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Congyu Wu, Yajing Shen, Mengwei Chen, Kun Wang, Yongyong Li, Yu Cheng
Remote control of cells and the regulation of cell events at the molecular level are of great interest in the biomedical field. In addition to chemical compounds and genes, mechanical forces play a pivotal role in regulating cell fate, which have prompted the rapid growth of mechanobiology. From a perspective of nanotechnology, magnetic nanomaterials (MNs) are an appealing option for mechanotransduction due to their capabilities in spatiotemporal manipulation of mechanical forces via the magnetic field. As a newly developed paradigm, magneto-mechanotransduction is harnessed to physically regulate cell fate for biomedical applications...
March 15, 2018: Advanced Materials
Gardave S Bhumbra, Marco Beato
Spinal motoneurones (Mns) constitute the final output for the execution of motor tasks. In addition to innervating muscles, Mns project excitatory collateral connections to Renshaw cells (RCs) and other Mns, but the latter have received little attention. We show that Mns receive strong synaptic input from other Mns throughout development and into maturity, with fast-type Mns systematically receiving greater recurrent excitation than slow-type Mns. Optical recordings show that activation of Mns in one spinal segment can propagate to adjacent segments even in the presence of intact recurrent inhibition...
March 2018: PLoS Biology
Carlin Geor Malar, Muthulingam Seenuvasan, Kannaiyan Sathish Kumar
Herein, the magnetite nanoparticles (MNs) were prepared by facile solvothermal method and its porous nature was modified using 3-(2-aminoethyl)-3-aminopropyl trimethoxysilane (AEAPS). Magnetite formation, successful amino tagging, and urease conjugation on the surface were confirmed from the presence of certain functional groups in Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra. Also, nanosize (13.2 nm) and spherical morphology of MNs were evaluated from diffraction patterns and electron micrographs respectively...
March 14, 2018: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Michael A Luzuriaga, Danielle R Berry, John C Reagan, Ronald A Smaldone, Jeremiah J Gassensmith
Biodegradable polymer microneedle (MN) arrays are an emerging class of transdermal drug delivery devices that promise a painless and sanitary alternative to syringes; however, prototyping bespoke needle architectures is expensive and requires production of new master templates. Here, we present a new microfabrication technique for MNs using fused deposition modeling (FDM) 3D printing using polylactic acid, an FDA approved, renewable, biodegradable, thermoplastic material. We show how this natural degradability can be exploited to overcome a key challenge of FDM 3D printing, in particular the low resolution of these printers...
March 14, 2018: Lab on a Chip
Yukie Kushimura, Takahiko Tokuda, Yumiko Azuma, Itaru Yamamoto, Ikuko Mizuta, Toshiki Mizuno, Masanori Nakagawa, Morio Ueyama, Yoshitaka Nagai, Hideki Yoshida, Masamitsu Yamaguchi
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a rapidly progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by the motor neuron degeneration that eventually leads to complete paralysis and death within 2-5 years after disease onset. One of the major pathological hallmark of ALS is abnormal accumulation of inclusions containing TAR DNA-binding protein-43 (TDP-43). TDP-43 is normally found in the nucleus, but in ALS, it localizes in the cytoplasm as inclusions as well as in the nucleus. Loss of nuclear TDP-43 functions likely contributes to neurodegeneration...
2018: American Journal of Neurodegenerative Disease
Huan Yi, Bingbing Xie, Ben Liu, Xuan Wang, Li Xu, Jia Liu, Min Li, Xiufeng Zhong, Fuhua Peng
Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have provided new opportunities for motor neuron disease (MND) modeling, drug screening, and cellular therapeutic development. Among the various types of iPSCs, urine-derived iPSCs have become a promising source of stem cells because they can be safely and noninvasively isolated and easily reprogrammed. Here, for the first time, we differentiated urine-derived iPSCs (urine-iPSCs) into motor neurons (MNs) and compared the capacity of urine-iPSCs and cord-blood-derived iPSCs (B-iPSCs) to differentiate into MNs...
2018: Stem Cells International
Fabrizia Festante, Ross E Vanderwert, Valentina Sclafani, Annika Paukner, Elizabeth A Simpson, Stephen J Suomi, Nathan A Fox, Pier Francesco Ferrari
Previous developmental research suggests that motor experience supports the development of action perception across the lifespan. However, it is still unknown when the neural mechanisms underlying action-perception coupling emerge in infancy. The goal of this study was to examine the neural correlates of action perception during the emergence of grasping abilities in newborn rhesus macaques. Neural activity, recorded via electroencephalogram (EEG), while monkeys observed grasping actions, mimed actions and means-end movements during the first (W1) and second week (W2) of life was measured...
