Read by QxMD icon Read

management of critical care hyponatremia

Dilip R Karnad, Mohd Basri Mat Nor, Guy A Richards, Tim Baker, Pravin Amin
Severe malaria is common in tropical countries in Africa, Asia, Oceania and South and Central America. It may also occur in travelers returning from endemic areas. Plasmodium falciparum accounts for most cases, although P vivax is increasingly found to cause severe malaria in Asia. Cerebral malaria is common in children in Africa, manifests as coma and seizures, and has a high morbidity and mortality. In other regions, adults may also develop cerebral malaria but neurological sequelae in survivors are rare...
February 2018: Journal of Critical Care
Shadi Alshammary, Reem Al Dulaijan, Khaldoon Saleh, Hazem Zakaria, Ahmed Eldamati, Norah Alwakeel, Abdulmohsen Al-Mulhim
INTRODUCTION: Acute intermittent porphyria is a rare autosomal dominant metabolic disease. It is caused by a genetic mutation that results in deficiency of porphobilinogen deaminase enzyme, the third enzyme in heme biosynthesis. Acute intermittent porphyria precipitated by surgery is very rare. CASE PRESENTATION: We present a 24 year-old woman who developed acute intermittent porphyria five days after right hemi-colectomy. Her presentation included neuro-visceral and psychiatric manifestations, and severe hyponatremia...
2017: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
Ruth Y Ewing, Blair Mase-Guthrie, Wayne McFee, Forrest Townsend, Charles A Manire, Michael Walsh, Rose Borkowski, Gregory D Bossart, Adam M Schaefer
We conducted a retrospective study of serum biochemistry and hematologic findings from displaced, out-of-habitat bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) exposed to various low salinity environments in waters along the southern United States including southeastern Atlantic and northern Gulf of Mexico. Serum sodium, chloride, and calculated osmolality were significantly lower and below reference ranges in displaced animals compared to free-ranging case control animals. This suggests clinical hyponatremia, hypochloremia, and hypo-osmolality due to an uptake of low saline water from the environment...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Maryam I Khan, R Phillip Dellinger, Steven G Waguespack
Electrolyte disturbances are frequently encountered in critically ill oncology patients. Hyponatremia and hypernatremia as well as hypocalcemia and hypercalcemia are among the most commonly encountered electrolyte abnormalities. In the intensive care unit, management of critical electrolyte disturbances is focused on initial evaluation and immediate treatment plan to prevent severe complications. A PubMed search was performed to identify best available evidence for evaluation and management of dysnatremias, hypocalcemia, and hypercalcemia...
March 2018: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine
Craig Hutto, Mindy French
Dysnatremia is a common finding in the intensive care unit (ICU) and may be a predictor for mortality and poor clinical outcomes. Depending on the time of onset (ie, on admission vs later in the ICU stay), the incidence of dysnatremias in critically ill patients ranges from 6.9% to 15%, respectively. The symptoms of sodium derangement and their effect on brain physiology make early recognition and correction paramount in the neurologic ICU. Hyponatremia in brain injured patients can lead to life-threatening conditions such as seizures and may worsen cerebral edema and contribute to alterations in intracranial pressure...
June 2017: Nursing Clinics of North America
J F Crismale, K A Meliambro, S DeMaria, D B Bronster, S Florman, T D Schiano
The osmotic demyelination syndrome (ODS) is a serious neurologic condition that occurs in the setting of rapid correction of hyponatremia. It presents with protean manifestations, from encephalopathy to the "locked-in" syndrome. ODS can complicate liver transplantation (LT), and its incidence may increase with the inclusion of serum sodium as a factor in the Mayo End-Stage Liver Disease score. A comprehensive understanding of risk factors for the development of ODS in the setting of LT, along with recommendations to mitigate the risk of ODS, are necessary...
