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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132000/reconciling-monitoring-and-modeling-an-appraisal-of-river-monitoring-networks-based-on-a-spatial-autocorrelation-approach-emerging-pollutants-in-the-danube-river-as-a-case-study
#1
A Ginebreda, L Sabater-Liesa, A Rico, A Focks, D Barceló
Rivers extend in space and time under the influence of their catchment area. Our perception largely relies on discrete spatial and temporal observations carried out at certain sites located throughout the catchment (monitoring networks, MN). However, MNs are constrained by (a) the distribution of sampling sites, (b) the dynamics of the variable considered and (c) the river hydrological conditions. In this study, all three aspects were captured and quantified by applying a spatial autocorrelation modeling approach...
November 10, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126054/a-study-of-genotoxicity-and-oxidative-stress-induced-by-mercuric-chloride-in-the-marine-polychaete-perinereis-aibuhitensis
#2
Lai Jun Zhang, Yao Li, Pan Chen, Xiao Mei Li, Yong Gan Chen, Yu Yu Hang, Wei Jie Gong
The marine polychaete worm Perinereis aibuhitensis was used to study the genotoxic effects of mercuric chloride by means of the comet assay and micronucleus (MN) test. P. aibuhitensis was subjected in vivo to two different concentrations of mercuric chloride (0.05mgL(-1) and 0.5mgL(-1)) for 96h. The comet assay of coelomocytes demonstrated that TailDNA% values increased with extended exposure to or increased concentrations of HgCl2 (p<0.01). The frequency of MNs was the highest in the treatment with 96h of exposure at all concentrations (p<0...
October 28, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109028/enhancing-immunogenicity-of-antigens-through-sustained-intradermal-delivery-using-chitosan-microneedles-with-a-patch-dissolvable-design
#3
Mei-Chin Chen, Kuan-Ying Lai, Ming-Hung Ling, Chun-Wei Lin
Reducing the dosage required for vaccination is highly desirable, particularly in cases of epidemic emergencies. This study evaluated the potential of a chitosan microneedle (MN) system with a patch-dissolvable design for low-dose immunization. This system comprises antigen-loaded chitosan MNs and a hydrophilic polyvinyl alcohol/polyvinyl pyrrolidone supporting array patch, which provides extra strength to achieve complete MN insertion and then quickly dissolves in the skin to reduce patch-induced skin irritation...
November 3, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104236/the-emerging-role-of-the-major-histocompatibility-complex-class-i-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#4
REVIEW
Gabriela Bortolança Chiarotto, Giovanni Nardo, Maria Chiara Trolese, Marcondes Cavalcante França, Caterina Bendotti, Alexandre Leite Rodrigues de Oliveira
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease affecting upper and lower motoneurons (MNs). The etiology of the disease is still unknown for most patients with sporadic ALS, while in 5-10% of the familial cases, several gene mutations have been linked to the disease. Mutations in the gene encoding Cu, Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1), reproducing in animal models a pathological scenario similar to that found in ALS patients, have allowed for the identification of mechanisms relevant to the ALS pathogenesis...
November 1, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097704/potential-for-social-involvement-modulates-activity-within-the-mirror-and-the-mentalizing-systems
#5
Chiara Begliomini, Andrea Cavallo, Valeria Manera, Cristina Becchio, Roberto Stramare, Diego Miotto, Umberto Castiello
Processing biological motion is fundamental for everyday life activities, such as social interaction, motor learning and nonverbal communication. The ability to detect the nature of a motor pattern has been investigated by means of point-light displays (PLD), sets of moving light points reproducing human kinematics, easily recognizable as meaningful once in motion. Although PLD are rudimentary, the human brain can decipher their content including social intentions. Neuroimaging studies suggest that inferring the social meaning conveyed by PLD could rely on both the Mirror Neuron System (MNS) and the Mentalizing System (MS), but their specific role to this endeavor remains uncertain...
