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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920388/human-drivers-of-ecological-and-evolutionary-dynamics-in-emerging-and-disappearing-infectious-disease-systems
#1
REVIEW
Mary A Rogalski, Camden D Gowler, Clara L Shaw, Ruth A Hufbauer, Meghan A Duffy
Humans have contributed to the increased frequency and severity of emerging infectious diseases, which pose a significant threat to wild and domestic species, as well as human health. This review examines major pathways by which humans influence parasitism by altering (co)evolutionary interactions between hosts and parasites on ecological timescales. There is still much to learn about these interactions, but a few well-studied cases show that humans influence disease emergence every step of the way. Human actions significantly increase dispersal of host, parasite and vector species, enabling greater frequency of infection in naive host populations and host switches...
January 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918961/the-promise-of-subtraction-ictal-spect-co-registered-to-mri-for-improved-seizure-localization-in-pediatric-epilepsies-affecting-factors-and-relationship-to-the-surgical-outcome
#2
Catherine Stamoulis, Nishant Verma, Himanshu Kaulas, Jonathan J Halford, Frank H Duffy, Phillip L Pearl, S Ted Treves
OBJECTIVE: Ictal SPECT is promising for accurate non-invasive localization of the epileptogenic brain tissue in focal epilepsies. However, high quality ictal scans require meticulous attention to the seizure onset. In a relatively large cohort of pediatric patients, this study investigated the impact of the timing of radiotracer injection, MRI findings and seizure characteristics on ictal SPECT localizations, and the relationship between concordance of ictal SPECT, scalp EEG and resected area with seizure freedom following epilepsy surgery...
November 30, 2016: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917164/longitudinal-study-of-two-irish-dairy-herds-low-numbers-of-shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli-o157-and-o26-super-shedders-identified
#3
Brenda P Murphy, Evonne McCabe, Mary Murphy, James F Buckley, Dan Crowley, Séamus Fanning, Geraldine Duffy
A 12-month longitudinal study was undertaken on two dairy herds to ascertain the Shiga-toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157 and O26 shedding status of the animals and its impact (if any) on raw milk. Cattle are a recognized reservoir for these organisms with associated public health and environmental implications. Animals shedding E. coli O157 at >10,000 CFU/g of feces have been deemed super-shedders. There is a gap in the knowledge regarding super-shedding of other STEC serogroups. A cohort of 40 lactating cows from herds previously identified as positive for STEC in a national surveillance project were sampled every second month between August, 2013 and July, 2014...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912146/inosine-acedoben-dimepranol-promotes-an-early-and-sustained-increase-in-the-natural-killer-cell-component-of-circulating-lymphocytes-a-clinical-trial-supporting-anti-viral-indications
#4
S Rumel Ahmed, Amy S Newman, James O'Daly, Sean Duffy, Gillian Grafton, Catherine A Brady, S John Curnow, Nicholas M Barnes, John Gordon
Inosine Acedoben Dimepranol (IAD), licensed for the treatment of cell-mediated immune deficiencies associated with viral infections, has been reported to impact a variety of immune parameters both in vitro and in vivo. Here we report the results from a clinical trial where multiple lymphocyte subsets - CD19+ B cells, CD3+ T cells, CD4+ T-helper cells, FoxP3(hi)/CD25(hi)/CD127(lo) regulatory T cells (Tregs), CD3-/CD56+ NK cells, and CD3+/CD56+ NKT cells - were, together with serum immunoglobulins and IgG subclasses, followed during 14days of IAD administration to ten healthy volunteers; these selected from 27 individuals pre-screened in vitro for their capacity to respond to IAD as gauged by increases in the percentage of Treg and/or NKT cells arising in PHA-stimulated cultures...
November 29, 2016: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910150/randomised-clinical-trial-exploratory-phase-2-study-of-ono-2952-in-diarrhoea-predominant-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#5
W E Whitehead, K Duffy, J Sharpe, T Nabata, M Bruce
BACKGROUND: ONO-2952 is a novel and selective inhibitor of translocator protein 18 kDa that reduces stress-induced defecation and visceral hyperalgesia in rat models. AIM: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of ONO-2952 in females with irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhoea in an exploratory proof-of-concept study. METHODS: A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted at 49 US centres. Two hundred subjects with irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhoea (Rome III criteria) were randomised to ONO-2952 20 mg, or 60 mg, or placebo...
