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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334647/time-resolved-decoding-of-planned-delayed-and-immediate-prehension-movements
#1
Giacomo Ariani, Nikolaas N Oosterhof, Angelika Lingnau
Different contexts require us either to react immediately, or to delay (or suppress) a planned movement. Previous studies that aimed at decoding movement plans typically dissociated movement preparation and execution by means of delayed-movement paradigms. Here we asked whether these results can be generalized to the planning and execution of immediate movements. To directly compare delayed, non-delayed, and suppressed reaching and grasping movements, we used a slow event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) design...
December 23, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333618/age-associated-urethral-dysfunction-in-urethane-anesthetized-rats
#2
Ryu Kimura, Minoru Miyazato, Asuka Ashikari, Takuma Oshiro, Seiichi Saito
AIMS: We aimed to investigate the age-associated changes in movement coordination between the urinary bladder and the urethra in rats. METHODS: A total of 17 female Sprague-Dawley rats were used. The rats were divided into young (3 months old) and middle-aged (12-15 months old) groups. In both groups, isovolumetric cystometry and urethral perfusion pressure (UPP) measurements were performed under urethane anesthesia. After the rhythmic bladder contractions stabilized, L-arginine, a nitric oxide (NO) substrate (100 mg/kg), was administered intravenously in both groups...
January 15, 2018: Neurourology and Urodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333481/theta-sequences-of-grid-cell-populations-can-provide-a-movement-direction-signal
#3
Ipshita Zutshi, Jill K Leutgeb, Stefan Leutgeb
It has been proposed that path integration in mammals is performed by the convergence of internally generated speed and directional inputs onto grid cells. Although this hypothesis has been supported by the discovery that head direction, speed, and grid cells are intermixed within entorhinal cortex and by the recent finding that head-direction inputs are necessary for grid firing, many details on how grid cells are generated have remained elusive. For example, analysis of recording data suggests that substituting head direction for movement direction accrues errors that preclude the formation of grid patterns...
October 2017: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332497/dosimetric-analysis-of-microscopic-disease-in-sbrt-for-lung-cancers
#4
Ronghu Mao, Lingling Tian, You Zhang, Lei Ren, Renqi Gao, Fang-Fang Yin, Hong Ge
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to theoretically and experimentally evaluate the dosimetry in the microscopic disease regions surrounding the tumor under stereotactic body radiation therapy of lung cancer. METHODS: For simplicity, the tumor was considered moving along 1 dimension with a periodic function. The probability distribution function of the tumor position was generated according to the motion pattern and was used to estimate the delivered dose in the microscopic disease region...
December 2017: Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332070/pathophysiologic-basis-of-movement-disorders
#5
Thomas Wichmann
Movement disorders are common and functionally disabling neurologic diseases. Studies over the last decades have investigated the pathophysiology of these diseases in considerable detail, leading to significant insights into their generation of motor disability. While genetically and clinically heterogeneous, most of them are accompanied by prominent and characteristic changes in firing rates and patterns in the basal ganglia, thalamus, and cortex. In recent years, researchers have placed increasing emphasis on the importance of oscillatory changes in firing in these structures, and have discovered that brain areas that were previously considered to be remote from the basal ganglia (such as the cerebellum and the pedunculopontine nucleus) are also highly significant in these disorders...
2018: Progress in Neurological Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331489/modulation-of-lower-extremity-joint-stiffness-work-and-power-at-different-walking-and-running-speeds
#6
Li Jin, Michael E Hahn
Locomotion task and speed changes affect dynamic joint function. Walking and running require different coordination patterns of lower extremity joint mechanics. These coordination differences can result in measurable changes in kinematic and kinetic patterns. When locomotion speed changes, the functional role and movement strategy of each joint is altered. A deeper understanding of joint level mechanics and functional interactions will benefit rehabilitation programs and assistive device development. In this study, joint stiffness, joint mechanical work and power were assessed, as they relate to dynamic function of joints during locomotion...
