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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232665/the-laryngeal-mask-airway-and-its-use-in-neonatal-resuscitation-a-critical-review-of-where-we-are-in-2017-2018
#1
Satvik Chaitanya Bansal, Stefano Caoci, Eugene Dempsey, Daniele Trevisanuto, Charles Christoph Roehr
Studies using videotape recordings and respiratory function monitoring have shown that both face mask (FM) application and endotracheal tube (ETT) placement represent a challenge for resuscitators. Hence, there is a strong need for devices that can largely be used independently of individual operator training levels, in order to ensure more reliable support in time-critical situations, such as neonatal resuscitation. The laryngeal mask airway device (LMA) has evolved as a potentially very valuable tool. We conducted a systematic review of studies evaluating the use of the LMA in neonatal resuscitation...
December 13, 2017: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229093/bronchopulmonary-dysplasia-a-review-of-pathogenesis-and-pathophysiology
#2
REVIEW
Renjithkumar Kalikkot Thekkeveedu, Milenka Cuevas Guaman, Binoy Shivanna
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a chronic lung disease of primarily premature infants that results from an imbalance between lung injury and repair in the developing lung. BPD is the most common respiratory morbidity in preterm infants, which affects nearly 10, 000 neonates each year in the United States. Over the last two decades, the incidence of BPD has largely been unchanged; however, the pathophysiology has changed with the substantial improvement in the respiratory management of extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants...
November 2017: Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224001/dental-caries-and-developmental-defects-of-enamel-in-the-primary-dentition-of-preterm-infants-case-control-observational-study
#3
Ina Manuela Schüler, Stefanie Haberstroh, Kristin Dawczynski, Thomas Lehmann, Roswitha Heinrich-Weltzien
AIM: Assessment of dental health in the primary dentition of preterm infants (PTI) including investigation of mother- and infant-related risk factors in a case-control study design. MATERIAL AND METHODS: One hundred twenty-eight infants aged 3-4 years were included. Sixty-four PTI (27 males) were randomly selected from the preterm registry of the Jena University Hospital. As a control group served 64 full-term infants (FTI) recruited from the Department of Paediatric Dentistry, matched for age and sex...
December 9, 2017: Caries Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214783/effective-tidal-volume-for-normocapnia-in-very-low-birth-weight-infants-using-high-frequency-oscillatory-ventilation
#4
Seul Mi Lee, Ran Namgung, Ho Sun Eun, Soon Min Lee, Min Soo Park, Kook In Park
PURPOSE: Removal of CO₂ is much efficient during high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) for preterm infants. However, an optimal carbon dioxide diffusion coefficient (DCO₂) and tidal volume (VT) have not yet been established due to much individual variance. This study aimed to analyze DCO₂ values, VT, and minute volume in very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants using HFOV and correlates with plasma CO₂ (pCO₂). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Daily respiratory mechanics and ventilator settings from twenty VLBW infants and their two hundred seventeen results of blood gas analysis were collected...
January 2018: Yonsei Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212808/gestational-age-at-time-of-in-utero-lipopolysaccharide-exposure-influences-the-severity-of-inflammation-induced-diaphragm-weakness-in-lambs
#5
Kanakeswary Karisnan, Tanzila Mahzabin, Anthony J Bakker, Yong Song, Peter B Noble, J Jane Pillow, Gavin Jon Pinniger
The preterm diaphragm is functionally immature compared to its term counterpart. In utero inflammation further exacerbates preterm diaphragm dysfunction. We hypothesized that preterm lambs are more vulnerable to in utero inflammation induced diaphragm dysfunction compared with term lambs. Pregnant ewes received intra-amniotic (IA) injections of saline or 10mg lipopolysaccharide (LPS) 2d or 7d prior to delivery at 121d (preterm) or 145d (term) gestation. Diaphragm contractile function was assessed in vitro. Plasma cytokines and diaphragm myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms and oxidative stress were evaluated...
