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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151108/a-phenomenological-account-of-sensorimotor-difficulties-in-autism-intentionality-movement-and-proprioception
#1
Till D A Grohmann
During the last decades, the focus in autism research has been progressively extended. Today it offers a large amount of material on sensorimotor disturbances as well as perceptive-cognitive preferences of people with autism. However, there are more and more critical voices against an intellectualist perspective in the cognitive sciences. The "enactive approach" as well as a new "movement perspective" to autism challenge the view of autism as a mere "cognitive" disturbance. They criticize the conception of a cognizing subject which is only interested in the world in as much as she/he can extract knowledge and organize it rationally...
November 18, 2017: Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149443/migration-of-interneuron-precursors-in-the-nascent-cerebellar-cortex
#2
Annika K Wefers, Christian Haberlandt, Lachezar Surchev, Christian Steinhäuser, Ronald Jabs, Karl Schilling
The cerebellum arguably constitutes one of the best characterized central nervous circuits, and its structure, cellular function, and histogenesis have been described in exceptional quantitative detail. A notable exception to this is the development of its inhibitory interneurons, and in particular the extensive migrations of future basket and stellate cells. Here, we used acute slices from 8-day-old mice to assess the migration of Pax2-EGFP-tagged precursors of these cells en route to the molecular layer during their transit through the nascent cerebellar cortex...
November 17, 2017: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148845/speech-recovery-and-language-plasticity-can-be-facilitated-by-sensori-motor-fusion-training-in-chronic-non-fluent-aphasia-a-case-report-study
#3
Célise Haldin, Audrey Acher, Louise Kauffmann, Thomas Hueber, Emilie Cousin, Pierre Badin, Pascal Perrier, Diandra Fabre, Dominic Perennou, Olivier Detante, Assia Jaillard, Hélène Lœvenbruck, Monica Baciu
The rehabilitation of speech disorders benefits from providing visual information which may improve speech motor plans in patients. We tested the proof of concept of a rehabilitation method (Sensori-Motor Fusion, SMF; Ultraspeech player) in one post-stroke patient presenting chronic non-fluent aphasia. SMF allows visualisation by the patient of target tongue and lips movements using high-speed ultrasound and video imaging. This can improve the patient's awareness of his/her own lingual and labial movements, which can, in turn, improve the representation of articulatory movements and increase the ability to coordinate and combine articulatory gestures...
November 17, 2017: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148137/brain-computer-interfaces-with-multi-sensory-feedback-for-stroke-rehabilitation-a-case-study
#4
Danut C Irimia, Woosang Cho, Rupert Ortner, Brendan Z Allison, Bogdan E Ignat, Guenter Edlinger, Christoph Guger
Conventional therapies do not provide paralyzed patients with closed-loop sensorimotor integration for motor rehabilitation. This work presents the recoveriX system, a hardware and software platform that combines a motor imagery (MI)-based brain-computer interface (BCI), functional electrical stimulation (FES), and visual feedback technologies for a complete sensorimotor closed-loop therapy system for poststroke rehabilitation. The proposed system was tested on two chronic stroke patients in a clinical environment...
November 2017: Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146284/supervised-learning-techniques-and-their-ability-to-classify-a-change-of-direction-task-strategy-using-kinematic-and-kinetic-features
#5
Chris Richter, Enda King, Eanna Falvey, Andrew Franklyn-Miller
This study examines the ability of commonly used supervised learning techniques to classify the execution of a maximum effort change of direction task into predefined movement pattern as well as the influence of fuzzy executions and the impact of selected features (e.g. peak knee flexion) towards classification accuracy. The experiment utilized kinematic and kinetic data from 323 male subjects with chronic athletic groin pain. All subjects undertook a biomechanical assessment and had been divided previously into 3 different movement strategies in an earlier paper...
October 31, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145168/frontal-infraslow-activity-marks-the-motor-spasms-of-anti-lgi1-encephalitis
#6
Richard Wennberg, Claude Steriade, Robert Chen, Danielle Andrade
OBJECTIVE: The clinical and electrographic features of seizures in anti-LGI1 encephalitis are distinct from those seen in other autoimmune encephalitides or non-encephalitic epilepsies. One electroclinical phenomenon specific to the condition consists of lateralized motor spasms, known as faciobrachial dystonic seizures (FBDS). An electrodecremental pattern overriding a "DC shift" has been described as the EEG correlate of these spasms. We sought to further characterize this pre-spasm infraslow activity (ISA)...
October 28, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144185/rest-activity-circadian-rhythm-and-sleep-quality-in-patients-with-binge-eating-disorder
#7
E Roveda, A Montaruli, L Galasso, C Pesenti, E Bruno, P Pasanisi, M Cortellini, S Rampichini, S Erzegovesi, A Caumo, F Esposito
Recent findings suggest that altered rest-activity circadian rhythms (RARs) are associated with a compromised health status. RARs abnormalities have been observed also in several pathological conditions, such as cardiovascular, neurological, and cancer diseases. Binge eating disorder (BED) is the most common eating disorder, with a prevalence of 3.5% in women and 2% in men. BED and its associate obesity and motor inactivity could induce RARs disruption and have negative consequences on health-related quality of life...