January 10, 2018: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330326/loss-of-balance-between-striatal-feedforward-inhibition-and-corticostriatal-excitation-leads-to-tremor
#7
Yael Oran, Izhar Bar-Gad
Fast spiking interneurons (FSIs) exert powerful inhibitory control over the striatum and are hypothesized to balance the massive excitatory cortical and thalamic input to this structure. We recorded neuronal activity in the dorsolateral striatum and globus pallidus (GP) concurrently with the detailed movement kinematics of freely behaving female rats prior to and following selective inhibition of FSI activity using IEM-1460 microinjections. The inhibition led to the appearance of episodic rest tremor in the body part that depended on the somatotopic location of the injection within the striatum...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329534/a-large-scale-study-of-a-poultry-trading-network-in-bangladesh-implications-for-control-and-surveillance-of-avian-influenza-viruses
#8
N Moyen, G Ahmed, S Gupta, T Tenzin, R Khan, T Khan, N Debnath, M Yamage, D U Pfeiffer, G Fournie
BACKGROUND: Since its first report in 2007, avian influenza (AI) has been endemic in Bangladesh. While live poultry marketing is widespread throughout the country and known to influence AI dissemination and persistence, trading patterns have not been described. The aim of this study is to assess poultry trading practices and features of the poultry trading networks which could promote AI spread, and their potential implications for disease control and surveillance. Data on poultry trading practices was collected from 849 poultry traders during a cross-sectional survey in 138 live bird markets (LBMs) across 17 different districts of Bangladesh...
January 12, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328866/proteoglycans-as-immunomodulators-of-the-innate-immune-response-to-lung-infection
#9
Inkyung Kang, Mary Y Chang, Thomas N Wight, Charles W Frevert
Proteoglycans (PGs) are complex, multifaceted molecules that participate in diverse interactions vital for physiological and pathological processes. As structural components, they provide a scaffold for cells and structural organization that helps define tissue architecture. Through interactions with water, PGs enable molecular and cellular movement through tissues. Through selective ionic interactions with growth factors, chemokines, cytokines, and proteases, PGs facilitate the ability of these soluble ligands to regulate intracellular signaling events and to influence the inflammatory response...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry: Official Journal of the Histochemistry Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327823/a-previous-hamstring-injury-affects-kicking-mechanics-in-soccer-players
#10
Archit Navandar, Santiago Veiga, Gonzalo Torres, David Chorro, Enrique Navarro
BACKGROUND: Although the kicking skill is influenced by limb dominance and sex, how a previous hamstring injury affects kicking has not been studied in detail. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of sex and limb dominance on kicking in limbs with and without a previous hamstring injury. METHODS: 45 professional players (males: n=19, previously injured players=4, age=21.16 ± 2.00 years; females: n=19, previously injured players=10, age=22...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327424/the-choreography-of-group-affiliation
#11
Jorina von Zimmermann, Staci Vicary, Matthias Sperling, Guido Orgs, Daniel C Richardson
When two people move in synchrony, they become more social. Yet it is not clear how this effect scales up to larger numbers of people. Does a group need to move in unison to affiliate, in what we term unitary synchrony; or does affiliation arise from distributed coordination, patterns of coupled movements between individual members of a group? We developed choreographic tasks that manipulated movement synchrony without explicitly instructing groups to move in unison. Wrist accelerometers measured group movement dynamics and we applied cross-recurrence analysis to distinguish the temporal features of emergent unitary synchrony (simultaneous movement) and distributed coordination (coupled movement)...
January 12, 2018: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327332/salience-from-multiple-feature-contrast-evidence-from-saccade-trajectories
#12
Luke Tudge, Stephan A Brandt, Torsten Schubert
We used eye tracking to quantify the extent to which combinations of salient contrasts (orientation, luminance, and movement) influence a central salience map that guides eye movements. We found that luminance combined additively with orientation and movement, suggesting that the salience system processes luminance somewhat independently of the two other features. On the other hand, orientation and movement together influenced salience underadditively, suggesting that these two features are processed nonindependently...
January 11, 2018: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327331/calibration-of-peripheral-perception-of-shape-with-and-without-saccadic-eye-movements
#13
Céline Paeye, Thérèse Collins, Patrick Cavanagh, Arvid Herwig
The cortical representations of a visual object differ radically across saccades. Several studies claim that the visual system adapts the peripheral percept to better match the subsequent foveal view. Recently, Herwig, Weiß, and Schneider (2015, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1339(1), 97-105) found that the perception of shape demonstrates a saccade-dependent learning effect. Here, we ask whether this learning actually requires saccades. We replicated Herwig et al.'s (2015) study and introduced a fixation condition...
January 11, 2018: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326297/current-status-and-future-directions-of-l%C3%A3-vy-walk-research
#14
REVIEW
Andy M Reynolds
Lévy walks are a mathematical construction useful for describing random patterns of movement with bizarre fractal properties that seem to have no place in biology. Nonetheless, movement patterns resembling Lévy walks have been observed at scales ranging from the microscopic to the ecological. They have been seen in the molecular machinery operating within cells during intracellular trafficking, in the movement patterns of T cells within the brain, in DNA, in some molluscs, insects, fish, birds and mammals, in the airborne flights of spores and seeds, and in the collective movements of some animal groups...
