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shoot apical meristem

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526723/anisotomous-dichotomy-results-from-an-unequal-bifurcation-of-the-original-shoot-apical-meristem-in-diphasiastrum-digitatum-lycopodiaceae
#1
Xiaofeng Yin, Roger D Meicenheimer
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Two types of dichotomy are recognized in Lycopodiaceae: isotomous (equal) and anisotomous (unequal). Anisotomous dichotomy (anisotomy) has been hypothesized to result from unequal growth of an equal bifurcation of the original shoot apical meristem (SAM). Diphasiastrum digitatum (Lycopodiaceae) exhibits anisotomy at various locations. We thus used D. digitatum to test this classic hypothesis about anisotomy. METHODS: Transverse areas of original and derived SAMs of anisotomy exhibited by the rhizome and the vertical aerial vegetative stem were measured using scanning electron microscopy...
May 19, 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513600/temporal-dynamics-of-gene-expression-and-histone-marks-at-the-arabidopsis-shoot-meristem-during-flowering
#2
Yuan You, Aneta Sawikowska, Manuela Neumann, David Posé, Giovanna Capovilla, Tobias Langenecker, Richard A Neher, Paweł Krajewski, Markus Schmid
Plants can produce organs throughout their entire life from pluripotent stem cells located at their growing tip, the shoot apical meristem (SAM). At the time of flowering, the SAM of Arabidopsis thaliana switches fate and starts producing flowers instead of leaves. Correct timing of flowering in part determines reproductive success, and is therefore under environmental and endogenous control. How epigenetic regulation contributes to the floral transition has eluded analysis so far, mostly because of the poor accessibility of the SAM...
May 17, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499069/the-association-of-hormone-signaling-genes-transcription-and-changes-in-shoot-anatomy-during-moso-bamboo-growth
#3
Long Li, Zhanchao Cheng, Yanjun Ma, Qingsong Bai, Xiangyu Li, Zhihua Cao, Zhongneng Wu, Jian Gao
Moso bamboo is a large, woody bamboo with the highest ecological, economic, and cultural value of all the bamboo types and accounts for up to 70% of the total area of bamboo grown. However, the spatio-temporal variation role of moso bamboo shoot during growth period is still unclear. We found that the bamboo shoot growth can be divided into three distinct periods, including winter growth, early growth, and late growth based on gene expression and anatomy. In the early growth period, lateral buds germinated from the top of the bamboo joint in the shoot tip...
May 12, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475733/quatre-quart1-is-an-indispensable-u12-intron-containing-gene-that-plays-a-crucial-role-in-arabidopsis-development
#4
Kyung Jin Kwak, Bo Mi Kim, Kwanuk Lee, Hunseung Kang
Despite increasing understanding of the importance of the splicing of U12-type introns in plant development, the key question of which U12 intron-containing genes are essential for plant development has not yet been explored. Here, we assessed the functional role of the quatre-quart1 (QQT1) gene, one of the ~230 U12 intron-containing genes in Arabidopsis thaliana. Expression of QQT1 in the U11/U12-31K small nuclear ribonucleoprotein mutant (31k) rescued the developmental-defect phenotypes of the 31k mutant, whereas the miRNA-mediated qqt1 knockdown mutants displayed severe defects in growth and development, including severely arrested stem growth, small size, and the formation of serrated leaves...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448004/live-confocal-imaging-of-developing-arabidopsis-flowers
#5
Nathanaël Prunet
The study of plant growth and development has long relied on experimental techniques using dead, fixed tissues and lacking proper cellular resolution. Recent advances in confocal microscopy, combined with the development of numerous fluorophores, have overcome these issues and opened the possibility to study the expression of several genes simultaneously, with a good cellular resolution, in live samples. Live confocal imaging provides plant biologists with a powerful tool to study development, and has been extensively used to study root growth and the formation of lateral organs on the flanks of the shoot apical meristem...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447614/cell-size-dependent-progression-of-the-cell-cycle-creates-homeostasis-and-flexibility-of-plant-cell-size
#6
Angharad R Jones, Manuel Forero-Vargas, Simon P Withers, Richard S Smith, Jan Traas, Walter Dewitte, James A H Murray
Mean cell size at division is generally constant for specific conditions and cell types, but the mechanisms coupling cell growth and cell cycle control with cell size regulation are poorly understood in intact tissues. Here we show that the continuously dividing fields of cells within the shoot apical meristem of Arabidopsis show dynamic regulation of mean cell size dependent on developmental stage, genotype and environmental signals. We show cell size at division and cell cycle length is effectively predicted using a two-stage cell cycle model linking cell growth and two sequential cyclin dependent kinase (CDK) activities, and experimental results concur in showing that progression through both G1/S and G2/M is size dependent...