January 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905252/preparing-registrants-for-mentor-roles-the-chicken-or-egg-conundrum
#6
Claire McGuinness, Jacqueline McCallum, Kathleen Duffy
The Nursing and Midwifery Council's (NMC) Standards to Support Learning and Assessment in Practice ( 2008 ) outline requirements for the preparation of those who support nursing and midwifery pre-registration students in practice, formally known as mentors. Pre-registration nursing and midwifery programme providers, and practice learning environments (PLEs), work collaboratively to prepare registrants to undertake this role, and to help them maintain mentor status. An important NMC requirement is that registrants, when undertaking mentor preparation programmes, must be supported by experienced mentors in their workplace...
December 1, 2016: Nursing Management (Harrow)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896819/extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation-outcomes-after-the-comprehensive-stage-ii-procedure-in-patients-with-single-ventricles
#7
Daniel Gomez, Vicky Duffy, Diane Hersey, Carl Backes, Peter Rycus, Patrick McConnell, Jordan Voss, Mark Galantowicz, Clifford L Cua
Outcomes for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) have been described for patients with single ventricle physiology (SVP) undergoing cavopulmonary connection (Glenn procedure). An alternative surgical pathway for patients with SVP consists of an initial hybrid procedure followed by a comprehensive Stage II procedure. No data exist describing the outcomes of patients requiring ECMO after the comprehensive Stage II procedure. The goal of this study is to describe the outcomes for patients who required ECMO after the comprehensive Stage II procedure...
November 29, 2016: Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896743/analysis-of-quantitative-trait-loci
#8
David L Duffy
Although the term quantitative trait locus (QTL) strictly refers merely to a genetic variant that causes changes in a quantitative phenotype such as height, QTL analysis more usually describes techniques used to study oligogenic or polygenic traits where each identified locus contributes a relatively small amount to the genetic determination of the trait, which may be categorical in nature. Originally, too, it would be clear that it covered segregation and genetic linkage analysis, but now genetic association analysis in a genome-wide SNP or sequencing experiment would be the commonest application...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891625/validation-of-the-multiplex-ligation-dependent-probe-amplification-assay-and-its-application-on-the-distribution-study-of-the-major-alleles-of-17-blood-group-systems-in-chinese-donors-from-guangzhou
#9
Yanli Ji, Jizhi Wen, Barbera Veldhuisen, Lonneke Haer-Wigman, Zhen Wang, Martin Lodén-van Straaten, Ling Wei, Guangping Luo, Yongshui Fu, C Ellen van der Schoot
BACKGROUND: Genotyping platforms for common red blood cell (RBC) antigens have been successfully applied in Caucasian and black populations but not in Chinese populations. In this study, a genotyping assay based on multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) technology was applied in a Chinese population to validate the MLPA probes. Subsequently, the comprehensive distribution of 17 blood group systems also was obtained. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: DNA samples from 200 Chinese donors were extracted and genotyped using the blood-MLPA assay...
November 27, 2016: Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888223/adams-oliver-syndrome-associated-with-gastrointestinal-malformations
#10
Lisa van Geyzel, Caroline Gribbon, Sarah Bradley, Donovan Duffy
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 25, 2016: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887647/the-hide-and-seek-of-plasmodium-vivax-in-west-africa-report-from-a-large-scale-study-in-beninese-asymptomatic-subjects
#11
Philippe Poirier, Cécile Doderer-Lang, Pascal S Atchade, Jean-Philippe Lemoine, Marie-Louise Coquelin de l'Isle, Ahmed Abou-Bacar, Alexander W Pfaff, Julie Brunet, Lydia Arnoux, Elodie Haar, Denis Filisetti, Sylvie Perrotey, Nicodeme W Chabi, Casimir D Akpovi, Ludovic Anani, André Bigot, Ambaliou Sanni, Ermanno Candolfi
BACKGROUND: Plasmodium vivax is considered to be absent from western Africa, where the prevalence of Duffy-negative red blood cell phenotype proves to be high. Several studies have, however, detected P. vivax infection cases in this part of Africa, raising the question of what is the actual prevalence of P. vivax in local populations. METHODS: The presence of P. vivax was investigated in a large population of healthy blood donors in Benin using microscopy, serology and molecular detection...
