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intraventricular hemorrhage in neonates

Alireza Sadeghnia, Behzad Koorang Beheshti, Majid Mohammadizadeh
Background: Considering all the latest achievements in neonatal respiratory care, bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is still among the most prevalent morbidity causes in premature infants. Involvement in this process results in longer period of hospitalization for the newborn and in the long run makes the living conditions more difficult. Taking the multifactorial pathogenesis into account, approaches to tackle chronic lung disease (CLD) are mainly focused on interventions and prevention procedures...
2018: International Journal of Preventive Medicine
Joseph B Cantey, Kelsey R Anderson, Ram R Kalagiri, Lea H Mallett
BACKGROUND: Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) are the most common cause of late-onset sepsis in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and usually require vancomycin treatment. Our objective was to determine whether CoNS are associated with neonatal morbidity and mortality. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of very-low-birth-weight (VLBW, ≤ 1500 g) infants from 1989 to 2015. Exclusion criteria were major congenital anomaly or death within 72 h...
March 13, 2018: World Journal of Pediatrics: WJP
Zbynĕk Straňák, Simona Feyereislová, Peter Korček, Eugene Dempsey
Postnatal adaptation in preterm newborn comprises complex physiological processes that involve significant changes in the circulatory and respiratory system. Increasing hemoglobin level and blood volume following placental transfusion may be of importance in enhancing arterial oxygen content, increasing cardiac output, and improving oxygen delivery. The European consensus on resuscitation of preterm infants recommends delayed cord clamping (DCC) for at least 60 s to promote placenta-fetal transfusion in uncompromised neonates...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Jaimin S Shah, Susan Hosseini Nasab, Neil Chappell, Han-Yang Chen, Amy Schutt, Hector Mendez-Figueroa
PURPOSE: To investigate whether twin pregnancies conceived by different forms of fertility treatments are associated with adverse neonatal outcomes and to examine the difference in maternal and obstetrical characteristics between patients. METHODS: Our study was a retrospective analysis of twin pregnancies conceived by fertility treatments from a prospectively collected database. Treatments were stratified into two groups: group 1 (ART) consisted of in vitro fertilization (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), and group 2 (non-ART) included intrauterine insemination (IUI) and ovulation induction (OI)...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
Víctor Lago Leal, Loida Pamplona Bueno, Lucía Cabanillas Vilaplana, Estefanía Nicolás Montero, Mónica Martín Blanco, Cristina Fernández Romero, Sara El Bakkali, Tamara Pradillo Aramendi, Lara Sobrino Lorenzano, Paula Castellano Esparza, Esther Ballesteros Benito, Nieves Rayo Navarro, Pablo Del Barrio Fernández, Vanesa Ocaña Martínez, Luis Martínez Cortés
OBJECTIVE: To assess the short and medium-term effects of milking maneuver (MM) compared with early cord clamping for infants born before 37 weeks of pregnancy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 138 infants between 24+0 and 36+6 weeks of gestation were allocated to MM or early cord clamping. Primary outcomes were the requirement of red blood cell transfusions or phototherapy. RESULTS: Initial hemoglobin was significantly higher in the MM group by 1.675 g/dL (p < 0...
March 5, 2018: Fetal Diagnosis and Therapy
Francesco Pisani, Carlotta Spagnoli
Acute symptomatic neonatal seizures in preterm newborns are a relevant clinical challenge due to the presence of many knowledge gaps. Etiology-wise, acute symptomatic seizures have an age-specific epidemiology, with intraventricular hemorrhage and its complications representing the first cause in extremely and very preterm neonates, whereas other etiologies have similar occurrence rates as in full-term infants. Specific treatment strategies for the premature neonates are not yet available. Studies suggest a similarly low response rate with even more unfavorable prognosis than in full-term infants...
December 15, 2017: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Keisuke Ishii, Seiji Wada, Mayumi Takano, Masahiko Nakata, Takeshi Murakoshi, Haruhiko Sago
INTRODUCTION: We aimed to clarify the survival rate without brain abnormalities (BA) after fetoscopic laser photoco-agulation (FLP) for monochorionic diamniotic twin gestations (MCDA) with selective intrauterine growth restriction (sIUGR) accompanied by abnormal umbilical artery (UA) Doppler waveforms and isolated oligohydramnios in the sIUGR twin. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective study included 52 cases that underwent FLP. The main outcome was survival rate without BA of the twins at age 28 days...