November 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074440/microarray-patches-potentially-useful-delivery-systems-for-long-acting-nanosuspensions
#6
REVIEW
Ryan F Donnelly, Eneko Larrañeta
Long-acting drug nanosuspension formulations are coming to the fore as controlled release strategies for several medical conditions and as a preventative measure against HIV infection. However, such delivery systems must, by necessity, be given by hypodermic injection, typically into muscle. This poses problems for patients who are needle-phobic, given that injections have to be administered on a weekly or monthly basis. Needle-stick injuries, inappropriate reuse of needles, and poor disposal practices are major challenges in developing countries...
October 23, 2017: Drug Discovery Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071590/racial-ethnic-disparities-in-morbidity-and-mortality-for-preterm-neonates-admitted-to-a-tertiary-neonatal-intensive-care-unit
#7
Courtney Townsel, Rebecca Keller, Chia-Ling Kuo, Winston A Campbell, Naveed Hussain
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess whether in-hospital morbidity or mortality differed by race/ethnicity for preterm neonates admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). STUDY DESIGN: In a retrospective cohort study, preterm infants, < 37 weeks, were admitted to the NICU from 1994 to 2009. Exclusions included structural anomalies and aneuploidy. Primary outcome was in-hospital mortality (IHM). Secondary outcomes were respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), interventricular hemorrhage (IVH), necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), and retinopathy of prematurity (ROP)...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069594/columnar-intrinsic-cues-shape-premotor-input-specificity-in-locomotor-circuits
#8
Myungin Baek, Chiara Pivetta, Jeh-Ping Liu, Silvia Arber, Jeremy S Dasen
Control of movement relies on the ability of circuits within the spinal cord to establish connections with specific subtypes of motor neuron (MN). Although the pattern of output from locomotor networks can be influenced by MN position and identity, whether MNs exert an instructive role in shaping synaptic specificity within the spinal cord is unclear. We show that Hox transcription-factor-dependent programs in MNs are essential in establishing the central pattern of connectivity within the ventral spinal cord...
October 24, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061638/motor-neurons-with-limb-innervating-character-in-the-cervical-spinal-cord-are-sculpted-by-apoptosis-based-on-the-hox-code-in-chick-embryo
#9
Katsuki Mukaigasa, Chie Sakuma, Tomoaki Okada, Shunsaku Homma, Takako Shimada, Keiji Nishiyama, Noboru Sato, Hiroyuki Yaginuma
In the developing chick embryo, a certain population of motor neurons (MNs) in the non-limb-innervating cervical spinal cord undergoes apoptosis between embryonic days 4 and 5. However, the characteristics of these apoptotic MNs remain undefined. Here, by examining the spatiotemporal profiles of apoptosis and MN subtype marker expression in normal or apoptosis-inhibited chick embryos, we found that this apoptotic population is distinguishable by Foxp1 expression. When apoptosis was inhibited, the survived Foxp1+ MNs showed characteristics of lateral motor column (LMC) neurons, which are of a limb-innervating subtype, suggesting that cervical Foxp1(+) MNs are the rostral continuation of LMC...
October 23, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056361/compensatory-plasticity-in-diaphragm-and-intercostal-muscle-utilization-in-a-rat-model-of-als
#10
Yasin B Seven, Nicole L Nichols, Mia N Kelly, Orinda R Hobson, Irawan Satriotomo, Gordon S Mitchell
In SOD1(G93A) transgenic rat model of ALS, breathing capacity is preserved until late in disease progression despite profound respiratory motor neuron (MN) cell death. To explore mechanisms preserving breathing capacity, we assessed inspiratory EMG activity in diaphragm and external intercostal T2 (EIC2) and T5 (EIC5) muscles in anesthetized SOD1(G93A) rats at disease end-stage (20% decrease in body mass). We hypothesized that despite significant phrenic motor neuron loss and decreased phrenic nerve activity, diaphragm electrical activity and trans-diaphragmatic pressure (Pdi) are maintained to sustain ventilation...
