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management of hypocalcemia in icu

Emine Polat, Nilden Tuygun, Halise Akca, Can Demir Karacan
BACKGROUND: Colchicine poisoning is an uncommon but serious form of drug intoxication. It may produce life-threatening systemic effects. In toxic doses it produces nausea and vomiting and bone marrow suppression, often leading to sepsis, hypocalcemia, adult respiratory distress syndrome, and direct cardiotoxic effects. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to describe demographic features and the outcome of patients poisoned with colchicine. METHODS: A retrospective study of the pediatric intensive care unit database was performed for patients ≤18 years of age who had colchicine poisoning between July 2008 and July 2013...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Emergency Medicine
Chandra Kant Pandey, Anshuman Singh, Kamal Kajal, Mandeep Dhankhar, Manish Tandon, Vijay Kant Pandey, Sunaina Tejpal Karna
Liver transplantation has been associated with massive blood loss and considerable transfusion requirements. Bleeding in orthotopic liver transplantation is multifactorial. Technical difficulties inherent to this complex surgical procedure and pre operative derangements of the primary and secondary coagulation system are thought to be the principal causes of perioperative hemorrhage. Intraoperative practices such as massive fluid resuscitation and resulting hypothermia and hypocalcemia secondary to citrate toxicity further aggravate the preexisting coagulopathy and worsen the perioperative bleeding...
June 27, 2015: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
Daniela von Ah Lopes, Marcelo Araújo do Valle, Jéfferson Taguti, Regina Celli Thomé Castro Taguti, Gustavo Navarro Betônico, Fabiana Clemente Medeiros
Acute intermittent porphyria is an unusual pathology with potentially severe consequences when not early detected. Among the possible causes of porphyric crises decrease of caloric intake has been described. A case of acute intermittent porphyria in the late postoperative period of a bariatric surgery performed for treatment of obesity is reported. A review of the diagnostic aspects and management of this pathology in the intensive care unit follows. A 31 year old woman was admitted in the intensive care unit three weeks after a bariatric surgery, with decreased level of consciousness and respiratory distress...
December 2008: Revista Brasileira de Terapia Intensiva
Mohammod J Chisti, Mohammed A Salam, Hasan Ashraf, A S G Faruque, Pradip K Bardhan, Abu S M S B Shahid, K M Shahunja, Sumon K Das, Tahmeed Ahmed
Hypocalcaemia is common in severely-malnourished children and is often associated with fatal outcome. There is very limited information on the clinical predicting factors of hypocalcaemia in hospitalized severely-malnourished under-five children. Our objective was to evaluate the prevalence, clinical predicting factors, and outcome of hypocalcaemia in such children. In this case-control study, all severely-malnourished under-five children (n=333) admitted to the Longer Stay Ward (LSW), High Dependency Unit (HDU), and Intensive Care Unit (ICU) of the Dhaka Hospital of icddr,b between April 2011 and April 2012, who also had their total serum calcium estimated, were enrolled...
June 2014: Journal of Health, Population, and Nutrition
Ya-chang Zeng, Mu-jun Li, Yue Chen, Li Jiang, Su-mei Wang, Xiao-liang Mo, Bin-Yi Li
PURPOSE: Glyburide has been used for managing gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in a number of countries. It is rather inexpensive. However, its efficacy and safety remain controversial. With this meta-analysis, we evaluated glyburide in comparison with insulin. MATERIAL/METHODS: With a systematic literature search strategy, a total of 93 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with insulin and glyburide comparison were identified. Based on the revised Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) checklist, five of them met the inclusion criteria and were included in this meta-analysis...
March 2014: Advances in Medical Sciences
Mary Abraham, Jennifer Mitchell, Debra Simsovits, James Gasperino
Norethindrone acetate/ethinyl estradiol (Estrostep; Warner Chilcott, Rockaway, New Jersey) is an "estrophasic" type of oral contraceptive, which combines a continuous low progestin dose with a gradually increasing estrogen dose. In clinical trials, this medication failed to produce clinically significant changes in serum lipid levels. We report a case of severe hypertriglyceridemia-induced acute pancreatitis in a 24-year-old woman caused by Estrostep, occurring nearly 10 years after she began using the drug...