November 25, 2016: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884074/lc-ms-ms-strategies-for-therapeutic-antibodies-and-investigation-into-the-quantitative-impact-of-antidrug-antibodies
#12
Matthew Ewles, Ranbir Mannu, Chris Fox, Johannes Stanta, Graeme Evans, Lee Goodwin, James Duffy, Len Bell, Sian Estdale, David Firth
AIM: We aimed to establish novel, high-throughput LC-MS/MS strategies for quantification of monoclonal antibodies in human serum and examine the potential impact of antidrug antibodies. METHODOLOGY: We present two strategies using a thermally stable immobilized trypsin. The first strategy uses whole serum digestion and the second introduces Protein G enrichment to improve the selectivity. The impact of anti-trastuzumab antibodies on the methods was tested. CONCLUSION: Whole serum digestion has been validated for trastuzumab (LLOQ 0...
December 2016: Bioanalysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876374/characterizing-light-attenuation-within-northwest-florida-estuaries-implications-for-restore-act-water-quality-monitoring
#13
Robyn N Conmy, Blake A Schaeffer, Joseph Schubauer-Berigan, Jessica Aukamp, Allyn Duffy, John C Lehrter, Richard M Greene
Water Quality (WQ) condition is based on ecosystem stressor indicators (e.g. water clarity) which are biogeochemically important and critical when considering the Deepwater Horizon oil spill restoration efforts under the 2012 RESTORE Act. Nearly all of the proposed RESTORE projects list restoring WC as a goal, but 90% neglect water clarity. Here, dynamics of optical constituents impacting clarity are presented from a 2009-2011 study within Pensacola, Choctawhatchee, St. Andrew and St. Joseph estuaries (targeted RESTORE sites) in Northwest Florida...
November 19, 2016: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876152/the-role-of-substance-p-in-pulmonary-clearance-of-bacteria-in-comparative-injury-models
#14
Terry Hsieh, Max H Vaickus, Thor D Stein, Bethany L Lussier, Jiyoun Kim, David M Stepien, Elizabeth R Duffy, Evan L Chiswick, Daniel G Remick
Neural input to the immune system can alter its ability to clear pathogens effectively. Patients suffering mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) have shown reduced rates of pneumonia and a murine model replicated these findings, with better overall survival of TBI mice compared with sham-injured mice. To further investigate the mechanism of improved host response in TBI mice, this study developed and characterized a mild tail trauma model of similar severity to mild TBI. Both mild tail trauma and TBI induced similar systemic changes that normalized within 48 hours, including release of substance P...
December 2016: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875518/a-national-cluster-randomised-controlled-trial-to-examine-the-effect-of-enhanced-reminders-on-the-socioeconomic-gradient-in-uptake-in-bowel-cancer-screening
#15
Rosalind Raine, Sue M Moss, Christian von Wagner, Wendy Atkin, Ines Kralj Hans, Rosemary Howe, Francesca Solmi, Stephen Morris, Nicholas Counsell, Allan Hackshaw, Stephen Halloran, Graham Handley, Richard F Logan, Sandra Rainbow, Steve Smith, Julia Snowball, Helen Seaman, Mary Thomas, Samuel G Smith, Lesley M McGregor, Gemma Vart, Jane Wardle, Stephen W Duffy
BACKGROUND: The NHS Bowel Cancer Screening Programme in England offers biennial guaiac faecal occult blood testing (gFOBt). There is a socioeconomic gradient in participation and socioeconomically disadvantaged groups have worse colorectal cancer survival than more advantaged groups. We compared the effectiveness and cost of an enhanced reminder letter with the usual reminder letter on overall uptake of gFOBt and the socioeconomic gradient in uptake. METHODS: We enhanced the usual reminder by including a heading 'A reminder to you' and a short paragraph restating the offer of screening in simple language...