October 2017: American Journal of Transplantation
Timothy M Uyeki, Aneesh K Mehta, Richard T Davey, Allison M Liddell, Timo Wolf, Pauline Vetter, Stefan Schmiedel, Thomas Grünewald, Michael Jacobs, Jose R Arribas, Laura Evans, Angela L Hewlett, Arne B Brantsaeter, Giuseppe Ippolito, Christophe Rapp, Andy I M Hoepelman, Julie Gutman
BACKGROUND: Available data on the characteristics of patients with Ebola virus disease (EVD) and clinical management of EVD in settings outside West Africa, as well as the complications observed in those patients, are limited. METHODS: We reviewed available clinical, laboratory, and virologic data from all patients with laboratory-confirmed Ebola virus infection who received care in U.S. and European hospitals from August 2014 through December 2015. RESULTS: A total of 27 patients (median age, 36 years [range, 25 to 75]) with EVD received care; 19 patients (70%) were male, 9 of 26 patients (35%) had coexisting conditions, and 22 (81%) were health care personnel...
February 18, 2016: New England Journal of Medicine
Brian L Hendricks, Tasneem A Shikary, Lee A Zimmer
OBJECTIVE: The Affordable Care Act Readmissions Reduction Program introduced reimbursement policy changes resulting in penalties for hospitals with higher-than-average readmission rates among several categories, including elective surgical cases. We examined the rate of complications resulting in 30-day readmission following endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery. STUDY DESIGN: Case series with chart review. SETTING: Academic tertiary care center...
February 2016: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
Cornelius Barlascini, Maria Grazia Piroddi, Alessandro Perazzo, Renata Senarega, Mario Santo, Antonello Nicolini
The ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) is a serious but rarely fatal complication of medical interventions that seek to induce fertility; it is typically encountered in women who undergo controlled ovarian hyperstimulation, but there are very rare patients who have genetic defects who present with OHSS. In recent years, its pathogenesis has been elucidated; this knowledge will decrease the frequency of this syndrome. Clinical signs may include any or all of the following: rapid weight gain, ascites, oliguria, hemoconcentration, leukocytosis, along with intravascular hypovolemia, hyponatremia, and hyperkalemia...
2015: Pneumologia: Revista Societății Române de Pneumologie
Kari Santoro Beer, Lori S Waddell
Obtaining and interpreting blood gas and electrolyte levels is essential in the management of perioperative veterinary patients. Metabolic and electrolyte alterations are common in critically ill surgical patients, and can lead to alterations in cardiovascular function, neurologic status, respiratory function, and even response to various drug therapies. Several common perioperative conditions are discussed in this article, including metabolic disturbances, electrolyte abnormalities (hyponatremia and hypernatremia, hyperkalemia), and respiratory abnormalities...
September 2015: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
T Eoin West, Amélie von Saint André-von Arnim
Clinicians caring for patients infected with Ebola virus must be familiar not only with screening and infection control measures but also with management of severe disease. By integrating experience from several Ebola epidemics with best practices for managing critical illness, this report focuses on the clinical presentation and management of severely ill infants, children, and adults with Ebola virus disease. Fever, fatigue, vomiting, diarrhea, and anorexia are the most common symptoms of the 2014 West African outbreak...
November 2014: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
Robin Guo, Marc Montecillo, Nader Kamangar
Critical Care Student/Resident Case Report Posters IIISESSION TYPE: Medical Student/Resident Case ReportPRESENTED ON: Tuesday, October 28, 2014 at 01:30 PM - 02:30 PMINTRODUCTION: Transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) syndrome is a rare condition classically characterized by hyponatremia, altered mental status, and hypervolemia caused by large volume bladder irrigation with hypotonic glycine or cytal solution during TURP. Ionic solutions are not traditionally used because they dissipate the cutting power of monopolar instruments...
October 1, 2014: Chest
Avinash B Kumar, Yaping Shi, Matthew S Shotwell, Justin Richards, Jesse M Ehrenfeld
BACKGROUND: Hypertonic saline therapy is often used in critically ill subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) patients for indications ranging from control of intracranial hypertension to managing symptomatic hyponatremia. The risk factors for developing acute kidney injury (AKI) in this patient population are not well defined. SPECIFIC AIM: To study the role of serum sodium in developing AKI (based on the AKIN definition) in the SAH population admitted to a large academic neurocritical care unit...