April 27, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445492/shoot-stem-cell-specification-in-roots-by-the-wuschel-transcription-factor
#7
Boaz Negin, Or Shemer, Yonatan Sorek, Leor Eshed Williams
The WUSCHEL homeobox transcription factor is required to specify stem-cell identity at the shoot apical meristem and its ectopic expression is sufficient to induce de novo shoot meristem formation. Yet, the manner by which WUS promotes stem-cell fate is not yet fully understood. In the present research we address this question by inducing WUS function outside of its domain. We show that activation of WUS function in the root inhibits the responses to exogenous auxin and suppresses the initiation and growth of lateral roots...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444333/a-non-classical-member-of-the-protein-disulfide-isomerase-family-pdi7-of-arabidopsis-thaliana-localizes-to-the-cis-golgi-and-endoplasmic-reticulum-membranes
#8
Christen Y L Yuen, Pengfei Wang, Byung-Ho Kang, Kristie Matsumoto, David A Christopher
Members of the protein disulfide isomerase (PDI)-C subfamily are chimeric proteins containing the thioredoxin (Trx) domain of PDIs, and the conserved N- and C-terminal Pfam domains of Erv41p/Erv46p-type cargo receptors. They are unique to plants and chromalveolates. The Arabidopsis genome encodes three PDI-C isoforms: PDI7, PDI12, and PDI13. Here we demonstrate that PDI7 is a 65-kDa integral membrane glycoprotein expressed throughout many Arabidopsis tissues. Using a PDI7-specific antibody, we show through immunoelectron microscopy that PDI7 localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi membranes in wild-type root tip cells, and was also detected in vesicles...
April 21, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442598/ethylene-regulates-differential-growth-via-big-arf-gef-dependent-post-golgi-secretory-trafficking-in-arabidopsis
#9
Kristoffer Jonsson, Yohann Boutté, Rajesh Kumar Singh, Delphine Gendre, Rishikesh Bhalerao
During early seedling development, the shoot apical meristem is protected from damage as the seedling emerges from soil by the formation of apical hook. Hook formation requires differential growth across the epidermis below the meristem in the hypocotyl. The plant hormones ethylene and auxin play key roles during apical hook development by controlling differential growth. We provide genetic and cell biological evidence for the role of ADP-ribosylation factor 1 (ARF1)-GTPase and its effector ARF-guanine-exchange factors (GEF)s of the BFA-inhibited GEF (BIG) family and GNOM in ethylene- and auxin-mediated control of hook development...