March 1, 2018: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
Toshiyuki Takayanagi, Taiki Nakatomi
Many catalytic and biomolecular reactions containing transition metals involve changes in the electronic spin state. These processes are referred to as "spin-forbidden" reactions within nonrelativistic quantum mechanics framework. To understand detailed reaction mechanisms of spin-forbidden reactions, one must characterize reaction pathways on potential energy surfaces with different spin states and then identify crossing points. Here we propose a practical computational scheme, where only the lowest mixed-spin eigenstate obtained from the diagonalization of the spin-coupled Hamiltonian matrix is used in reaction path search calculations...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Computational Chemistry
Elizabeth Q Littauer, Lisa K Mills, Nicole Brock, E Stein Esser, Andrey Romanyuk, Joanna A Pulit-Penaloza, Elena V Vassilieva, Jacob T Beaver, Olivia Antao, Florian Krammer, Richard W Compans, Mark R Prausnitz, Ioanna Skountzou
The widely used influenza subunit vaccine would benefit from increased protection rates in vulnerable populations. Skin immunization by microneedle (MN) patch can increase vaccine immunogenicity, as well as increase vaccination coverage due to simplified administration. To further increase immunogenicity, we used granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), an immunomodulatory cytokine already approved for skin cancer therapy and cancer support treatment. GM-CSF has been shown to be upregulated in skin following MN insertion...
February 26, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Liyun Dong, Yuce Li, Zhao Li, Nan Xu, Pei Liu, Hongyao Du, Yamin Zhang, Yuqiong Huang, Jinjin Zhu, Guichao Ren, Jun Xie, Ke Wang, Yajie Zhou, Chen Shen, Jintao Zhu, Juan Tao
For superficial skin tumors with high incidence, surgery and systemic therapy are relatively invasive and possible to cause severe side effect, respectively. Yet, topical therapy is confronted with the limited transdermal capacity due to the stratum corneum barrier layer of skin. Therefore, it is crucial to develop a highly effective and minimally invasive alternative transdermal approach for treating superficial skin tumors. Here, we developed gold nanocage (AuNC)- and chemotherapeutic drug doxorubicin (DOX)-loaded hyaluronic acid dissolving microneedle (MN) arrays...
March 1, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Céline Jean-Xavier, Marie-Claude Perreault
The trunk plays a pivotal role in limbed locomotion. Yet, little is known about how the brain stem controls trunk activity during walking. In this study, we assessed the spatiotemporal activity patterns of axial and hindlimb motoneurons (MNs) during drug-induced fictive locomotor-like activity (LLA) in an isolated brain stem-spinal cord preparation of the neonatal mouse. We also evaluated the extent to which these activity patterns are affected by removal of brain stem. Recordings were made in the segments T7, L2, and L5 using calcium imaging from individual axial MNs in the medial motor column (MMC) and hindlimb MNs in lateral motor column (LMC)...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Abhirami K Iyer, Kathryn J Jones, Virginia M Sanders, Chandler L Walker
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive loss of lower and upper motor neurons (MN) leading to muscle weakness, paralysis and eventually death. Although a highly varied etiology results in ALS, it broadly manifests itself as sporadic and familial forms that have evident similarities in clinical symptoms and disease progression. There is a tremendous amount of knowledge on molecular mechanisms leading to loss of MNs and neuromuscular junctions (NMJ) as major determinants of disease onset, severity and progression in ALS...
February 23, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Krystyna Rymarczyk, Łukasz Żurawski, Kamila Jankowiak-Siuda, Iwona Szatkowska
Facial mimicry (FM) is an automatic response to imitate the facial expressions of others. However, neural correlates of the phenomenon are as yet not well established. We investigated this issue using simultaneously recorded EMG and BOLD signals during perception of dynamic and static emotional facial expressions of happiness and anger. During display presentations, BOLD signals and zygomaticus major (ZM), corrugator supercilii (CS) and orbicularis oculi (OO) EMG responses were recorded simultaneously from 46 healthy individuals...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Giovanni Marchegiani, Stefano Andrianello, Alex Borin, Chiara Dal Borgo, Giampaolo Perri, Tommaso Pollini, Giorgia Romanò, Mirko D'Onofrio, Armando Gabbrielli, Aldo Scarpa, Giuseppe Malleo, Claudio Bassi, Roberto Salvia
BACKGROUND: Mural nodules (MNs) have a predominant role in the 2016 revision of the international guidelines on intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMN) of the pancreas. The aim of this study was to evaluate MNs as predictors of invasive cancer (iCa) or high-grade dysplasia (HGD) in IPMNs and to investigate the role of MN size in risk prediction. METHODS: A PRISMA-compliant systematic review of the literature and meta-analysis on selected studies were conducted...
