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shoot apical meristem

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227650/molecular-evidence-for-catechin-synthesis-and-accumulation-in-tea-buds-camellia-sinensis
#1
Xinzhen Wang, Lina Guo, Liping Gao, Xingxing Shi, Xuecheng Zhao, Xiubing Ma, Tao Xia, Yunsheng Wang
Early spring buds of the Camellia sinensis variety Shuchazao were separated into two parts, including the shoot tip (ST) and non-expanded young leaves (YL). Then, the synthesis and accumulation of catechins in the two parts were assessed by HPLC, DMACA staining, qRT-PCR and in situ hybridization. HPLC showed that EGCG and ECG amounts in YL were increased significantly by 74.0% and 71.8%, respectively. The results of DMACA staining indicated that catechins in buds accumulated mainly in mesophyll cells and bud shaft of YL...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217754/erecta-family-genes-coordinate-stem-cell-functions-between-the-epidermal-and-internal-layers-of-the-shoot-apical-meristem
#2
Yuka Kimura, Masao Tasaka, Keiko U Torii, Naoyuki Uchida
The epidermal cell layer and the tissues that lie underneath have different intrinsic functions during plant development. The stem cells within the shoot apical meristem (SAM) that give rise to aerial structures are located in the epidermal and internal tissue layers. However, our understanding of how the functions of these stem cells are coordinated across tissue layers so stem cells can behave as a single population remains limited. WUSCHEL (WUS) functions as a master regulator of stem cell activity. Here we show that loss of function in the ERECTA (ER)-family receptor kinase genes can rescue the mutant phenotype of wus plants (loss of stem cells), as demonstrated by the reinstated expression of a stem cell marker gene in the SAM epidermis...
December 7, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211860/changes-in-the-epigenome-and-transcriptome-of-the-poplar-shoot-apical-meristem-in-response-to-water-availability-affect-preferentially-hormone-pathways
#3
Clément Lafon-Placette, Anne-Laure Le Gac, Didier Chauveau, Vincent Segura, Alain Delaunay, Marie-Claude Lesage-Descauses, Irène Hummel, David Cohen, Béline Jesson, Didier Le Thiec, Marie-Béatrice Bogeat-Triboulot, Franck Brignolas, Stéphane Maury
The adaptive capacity of long-lived organisms such as trees to the predicted climate changes, including severe and successive drought episodes, will depend on the presence of genetic diversity and phenotypic plasticity. Here, the involvement of epigenetic mechanisms in phenotypic plasticity toward soil water availability was examined in Populus×euramericana. This work aimed at characterizing (i) the transcriptome plasticity, (ii) the genome-wide plasticity of DNA methylation, and (iii) the function of genes affected by a drought-rewatering cycle in the shoot apical meristem...
December 2, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205298/growing-competitive-or-tolerant-significance-of-apical-dominance-in-the-overcompensating-herb-gentianella-campestris
#4
Tommy Lennartsson, Satu Ramula, Juha Tuomi
As a compensatory response to herbivory, plants may branch vigorously when the growth of dormant meristems is triggered by shoot damage. Undamaged plants, on the other hand, often restrain branching, and this limitation on growth can be considered a cost of tolerance to herbivory. Restrained branching is caused by apical dominance and may, alternatively, be associated with fitness benefits in competitive environments that favor fast vertical growth. To test these hypotheses regarding selection for restrained branching, we compared the performance of two subspecies of the biennial grassland herb Gentianella campestris; the tall, apically dominant ssp...
December 2, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194659/a-stress-associated-protein-atsap13-from-arabidopsis-thaliana-provides-tolerance-to-multiple-abiotic-stresses
#5
Anirudha Dixit, Parul Tomar, Evan Vaine, Hesham Abdullah, Samuel Hazen, Om Parkash Dhankher
Members of Stress Associated Protein (SAP) family in plants have been shown to impart tolerance to multiple abiotic stresses, however, their mode of action in providing tolerance to multiple abiotic stresses is largely unknown. There are 14 SAP genes in Arabidopsis thaliana containing A20, AN1, and Cys2-His2 zinc finger domains. AtSAP13, a member of the SAP family, carries two AN1 zinc finger domains and an additional Cys2-His2 domain. AtSAP13 transcripts showed upregulation in response to Cd, ABA and salt stresses...