October 19, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043830/red-blood-cell-phenotype-prevalence-in-blood-donors-who-self-identify-as-hispanic
#11
Chelsea A Sheppard, Nicole L Bolen, Beth Eades, Gorka Ochoa-Garay, Mark H Yazer
Molecular genotyping platforms provide a quick, high-throughput method for identifying red blood cell units for patients on extended phenotype-matching protocols, such as those with sickle cell disease or thalassemia. Most of the antigen prevalence data reported are for non-Hispanic populations. Therefore, this study sought to determine the phenotype prevalence in a single blood center's Hispanic population and to compare those results with previously reported rates in non-Hispanic donor populations. We performed a retrospective review of all serologic and molecular typing from donors who self-reported as Hispanic...
September 2017: Immunohematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043827/stability-guidelines-for-dithiothreitol-treated-red-blood-cell-reagents-used-for-antibody-detection-methods-in-patients-treated-with-daratumumab
#12
Wendy L Disbro
Daratumumab (DARA), a drug used to treat patients with multiple myeloma, causes interference in pre-transfusion testing. Samples from patients receiving DARA exhibit panreactivity in antibody detection and identification tests with red blood cells (RBCs). Many hospitals are sending these samples to reference laboratories. Dithiothreitol (DTT), a sulfhydryl chemical treatment of RBCs, negates this reactivity. This study investigated the stability of the antigens on DTT-treated RBCs to determine if large quantities of RBCs could be treated at one time, stored, and used for testing at a later time...
September 2017: Immunohematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033783/the-mechanisms-of-psychedelic-visionary-experiences-hypotheses-from-evolutionary-psychology
#13
Michael J Winkelman
Neuropharmacological effects of psychedelics have profound cognitive, emotional, and social effects that inspired the development of cultures and religions worldwide. Findings that psychedelics objectively and reliably produce mystical experiences press the question of the neuropharmacological mechanisms by which these highly significant experiences are produced by exogenous neurotransmitter analogs. Humans have a long evolutionary relationship with psychedelics, a consequence of psychedelics' selective effects for human cognitive abilities, exemplified in the information rich visionary experiences...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033363/convergent-transcriptional-programs-regulate-camp-levels-in-c-%C3%A2-elegans-gabaergic-motor-neurons
#14
Bin Yu, Xiaolin Wang, Shuai Wei, Tao Fu, Emmanuel Enoch Dzakah, Ahmed Waqas, Walter W Walthall, Ge Shan
Both transcriptional regulation and signaling pathways play crucial roles in neuronal differentiation and plasticity. Caenorhabditis elegans possesses 19 GABAergic motor neurons (MNs) called D MNs, which are divided into two subgroups: DD and VD. DD, but not VD, MNs reverse their cellular polarity in a developmental process called respecification. UNC-30 and UNC-55 are two critical transcription factors in D MNs. By using chromatin immunoprecipitation with CRISPR/Cas9 knockin of GFP fusion, we uncovered the global targets of UNC-30 and UNC-55...
October 23, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031545/social-modeling-of-eating-mediated-by-mirror-neuron-activity-a-causal-model-moderated-by-frontal-asymmetry-and-bmi
#15
Laura McGeown, Ron Davis
The social modeling of eating effect refers to the consistently demonstrated phenomenon that individuals tend to match their quantity of food intake to their eating companion. The current study sought to explore whether activity within the mirror neuron system (MNS) mediates the social modeling of eating effect as a function of EEG frontal asymmetry and body mass index (BMI). Under the guise of rating empathy, 93 female undergraduates viewed a female video confederate "incidentally" consume either a low or high intake of chips while electroencephalogram (EEG) activity was recorded...
October 12, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028496/are-the-damaging-effects-induced-by-the-imazethapyr-formulation-pivot-%C3%A2-h-in-boana-pulchella-anura-reversible-upon-ceasing-exposure
#16
Juan Manuel Pérez-Iglesias, Guillermo S Natale, Sonia Soloneski, Marcelo L Larramendy
In the present study, the damage recovery capabilities of Boana pulchella tadpoles after acute exposure (96h) to 0.39mg/L concentration of the imazethapyr (IMZT)-based herbicide formulation Pivot(®) H (25% IMZT LC50 value) were assessed during a period of 7 to -21 days. To appraise the recovery capabilities, frequency of micronuclei (MNs), other nuclear abnormalities and DNA single-strand breaks evaluated by single cell gel electrophoresis assay on circulating blood cells were employed as endpoints for genotoxicity...