February 20, 2018: Fetal Diagnosis and Therapy
Letizia Capasso, Angela C Borrelli, Maria R Pirozzi, Laura Bucci, Roberta Albachiara, Teresa Ferrara, Francesco Raimondi
BACKGROUND: Immunoglobulin supplementation is a debated strategy in fighting sepsis. We evaluated a polyclonal IgM and IgA enriched immunoglobulin (IgMeIVIG) preparation in reducing the short term mortality in extremely low birth weight neonates (ELBW) with proven infection. METHODS: ELBW infants born from January 2008 to December 2014 were eligible for this retrospective casecontrol analysis if they were symptomatic and had a positive blood culture after 72hours of life...
February 19, 2018: Minerva Pediatrica
M A Mannan, M A Hossain, J Nasim, Y Sabina, F Navila, D Subir
Since its inception, the neonatal mechanical ventilator has been considered an essential tool for managing preterm neonates with Respiratory Distress Syndrome (RDS) and is still regarded as an integral component in the neonatal respiratory care continuum. Mechanical ventilation of newborn has been practiced for several years with several advances made in the way. This clinical intervention study was done to analyze immediate outcome of preterm neonates with RDS required mechanical ventilation and conducted on preterm neonates with RDS required mechanical ventilation from July 2014 to June 2015...
January 2018: Mymensingh Medical Journal: MMJ
So Young Kim, Byung Yoon Choi, Eun Young Jung, Hyunsoo Park, Ha-Na Yoo, Kyo Hoon Park
BACKGROUND: We aimed to identify prenatal and postnatal risk factors associated with abnormal newborn hearing screen (NHS) results and subsequently confirmed sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) in preterm twin neonates. METHODS: Electronic medical records of 159 twin neonates who were born alive after ≤32 weeks were retrospectively reviewed for hearing loss in both ears. Histopathologic examination of the placenta was performed and clinical data, including method of conception and factors specific to twins, were retrieved from a computerized perinatal database...
January 31, 2018: Pediatrics and Neonatology
Sruthi R Polavarapu, Garrett D Fitzgerald, Stephen Contag, Suma B Hoffman
OBJECTIVE: Determine if abnormal prenatal Doppler ultrasound indices are predictive of postnatal impaired cerebral autoregulation. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective cohort study of 46 subjects, 240 -296 weeks' gestation. Utilizing near-infrared spectroscopy and receiver-operating characteristic analysis, impaired cerebral autoregulation was defined as >16.5% time spent in a dysregulated state within 96 h of life. Normal and abnormal Doppler indices were compared for perinatal outcomes...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
Homeira Vafaei, Neda Rahimirad, Seyedeh Marjan Hosseini, Maryam Kasraeian, Nasrin Asadi, Hadi Raeisi Shahraki, Khadijeh Bazrafshan
Background: Preterm labor and birth are associated with several neonatal complications including respiratory distress syndrome and intraventricular hemorrhage. Differentiating true and false labor pain is a dilemma to obstetricians. Objective: To elucidate the role of cervical length measurement in prediction of birth in pregnant women with threatened preterm labor. Materials and Methods: In this double blind randomized clinical trial, 120 women with gestational age <34 wk who presented painful uterine contractions randomly assigned to undergo measurement of cervical length...
November 2017: International Journal of Reproductive Biomedicine (Yazd, Iran)
Mahdi Mahmoudzadeh, Ghislaine Dehaene-Lambertz, Guy Kongolo, Marc Fournier, Sabrina Goudjil, Fabrice Wallois
Intraventricular Hemorrhage (IVH) is the leading cause of neurological and cognitive impairment in preterm neonates with an incidence that increases with increasing prematurity. In the present study, we tested how preterm neonates with IVH react to external stimulation (i.e. speech syllables). We compared their neural responses measured by electroencephalography (EEG), and hemodynamic responses measured by functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), with those of healthy preterms. A neural response to syllables was observed in these infants, but did not induce a vascular response in contrast with healthy neonates...
