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Movement patterns

Kaitlin C Maguire, Douglas J Shinneman, Kevin M Potter, Valerie D Hipkins
Unique responses to climate change can occur across intraspecific levels, resulting in individualistic adaptation or movement patterns among populations within a given species. Thus, the need to model potential responses among genetically distinct populations within a species is increasingly recognized. However, predictive models of future distributions are regularly fit at the species level, often because intraspecific variation is unknown or is identified only within limited sample locations. In this study, we considered the role of intraspecific variation to shape the geographic distribution of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa), an ecologically and economically important tree species in North America...
March 14, 2018: Systematic Biology
Ling-Zhen Cao, Xiao-Wei Fu, Chao-Xing Hu, Kong-Ming Wu
Pantala flavescens (Fabricius 1798) (Odonata: Libellulidae) is one of the most common species of migratory dragonflies. P. flavescens adults were captured by a searchlight trap on Beihuang Island (BH Island; 38°24'N, 120°55'E) from 2003 to 2016, where there is no freshwater. This inspired our research to analyze the pattern of seasonal migration and population dynamics. Stable hydrogen isotope measurement and the Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) were used to simulate the migration pathway of P...
March 12, 2018: Environmental Entomology
Nobuhisa Ishii, Kazuhide Tomita, Shinsuke Suetake, Yukako Okuno, Kenta Kawamura, Reiko Takeshima, Hirotaka Ohse, Shigeyuki Imura
[Purpose] It is unclear whether diaphragmatic breathing (DB) results in lower respiratory muscle oxygen consumption during dynamic exercise. The purpose of this study was to compare oxygen consumption in the respiratory muscles (VO2 rm) with thoracic breathing (TB) and with DB, in healthy males during hyperventilation. [Subjects and Methods] Ten healthy men participated in this study. The subjects sat on a chair with the backrest reclined at an angle of 60 degrees. Respiratory parameters were measured breath by breath, using an expired gas analyzer...
February 2018: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
Elizabeth A Shay, Quanjing Chen, Frank E Garcea, Bradford Z Mahon
Multivoxel pattern analysis (MVPA) over functional MRI data can distinguish neural representational states that do not differ in their overall amplitude of BOLD contrast. Here we used MVPA to test whether simple intransitive actions can be distinguished in primary motor cortex. Participants rotated and flexed each of their extremities (hands and feet) during fMRI scanning. The primary motor cortex for the hand/wrist was functionally defined in each hemisphere in each subject. Within those subject-specific ROIs, we found that the average amplitude of BOLD contrast for two different movements of the contralateral hand (rotation, flexion) were higher than for the ipsilateral hand, as well as movements by both feet; however, there was no difference in amplitude between the two different types of movements for the contralateral hand...
March 16, 2018: Cognitive Neuroscience
Esther Morencos, Blanca Romero-Moraleda, Carlo Castagna, David Casamichana
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to examine the influence of match period on the movement patterns of hockey players according to their playing position under the introduction of quarters. METHODS: Sixteen sub-elite level Spanish National League male hockey players participated in the study (age: 25.5 ± 2.9 years; body mass: 74.6 ± 5.5 kg). Global Positioning Systems (GPS) devices were used to monitor players running performance during 17 competitive matches (113 match-play profiles)...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Joshua L Haworth, Adam J Strang, Mathias Hieronymus, Mark S Walsh
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Many people use balance training as a rehabilitation or habilitation modality. Although the time course of changes to temporal and spatial aspects of postural sway over the initial weeks of such training is as yet unclear. Particularly, we sought to explore the effects of training on sway during a dynamic task of stance on an ultra-compliant surface. Such a task provides different mechanical, and thus sensorimotor, constraints compared to stance on a solid surface...
March 15, 2018: Somatosensory & Motor Research
Qiang Wang, Akram A Da'dara, Patrick J Skelly
BACKGROUND: Schistosomes are blood dwelling parasitic worms that cause the debilitating disease schistosomiasis. Here we examined the influence of the parasites on their external environment by monitoring the impact of adult Schistosoma mansoni worms on the murine plasma proteome in vitro and, in particular, on how the worms affect the blood coagulation protein high molecular weight kininogen (HK). METHODS: Following the incubation of adult schistosomes in murine plasma, two-dimensional differential in-gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) was conducted to look for changes in the plasma proteome compared with control plasma...
