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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326439/a-distinct-functional-distribution-of-%C3%AE-and-%C3%AE-motoneurons-in-the-rat-trigeminal-motor-nucleus
#1
Yukako Morita-Isogai, Hajime Sato, Mitsuru Saito, Eriko Kuramoto, Dong Xu Yin, Takeshi Kaneko, Takashi Yamashiro, Kenji Takada, Seog Bae Oh, Hiroki Toyoda, Youngnam Kang
Gamma-motoneurons (γMNs) play a crucial role in regulating isometric muscle contraction. The slow jaw-closing during mastication is one of the most functional isometric contractions, which is developed by the rank-order recruitment of alpha-motoneurons (αMNs) in a manner that reflects the size distribution of αMNs. In a mouse spinal motor nucleus, there are two populations of small and large MNs; the former was identified as a population of γMNs based on the positive expression of the transcription factor estrogen-related receptor 3 (Err3) and negative expression of the neuronal DNA-binding protein NeuN, and the latter as that of αMNs based on the opposite pattern of immunoreactivity...
March 22, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318819/slow-pathway-radiofrequency-ablation-using-magnetic-navigation-a-description-of-technique-and-retrospective-case-analysis
#2
Abhishek Bhaskaran, Maha Albarri, Neil Ross, Sara Al Raisi, Rahul Samantha, Leonette Roode, Fazlur Nadri, Jeanette Ng, Stuart Thomas, Aravinda Thiagalingam, Pramesh Kovoor
BACKGROUND: The Magnetic Navigation System (MNS) catheter was shown to be stable in the presence of significant cardiac wall motion and delivered more effective lesions compared to manual control. This stability could potentially make AV junctional reentrant tachycardia (AVNRT) ablation safer. The aim of this study is to describe the method of mapping and ablation of AVNRT with MNS and 3-D electro-anatomical mapping system (CARTO, Biosense Webster, Diamond bar, CA, USA) anatomical mapping, with a view to improve the safety of ablation...
February 21, 2017: Heart, Lung & Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317880/antidromic-rectifying-gap-junctions-amplify-chemical-transmission-at-functionally-mixed-electrical-chemical-synapses
#3
Ping Liu, Bojun Chen, Roger Mailler, Zhao-Wen Wang
Neurons communicate through chemical synapses and electrical synapses (gap junctions). Although these two types of synapses often coexist between neurons, little is known about whether they interact, and whether any interactions between them are important to controlling synaptic strength and circuit functions. By studying chemical and electrical synapses between premotor interneurons (AVA) and downstream motor neurons (A-MNs) in the Caenorhabditis elegans escape circuit, we found that disrupting either the chemical or electrical synapses causes defective escape response...
March 20, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315038/the-mirror-neuron-system-in-relapsing-remitting-multiple-sclerosis-patients-with-low-disability
#4
Julio Plata-Bello, Yaiza Pérez-Martín, Abril Castañón-Pérez, Cristián Modroño, Helga Fariña, Estefanía Hernández-Martín, Montserrat González-Platas, Francisco Marcano, José Luis González-Mora
To study the visuospatial/visuoperceptive function using a mirror neuron system (MNS) based approach in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and a healthy control group. Two task-based fMRIs (an execution task and an observation task) and one resting-fMRI were performed in a group of MS patients (n = 24) and a group of healthy controls (n = 15). The execution and observation tasks consisted of the performance or observation of the index-thumb opposition task. Statistical parametric mapping approaches were used to identify differences in the brain activity and functional connectivity (FC) of the MNS between MS patients and healthy controls...
March 17, 2017: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301670/mns-duffy-and-kell-blood-groups-among-the-uygur-population-of-xinjiang-china
#5
G Y Lin, X L Du, J J Shan, Y N Zhang, Y Q Zhang, Q H Wang
Human blood groups are a significant resource for patients, leading to a fierce international competition in the screening of rare blood groups. Some rare blood group screening programs have been implemented in western countries and Japan, but not particularly in China. Recently, the genetic background of ABO and Rh blood groups for different ethnic groups or regions in China has been focused on increasingly. However, rare blood groups such as MN, Duffy, Kidd, MNS, and Diego are largely unexplored. No systematic reports exist concerning the polymorphisms and allele frequencies of rare blood groups in China's ethnic minorities such as Uygur and Kazak populations of Xinjiang, unlike those on the Han population...