April 2015: Neurocritical Care
Alexis A Topjian, Amber Stuart, Alyssa A Pabalan, Ashleigh Clair, Todd J Kilbaugh, Nicholas S Abend, Phillip B Storm, Robert A Berg, Jimmy W Huh, Stuart H Friess
OBJECTIVES: Dysnatremia is common in critically ill children due to disruption of hormonal homeostasis. Children with brain injury are at risk for syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone, cerebral salt wasting, and sodium losses due to externalized ventricular drain placement. We hypothesized that among PICU patients managed with an externalized ventricular drain, hyponatremia is common, hyponatremia is associated with seizures and in-hospital mortality, and greater sodium fluctuations are associated with in-hospital mortality...
November 2014: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
Brian P Baur, Calvin J Meaney
Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is characterized by bilateral renal cysts, kidney pain, hypertension, and progressive loss of renal function. It is a leading cause of end-stage renal disease and the most common inherited kidney disease in the United States. Despite its prevalence, disease-modifying treatment options do not currently exist. Tolvaptan is an orally active, selective arginine vasopressin V2 receptor antagonist already in use for hyponatremia. Tolvaptan exhibits dose-proportional pharmacokinetics with a half-life of ~12 hours...
June 2014: Pharmacotherapy
Sudeep K Rajpoot, Carlos Maggi, Amrit Bhangoo
UNLABELLED: Neonatal hyperkalemia and hyponatremia are medical conditions that require an emergent diagnosis and treatment to avoid morbidity and mortality. Here, we describe the case of a 10-day-old female baby presenting with life-threatening hyperkalemia, hyponatremia, and metabolic acidosis diagnosed as autosomal dominant pseudohypoaldosteronism type 1 (PHA1). This report aims to recognize that PHA1 may present with a life-threatening arrhythmia due to severe hyperkalemia and describes the management of such cases in neonates...
2014: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
Isabelle Morard, Yvan Gasche, Mark Kneteman, Christian Toso, Ariane Mentha, Glenda Meeberg, Gilles Mentha, Norman Kneteman, Emiliano Giostra
BACKGROUND: Central pontine and extrapontine myelinolysis (CPEPM) is a rare but potentially fatal complication after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). The aim of this study was to identify risk factors for development of CPEPM after OLT and to assess patient outcome. METHODS: We reviewed the clinical data of 1,378 patients who underwent OLT between 1987 and 2009 in Geneva, Switzerland and Edmonton, Canada. Nineteen patients (1.4 %) developed CPEPM. We compared their characteristics with control patients, matched by age, gender, date of OLT, and MELD score...
April 2014: Neurocritical Care
Yuval Cavari, Alexander F Pitfield, Niranjan Kissoon
Intravenous maintenance fluid therapy aims to replace daily urinary and insensible losses for ill children in whom adequate enteric administration of fluids is contraindicated or infeasible. The traditional determination of fluid volumes and composition dates back to Holliday and Segar's seminal article from 1957, which describes the relationship between weight, energy expenditure, and physiologic losses in healthy children. Combined with estimates of daily electrolyte requirements, this information supports the use of the hypotonic maintenance fluids that were widely used in pediatric medicine...
November 2013: Pediatric Emergency Care
Richard H Sterns, John K Hix, Stephen M Silver
Hyponatremia is common in critical care units. Avoidance of neurologic injury requires a clear understanding of why the serum sodium (Na) concentration falls and why it rises, how the brain responds to a changing serum Na concentration, and what the goals of therapy should be. A 4 to 6 mEq/L increase in serum Na concentration is sufficient to treat life-threatening cerebral edema caused by acute hyponatremia. In chronic (> 48 h), severe (< 120 mEq/L) hyponatremia, correction by > 8 to 10 mEq/L/d risks iatrogenic osmotic demyelination syndrome (ODS); therefore, a 4 to 6 mEq/L daily increase in serum Na concentration should be the goal in most patients...
August 2013: Chest
John R Klinck, Lisa McNeill, David K Menon
Marked dysnatremia is associated with increased mortality in patients admitted to intensive care. However, new evidence suggests that even mild deviations from normal and simple variability of sodium values may also be significant. Should these findings prompt clinicians to re-evaluate the approach to fluid management in this setting? Sodium disorders, on one hand, are known to result from overzealous administration or restriction of free water or sodium ions. However, they are also associated with a range of co-morbidities and drug treatments that alter water loss and sodium handling in the nephron independently of prescribed fluid regimens...
April 2, 2013: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"