March 14, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Kevin A Day, Kristan A Leech, Ryan T Roemmich, Amy J Bastian
Acquiring new movements requires the capacity of the nervous system to remember previously experienced motor patterns. The phenomenon of faster re-learning after initial learning is termed 'savings'. Here we studied how savings of a novel walking pattern develops over several days of practice, and how this process can be accelerated. We introduced participants to a split-belt treadmill adaptation paradigm for 30 minutes for 5 consecutive days. After 5 training days, participants were able to produce near-perfect performance when switching between split and tied-belt environments...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
Rubens Spin-Neto, Louise H Matzen, Lars W Schropp, Thomas S Sørensen, Ann Wenzel
OBJECTIVES: To assess the impact of head motion artefacts and an automated artefact-correction system on CBCT image quality and interpretability for simulated diagnostic tasks. METHODS: A partially dentate human skull was mounted on a robot simulating four types of head movement (antero-posterior translation, nodding, lateral rotation, and tremor), at three distances (0.75, 1.5, and 3 mm) based on two movement patterns (skull returning/not returning to the initial position)...
March 14, 2018: Dento Maxillo Facial Radiology
Jingjie Ge, Jianjun Wu, Shichun Peng, Ping Wu, Jian Wang, Huiwei Zhang, Yihui Guan, David Eidelberg, Chuantao Zuo, Yilong Ma
Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is a rare movement disorder and often difficult to distinguish clinically from Parkinson's disease (PD) and multiple system atrophy (MSA) in early phases. In this study, we report reproducible disease-related topographies of brain network and regional glucose metabolism associated with PSP in clinically-confirmed independent cohorts of PSP, MSA, and PD patients and healthy controls in the USA and China. Using18 F-FDG PET images from PSP and healthy subjects, we applied spatial covariance analysis with bootstrapping to identify a PSP-related pattern (PSPRP) and estimate its reliability, and evaluated the ability of network scores for differential diagnosis...
March 13, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Fiona R Macfarlane, Tommaso Lorenzi, Mark A J Chaplain
A growing body of experimental evidence indicates that immune cells move in an unrestricted search pattern if they are in the pre-activated state, whilst they tend to stay within a more restricted area upon activation induced by the presence of tumour antigens. This change in movement is not often considered in the existing mathematical models of the interactions between immune cells and cancer cells. With the aim to fill such a gap in the existing literature, in this work we present a spatially structured individual-based model of tumour-immune competition that takes explicitly into account the difference in movement between inactive and activated immune cells...
March 13, 2018: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
Tzu-Hsiang Lin, Amber Denomme, Rajiv Ranganathan
One of the characteristic features of the human motor system is redundancy-i.e., the ability to achieve a given task outcome using multiple coordination patterns. However, once participants settle on using a specific coordination pattern, the process of learning to use a new alternative coordination pattern to perform the same task is still poorly understood. Here, using two experiments, we examined this process of how participants shift from one coordination pattern to another using different reinforcement schedules...
March 13, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Tianxiao Jiang, Su Liu, Giuseppe Pellizzer, Aydin Aydoseli, Sacit Karamursel, Pulat A Sabanci, Altay Sencer, Candan Gurses, Nuri F Ince
Functional mapping of eloquent cortex before the resection of a tumor is a critical procedure for optimizing survival and quality of life. In order to locate the hand area of the motor cortex in two patients with low-grade gliomas (LGG), we recorded electrocorticogram (ECoG) from a 113 channel hybrid high-density grid (64 large contacts with diameter of 2.7 mm and 49 small contacts with diameter of 1 mm) while they executed hand clenching movements. We investigated the spatio-spectral characteristics of the neural oscillatory activity and observed that, in both patients, the hand movements were consistently associated with a wide spread power decrease in the low frequency band (LFB: 8-32 Hz) and a more localized power increase in the high frequency band (HFB: 60-280 Hz) within the sensorimotor region...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Stephen M King, Winfield S Sale
Motility of cilia (also known as flagella in some eukaryotes) is based on axonemal doublet microtubule sliding that is driven by the dynein molecular motors. Dyneins are organized into intricately patterned inner and outer rows of arms, whose collective activity is to produce inter-microtubule movement. However, to generate a ciliary bend, not all dyneins can be active simultaneously. The switch point model accounts, in part, for how dynein motors are regulated during ciliary movement. On the basis of this model, supported by key direct experimental observations as well as more recent theoretical and structural studies, we are now poised to understand the mechanics of how ciliary dynein coordination controls axonemal bend formation and propagation...