July 2015: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine
Richard D Collage, Gina M Howell, Xianghong Zhang, Jennifer L Stripay, Janet S Lee, Derek C Angus, Matthew R Rosengart
BACKGROUND: Calcium plays an essential role in nearly all cellular processes. As such, cellular and systemic calcium concentrations are tightly regulated. During sepsis, derangements in such tight regulation frequently occur, and treating hypocalcemia with parenteral calcium administration remains the current practice guideline. OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether calcium administration worsens mortality and organ dysfunction using an experimental murine model of sepsis and explored the mechanistic role of the family of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases in mediating these physiological effects...
November 2013: Critical Care Medicine
Zhongheng Zhang, Ni Hongying
PURPOSE: Regional citrate anticoagulation (RCA) is an attractive anticoagulation mode in continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) because it restricts the anticoagulatory effect to the extracorporeal circuit. In recent years, several randomized controlled trials have been conducted to investigate its superiority over other anticoagulation modes. Thus, we performed a systematic review of available evidence on the efficacy and safety of RCA. METHODS: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials investigating the efficacy and safety of RCA was performed...
January 2012: Intensive Care Medicine
Michael Gruber, Carsten Nehring, Marcus Creutzenberg, Bernhard Graf, Susanne Hopf
BACKGROUND: Discrepancies in ionised calcium concentrations between results from several point-of-care devices derived from intensive care unit (ICU) patients were postulated to be caused by perchlorate, a thyroid blocking agent. The deviations were serious concerning the diagnosis of hyper- or hypocalcaemia and administration of calcium infusions. METHODS: The problem was studied from three perspectives. First: quantification of ionised calcium in heparinised blood samples spiked with sodium perchlorate from healthy volunteers measured using five blood gas analysers (BGAs from IL, Radiometer, Roche and Siemens)...
June 2011: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
G Burghi, D Berrutti, W Manzanares
The tumor lysis syndrome (TLS) is a life-threatening complication caused by the massive release of nucleic acids, potassium and phosphate into the blood. This complication is the result of tumor cell lysis, which may occur due to treatment of drug sensitive and is characterized by rapid capacity of proliferation, that is often hematological origin. Moreover, the TLS can be observed before starting the treatment due to spontaneous tumor cell death, and frequently worsens when chemotherapy is initiated. TLS has high mortality, so that its prevention continues to be the most important therapeutic measure...
April 2011: Medicina Intensiva
Mitchell S Buckley, Jaclyn M Leblanc, Michael J Cawley
Electrolyte imbalances are common in critically ill patients. Although multiple disease states typically encountered in the intensive care unit may be responsible for the development of electrolyte disorders, medications may contribute to these disturbances as well. Medications can interfere with the absorption of electrolytes, alter hormonal responses affecting homeostasis, as well as directly impact organ function responsible for maintaining electrolyte balance. The focus on this review is to identify commonly prescribed medications in the intensive care unit and potential electrolyte disturbances that may occur as a result of their use...
June 2010: Critical Care Medicine
Florian Eyer, Thomas Zilker
Caustic injuries of the eye usually occur accidentally and can result in minor eye irritations to total loss of vision. All chemical exposures to the eye require immediate decontamination by copious irrigation with an aqueous solution for at least 15-30 minutes up to two hours in single cases of massive exposure. Tap water is readily available, safe, and effective and, thus, the preferred irrigation fluid. Warmed lactated Ringer's solution is theoretically preferable to normal saline as an ocular irrigant because it has a more physiologic pH and osmolarity...
May 2009: Therapeutische Umschau. Revue Thérapeutique
K-W Cheng, C-L Chen, C-S Wang, C-J Huang, K-H Chen, C-C Wang, A M Concejero, Y-F Cheng, T-L Huang, K-W Chiu, S-H Wang, C-C Lin, Y-W Liu, B Jawan
We describe the anesthetic management in a 56-year old man with hepatocellular carcinoma and cirrhosis who underwent liver transplantation (LT). Pretransplantation workup showed a 3-cm wide by 10-cm long infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) with chronic dissection. He subsequently underwent living donor LT. The total operative time was 12 hours. The systolic blood pressure was maintained at normal levels. Severe hypertension was not noted. Hypotension noted during the anhepatic phase was managed with increased volume infusion and small doses (0...