November 16, 2017: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143206/characteristics-of-two-distinct-clinical-phenotypes-of-functional-psychogenic-dystonia-follow-up-study
#8
Igor N Petrović, Aleksandra Tomić, Marija Mitković Vončina, Danilo Pešić, Vladimir S Kostić
BACKGROUND: The fixed dystonia phenotype was originally established as a prototype of functional dystonia. Nevertheless, in recent reports different functional dystonia phenotypes have been recognized with dystonic movement comprising phasic instead of tonic contraction. OBJECTIVES: To examine clinical characteristic in all patients with dystonia who fulfilled the criteria for functional movement disorders irrespective of phenotype in an attempt to determine parameters of clinical presentations that might impact the disease progression pattern and outcome...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142242/emergent-patterns-of-collective-cell-migration-under-tubular-confinement
#9
Wang Xi, Surabhi Sonam, Thuan Beng Saw, Benoit Ladoux, Chwee Teck Lim
Collective epithelial behaviors are essential for the development of lumens in organs. However, conventional assays of planar systems fail to replicate cell cohorts of tubular structures that advance in concerted ways on out-of-plane curved and confined surfaces, such as ductal elongation in vivo. Here, we mimic such coordinated tissue migration by forming lumens of epithelial cell sheets inside microtubes of 1-10 cell lengths in diameter. We show that these cell tubes reproduce the physiological apical-basal polarity, and have actin alignment, cell orientation, tissue organization, and migration modes that depend on the extent of tubular confinement and/or curvature...
November 15, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142117/long-necks-enhance-and-constrain-foraging-capacity-in-aquatic-vertebrates
#10
Rory P Wilson, Agustina Gómez-Laich, Juan-Emilio Sala, Giacomo Dell'Omo, Mark D Holton, Flavio Quintana
Highly specialized diving birds display substantial dichotomy in neck length with, for example, cormorants and anhingas having extreme necks, while penguins and auks have minimized necks. We attached acceleration loggers to Imperial cormorants Phalacrocorax atriceps and Magellanic penguins Spheniscus magellanicus, both foraging in waters over the Patagonian Shelf, to examine the difference in movement between their respective heads and bodies in an attempt to explain this dichotomy. The penguins had head and body attitudes and movements that broadly concurred throughout all phases of their dives...
November 29, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142098/the-acquisition-of-skilled-finger-movements-is-accompanied-by-the-reorganization-of-the-corticospinal-system
#11
Masato Hirano, Shinji Kubota, Shinichi Furuya, Yoshiki Koizume, Shinya Tanaka, Kozo Funase
Dexterous finger movements are often characterized by highly coordinated movements. Such coordination might be derived from reorganization of the corticospinal system. In this study, we investigated 1) the manner in which finger movement covariation patterns are acquired by examining the effects of the implicit and explicit learning of a serial reaction time task (SRTT), and 2) how such changes in finger coordination are represented in the corticospinal system. The subjects learned a button press sequence in both implicit and explicit learning conditions...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141881/it-s-not-all-black-and-white-visual-scene-parameters-influence-optokinetic-reflex-performance-in-xenopus-laevis-tadpoles
#12
Céline M Gravot, Alexander G Knorr, Stefan Glasauer, Hans Straka
The maintenance of visual acuity during active and passive body motion is ensured by gaze-stabilizing reflexes that aim at minimizing retinal image slip. For the optokinetic reflex (OKR), large-field visual motion of the surround forms the essential stimulus that activates eye movements. Properties of the moving visual world influence cognitive motion perception and the estimation of visual image velocity. Therefore, the performance of brainstem-mediated visuo-motor behaviors might also depend on image scene characteristics...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141615/kinematic-characterization-of-clinically-observed-aberrant-movement-patterns-in-patients-with-non-specific-low-back-pain-a-cross-sectional-study
#13
Peemongkon Wattananon, David Ebaugh, Scott A Biely, Susan S Smith, Gregory E Hicks, Sheri P Silfies
BACKGROUND: Clinical observation of aberrant movement patterns during active forward bending is one criterion used to identify patients with non-specific low back pain suspected to have movement coordination impairment. The purpose of this study was to describe and quantify kinematic patterns of the pelvis and trunk using a dynamics systems approach, and determine agreement between clinical observation and kinematic classification. METHOD: Ninety-eight subjects performed repeated forward bending with clinical observation and kinematic data simultaneously collected...
November 15, 2017: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141506/triathlon-transition-study-quantifying-differences-in-running-movement-pattern-and-precision-after-bike-run-transition
#14
Christian Weich, Randall L Jensen, Manfred Vieten
Various publications discuss the discrepancies of running in triathlons and stand-alone runs. However, those methods, such as analysing step-characteristics or ground-contact time, lack the ability to quantitatively discriminate between subtle running differences. The attractor method can be applied to overcome those shortcomings. The purpose was to detect differences in athletes' running patterns (δM) and movement precision (δD) by comparing a 5,000 m run after a prior cycling session (TRun) with an isolated run over the same distance (IRun)...
