-trihydroxyflavone, 5,7-dihydroxy-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one) is a flavonoid found in many fruits, vegetables, and herbs, the most abundant sources being the leafy herb parsley and dried flowers of chamomile. Present in dietary sources as a glycoside, it is cleaved in the gastrointestinal lumen to be absorbed and distributed as apigenin itself. For this reason, the epithelium of the gastrointestinal tract is exposed to higher concentrations of apigenin than tissues at other locations...
January 2013: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Giuseppe Colla, Youssef Rouphael, Mariateresa Cardarelli, Eva Svecova, Elvira Rea, Luigi Lucini
BACKGROUND: Cynara cardunculus is a species native to the Mediterranean basin. It includes globe artichoke and cultivated cardoon as well as their progenitor wild cardoon. The species is a source of biophenols, and its leaf extracts have been widely used in herbal medicine as hepatoprotectors and choleretics since ancient times. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of increasing the level of salinity in the nutrient solution (1 or 30 mmol L⁻¹ NaCl) on biomass production, mineral composition, radical-scavenging activity, caffeoylquinic acids and flavonoids in three artichoke ('Romolo', 'Violetto di Provenza' and 'Violetto di Romagna') and three cultivated cardoon ('Bianco Avorio', 'Bianco Gigante Inerme' and 'Gigante di Romagna') cultivars grown in a floating system...
March 30, 2013: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Rhanissa Hirawan, William Diehl-Jones, Trust Beta
Cellular oxidative damage by endogenous and exogenous sources of free radicals and reactive oxygen species is a particular threat in infants. Antioxidant protection is normally achieved through a balance between pro-oxidants and endogenous and/or dietary antioxidants. Comprehensive research is required on optimization to achieve good antioxidant protection through infant foods, in particular, the commercially available infant cereals. This study therefore investigated the properties of whole purple wheat, unpolished red rice, and partially polished red rice before and after processing to produce infant cereals...
December 14, 2011: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Gaetano Pandino, Fraser L Courts, Sara Lombardo, Giovanni Mauromicale, Gary Williamson
The species Cynara cardunculus is consumed as part of the Mediterranean diet and consists of the globe artichoke [var. scolymus (L.) Fiori], the cultivated cardoon (var. altilis DC.), and the wild cardoon [var. sylvestris (Lamk) Fiori]. The objective of this study was to investigate, in immature inflorescences, the main flavonoids and phenolic acids (caffeoylquinic acids, apigenin, and luteolin derivatives) by HPLC/diode array detection/mass spectrometry. Apigenin derivatives represented the major class in all samples investigated, highest in cardoon forms...
January 27, 2010: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Rafael Japón-Luján, Patricia Janeiro, María Dolores Luque de Castro
A continuous approach assisted by ultrasound for direct enrichment of edible oils (olive, sunflower, and soya) with the main phenols in olive leaves (i.e., oleuropein, verbascoside, apigenin-7-glucoside, and luteolin-7-glucoside) has been developed. Multivariate methodology was used to carry out a detailed optimization of the enrichment, and quantitation of the transferred compounds was based on LC-MS-MS in multiple reaction monitoring optimizing the most sensitive transition for each biophenol. Under the optimal working conditions, only 20 min is necessary to enrich the edible oils with 14...
August 27, 2008: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Shawn M Somerset, Lidwine Johannot
Evidence from laboratory-based in vitro studies provides compelling evidence supporting the involvement of dietary flavonoid intake in human cancer risk. Associations between intakes of individual flavonoids and disease outcomes at the population level are emerging from recent epidemiological studies. As an important step in the development of methods to assess flavonoid intakes across populations, the major sources of dietary flavonoids in the adult Australian population were identified. Data from a 24-h diet recall questionnaire used in a national nutrition survey (NNS95-comprising a sample of 10,851 subjects aged 19 yr and over) were combined with U...
2008: Nutrition and Cancer
Lidwine Johannot, Shawn M Somerset
OBJECTIVE: To estimate flavonoid intake in the Australian population. DESIGN: Flavonoid consumption was estimated from 24-hour recall data and apparent consumption data using US Department of Agriculture flavonoid composition data. SUBJECTS: The National Nutrition Survey 1995 assessed dietary intake (24-hour recall) in a representative sample (n=13,858) of the Australian population aged 2 years and over. RESULTS: Analysis of the 24-hour recall data indicated an average adult intake (>18 years) of 454 mg day(-1) (92% being flavan-3-ols)...
December 2006: Public Health Nutrition
Katrin Schütz, Erna Muks, Reinhold Carle, Andreas Schieber
Dietary supplements are among the most rapidly growing products in the food and personal care market with an estimated worldwide volume exceeding $60 billion. The main problem associated with dietary supplements is their legal classification. Being neither food nor medicine, they often inhabit a gray area between the two, which makes legal regulatory extremely difficult. Thus, a coexistence of products processed from the same botanical source on the same market as dietary supplement or pharmaceutical is possible...
November 15, 2006: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
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