November 22, 2016: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871254/familial-aggregation-of-albuminuria-and-arterial-hypertension-in-an-aboriginal-australian-community-and-the-contribution-of-variants-in-ace-and-tp53
#16
David L Duffy, Stephen P McDonald, Beverley Hayhurst, Sianna Panagiotopoulos, Trudy J Smith, Xing L Wang, David E Wilcken, Natalia L Duarte, John Mathews, Wendy E Hoy
BACKGROUND: Aboriginal Australians are at high risk of cardiovascular, metabolic and renal diseases, resulting in a marked reduction in life expectancy when compared to the rest of the Australian population. This is partly due to recognized environmental and lifestyle risk factors, but a contribution of genetic susceptibility is also likely. METHODS: Using results from a comprehensive survey of one community (N = 1350 examined individuals), we have tested for familial aggregation of plasma glucose, arterial blood pressure, albuminuria (measured as urinary albumin to creatinine ratio, UACR) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and quantified the contribution of variation at four candidate genes (ACE; TP53; ENOS3; MTHFR)...
November 21, 2016: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869196/t-cell-stimuli-independently-sum-to-regulate-an-inherited-clonal-division-fate
#17
J M Marchingo, G Prevedello, A Kan, S Heinzel, P D Hodgkin, K R Duffy
In the presence of antigen and costimulation, T cells undergo a characteristic response of expansion, cessation and contraction. Previous studies have revealed that population-level reproducibility is a consequence of multiple clones exhibiting considerable disparity in burst size, highlighting the requirement for single-cell information in understanding T-cell fate regulation. Here we show that individual T-cell clones resulting from controlled stimulation in vitro are strongly lineage imprinted with highly correlated expansion fates...
November 21, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863769/erratum-to-frequencies-of-polymorphisms-of-rh-kell-kidd-duffy-and-diego-systems-of-santa-catarina-southern-brazil-rev-bras-hematol-hemoter-2016-38-3-199-205
#18
Daiane Cobianchi Costa, Alessandra Arruda Schinaider, Thais Mattos Santos, Everaldo José Schörner, Daniel Simon, Sharbel Weidner Maluf, Ana Carolina Rabello de Moraes, Maria Claudia Silva Silva
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Revista Brasileira de Hematologia e Hemoterapia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863507/transgenic-mice-overexpressing-the-als-linked-protein-matrin-3-develop-a-profound-muscle-phenotype
#19
Christina Moloney, Sruti Rayaprolu, John Howard, Susan Fromholt, Hilda Brown, Matt Collins, Mariela Cabrera, Colin Duffy, Zoe Siemienski, Dave Miller, Maurice S Swanson, Lucia Notterpek, David R Borchelt, Jada Lewis
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder of upper and lower motor neurons. Mutations in the gene encoding the nuclear matrix protein Matrin 3 have been found in familial cases of ALS, as well as autosomal dominant distal myopathy with vocal cord and pharyngeal weakness. We previously found that spinal cord and muscle, organs involved in either ALS or distal myopathy, have relatively lower levels of Matrin 3 compared to the brain and other peripheral organs in the murine system...
November 18, 2016: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860263/activation-and-clustering-of-a-plasmodium-falciparum-var-gene-are-affected-by-subtelomeric-sequences
#20
Michael F Duffy, Jingyi Tang, Fransisca Sumardy, Hanh H T Nguyen, Shamista A Selvarajah, Gabrielle A Josling, Karen P Day, Michaela Petter, Graham V Brown
The P. falciparum var multigene family encodes the cytoadhesive, variant antigen PfEMP1. P. falciparum antigenic variation and cytoadhesion specificity are controlled by epigenetic switching between the single, or few, simultaneously expressed var genes. Most var genes are maintained in perinuclear clusters of heterochromatic telomeres. The active var gene(s) occupy a single, perinuclear var expression site. It is unresolved whether the var expression site forms in situ at a telomeric cluster or whether it is an extant compartment to which single chromosomes travel, thus controlling var switching...
November 18, 2016: FEBS Journal
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