March 15, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296159/noble-metal-free-janus-like-structures-by-cation-exchange-for-z-scheme-photocatalytic-water-splitting-under-broadband-light-irradiation
#6
Qichen Yuan, Dong Liu, Ning Zhang, Wei Ye, Huanxin Ju, Lei Shi, Ran Long, Junfa Zhu, Yujie Xiong
Z-scheme water splitting is a promising approach based on high-performance photocatalysis by harvesting broadband solar energy. Its efficiency depends on the well-defined interfaces between two semiconductors for the charge kinetics and their exposed surfaces for chemical reactions. Herein, we report a facile cation-exchange approach to obtain compounds with both properties without the need for noble metals by forming Janus-like structures consisting of γ-MnS and Cu7 S4 with high-quality interfaces. The Janus-like γ-MnS/Cu7 S4 structures displayed dramatically enhanced photocatalytic hydrogen production rates of up to 718 μmol g(-1)  h(-1) under full-spectrum irradiation...
March 15, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286864/in-vivo-expansion-of-melanoma-specific-t-cells-using-microneedle-arrays-coated-with-immune-polyelectrolyte-multilayers
#7
Qin Zeng, Joshua M Gammon, Lisa H Tostanoski, Yu-Chieh Chiu, Christopher M Jewell
Microneedles (MNs) are micron-scale polymeric or metallic structures that offer distinct advantages for vaccines by efficiently targeting skin-resident immune cells, eliminating injection-associated pain, and improving patient compliance. These advantages, along with recent studies showing therapeutic benefits achieved using traditional intradermal injections in human cancer patients, suggest MN delivery might enhance cancer vaccines and immunotherapies. We recently developed a new class of polyelectrolyte multilayers based on the self-assembly of model peptide antigens and molecular toll-like receptor agonists (TLRa) into ultrathin, conformal coatings...
February 13, 2017: ACS Biomaterials Science & Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286315/formulation-of-hydrophobic-peptides-for-skin-delivery-via-coated-microneedles
#8
Xin Zhao, Sion A Coulman, Stephanie J Hanna, F Susan Wong, Colin M Dayan, James C Birchall
Microneedles (MNs) have been investigated as a minimally-invasive delivery technology for a range of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs). Various formulations and methods for coating the surface of MNs with therapeutics have been proposed and exemplified, predominantly for hydrophilic drugs and particulates. The development of effective MN delivery formulations for hydrophobic drugs is more challenging with dosing restrictions and the use of organic solvents impacting on both the bioactivity and the kinetics of drug release...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285946/development-of-rostral-inferior-parietal-lobule-area-functional-connectivity-from-late-childhood-to-early-adulthood
#9
Mengxing Wang, Jilei Zhang, Guangheng Dong, Hui Zhang, Haifeng Lu, Xiaoxia Du
Although the mirror neuron system (MNS) has been extensively studied in monkeys and adult humans, very little is known about its development. Previous studies suggest that the MNS is present by infancy and that the brain and MNS-related cognitive abilities (such as language, empathy, and imitation learning) continue to develop after childhood. In humans, the PFt area of the inferior parietal lobule (IPL) seems to particularly correlate with the functional properties of the PF area in primates, which contains mirror neurons...
March 7, 2017: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285347/endothelin-1-induces-degeneration-of-cultured-motor-neurons-through-a-mechanism-mediated-by-nitric-oxide-and-pi3k-akt-pathway
#10
S D'Antoni, E Ranno, M Spatuzza, S Cavallaro, M V Catania
Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is a vasoactive peptide produced by activated astrocytes and microglia and is implicated in initiating and sustaining reactive gliosis in neurodegenerative diseases. We have previously suggested that ET-1 can play a role in the pathophysiology of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Indeed, we reported that this peptide is abundantly expressed in reactive astrocytes in the spinal cord of SOD1-G93A mice and ALS patients and exerts a toxic effect on motor neurons (MNs) in an in vitro model of mixed spinal cord cultures enriched with reactive astrocytes...