February 14, 2018: Surgery
Kirsten Arnett, Alexandra Roach, Meredith Elzy, Laura Jelsone-Swain
Empathy is a critical aspect of social behavior, and impairment in empathic processing is linked to hindered social interactions and several disorders. Despite much interest in this topic, our understanding of the developmental and neural involvement for empathic processing is limited. Recent evidence suggests the Mirror Neuron System (MNS) may play a role in this behavior, and that mu rhythm suppression found over the sensorimotor cortices may be a proxy for the MNS. Therefore, we aimed to measure mu rhythm oscillations in response to empathic processing during observation of painful action-based situations using electroencephalogram (EEG)...
February 16, 2018: Social Neuroscience
Anastasya Birger, Miri Ottolenghi, Liat Perez, Benjamin Reubinoff, Oded Behar
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by cell death of upper and lower motor neurons (MNs). The cause of MN cell loss is not completely understood but involves both cell autonomous and non-cell autonomous mechanisms. Numerous molecules have been implicated to be involved in the death of MNs. One such candidate is semaphorin 3A (Sema3A). In ALS patients, Sema3A was shown to be significantly upregulated in the motor cortex and downregulated in the spinal cord. In the mouse, Sema3A was shown to be an axon repellent molecule for MNs...
February 15, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
Silvia Biscarini, Davide Capauto, Giovanna Peruzzi, Lei Lu, Alessio Colantoni, Tiziana Santini, Neil A Shneider, Elisa Caffarelli, Pietro Laneve, Irene Bozzoni
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are currently recognized as crucial players in nervous system development, function and pathology. In Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), identification of causative mutations in FUS and TDP-43 or hexanucleotide repeat expansion in C9ORF72 point to the essential role of aberrant RNA metabolism in neurodegeneration. In this study, by taking advantage of an in vitro differentiation system generating mouse motor neurons (MNs) from embryonic stem cells, we identified and characterized the long non-coding transcriptome of MNs...
January 31, 2018: Stem Cell Research
Hongjing Wang, Hongjie Yu, Yinghao Li, Shuli Yin, Hairong Xue, Xiaonian Li, You Xu, Liang Wang
Engineering of electrocatalysts with high performance for cathodic and/or anodic catalytic reactions is of significant urgency for the development of direct methanol fuel cells. Pt-based bimetallic alloys have recently received considerable attentions in the field of fuel cells because of their superior catalytic performance toward both fuel molecule electro-oxidation and oxygen reduction. In this work, bimetallic PtCo mesoporous nanospheres (PtCo MNs) with uniform size and morphology have been prepared by a one-step method in a high yield...
February 14, 2018: Nanotechnology
Marina Boido, Elena De Amicis, Valeria Valsecchi, Marco Trevisan, Ugo Ala, Markus A Ruegg, Stefan Hettwer, Alessandro Vercelli
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a pediatric genetic disease, characterized by motor neuron (MN) death, leading to progressive muscle weakness, respiratory failure, and, in the most severe cases, to death. Abnormalities at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) have been reported in SMA, including neurofilament (NF) accumulation at presynaptic terminals, immature and smaller than normal endplates, reduced transmitter release, and, finally, muscle denervation. Here we have studied the role of agrin in SMAΔ7 mice, the experimental model of SMAII...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Chunyu Ru, Zhenhua Li, Chengji Zhao, Yuting Duan, Zhuang Zhuang, Fanzhe Bu, Hui Na
Novel side-chain-type sulfonated poly (arylene ether ketone) (SNF-PAEK) containing naphthalene and fluorine moieties on the main chain was prepared in this work, and a new amino-sulfo-bifunctionalized metal-organic framework (MNS, short for MIL-101-NH2-SO3H) was synthesized via a hydrothermal technology and post-modification. Then MNS was incorporated into SNF-PAEK matrix as an inorganic nano-filler to prepare a series of organic-inorganic hybrid membranes (MNS@SNF-PAEK-XX). The mechanical property, methanol resistance, electrochemistry and other properties of MNS@SNF-PAEK-XX hybrid membranes were detailed characterized...
February 14, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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