November 15, 2017: Sports Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140527/functional-organization-of-face-processing-in-the-human-superior-temporal-sulcus-a-7t-high-resolution-fmri-study
#15
Anne-Kathrin Schobert, Corrado Corradi-Dell'Acqua, Sascha Frühholz, Wietske van der Zwaag, Patrik Vuilleumier
The superior temporal sulcus (STS) is a major component of the human face perception network, implicated in processing dynamic changeable aspects of faces. However, it remains unknown whether STS holds functionally segregated subdivisions for different categories of facial movements. We used high-resolution functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) at 7T in 16 volunteers to compare STS activation to faces displaying angry or happy expressions, eye-gaze shifts, and lip-speech movements. Combining univariate and multivariate analyses, we show a systematic topological organization within STS, with gaze-related activity predominating in the most posterior and superior sector, speech-related activity in the anterior sector, and emotional expressions represented in the intermediate middle STS...
November 11, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139648/upper-palaeolithic-and-mesolithic-ornamental-traditions-in-the-eastern-adriatic-coast-and-hinterland
#16
Barbara Cvitkušić
Archaeological finds of personal ornaments reveal not only behavioural patterns of the society they belong to, but also their forms of manifestations indicate connections, contacts and communication paths, exchange networks and movements of prehistoric populations. This paper advances the current knowledge regarding ornamental traditions in Eastern Adriatic area during Late Upper Palaeolithic and Mesolithic periods. Thirteen prehistoric sites from this area have yielded more than thousand finds of ornamental assemblage, making Eastern Adriatic coast and hinterland fruitful area for the research of this type of archaeological assemblage...
March 2017: Collegium Antropologicum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139642/matrilineal-heritage-in-southern-iberia-reveals-deep-genetic-links-between-continents
#17
Candela L Hernández, Rosario Calderón
Within the Mediterranean Basin, the Iberian Peninsula has been a focus of attraction for several cultures and civilizations from its prehistory and history, making it a target territory for studying human migration patterns and peopling processes using a wide and heterogeneous spectrum of genomic markers. While its Cantabrian fringe represents the most regularly analysed area in terms of its mitochondrial diversity, the absence of monographic surveys on the maternal genetic composition of southern Iberians (i...
March 2017: Collegium Antropologicum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135813/pendular-seesaw-nystagmus-in-a-patient-with-a-giant-pituitary-macroadenoma-pathophysiology-and-the-role-of-the-accessory-optic-system
#18
Peter Yat-Ming Woo, Saori Takemura, Allen Ming-Yan Cheong, Alberto Chi-Ho Chu, Yung Chan, Hoi-Tung Wong, Kwong-Yau Chan
Seesaw nystagmus is characterized by cyclic eye movements with a conjugate torsional component and a dissociated vertical component. In the first half of the cycle, one eye elevates and intorts, whereas the other eye depresses and extorts. The pattern is reversed in the remaining half of the cycle. We describe a patient with a giant pituitary adenoma who developed pendular seesaw nystagmus. Disturbance in the visuovestibular system is postulated to contribute to this form of seesaw nystagmus. Lesions compressing the optic chiasm and the accessory optic system could interrupt the transmission of retinal error signals to the inferior olivary nucleus and the interstitial nucleus of Cajal, thus interfering with the adaptive mechanism of the vestibulo-ocular reflex and leading to pendular seesaw nystagmus...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Neuro-ophthalmology: the Official Journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134672/quantitative-aspects-of-the-ruminating-process-in-giraffes-giraffa-camelopardalis-fed-with-different-diets
#19
Dominik Schüßler, Hartmut Greven
Giraffes are ruminants feeding on fresh browse and twigs in the wild, but in zoos, their diet is mainly based on alfalfa hay, grains, and pellets occasionally supplemented by twigs and foliage. These diets, which differ in composition and digestibility, affect the behavior of the animals, tooth wear patterns, and chewing efficiency. We quantified several parameters of the rumination process in ten zoo housed giraffes of different sexes and ages fed either with alfalfa hay, fresh browse, or a combination of both...
November 14, 2017: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134073/why-did-the-pheasant-cross-the-road-long-term-road-mortality-patterns-in-relation-to-management-changes
#20
Joah R Madden, Sarah E Perkins
Pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) are commonly killed on UK roads, presenting a threat to motorists and a loss to the game shooting industry. Pheasants may be inherently susceptible, or the recent increase in their artificial rearing and release may have exacerbated the situation, either through population increases or because artificial rearing has altered movement behaviour. We compared intra-annual patterns of roadkill reported in the UK from the 1960s (prior to the onset of mass release programmes) with that from the 2010s (when pheasant release was well established and widespread), considering roadkill sex and locations and accounting for changes in traffic levels...
October 2017: Royal Society Open Science
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