October 10, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027066/white-matter-microstructure-of-the-human-mirror-neuron-system-is-related-to-symptom-severity-in-adults-with-autism
#17
Odette Fründt, Robert Schulz, Daniel Schöttle, Bastian Cheng, Götz Thomalla, Hanna Braaß, Christos Ganos, Nicole David, Ina Peiker, Andreas K Engel, Tobias Bäumer, Alexander Münchau
Mirror neuron system (MNS) dysfunctions might underlie deficits in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Diffusion tensor imaging based probabilistic tractography was conducted in 15 adult ASD patients and 13 matched, healthy controls. Fractional anisotropy (FA) was quantified to assess group differences in tract-related white matter microstructure of both the classical MNS route (mediating "emulation") and the alternative temporo-frontal route (mediating "mimicry"). Multiple linear regression was used to investigate structure-function relationships between MNS connections and ASD symptom severity...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024234/vicariously-touching-products-through-observing-others-hand-actions-increases-purchasing-intention-and-the-effect-of-visual-perspective-in-this-process-an-fmri-study
#18
Yi Liu, Xuelian Zang, Lihan Chen, Leonardo Assumpção, Hong Li
The growth of online shopping increases consumers' dependence on vicarious sensory experiences, such as observing others touching products in commercials. However, empirical evidence on whether observing others' sensory experiences increases purchasing intention is still scarce. In the present study, participants observed others interacting with products in the first- or third-person perspective in video clips, and their neural responses were measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We investigated (1) whether and how vicariously touching certain products affected purchasing intention, and the neural correlates of this process; and (2) how visual perspective interacts with vicarious tactility...
October 11, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021520/hdac6-inhibition-reverses-axonal-transport-defects-in-motor-neurons-derived-from-fus-als-patients
#19
Wenting Guo, Maximilian Naujock, Laura Fumagalli, Tijs Vandoorne, Pieter Baatsen, Ruben Boon, Laura Ordovás, Abdulsamie Patel, Marc Welters, Thomas Vanwelden, Natasja Geens, Tine Tricot, Veronick Benoy, Jolien Steyaert, Cynthia Lefebvre-Omar, Werend Boesmans, Matthew Jarpe, Jared Sterneckert, Florian Wegner, Susanne Petri, Delphine Bohl, Pieter Vanden Berghe, Wim Robberecht, Philip Van Damme, Catherine Verfaillie, Ludo Van Den Bosch
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a rapidly progressive neurodegenerative disorder due to selective loss of motor neurons (MNs). Mutations in the fused in sarcoma (FUS) gene can cause both juvenile and late onset ALS. We generated and characterized induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from ALS patients with different FUS mutations, as well as from healthy controls. Patient-derived MNs show typical cytoplasmic FUS pathology, hypoexcitability, as well as progressive axonal transport defects. Axonal transport defects are rescued by CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genetic correction of the FUS mutation in patient-derived iPSCs...
October 11, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994845/continuous-fabrication-of-a-mns-co-nanofibrous-air-electrode-for-wide-integration-of-rechargeable-zinc-air-batteries
#20
Yang Wang, Jing Fu, Yining Zhang, Matthew Li, Fathy Mohamed Hassan, Guang Li, Zhongwei Chen
Exploring highly efficient bifunctional electrocatalysts toward the oxygen reduction and evolution reactions is essential for the realization of high-performance rechargeable zinc-air batteries. Herein, a novel nanofibrous bifunctional electrocatalyst film, consisting of metallic manganese sulfide and cobalt encapsulated by nitrogen-doped carbon nanofibers (CMS/NCNF), is prepared through a continuous electrospinning method followed by carbonization treatment. The CMS/NCNF bifunctional catalyst shows both comparable ORR and OER performances to those of commercial precious metal-based catalysts...
October 26, 2017: Nanoscale
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