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shoot apical meristem

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077071/an-integrated-analysis-of-qtl-mapping-and-rna-sequencing-provides-further-insights-and-promising-candidates-for-pod-number-variation-in-rapeseed-brassica-napus-l
#1
Jiang Ye, Yuhua Yang, Bo Chen, Jiaqin Shi, Meizhong Luo, Jiepeng Zhan, Xinfa Wang, Guihua Liu, Hanzhong Wang
BACKGROUND: As the most important yield component in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.), pod number is determined by a series of successive growth and development processes. Pod number shows extensive variation in rapeseed natural germplasm, which is valuable for genetic improvement. However, the genetic and especially the molecular mechanism for this kind of variation are poorly understood. In this study, we conducted QTL mapping and RNA sequencing, respectively, using the BnaZNRIL population and its two parental cultivars Zhongshuang11 and No...
January 11, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062751/transcriptome-wide-mapping-of-rna-5-methylcytosine-in-arabidopsis-mrnas-and-non-coding-rnas
#2
Rakesh David, Alice Burgess, Brian Parker, Jun Li, Kalinya Pulsford, Tennille Sibbritt, Thomas Preiss, Iain R Searle
Post-transcriptional methylation of RNA cytosine residues to 5-methylcytosine (m5C) is an important modification with diverse roles, such as regulating stress responses, stem cell proliferation, and RNA metabolism. Here, we used RNA bisulfite sequencing (bsRNA-seq) for transcriptome-wide quantitative mapping of m5C in the model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana. We discovered more than a thousand m5C sites in Arabidopsis mRNAs, long non-coding RNAs, and other non-coding RNAs across three tissue types (siliques, seedling shoots, and roots) and validated a number of these sites...
January 6, 2017: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039129/the-ontogeny-phyllotactic-diversity-and-discontinuous-transitions-of-diphasiastrum-digitatum-lycopodiaceae
#3
Xiaofeng Yin, Roger D Meicenheimer
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Fibonacci phyllotactic patterns in seed plants are well documented, but whether such predominance holds true for lower vascular plants is relatively unknown. We investigated Diphasiastrum digitatum (Lycopodiaceae) phyllotaxis throughout its ontogeny to extend our knowledge of pattern frequency of lower vascular plants and to measure quantitative variables associated with discontinuous phyllotactic transitions. These investigations allowed us to test whether the same mechanisms inherent in shoot apical meristem (SAM) development of seed plants are applicable to early-diverged lower vascular plants SAM development...
December 30, 2016: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035495/molecular-cloning-phylogenetic-analysis-and-expression-patterns-of-lateral-suppressor-like-and-regulator-of-axillary-meristem-formation-like-genes-in-sunflower-helianthus-annuus-l
#4
Marco Fambrini, Mariangela Salvini, Claudio Pugliesi
The wild sunflower (Helianthus annuus) plants develop a highly branched form with numerous small flowering heads. The origin of a no branched sunflower, producing a single large head, has been a key event in the domestication process of this species. The interaction between hormonal factors and several genes organizes the initiation and outgrowth of axillary meristems (AMs). From sunflower, we have isolated two genes putatively involved in this process, LATERAL SUPPRESSOR (LS)-LIKE (Ha-LSL) and REGULATOR OF AXILLARY MERISTEM FORMATION (ROX)-LIKE (Ha-ROXL), encoding for a GRAS and a bHLH transcription factor (TF), respectively...