November 30, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186512/doft-and-doftip1-affect-reproductive-development-in-the-orchid-dendrobium-chao-praya-smile
#6
Yanwen Wang, Lu Liu, Shiyong Song, Yan Li, Lisha Shen, Hao Yu
FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) in Arabidopsis encodes the florigen that moves from leaves to the shoot apical meristem to induce flowering, and this is partly mediated by FT-INTERACTING PROTEIN 1 (FTIP1). Although FT orthologs have been identified in some flowering plants, their endogenous roles in Orchidaceae, which is one of the largest families of flowering plants, are still largely unknown. In this study, we show that DOFT and DOFTIP1, the orchid orthologs of FT and FTIP1, respectively, play important roles in promoting flowering in the orchid Dendrobium Chao Praya Smile...
November 24, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183607/fluazifop-p-butyl-induced-ros-generation-with-iaa-indole-3-acetic-acid-oxidation-in-acanthospermum-hispidum-d-c
#7
Zhihang Liu, Pingliang Li, Xiaoxue Sun, Fei Zhou, Congjun Yang, Lingxu Li, Hiroshi Matsumoto, Xiaoyong Luo
Acanthospermum hispidum D.C. was particularly susceptible to fluazifop-P-butyl, an aryloxyphenoxypropionate herbicide, and the primary action site for the herbicide was shoot apical meristem, which is also the main site of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) biosynthesis and action. Membrane lipid peroxidation caused by increasing levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was considered as an action mechanism of fluazifop-P-butyl in A. hispidum. To further clarify the ROS inducing mechanism of fluazifop-P-butyl in the plant, the interactions between fluazifop-P-butyl and auxin compounds IAA or 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) were studied...
November 2017: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136411/shoot-apical-meristem-and-plant-body-organization-a-cross-species-comparative-study
#8
Renáta Schnablová, Tomáš Herben, Jitka Klimešová
Background and Aims: The shoot apical meristem (SAM) is the key organizing element in the plant body and is responsible for the core of plant body organization and shape. Surprisingly, there are almost no comparative data that would show links between parameters of the SAM and whole-plant traits as drivers of the plant's response to the environment. Methods: Interspecific differences in SAM anatomy were examined in 104 perennial herbaceous angiosperms. Key Results: There were differences in SAM parameters among individual species, their phylogenetic patterns, and how their variation is linked to variation in plant above-ground organs and hence species' environmental niches...
November 10, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121612/coordination-of-growth-in-root-and-shoot-apices-by-ail-plt-transcription-factors
#9
REVIEW
Ben Scheres, Beth A Krizek
Growth at the root tip and organ generation at the shoot tip depend on the proper functioning of apical meristems and the transitioning of meristematic cell descendants from a proliferating state to cell elongation and differentiation. Members of the AINTEGUMENTA-LIKE/PLETHORA (AIL/PLT) transcription factor family, a clade of two-AP2 domain proteins, specify both stem cell fate and control cellular progression of stem cell daughter cells toward differentiation. Here we highlight the importance of an AIL/PLT protein gradient in controlling distinct cellular behaviors in the root through the regulation of distinct targets in different parts of the root tip...
November 6, 2017: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090430/hybrid-incompatibilities-in-interspecific-crosses-between-tetraploid-wheat-and-its-wild-diploid-relative-aegilops-umbellulata
#10
Moeko Okada, Kentaro Yoshida, Shigeo Takumi
Hybrid abnormalities, severe growth abortion and grass-clump dwarfism, were found in the tetraploid wheat/Aegilops umbellulata hybrids, and the gene expression changes were conserved in the hybrids with those in other wheat synthetic hexaploids. Aegilops umbellulata Zhuk., a diploid goatgrass species with a UU genome, has been utilized as a genetic resource for wheat breeding. Here, we examine the reproductive barriers between tetraploid wheat cultivar Langdon (Ldn) and various Ae. umbellulata accessions by conducting interspecific crossings...