March 11, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272874/microfluidic-electroporation-facilitated-synthesis-of-erythrocyte-membrane-coated-magnetic-nanoparticles-for-enhanced-imaging-guided-cancer-therapy
#11
Lang Rao, Bo Cai, Lin-Lin Bu, Qing-Quan Liao, Shi-Shang Guo, Xing-Zhong Zhao, Wen-Fei Dong, Wei Liu
Biomimetic cell membrane-coated nanoparticles (CM-NPs) with superior biochemical properties have been broadly utilized for various biomedical applications. Currently, researchers primarily focus on using ultrasonic treatment and mechanical extrusion to improve the synthesis of CM-NPs. In this work, we demonstrate that microfluidic electroporation can effectively facilitate the synthesis of CM-NPs. To test it, Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (MNs) and red blood cell membrane-derived vesicles (RBC-vesicles) are infused into a microfluidic device...
March 13, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265630/dual-emissions-from-mns-clusters-confined-in-the-sodalite-nanocage-of-a-chalcogenide-based-semiconductor-zeolite
#12
Dandan Hu, Yingying Zhang, Jian Lin, Yike Hou, Dongsheng Li, Tao Wu
A new host-guest hybrid system with MnS clusters confined in a chalcogenide-based semiconductor zeolite was for the first time constructed and its photoluminescence (PL) properties were also investigated. The existence of MnS clusters in the nanopores of the semiconductor zeolite was revealed by UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, steady-state fluorescence analysis, Raman as well as Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The aggregation state of the entrapped MnS clusters at different measurement temperatures was probed by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy...
March 21, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241111/efficient-enrichment-and-analyses-of-bacteria-at-ultralow-concentration-with-quick-response-magnetic-nanospheres
#13
Cong-Ying Wen, Yong-Zhong Jiang, Xi-You Li, Man Tang, Ling-Ling Wu, Jiao Hu, Dai-Wen Pang, Jing-Bin Zeng
Enrichment and purification of bacteria from complex matrices are crucial for their detection and investigation, in which magnetic separation techniques have recently show great application advantages. However, currently used magnetic particles all have their own limitations: Magnetic microparticles exhibit poor binding capacity with targets, while magnetic nanoparticles suffer slow magnetic response and high loss rate during treatment process. Herein, we used a highly controllable layer-by-layer assembly method to fabricate quick-response magnetic nanospheres (MNs), and with Salmonella typhimurium as a model, we successfully achieve their rapid and efficient enrichment...
March 22, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215667/microneedle-bio-microneedle-and-bio-inspired-microneedle-a-review
#14
REVIEW
Guojun Ma, Chengwei Wu
Microneedles (MNs) are micro-scale needles used for drug delivery and other targets. Micro-scale size endows them with many advantages over hypodermic needles, including painlessness, minimal invasiveness and convenient operation, but it may also lead to risk of mechanical failures, which should be prevented in the clinical applications of MNs. The objective of this review is mainly to introduce studies on the mechanics problems with respect to MNs. Firstly, the basic knowledge of MNs is introduced in brief, so that readers can understand the basic characteristics of MNs...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214746/a-magnetite-pmaa-nanospheres-targeting-sers-aptasensor-for-tetracycline-sensing-using-mercapto-molecules-embedded-core-shell-nanoparticles-for-signal-amplification
#15
Huanhuan Li, Quansheng Chen, Md Mehedi Hassan, Xiaoxing Chen, Qin Ouyang, Zhiming Guo, Jiewen Zhao
Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) biosensors have promising potential in the field of antibiotics detection because of their ultrahigh detection sensitivity. This paper reports a rapid and sensitive SERS-based magnetic nanospheres-targeting strategy for sensing tetracycline (TTC) using aptamer-conjugated magnetite colloid nanocrystal clusters (MCNCs)-polymethacrylic acid (PMAA) magnetic nanospheres (MNs) as the recognition and the Au/PATP/SiO2 (APS) as the labels. Initially, MNs were fabricated and conjugated with the aptamers through condensation reaction...