April 24, 2017: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424721/mirna-and-degradome-sequencing-reveal-mirna-and-their-target-genes-that-may-mediate-shoot-growth-in-spur-type-mutant-yanfu-6
#10
Chunhui Song, Dong Zhang, Liwei Zheng, Jie Zhang, Baojuan Zhang, Wenwen Luo, Youmei Li, Guangfang Li, Juanjuan Ma, Mingyu Han
The spur-type growth habit in apple trees is characterized by short internodes, increased number of fruiting spurs, and compact growth that promotes flowering and facilitates management practices, such as pruning. The molecular mechanisms responsible for regulating spur-type growth have not been elucidated. In the present study, miRNAs and the expression of their potential target genes were evaluated in shoot tips of "Nagafu 2" (CF) and spur-type bud mutation "Yanfu 6" (YF). A total of 700 mature miRNAs were identified, including 202 known apple miRNAs and 498 potential novel miRNA candidates...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424704/draco-stem-an-automatic-tool-to-generate-high-quality-3d-meshes-of-shoot-apical-meristem-tissue-at-cell-resolution
#11
Guillaume Cerutti, Olivier Ali, Christophe Godin
Context: The shoot apical meristem (SAM), origin of all aerial organs of the plant, is a restricted niche of stem cells whose growth is regulated by a complex network of genetic, hormonal and mechanical interactions. Studying the development of this area at cell level using 3D microscopy time-lapse imaging is a newly emerging key to understand the processes controlling plant morphogenesis. Computational models have been proposed to simulate those mechanisms, however their validation on real-life data is an essential step that requires an adequate representation of the growing tissue to be carried out...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408541/night-break-experiments-shed-light-on-the-photoperiod-1-mediated-flowering
#12
Stephen Pearce, Lindsay M Shaw, Huiqiong Lin, Jennifer D Cotter, Chengxia Li, Jorge Dubcovsky
Plants utilize variation in day length (photoperiod) to anticipate seasonal changes. They respond by modulating their growth and development to maximize seed production, which in cereal crops is directly related to yield. In wheat, the acceleration of flowering under long days (LD) is dependent on the light induction of PHOTOPERIOD1 (PPD1) by phytochromes. Under LD, PPD1 activates FLOWERING LOCUS T1 (FT1), a mobile signaling protein that travels from the leaves to the shoot apical meristem to promote flowering...
April 13, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389586/coordination-of-meristem-doming-and-the-floral-transition-by-late-termination-a-kelch-repeat-protein
#13
Lior Tal, Gilgi Friedlander, Netta Segal Gilboa, Tamar Unger, Shlomit Gilad, Yuval Eshed
Enlargement and doming of the shoot apical meristem (SAM) is a hallmark of the transition from vegetative growth to flowering. While this change is widespread, its role in the flowering process is unknown. The late termination (ltm) tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) mutant shows severely delayed flowering and precocious doming of the vegetative SAM LTM encodes a kelch domain-containing protein, with no link to known meristem maintenance or flowering time pathways. LTM interacts with the TOPLESS corepressor and with several transcription factors that can provide specificity for its functions...
April 2017: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384649/differential-cle-peptide-perception-by-plant-receptors-implicated-from-structural-and-functional-analyses-of-tdif-tdr-interactions
#14
Zhijie Li, Sayan Chakraborty, Guozhou Xu
Tracheary Element Differentiation Inhibitory Factor (TDIF) belongs to the family of post-translationally modified CLE (CLAVATA3/embryo surrounding region (ESR)-related) peptide hormones that control root growth and define the delicate balance between stem cell proliferation and differentiation in SAM (shoot apical meristem) or RAM (root apical meristem). In Arabidopsis, Tracheary Element Differentiation Inhibitory Factor Receptor (TDR) and its ligand TDIF signaling pathway is involved in the regulation of procambial cell proliferation and inhibiting its differentiation into xylem cells...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384293/different-reprogramming-propensities-in-plants-and-mammals-are-small-variations-in-the-core-network-wirings-responsible
#15
Victor Olariu, Julia Nilsson, Henrik Jönsson, Carsten Peterson
Although the plant and animal kingdoms were separated more than 1,6 billion years ago, multicellular development is for both guided by similar transcriptional, epigenetic and posttranscriptional machinery. One may ask to what extent there are similarities and differences in the gene regulation circuits and their dynamics when it comes to important processes like stem cell regulation. The key players in mouse embryonic stem cells governing pluripotency versus differentiation are Oct4, Sox2 and Nanog. Correspondingly, the WUSCHEL and CLAVATA3 genes represent a core in the Shoot Apical Meristem regulation for plants...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379398/arabidopsis-dolichol-kinase-atdok1-is-involved-in-flowering-time-control
#16
Yueh Cho, Chao-Yuan Yu, Yuki Nakamura, Kazue Kanehara
Dolichols are a class of isoprenoids that consist of highly polymerized and unsaturated long-chain isoprenes. They play crucial roles in protein glycosylation including N-glycosylation, because the oligosaccharide is assembled on a lipid carrier, dolichyl diphosphate. Arabidopsis DOLICHOL KINASE 1, AtDOK1 (At3g45040), encodes a functional dolichol kinase that is involved in plant reproductive processes. The expression of AtDOK1 is limited to highly pluripotent cells although protein glycosylation is thought to be required ubiquitously in the entire plant body...