December 6, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212398/prediction-of-neonatal-respiratory-distress-syndrome-via-pulmonary-artery-doppler-examination
#6
Barış Büke, Emre Destegül, Hatice Akkaya, Deniz Şİmşek, Mert Kazandi
OBJECTIVE: We aimed with this study to evaluate the role of pulmonary artery acceleration time to ejection time ratio (PATET) in the prediction of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) in preterm neonates. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this prospective cohort study, 105 singleton pregnant women with no congenital abnormalities and pregnancy complications who delivered before 37 weeks of gestational age were included. All of the patients underwent ultrasound examination to obtain fetal pulmonary artery Doppler 15 patients excluded from the study due to giving birth more than 3 days of ultrasound examination or inadequate Doppler measurements...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209598/inflammatory-mediators-in-tracheal-aspirates-of-preterm-infants-participating-in-a-randomized-trial-of-permissive-hypercapnia
#7
Sarah Gentner, Mandy Laube, Ulrike Uhlig, Yang Yang, Hans W Fuchs, Jens Dreyhaupt, Helmut D Hummler, Stefan Uhlig, Ulrich H Thome
Background: Ventilator-induced lung injury is considered to be a main factor in the pathogenesis of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Optimizing ventilator strategies may reduce respiratory morbidities in preterm infants. Permissive hypercapnia has been suggested to attenuate lung injury. We aimed to determine if a higher PCO2 target range results in less lung injury compared to the control target range and possibly reduces pro-inflammatory cytokines and acid sphingomyelinase (ASM) in tracheal aspirates (TA), which has not been addressed before...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206362/prevalence-of-neonate-adhesive-skin-injuries-in-a-jordanian-intensive-care-unit
#8
Laila Habiballah
AIM: To determine the prevalence of adhesive skin injuries in neonates in a Jordanian neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and to examine the characteristics of neonates with these injuries. METHOD: A cross-sectional period-prevalence study was conducted in a NICU in Irbid National University Hospital in Jordan. A total of 169 neonates were examined for skin injuries caused by adhesive equipment. RESULTS: The prevalence of skin injuries in this population was 26...
December 5, 2017: Nursing Children and Young People
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204660/association-of-age-with-risk-of-hospitalization-for-respiratory-syncytial-virus-in-preterm-infants-with-chronic-lung-disease
#9
Almut G Winterstein, Yoonyoung Choi, H Cody Meissner
Importance: It is unknown whether the age threshold (≤24 months) for preterm infants with chronic lung disease (CLD) to receive immunoprophylaxis for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) as currently recommended by American Academy of Pediatrics guidelines correctly identified infants at higher risk for hospitalization for RSV. Objective: To determine the age when the risk of hospitalization for RSV among preterm infants with CLD becomes equivalent to the risk for healthy, 1-month-old term infants who do not qualify for immunoprophylaxis...
December 4, 2017: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197845/neck-mass-an-obstructive-cause-of-respiratory-distress-with-medical-management
#10
Vijay Singh, Aakash Pandita, Girish Gupta, Amit Shukla
Congenital goitre is a known cause of hypothyroidism in newborn. Congenital goitre can be due to defective synthesis of thyroxine or administration of antithyroid drugs to the mother during pregnancy. In this case report, we report an instance of a preterm male infant with antenatally detected goitre presenting as a neck mass with congenital hypothyroidism. Hormonal replacement therapy was started immediately after birth which lead to resolution of the mass and normalisation of thyroid function.
December 2, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193814/hospital-admissions-for-lower-respiratory-tract-infections-in-children-born-moderately-late-preterm
#11
Paula Haataja, Päivi Korhonen, Riitta Ojala, Mikko Hirvonen, Matti Korppi, Mika Gissler, Tiina Luukkaala, Outi Tammela
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the frequency and predictors of hospital admissions for lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) in moderately preterm (MP, 32+0 to 33+6 weeks) and late preterm (LP, 34+0 to 36+6 weeks) infants compared to term (T ≥37 weeks) and very preterm (VP, <32+0 weeks) infants. STUDY DESIGN: This national register-based study covered all infants born in Finland in 1991-2008. Data on 1 018 256 infants were analyzed in four gestational age-based groups: VP (n = 6329), MP (n = 6796), LP (n = 39 928), and T (n = 965 203) groups...
November 29, 2017: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193301/exposure-to-human-voices-has-beneficial-effects-on-preterm-infants-in-the-neonatal-intensive-care-unit
#12
REVIEW
S Saliba, R Esseily, M Filippa, P Kuhn, M Gratier
We reviewed the literature up to March 2016 on the effects of non-maternal voices on preterm infants' clinical outcomes. Of the 11 studies that met the inclusion criteria, 10 focused on short-term outcomes and one looked at long-term effects. The studies mainly showed that vocal stimuli increased preterm infants' stability in terms of heart rate, respiratory rate, oxygen saturation and behavioural measures. Improvements in feeding skills were also reported. The methods and the measures used in the studies were heterogeneous, making it difficult to draw reliable conclusions...
November 28, 2017: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190622/classifying-apnea-of-prematurity-by-transcutaneous-electromyography-of-the-diaphragm
#13
Juliette V Kraaijenga, Gerard J Hutten, Cornelia G de Waal, Frans H de Jongh, Wes Onland, Anton H van Kaam
BACKGROUND: Treatment of apnea is highly dependent on the type of apnea. Chest impedance (CI) has inaccuracies in monitoring respiration, which compromises accurate apnea classification. Electrical activity of the diaphragm measured by transcutaneous electromyography (EMG) is feasible in preterm infants and might improve the accuracy of apnea classification. OBJECTIVES: To compare the accuracy of apnea classification based on diaphragmatic EMG (dEMG) and CI tracings in preterm infants...