January 5, 2018: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
Lisa Strouss, Neal D Goldstein, Robert Locke, David A Paul
OBJECTIVE: To investigate vascular placental pathology's effect on known associations between hypertensive disorders and four adverse neonatal outcomes-bronchopulmonary dysplasia, intraventricular hemorrhage or periventricular leukomalacia, necrotizing enterocolitis, and death. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort of very low birth weight neonates born at a single center (n = 911). Statistical analysis included χ2 , t test, modified Poisson regression with robust error variance to measure risk, and Wald test...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
Rachael Tindell, Trent Tipple
Extremely preterm infants are at high risk for morbidities including bronchopulmonary dysplasia, intraventricular hemorrhage, and retinopathy of prematurity likely related to their exposure to reactive oxygen and nitrogen species early in life. Selenium is a trace mineral contributes to the proper function of multiple systems including immunity, redox regulation, and inflammation via the "selenoenzymes" glutathione peroxidase, thioredoxin reductase, and selenoprotein P. Given that selenium accretion via the placenta occurs primarily during the third trimester, preterm neonates are born selenium deficient...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
Elizabeth A Howell, Teresa Janevic, Paul L Hebert, Natalia N Egorova, Amy Balbierz, Jennifer Zeitlin
Importance: Substantial quality improvements in neonatal care have occurred over the past decade yet racial and ethnic disparities in morbidity and mortality remain. It is uncertain whether disparate patterns of care by race and ethnicity contribute to disparities in neonatal outcomes. Objectives: To examine differences in neonatal morbidity and mortality rates among non-Hispanic black (black), Hispanic, and non-Hispanic white (white) very preterm infants and to determine whether these differences are explained by site of delivery...
January 2, 2018: JAMA Pediatrics
Adam K Lewkowitz, Molly J Stout, Methodius G Tuuli, Julia D López, George A Macones, Alison G Cahill
OBJECTIVE:  Placental insufficiency is associated with neonatal neurologic morbidity and late-term gestations (410/7-416/7 weeks). Whether late-term infants are at increased risk of neurologic morbidity compared with term infants (390/7-406/7 weeks) remains unclear. We aim to compare risk of neurologic morbidity among late-term and term infants. STUDY DESIGN:  This secondary analysis of a single-institution prospective cohort study included all liveborn, nonanomalous singleton term and late-term infants, with data on adverse neonatal outcomes up until 28 days of life...
December 29, 2017: American Journal of Perinatology
Antonio Di Mauro, Manuela Capozza, Sergio Cotugno, Silvio Tafuri, Francesco Paolo Bianchi, Federico Schettini, Raffaella Panza, Nicola Laforgia
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary disorders and respiratory failure represent one of the most common morbidities of preterm newborns admitted to neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). The use of nasal high-flow therapy (nHFT) has been more recently introduced into the NICUs as a non-invasive respiratory (NIV) support. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study to evaluate safety and effectiveness of nHFT as primary support for infants born < 29 weeks of gestation and/or VLBW presenting with mild Respiratory Distress Syndrome (RDS)...
December 28, 2017: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
Maria Katarzyna Borszewska-Kornacka, Roman Hożejowski, Magdalena Rutkowska, Ryszard Lauterbach
BACKGROUND: There is growing evidence that supports the benefits of early use of caffeine in preterm neonates with RDS; however, no formal recommendations specifying the exact timing of therapy initiation have been provided. OBJECTIVES: We compared neonatal outcomes in infants receiving early (initial dose on the 1st day of life) and late (initial dose on day 2+ of life) caffeine therapy. METHODS: Using data from a prospective, cohort study, we identified 986 infants ≤32 weeks' gestation with RDS and assessed the timing of caffeine therapy initiation, need for ventilatory support, mortality and incidence of typical complications of prematurity...
2017: PloS One
Zuzanna Kubicka, Eyad Zahr, Tamara Rousseau, Henry A Feldman, John Fiascone
OBJECTIVE: Reduce chronic lung disease by 10% among very-low birth weight infants by implementing a consistent respiratory care bundle. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective quality improvement study of infants below 32 weeks gestation in a small neonatal intensive care unit. A respiratory care bundle to eliminate inter-provider variability and minimize use of mechanical ventilation was implemented. This included: defining delivery room management with use of continuous positive airway pressure/nasal intermittent positive pressure ventilation, uniform intubation/extubation criteria, and standardizing ventilation/post-extubation support...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
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