October 2008: Transplantation Proceedings
Sreeram Subramanian, Ramesh Agarwal, Ashok K Deorari, Vinod K Paul, Arvind Bagga
Acute renal failure (ARF) is a common condition seen in neonatal intensive care units. It is broadly classified into prerenal, intrinsic renal and post renal failure. There is no consensus on the definition of neonatal ARF. Of utmost importance is to differentiate prerenal from intrinsic renal failure. The most common causes of neonatal ARF are hypovolemia, hypotension and, hypoxia. Among several indices that are available for differentiating prerenal failure from intrinsic renal failure, fractional excretion of sodium is the preferred index...
April 2008: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
Vishal Jatana, Jonathan Gillis, Boyd H Webster, Lesley C Adès
OBJECTIVE: To report on the experience of a pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) with patients with deletion 22q11.2 syndrome: 1) to delineate the clinical characteristics and management of these patients; 2) to assess whether these patients were managed appropriately, especially in terms of blood transfusion; and 3) to make recommendations for PICU management. DESIGN: Retrospective assessment of medical records of patients with fluorescent in situ hybridization-proven 22q11 deletion admitted to the PICU at the Children's Hospital at Westmead, Sydney...
September 2007: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
Jennifer E Bevacqua
Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), a pathophysiologic, life-threatening process that results from uncontrolled diabetes mellitus-induced hyperglycemia, is seen frequently in the pediatric ICU. This article reviews the pathophysiology, management, goals of treatment, and nursing implications of the child who is diagnosed with DKA. Facets particular to the pediatric population are reviewed.
December 2005: Critical Care Nursing Clinics of North America
Stephanie C Hsu, Michael A Levine
Disturbances in mineral homeostasis are common in the neonatal period, especially in premature infants and infants who are hospitalised in an intensive care unit. In many cases these disturbances are thought to be exaggerated responses to the normal physiological transition from the intrauterine environment to neonatal independence. By contrast, some disturbances in calcium homeostasis are the result of genetic defects, which in many instances can now be identified at the molecular level. In other cases hypocalcaemia or hypercalcaemia may result from pathological intrauterine conditions, birth trauma or stress, or fetal immaturity...
February 2004: Seminars in Neonatology: SN
G M Fadda, D D'Antona, G Ambrosini, P L Cherchi, G B Nardelli, G Capobianco, S Dessole
OBJECTIVE: To assess the usefulness of placental and fetal Doppler velocimetry in the surveillance of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). STUDY DESIGN: We studied 89 patients with GDM. All fetuses underwent umbilical, fetal descending thoracic aorta and fetal middle cerebral artery pulsatility index (PI) assessment. Doppler results were not used for management. We correlated PI with route of delivery and with the following perinatal complications: small size for gestational age, cesarean section (CS) for acute fetal distress (AFD), respiratory distress syndrome, hyperbilirubinemia, hypocalcemia, hypoglycemia, macrosomia and stay in a neonatal intensive care unit...
April 2001: Journal of Reproductive Medicine
G M Fadda, P L Cherchi, D D'Antona, G Ambrosini, D Marchesoni, G Capobianco, S Dessole
OBJECTIVE: In a group of diabetic pregnant women, the umbilical artery pulsatility index (PI) was compared with both pregnancy complications and perinatal outcomes. METHOD: We evaluated 67 women with pregnancies complicated by insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM), without hypertension. For the study we took the last umbilical PI value before delivery into consideration. Doppler results were not used for patient management. Umbilical artery PI was correlated with the route of delivery and the following perinatal complications: intrauterine growth retardation; cesarean sections for acute fetal distress; respiratory distress syndrome (RDS); neonatal hyperbilirubinemia; hypocalcemia; hypoglycemia; macrosomia, and neonatal intensive care unit (NICU)...
2001: Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation
D M Walton, D C Thomas, H Z Aly, B L Short
A 6-week-old premature infant who was born at 29 weeks of gestation presented to the emergency department with a several-hour history of stiffness and increased alarms on his apnea monitor at home. On arrival he was noted to have generalized seizures, apnea, and bradycardia. He was intubated and required cardiopulmonary resuscitation including chest compressions and medications. After stabilization he was transferred to the neonatal intensive care unit for further management. His initial laboratory tests revealed a serum calcium level of 2...
September 2000: Pediatrics
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