December 29, 2016: Development Genes and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988471/early-histological-hormonal-and-molecular-changes-during-pineapple-ananas-comosus-l-merrill-artificial-flowering-induction
#5
Maita Eulalia Ávila Espinosa, Rafael Oliveira Moreira, André Almeida Lima, Solange Aparecida Ságio, Horllys Gomes Barreto, Sara Lazara Pérez Luiz, Carlos Eduardo Aragón Abreu, Ermis Yanes-Paz, Yanelis Capdesuñer Ruíz, Justo Lorenzo González-Olmedo, Antonio Chalfun-Júnior
Natural flowering can cause serious scheduling problems in the pineapple (Ananas comosus) industry and increase harvest costs. Pineapple flowering is thought to be triggered by increased ethylene levels and artificial forcing of pineapple flowering is a common practice to promote flowering synchronisation. However, little is known about the early hormonal and molecular changes of pineapple flowering induction and development. Here, we aimed to analyse the molecular, hormonal, and histological changes during artificial pineapple flowering by Ethrel(®)48 treatment...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27968983/aprf1-promotes-flowering-under-long-days-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#6
Georgios Kapolas, Despoina Beris, Efthimia Katsareli, Pantelis Livanos, Aris Zografidis, Andreas Roussis, Dimitra Milioni, Kosmas Haralampidis
Arabidopsis thaliana flowering time mutants revealed the function of numerous genes that regulate the transition from vegetative to reproductive growth. Analyses of their loci have shown that many of them act as chromatin modifiers. In this study, a combination of molecular and genetic approaches have been implemented, to characterize the function of APRF1 (ANTHESIS POMOTING FACTOR 1) gene in A. thaliana and to investigate its role in plant development. APRF1 encodes for a low molecular weight nuclear WDR protein which displays functional homology to the Swd2 protein, an essential subunit of the yeast histone methylation COMPASS complex...
December 2016: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930326/cell-size-and-growth-regulation-in-the-arabidopsis-thaliana-apical-stem-cell-niche
#7
Lisa Willis, Yassin Refahi, Raymond Wightman, Benoit Landrein, José Teles, Kerwyn Casey Huang, Elliot M Meyerowitz, Henrik Jönsson
Cell size and growth kinetics are fundamental cellular properties with important physiological implications. Classical studies on yeast, and recently on bacteria, have identified rules for cell size regulation in single cells, but in the more complex environment of multicellular tissues, data have been lacking. In this study, to characterize cell size and growth regulation in a multicellular context, we developed a 4D imaging pipeline and applied it to track and quantify epidermal cells over 3-4 d in Arabidopsis thaliana shoot apical meristems...
December 20, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928690/from-shoot-to-leaf-step-wise-shifts-in-meristem-and-knox1-activity-correlate-with-the-evolution-of-a-unifoliate-body-plan-in-gesneriaceae
#8
Kanae Nishii, Bing-Hong Huang, Chun-Neng Wang, Michael Möller
Typical dicots possess equal-sized cotyledons and leaf-bearing shoots topped with a shoot apical meristem (SAM), the source of lateral organs, and where KNOX1 homeobox genes act as key regulators. New World Gesneriaceae show typical cotyledons, whereas Old World Gesneriaceae show anisocotyly, the unequal post-germination growth of cotyledons, and include unifoliate (one-leaf) plants. One-leaf plants show an extremely reduced body plan: the adult above-ground photosynthetic tissue consisting of a single cotyledon, a macrocotyledon enlarged by the basal meristem (BM), but lacking a SAM...
January 2017: Development Genes and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918940/beyond-flexibility-controlling-stem-cells-in-an-ever-changing-environment
#9
REVIEW
Anne Pfeiffer, Christian Wenzl, Jan U Lohmann
Developmental plasticity is a defining feature of plants allowing them to colonize a wide range of different ecosystems by promoting environmental adaptation. Their postembryonic development requires life-long maintenance of stem cells, which are embedded into specialized tissues, called meristems. The shoot apical meristem gives rise to all above ground tissues and is a complex and dynamic three-dimensional structure harboring cells of different clonal origins and fates. Functionally divergent subdomains are stably maintained despite permanent cell division, however their relative sizes are modified in response to developmental and environmental signals...
December 2, 2016: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918939/the-shady-side-of-leaf-development-the-role-of-the-revoluta-kanadi1-module-in-leaf-patterning-and-auxin-mediated-growth-promotion
#10
REVIEW
Paz Merelo, Esther Botterweg Paredes, Marcus G Heisler, Stephan Wenkel
Leaves are present in all land plants and are specialized organs for light harvesting. They arise at the flanks of the shoot apical meristem (SAM), and develop into lamina structures that exhibit adaxial/abaxial (upper/lower side of the leaf) polarity. At the molecular level, an intricate regulatory network determines ad-/abaxial polarity in Arabidopsis thaliana leaves, where the Class III Homeodomain Leucine Zipper (HD-ZIPIII) and KANADI (KAN) proteins are key mediators. The HD-ZIPIII REVOLUTA (REV) is expressed in the adaxial domain of lateral organs, whereas KAN1 is involved in abaxial differentiation...