January 11, 2018: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325969/population-structure-and-genetic-diversity-of-rhipicephalus-microplus-in-zimbabwe
#15
Marvelous Sungirai, Samantha Baron, Nicolaas A Van der Merwe, Doreen Zandile Moyo, Patrick De Clercq, Christine Maritz-Olivier, Maxime Madder
Recently there was an expansion in the geographic range of Rhipicephalus microplus in Zimbabwe. In order to understand gene flow patterns and population structure in this highly invasive and adaptable cattle tick, a population genetics study was carried out. Eighty-seven R. microplus tick samples drawn from 5 distinct populations were genotyped using eight polymorphic microsatellite loci. Genetic diversity (He) was high (0.755-0.802) in all the populations, suggesting high levels of gene flow with 97% of genetic variation found within populations and 3% amongst populations...
January 8, 2018: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325901/dynamic-structure-of-lower-limb-joint-angles-during-walking-post-stroke
#16
Kelley Kempski, Louis N Awad, Thomas S Buchanan, Jill S Higginson, Brian A Knarr
BACKGROUND: Variability in joint kinematics is necessary for adaptability and response to everyday perturbations; however, intrinsic neuromotor changes secondary to stroke often cause abnormal movement patterns. How these abnormal movement patterns relate to joint kinematic variability and its influence on post-stroke walking impairments is not well understood. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the movement variability at the individual joint level in the paretic and non-paretic limbs of individuals post-stroke...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325620/primary-familial-brain-calcifications
#17
Beatriz Quintáns, Joao Oliveira, María-Jesús Sobrido
Primary familial brain calcification (PFBC) is a neurodegenerative disease with characteristic calcium deposits in the basal ganglia and other brain regions. The disease usually presents as a combination of abnormal movements, cognitive and psychiatric manifestations, clinically indistinguishable from other adult-onset neurodegenerative disorders. The differential diagnosis must be established with genetic and nongenetic disorders that can also lead to calcium deposits in encephalic structures. In the past years PFBC causal mutations have been discovered in genes related to calcium phosphate homeostasis (SLC20A2, XPR1) and in genes involved with endothelial function and integrity (PDGFB, PDGFRB)...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325577/dynamic-kinematics-of-the-glenohumeral-joint-in-shoulders-with-rotator-cuff-tears
#18
Naoya Kozono, Takamitsu Okada, Naohide Takeuchi, Satoshi Hamai, Hidehiko Higaki, Takeshi Shimoto, Satoru Ikebe, Hirotaka Gondo, Yoshitaka Nakanishi, Takahiro Senju, Yasuharu Nakashima
BACKGROUND: No clear trend has emerged from the literature regarding three-dimensional (3D) translations of the humerus relative to the scapula in shoulders with rotator cuff tears (RCTs). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the kinematics of RCT shoulders using 3D-to-two-dimensional (2D) model-to-image registration techniques. METHODS: Dynamic glenohumeral kinematics during scapular plane abduction and axial rotation were analyzed in 11 RCT patients and 10 healthy control subjects...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324879/localized-zinc-distribution-in-shark-vertebrae-suggests-differential-deposition-during-ontogeny-and-across-vertebral-structures
#19
Vincent Raoult, Nicholas Howell, David Zahra, Victor M Peddemors, Daryl L Howard, Martin D de Jonge, Benjamin L Buchan, Jane E Williamson
The development of shark vertebrae and the possible drivers of inter- and intra-specific differences in vertebral structure are poorly understood. Shark vertebrae are used to examine life-history traits related to trophic ecology, movement patterns, and the management of fisheries; a better understanding of their development would be beneficial to many fields of research that rely on these calcified structures. This study used Scanning X-ray Fluorescence Microscopy to observe zinc distribution within vertebrae of ten shark species from five different orders...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324862/taking-two-to-tango-fmri-analysis-of-improvised-joint-action-with-physical-contact
#20
Léa A S Chauvigné, Michel Belyk, Steven Brown
Many forms of joint action involve physical coupling between the participants, such as when moving a sofa together or dancing a tango. We report the results of a novel two-person functional MRI study in which trained couple dancers engaged in bimanual contact with an experimenter standing next to the bore of the magnet, and in which the two alternated between being the leader and the follower of joint improvised movements. Leading showed a general pattern of self-orientation, being associated with brain areas involved in motor planning, navigation, sequencing, action monitoring, and error correction...
2018: PloS One
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