October 31, 2017: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073502/the-growth-of-a-stable-stationary-structure-coordinating-cell-behavior-and-patterning-at-the-shoot-apical-meristem
#11
REVIEW
Jekaterina Truskina, Teva Vernoux
Plants are characterized by their ability to produce new organs post-embryonically throughout their entire life cycle. In particular development of all above-ground organs relies almost entirely on the function of the shoot apical meristem (SAM). The SAM performs a dual role by maintaining a pool of undifferentiated cells and simultaneously driving cell differentiation to initiate organogenesis. Both processes require strict coordination between individual cells which leads to formation of reproducible morphological and molecular patterns within SAM...
October 23, 2017: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066850/towards-an-understanding-of-spiral-patterning-in-the-sargassum-muticum-shoot-apex
#12
Marina Linardić, Siobhan A Braybrook
In plants and parenchymatous brown algae the body arises through the activity of an apical meristem (a niche of cells or a single cell). The meristem produces lateral organs in specific patterns, referred to as phyllotaxis. In plants, two different control mechanisms have been proposed: one is position-dependent and relies on morphogen accumulation at future organ sites; the other is a lineage-based system which links phyllotaxis to the apical cell division pattern. Here we examine the apical patterning of the brown alga, Sargassum muticum, which exhibits spiral phyllotaxis (137...
October 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042404/antagonistic-transcription-factor-complexes-modulate-the-floral-transition-in-rice
#13
Vittoria Brambilla, Damiano Martignago, Daniela Goretti, Martina Cerise, Marc Somssich, Matteo de Rosa, Francesca Galbiati, Roshi Shrestha, Federico Lazzaro, Rüdiger Simon, Fabio Fornara
Plants measure day or night lengths to coordinate specific developmental changes with a favorable season. In rice (Oryza sativa), the reproductive phase is initiated by exposure to short days when expression of HEADING DATE 3a (Hd3a) and RICE FLOWERING LOCUS T 1 (RFT1) is induced in leaves. The cognate proteins are components of the florigenic signal, and move systemically through the phloem to reach the shoot apical meristem (SAM). In the SAM, they form a transcriptional activation complex with the bZIP transcription factor OsFD1, to start panicle development...
October 17, 2017: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036620/fe-controls-the-transcription-of-downstream-flowering-regulators-through-two-distinct-mechanisms-in-leaf-phloem-companion-cells
#14
Mio Shibuta, Mitsutomo Abe
In the facultative long-day plant Arabidopsis thaliana, FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT), encoding the mobile hormone florigen, plays an essential role in modulating the optimal timing of flowering to ensure reproductive success. Under inductive long-day conditions, the transcription of FT is activated by the CONSTANS (CO)/NUCLEAR FACTOR-Y (NF-Y) protein complex in leaf phloem companion cells. FT is transported to the shoot apical meristem through interaction with florigen transporters, such as SODIUM POTASSIUM ROOT DEFECTIVE 1 (NaKR1)...
November 1, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036337/a-collection-of-mutants-for-cle-peptide-encoding-genes-in-arabidopsis-generated-by-crispr-cas9-mediated-gene-targeting
#15
Yasuka L Yamaguchi, Takashi Ishida, Mika Yoshimura, Yuko Imamura, Chie Shimaoka, Shinichiro Sawa
The ligand-receptor-mediated intercellular communication system plays important roles in coordinating developmental and physiological events in multicellular organisms. In plants, CLAVATA3/EMBRYO SURROUNDING REGION (CLE) peptides and their cognate receptors are thought to be involved in various aspects of the plant life cycle. Although the importance of this communication is broadly recognized, most CLE peptides are yet to be functionally characterized. A major problem in research on small signaling peptide-encoding genes is the limited number of loss-of-function mutants available due to their small gene size...