December 2, 2016: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895202/the-lbd12-1-transcription-factor-suppresses-apical-meristem-size-by-repressing-argonaute-10-expression
#11
Weiwei Ma, Fuqing Wu, Peike Sheng, Xiaole Wang, Zhe Zhang, Kunneng Zhou, Huan Zhang, Jinlong Hu, Qibin Lin, Zhijun Cheng, Jiulin Wang, Shanshan Zhu, Xin Zhang, Xiuping Guo, Haiyang Wang, Chuanyin Wu, Huqu Zhai, Jianmin Wan
The shoot apical meristem (SAM) consists of a population of multipotent cells that generates all aerial structures and regenerates itself. SAM maintenance and lateral organ development are regulated by several complex signaling pathways, in which the Argonaute gene-mediated pathway plays a key role. One Argonaute gene, AGO10, functions as a microRNA locker that attenuates miR165/166 activity and positively regulates shoot apical meristem development, but little is known about when and how AGO10 is regulated at the transcriptional level...
January 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891134/cucumber-cucumis-sativus-l-nitric-oxide-synthase-associated-gene1-csnoa1-plays-a-role-in-chilling-stress
#12
Xingwang Liu, Bin Liu, Shudan Xue, Yanlinq Cai, Wenzhu Qi, Chen Jian, Shuo Xu, Ting Wang, Huazhong Ren
Nitric oxide (NO) is a gaseous signaling molecule in plants, transducing information as a result of exposure to low temperatures. However, the underlying molecular mechanism linking NO with chilling stress is not well understood. Here, we functionally characterized the cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) nitric oxide synthase-associated gene, NITRIC OXIDE ASSOCIATED 1 (CsNOA1). Expression analysis of CsNOA1, using quantitative real-time PCR, in situ hybridization, and a promoter::β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter assay, revealed that it is expressed mainly in the root and shoot apical meristem (SAM), and that expression is up-regulated by low temperatures...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878597/the-sweet-cherry-prunus-avium-flowering-locus-t-gene-is-expressed-during-floral-bud-determination-and-can-promote-flowering-in-a-winter-annual-arabidopsis-accession
#13
Antonia Yarur, Esteban Soto, Gabriel León, Andrea Miyasaka Almeida
FT gene is expressed in leaves and buds and is involved in floral meristem determination and bud development in sweet cherry. In woody fruit perennial trees, floral determination, dormancy and bloom, depends on perception of different environmental and endogenous cues which converge to a systemic signaling gene known as FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT). In long-day flowering plants, FT is expressed in the leaves on long days. The protein travels through the phloem to the shoot apical meristem, where it induces flower determination...
December 2016: Plant Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867389/modeling-the-morphometric-evolution-of-the-maize-shoot-apical-meristem
#14
Samuel Leiboff, Christopher K DeAllie, Michael J Scanlon
The maize (Zea mays subsp. mays L.) shoot apical meristem (SAM) is a self-replenishing pool of stem cells that produces all above-ground plant tissues. Improvements in image acquisition and processing techniques have allowed high-throughput, quantitative genetic analyses of SAM morphology. As with other large-scale phenotyping efforts, meaningful descriptions of genetic architecture depend on the collection of relevant measures. In this study, we tested two quantitative image processing methods to describe SAM morphology within the genus Zea, represented by 33 wild relatives of maize and 841 lines from a domesticated maize by wild teosinte progenitor (MxT) backcross population, along with previously reported data from several hundred diverse maize inbred lines...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864962/the-aquilegia-jagged-homolog-promotes-proliferation-of-adaxial-cell-types-in-both-leaves-and-stems
#15
Ya Min, Elena M Kramer
In order to explore the functional conservation of JAGGED, a key gene involved in the sculpting of lateral organs in several model species, we identified its ortholog AqJAG in the lower eudicot species Aquilegia coerulea. We analyzed the expression patterns of AqJAG in various tissues and developmental stages, and used RNAi-based methods to generate knockdown phenotypes of AqJAG. AqJAG was strongly expressed in shoot apices, floral meristems, lateral root primordia and all lateral organ primordia. Silencing of AqJAG revealed a wide range of defects in the developing stems, leaves and flowers; strongest phenotypes include severe reduction of leaflet laminae due to a decrease in cell size and number, change of adaxial cell identity, outgrowth of laminar-like tissue on the inflorescence stem, and early arrest of floral meristems and floral organ primordia...