June 15, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210729/self-assembly-of-cucurbit-7-uril-based-triangular-4-molecular-necklaces-and-their-fluorescence-properties
#16
Soumen K Samanta, Kimberly G Brady, Lyle Isaacs
Self-assembly of rigid-rod dipyridine ligand 1 with M(en)(NO3)2 (M = Pd, Pt) affords triangular (3, 5) and square (4, 6) supramolecular coordination complexes (SCCs). The binding affinity of 1 toward CB[n]-type containers results in the formation of triangular [4]molecular necklaces ([4]MNs, 7-10) by either one-pot or post complexation approaches as evidenced by (1)H NMR, diffusion ordered spectroscopy, and ESI-MS.
February 28, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196470/proteasome-impairment-in-neural-cells-derived-from-hmsn-p-patient-ipscs
#17
Nagahisa Murakami, Keiko Imamura, Yuishin Izumi, Naohiro Egawa, Kayoko Tsukita, Takako Enami, Takuya Yamamoto, Toshitaka Kawarai, Ryuji Kaji, Haruhisa Inoue
Hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy with proximal dominant involvement (HMSN-P) is caused by a heterozygous mutation (P285L) in Tropomyosin-receptor kinase Fused Gene (TFG), histopathologically characterized by progressive spinal motor neuron loss with TFG cytosolic aggregates. Although the TFG protein, found as a type of fusion oncoprotein, is known to facilitate vesicle transport from endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to Golgi apparatus at ER exit site, it is unclear how mutant TFG causes motor neuron degeneration...
February 15, 2017: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194103/reassessment-of-non-monosynaptic-excitation-from-the-motor-cortex-to-motoneurons-in-single-motor-units-of-the-human-biceps-brachii
#18
Tsuyoshi Nakajima, Toshiki Tazoe, Masanori Sakamoto, Takashi Endoh, Satoshi Shibuya, Leonardo A Elias, Rinaldo A Mezzarane, Tomoyoshi Komiyama, Yukari Ohki
Corticospinal excitation is mediated by polysynaptic pathways in several vertebrates, including dexterous monkeys. However, indirect non-monosynaptic excitation has not been clearly observed following transcranial electrical stimulation (TES) or cervicomedullary stimulation (CMS) in humans. The present study evaluated indirect motor pathways in normal human subjects by recording the activities of single motor units (MUs) in the biceps brachii (BB) muscle. The pyramidal tract was stimulated with weak TES, CMS, and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) contralateral to the recording side...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193784/impaired-myogenic-response-of-the-afferent-arteriole-contributes-to-the-increased-susceptibility-to-renal-disease-in-milan-normotensive-rats
#19
Ying Ge, Fan Fan, Sean P Didion, Richard J Roman
Milan normotensive (MNS) rats are more susceptible to the development of renal disease than Milan hypertensive (MHS) rats, but the genes and pathways involved are unknown. This study compared the myogenic response of isolated perfused afferent arterioles (Af-Art) and autoregulation of renal blood flow (RBF) and glomerular capillary pressure (Pgc) in 6-9-week-old MNS and MHS rats. The diameter of the Af-Art of MHS rats decreased significantly from 14.3 ± 0.5 to 11.5 ± 0.6 μm when perfusion pressure was elevated from 60 to 120 mmHg...
February 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184159/a-combined-approach-of-hollow-microneedles-and-nanocarriers-for-skin-immunization-with-plasmid-dna-encoding-ovalbumin
#20
Boonnada Pamornpathomkul, Adisak Wongkajornsilp, Wanida Laiwattanapaisal, Theerasak Rojanarata, Praneet Opanasopit, Tanasait Ngawhirunpat
The aim of this study was to investigate the use of different types of microneedles (MNs) and nanocarriers for in vitro skin permeation and in vivo immunization of plasmid DNA encoding ovalbumin (pOVA). In vitro skin permeation studies indicated that hollow MNs had a superior enhancing effect on skin permeation compared with solid MN patches, electroporation (EP) patches, the combination of MN and EP patches, and untreated skin. Upon using hollow MNs combined with nanocarriers for pOVA delivery, the skin permeation was higher than for the delivery of naked pOVA, as evidenced by the increased amount of pOVA in Franz diffusion cells and immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody responses...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
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