November 1, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016944/auxin-response-dynamics-during-wild-type-and-entire-flower-development-in-tomato
#16
Shiri Goldental-Cohen, Alon Israeli, Naomi Ori, Hagai Yasuor
The plant hormone auxin is a major regulator of plant development and response to environmental cues. Auxin plays a particularly central role in flower development, but the knowledge of its role of flower development in crop plants with fleshy fruits, such as tomato, is still scarce. Mutations in the Aux/IAA gene ENTIRE/Indole Acetic Acid 9 (E/IAA9) lead to the precocious development of young gynoecia into parthenocarpic fruits. Here, we compared the distribution of the auxin response sensor DR5::VENUS and the auxin efflux transporter PIN1 between the wild type and entire during successive stages of flower and fruit development...
July 31, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016889/argonaute10-inhibits-in-vitro-shoot-regeneration-via-repression-of-mir165-166-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#17
Tao Xue, Xuehuan Dai, Ruipu Wang, Junzhu Wang, Zhenhua Liu, Fengning Xiang
Many plant cells retain their totipotency when cultured in vitro. The regulation of shoot regeneration from in vitro culture involves a number of gene products, but the nature of the associated post-transcriptional events remains largely unknown. Here, the post transcriptional regulator ARGONAUTE10 (AGO10), a protein which is specifically expressed in the explant during the period when pro-SAMs are forming, has been known to inhibit shoot regeneration. In in vitro cultured explants of the loss-of-function mutant ago10, a much larger than normal number of shoot apical meristems was formed, and in these, the stem-cell marker genes WUS, CLV3 and STM were all strongly expressed...
August 21, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985382/metabolome-and-transcriptome-profiling-reveal-new-insights-into-somatic-embryo-germination-in-norway-spruce-picea-abies
#18
Izabela Dobrowolska, Edward Businge, Ilka N Abreu, Thomas Moritz, Ulrika Egertsdotter, Christophe Plomion
Transcriptome, metabolome and histological profiling were performed on normal and aberrant somatic embryo germinants of Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst) providing a simplistic systems biology description of conifer germination. Aberrant germinants (AGs) formed periderm-like tissue at the apical pole and lacked shoot growth above the cotyledons. Transcriptome profiling (RNA-Sequencing) revealed a total of 370 differentially expressed genes at ≥1 or ≤-1 log2-fold change, where 92% were down-regulated in AGs compared with normal germinants (NGs)...
June 28, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978631/genetic-screening-for-ems-induced-maize-embryo-specific-mutants-altered-in-embryo-morphogenesis
#19
Dale C Brunelle, Janice K Clark, William F Sheridan
We have previously identified embryo-specific (emb) mutations that resulted in maize kernels containing abnormal embryos with normal-appearing endosperm among the progeny of active Robertson's Mutator stocks. Our rationale for the mutant screen described here is that it should be possible to produce ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS)-induced emb mutations at a frequency higher than that obtained by transposon mutagenesis and with greater ease. This proved to be the case when we screened for mutations that are embryo-specific among progeny of materials generated with EMS-treated pollen...
November 6, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28957460/the-huperzia-selago-shoot-tip-transcriptome-sheds-new-light-on-the-evolution-of-leaves
#20
Anastasiia I Evkaikina, Lidija Berke, Marina A Romanova, Estelle Proux-Wéra, Alexandra N Ivanova, Catarina Rydin, Katharina Pawlowski, Olga V Voitsekhovskaja
Lycopodiophyta-consisting of three orders, Lycopodiales, Isoetales and Selaginellales, with different types of shoot apical meristems (SAMs)-form the earliest branch among the extant vascular plants. They represent a sister group to all other vascular plants, from which they differ in that their leaves are microphylls-that is, leaves with a single, unbranched vein, emerging from the protostele without a leaf gap-not megaphylls. All leaves represent determinate organs originating on the flanks of indeterminate SAMs...
September 1, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
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