November 16, 2016: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864752/real-time-analysis-of-the-apical-hook-development
#16
Qiang Zhu, Petra Žádníková, Dajo Smet, Dominique Van Der Straeten, Eva Benková
Mechanisms for cell protection are essential for survival of multicellular organisms. In plants, the apical hook, which is transiently formed in darkness when the germinating seedling penetrates towards the soil surface, plays such protective role and shields the vitally important shoot apical meristem and cotyledons from damage. The apical hook is formed by bending of the upper hypocotyl soon after germination, and it is maintained in a closed stage while the hypocotyl continues to penetrate through the soil and rapidly opens when exposed to light in proximity of the soil surface...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862530/the-mutation-nrpb1-a325v-in-the-largest-subunit-of-rna-polymerase-ii-suppresses-compromised-growth-of-arabidopsis-plants-deficient-in-a-function-of-the-general-transcription-factor-iif
#17
Elena Babiychuk, Khai Trinh Hoang, Klaas Vandepoele, Eveline Van De Slijke, Danny Geelen, Geert De Jaeger, Junichi Obokata, Sergei Kushnir
The evolutionarily conserved 12-subunit RNA polymerase II (Pol II) is a central catalytic component that drives RNA synthesis during the transcription cycle that consists of transcription initiation, elongation, and termination. A diverse set of general transcription factors, including a multifunctional TFIIF, govern Pol II selectivity, kinetic properties, and transcription coupling with posttranscriptional processes. Here, we show that TFIIF of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) resembles the metazoan complex that is composed of the TFIIFα and TFIIFβ polypeptides...
November 10, 2016: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859288/exploring-key-cellular-processes-and-candidate-genes-regulating-the-primary-thickening-growth-of-moso-underground-shoots
#18
Qiang Wei, Chen Jiao, Lin Guo, Yulong Ding, Junjie Cao, Jianyuan Feng, Xiaobo Dong, Linyong Mao, Honghe Sun, Fen Yu, Guangyao Yang, Peijian Shi, Guodong Ren, Zhangjun Fei
The primary thickening growth of Moso (Phyllostachys edulis) underground shoots largely determines the culm circumference. However, its developmental mechanisms remain largely unknown. Using an integrated anatomy, mathematics and genomics approach, we systematically studied cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the growth of Moso underground shoots. We discovered that the growth displayed a spiral pattern and pith played an important role in promoting the primary thickening process of Moso underground shoots and driving the evolution of culms with different sizes among different bamboo species...
November 12, 2016: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833620/camp-signaling-regulates-synchronised-growth-of-symbiotic-epichlo%C3%A3-fungi-with-the-host-grass-lolium-perenne
#19
Christine R Voisey, Michael T Christensen, Linda J Johnson, Natasha T Forester, Milan Gagic, Gregory T Bryan, Wayne R Simpson, Damien J Fleetwood, Stuart D Card, John P Koolaard, Paul H Maclean, Richard D Johnson
The seed-transmitted fungal symbiont, Epichloë festucae, colonizes grasses by infecting host tissues as they form on the shoot apical meristem (SAM) of the seedling. How this fungus accommodates the complexities of plant development to successfully colonize the leaves and inflorescences is unclear. Since adenosine 3', 5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent signaling is often essential for host colonization by fungal pathogens, we disrupted the cAMP cascade by insertional mutagenesis of the E. festucae adenylate cyclase gene (acyA)...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754878/a-model-of-differential-growth-guided-apical-hook-formation-in-plants
#20
Petra Žádníková, Krzysztof Wabnik, Anas Abuzeineh, Marçal Gallemi, Dominique Van Der Straeten, Richard S Smith, Dirk Inzé, Jiří Friml, Przemysław Prusinkiewicz, Eva Benková
Differential cell growth enables flexible organ bending in the presence of environmental signals such as light or gravity. A prominent example of the developmental processes based on differential cell growth is the formation of the apical hook that protects the fragile shoot apical meristem when it breaks through the soil during germination. Here, we combined in silico and in vivo approaches to identify a minimal mechanism producing auxin gradient-guided differential growth during the establishment of the apical hook in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana Computer simulation models based on experimental data demonstrate that asymmetric expression of the PIN-FORMED auxin efflux carrier at the concave (inner) versus convex (outer) side of the hook suffices to establish an auxin maximum in the epidermis at the concave side of the apical hook...
October 2016: Plant Cell
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