April 3, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371923/genetic-enhancer-analysis-reveals-that-floral-organ-number2-and-osmads3-co-operatively-regulate-maintenance-and-determinacy-of-the-flower-meristem-in-rice
#17
Yukiko Yasui, Wakana Tanaka, Tomoaki Sakamoto, Tetsuya Kurata, Hiro-Yuki Hirano
Meristems such as the shoot apical meristem and flower meristem (FM) act as a reservoir of stem cells, which reproduce themselves and supply daughter cells for the differentiation of lateral organs. In Oryza sativa (rice), the FLORAL ORGAN NUMBER2 (FON2) gene, which is similar to Arabidopsis CLAVATA3, is involved in meristem maintenance. In fon2 mutants, the numbers of floral organs are increased due to an enlargement of the FM. To identify new factors regulating meristem maintenance in rice, we performed a genetic screening of mutants that enhanced the fon2 mutation, and found a mutant line (2B-424) in which pistil number was dramatically increased...
May 1, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365757/developmental-programmes-in-the-evolution-of-equisetum-reproductive-morphology-a-hierarchical-modularity-hypothesis
#18
Alexandru M F Tomescu, Ignacio H Escapa, Gar W Rothwell, Andrés Elgorriaga, N Rubén Cúneo
Background: The origin of the Equisetum strobilus has long been debated and the fossil record has played an important role in these discussions. The paradigm underlying these debates has been the perspective of the shoot as node-internode alternation, with sporangiophores attached at nodes. However, fossils historically excluded from these discussions (e.g. Cruciaetheca and Peltotheca ) exhibit reproductive morphologies that suggest attachment of sporangiophores along internodes, challenging traditional views...
March 1, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360003/zno-nanoparticle-effects-on-hormonal-pools-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#19
Radomira Vankova, Premysl Landa, Radka Podlipna, Petre I Dobrev, Sylva Prerostova, Lenka Langhansova, Alena Gaudinova, Katerina Motkova, Vojtech Knirsch, Tomas Vanek
At present, nanoparticles have been more and more used in a wide range of areas. However, very little is known about the mechanisms of their impact on plants, as both positive and negative effects have been reported. As plant interactions with the environment are mediated by plant hormones, complex phytohormone analysis has been performed in order to characterize the effect of ZnO nanoparticles (mean size 30nm, concentration range 0.16-100mgL(-1)) on Arabidopsis thaliana plants. Taking into account that plant hormones exhibit high tissue-specificity as well as an intensive cross-talk in the regulation of growth and development as well as defense, plant responses were followed by determination of the content of five main phytohormones (cytokinins, auxins, abscisic acid, salicylic acid and jasmonic acid) in apices, leaves and roots...
March 27, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348258/flower-development-from-morphodynamics-to-morphomechanics
#20
Ursula Abad, Massimiliano Sassi, Jan Traas
The shoot apical meristem (SAM) is a small population of stem cells that continuously generates organs and tissues. We will discuss here flower formation at the SAM, which involves a complex network of regulatory genes and signalling molecules. A major downstream target of this network is the extracellular matrix or cell wall, which is a local determinant for both growth rates and growth directions. We will discuss here a number of recent studies aimed at analysing the link between cell wall structure and molecular regulation...
May 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
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