December 1, 2017: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187358/vitamin-d-supplementation-during-pregnancy-state-of-the-evidence-from-a-systematic-review-of-randomised-trials
#14
Daniel E Roth, Michael Leung, Elnathan Mesfin, Huma Qamar, Jessica Watterworth, Eszter Papp
Objectives To estimate the effects of vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy on 11 maternal and 27 neonatal/infant outcomes; to determine frequencies at which trial outcome data were missing, unreported, or inconsistently reported; and to project the potential contributions of registered ongoing or planned trials.Design Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials; systematic review of registered but unpublished trials.Data sources Medline, Embase, PubMed, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials from inception to September 2017; manual searches of reference lists of systematic reviews identified in the electronic search; and online trial registries for unpublished, ongoing, or planned trials...
November 29, 2017: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184049/does-diaphragmatic-electrical-activity-in-preterm-infants-predict-extubation-success
#15
Neetu Singh, Matthew J McNally, Robert A Darnall
BACKGROUND: Despite many advances in respiratory care and mechanical ventilation, neonatologists lack an objective tool to aid in decision making for timely extubation. Electrical activity of the diaphragm (EAdi), a measure of neural respiratory drive and inspiratory load, may be a useful predictor of extubation success in preterm neonates. The objective of this work was to investigate whether peak EAdi could distinguish successful versus failed extubation in mechanically ventilated preterm infants...
November 28, 2017: Respiratory Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183092/-methamphetamine-consumption-during-pregnancy-and-its-effects-on-neonates
#16
Alina Pflügner, Ulrich Thome, Matthias K Bernhard, Mandy Vogel, Annett Bläser, Petra Nickel, Wieland Kiess
Objective Methamphetamine (MA) has become one of the most commonly used illegal drugs during pregnancy. We sought to determine how MA abuse modifies pregnancy outcomes and the health of the newborn infants. Patients 102 newborns from mothers with antenatal MA consumption were admitted to the University Hospital Leipzig from 2004-2015. Methods The effects of MA abuse on pregnancy outcomes and neonates were researched in a retrospective controlled study. We analysed the date of pregnancy detection, number of antenatal preventive examinations, body measurements of the neonates, duration of hospitalization, rate of preterm infants, congenital malformations and symptoms of neonatal abstinence syndrome...
November 28, 2017: Klinische Pädiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181317/a-predictive-score-for-retinopathy-of-prematurity-by-using-clinical-risk-factors-and-serum-insulin-like-growth-factor-1-levels
#17
Yeşim Coşkun, Ceyhun Dalkan, Özge Yabaş, Özlem Ünay Demirel, Elif Samiye Bayar, Sibel Sakarya, Tuba Müftüoğlu, Dilaver Erşanlı, Nerin Bahçeciler, İpek Akman
AIM: To detect the impact of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and other risk factors for the early prediction of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) and to establish a scoring system for ROP prediction by using clinical criteria and serum IGF-1 levels. METHODS: The study was conducted with 127 preterm infants. IGF-1 levels in the 1st day of life, 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th week of life was analyzed. The score was established after logistic regression analysis, considering the impact of each variable on the occurrences of any stage ROP...
2017: International Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174997/is-it-necessary-to-heat-and-humidify-respiratory-gases-for-resuscitation-in-preterm-infants
#18
EDITORIAL
Waldemar A Carlo, Robert L Chatburn
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 23, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174079/laryngeal-mask-airway-for-surfactant-administration-in-neonates-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#19
Kari D Roberts, Roland Brown, Andrea L Lampland, Tina A Leone, Kyle D Rudser, Neil N Finer, Wade D Rich, T Allen Merritt, Adam J Czynski, Julie M Kessel, Sajani M Tipnis, Erin C Stepka, Mark C Mammel
OBJECTIVE: To determine if preterm infants with moderate respiratory distress syndrome on continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) who received surfactant via a laryngeal mask airway (LMA) would have a decreased rate of intubation and mechanical ventilation compared with those on CPAP who did not receive surfactant. STUDY DESIGN: In this prospective, multicenter, randomized controlled trial, 103 premature infants 280/7-356/7 weeks gestation, ≥1250 g and ≤36 hours old on CPAP requiring fraction of inspired oxygen 0...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173319/impact-of-the-neonatal-resuscitation-program-recommended-low-oxygen-strategy-on-outcomes-of-infants-born-preterm
#20
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Vishal S Kapadia, Charitharth V Lal, Venkat Kakkilaya, Roy Heyne, Rashmin C Savani, Myra H Wyckoff
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of the Neonatal Resuscitation Program (NRP)-recommended low oxygen strategy (LOX) on neonatal morbidities, mortality, and neurodevelopmental outcomes in neonates born preterm. STUDY DESIGN: In March 2011, Parkland Hospital changed from a high oxygen strategy (HOX) of resuscitation with initial 100% oxygen and targeting 85%-94% oxygen saturation for delivery room resuscitation to a LOX with initial 21% oxygen and titrating oxygen to meet NRP-recommended transitional target saturations...
December 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
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