March 15, 2018: Molecular Biology of the Cell
Vibeke Bliksted, Chris Frith, Poul Videbech, Birgitte Fagerlund, Charlotte Emborg, Arndis Simonsen, Andreas Roepstorff, Daniel Campbell-Meiklejohn
Background: Historically, research investigating neural correlates of mentalizing deficits in schizophrenia has focused on patients who have been ill for several years with lengthy exposure to medication. Little is known about the neural and behavioral presentations of theory-of-mind deficits in schizophrenia, shortly after the first episode of psychosis. Methods: We investigated social cognition in 17 recently diagnosed first-episode schizophrenia (FES) patients with little or no exposure to antipsychotic medication and 1:1 matched healthy controls...
March 9, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Pei-Lin Lee, Kun-Hsien Chou, Cheng-Hsien Lu, Hsiu-Ling Chen, Nai-Wen Tsai, Ai-Ling Hsu, Meng-Hsiang Chen, Wei-Che Lin, Ching-Po Lin
OBJECTIVES: To identify disease-related spatial covariance patterns of grey matter volume as an aid in the classification of Parkinson's disease (PD). METHODS: Seventy structural covariance networks (SCNs) based on grey matter volume covariance patterns were defined using independent component analysis with T1-weighted structural MRI scans (discovery sample, 70 PD patients and 70 healthy controls). An image-based classifier was constructed from SCNs using a multiple logistic regression analysis with a leave-one-out cross-validation-based feature selection scheme...
March 12, 2018: European Radiology
D Crivelli, M D Sabogal Rueda, M Balconi
The present work aimed at exploring functional correlates of motor and linguistic representations of everyday actions, with a specific interest in potential sensorimotor activation effects induced by the use of related action sentences. While it is indeed known that observing simple motor acts (e.g., precision grasping) and listening to the sound of specific actions (e.g., walking) activate sensorimotor structures, less is known when we move to more complex behaviors and more abstract linguistic representations (e...
March 12, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
Matthew D Golub, Patrick T Sadtler, Emily R Oby, Kristin M Quick, Stephen I Ryu, Elizabeth C Tyler-Kabara, Aaron P Batista, Steven M Chase, Byron M Yu
Behavior is driven by coordinated activity across a population of neurons. Learning requires the brain to change the neural population activity produced to achieve a given behavioral goal. How does population activity reorganize during learning? We studied intracortical population activity in the primary motor cortex of rhesus macaques during short-term learning in a brain-computer interface (BCI) task. In a BCI, the mapping between neural activity and behavior is exactly known, enabling us to rigorously define hypotheses about neural reorganization during learning...
March 12, 2018: Nature Neuroscience
Sonia Altizer, Daniel J Becker, Jonathan H Epstein, Kristian M Forbes, Thomas R Gillespie, Richard J Hall, Dana M Hawley, Sonia M Hernandez, Lynn B Martin, Raina K Plowright, Dara A Satterfield, Daniel G Streicker
Human-provided resource subsidies for wildlife are diverse, common and have profound consequences for wildlife-pathogen interactions, as demonstrated by papers in this themed issue spanning empirical, theoretical and management perspectives from a range of study systems. Contributions cut across scales of organization, from the within-host dynamics of immune function, to population-level impacts on parasite transmission, to landscape- and regional-scale patterns of infection. In this concluding paper, we identify common threads and key findings from author contributions, including the consequences of resource subsidies for (i) host immunity; (ii) animal aggregation and contact rates; (iii) host movement and landscape-level infection patterns; and (iv) interspecific contacts and cross-species transmission...
May 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Dara A Satterfield, Peter P Marra, T Scott Sillett, Sonia Altizer
Migratory animals undergo seasonal and often spectacular movements and perform crucial ecosystem services. In response to anthropogenic changes, including food subsidies, some migratory animals are now migrating shorter distances or halting migration altogether and forming resident populations. Recent studies suggest that shifts in migratory behaviour can alter the risk of infection for wildlife. Although migration is commonly assumed to enhance pathogen spread, for many species, migration has the opposite effect of lowering infection risk, if animals escape from habitats where pathogen stages have accumulated or if strenuous journeys cull infected hosts...
May 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
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