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shoot apical meristem

Xuemei Zhou, Yingying Guo, Peng Zhao, Meng-Xiang Sun
WUSCHEL-related homeobox (WOX) gene is a plant-specific clade of homeobox transcription factors. Increasing evidences reveal that WOXs play critical roles in early embryogenesis, which involves zygote development, initiation of zygote division, and apical or basal cell lineage establishment. However, how WOXs regulate these developmental events remains largely unknown, and even detailed expression pattern in gametes and early proembryos is not yet available. Here, 13 WOX family genes were identified in Nicotiana tabacum genome...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Stephen A Snipes, Kevin Rodriguez, Aaron E DeVries, Kaori N Miyawaki, Mariano Perales, Mingtang Xie, G Venugopala Reddy
Concentration-dependent transcriptional regulation and the spatial regulation of transcription factor levels are poorly studied in plant development. WUSCHEL, a stem cell-promoting homeodomain transcription factor, accumulates at a higher level in the rib meristem than in the overlying central zone, which harbors stem cells in the shoot apical meristems of Arabidopsis thaliana. The differential accumulation of WUSCHEL in adjacent cells is critical for the spatial regulation and levels of CLAVATA3, a negative regulator of WUSCHEL transcription...
April 16, 2018: PLoS Genetics
S Scofield, A Murison, A Jones, J Fozard, M Aida, L R Band, M Bennett, J A H Murray
The Arabidopsis homeodomain transcription factor SHOOT MERISTEMLESS (STM) is critical for shoot apical meristem (SAM) function, yet the components and structure of the STM gene regulatory network (GRN) are largely unknown. Here we show that transcriptional regulators are overrepresented amongst STM-regulated genes, and using these as GRN components in Bayesian network analysis we infer STM GRN associations and reveal regulatory relationships between STM and factors involved in multiple aspects of SAM function, including hormone regulation, TCP-mediated control of cell differentiation, AIL/PLT-mediated regulation of pluripotency and phyllotaxis, and specification of meristem-organ boundary zones via CUC1...
April 12, 2018: Development
Tao Luo, Jing Zhang, Mohammad Nauman Khan, Jiahuan Liu, Zhenghua Xu, Liyong Hu
To understand the influence of temperature on floral initiation and to reveal the relationship between floral bud development and yield potential of rapeseed (Brassica napus L.), early- ("1358"), intermediate- ("Zhongshuang No.11") and late- ("Zheshuang No.8") maturity genotypes were sown on different sowing dates under field conditions during four crop seasons. A multiplicative model was introduced to distinguish and quantify the effects of photoperiod and temperature on pre-floral initiation phase...
June 2018: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
Caili Wang, Heyu Yang, Lincai Chen, Shaohui Yang, Deping Hua, Jiehua Wang
Small, secreted signaling peptides that are perceived by receptor-like kinases (RLKs) constitute an important regulatory mechanism in plant organ formation and stem cell maintenance. However, functional redundancy at the level of both ligand and receptor families often makes it difficult to clearly discern the role of individual members by a genetic approach. Here, we show that driven by a constitutive CaMV 35S promoter, a truncated BAM protein (BAMΔ) that lacks either the signal peptide (SP) or the cytoplasmic kinase (Ki) domain could cause defective shoot apical meristem (SAM) maintenance, which phenotypically resembled the triple bam mutant...
April 2018: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
Chong Hu, Yafen Zhu, Yanwei Cui, Kaili Cheng, Wan Liang, Zhuoyun Wei, Mingsong Zhu, Hongju Yin, Li Zeng, Ya Xiao, Minghui Lv, Jing Yi, Suiwen Hou, Kai He, Jia Li, Xiaoping Gou
Continuous organ initiation and outgrowth in plants relies on the proliferation and differentiation of stem cells maintained by the CLAVATA (CLV)-WUSCHEL (WUS) negative-feedback loop1-3 . Leucine-rich repeat receptor-like protein kinases (LRR-RLKs), including CLV1, BARELY ANY MERISTEMS and RECEPTOR-LIKE PROTEIN KINASE 2 (RPK2), a receptor-like protein CLV2 and a pseudokinase CORYNE (CRN) are involved in the perception of the CLV3 signal to repress WUS expression4-10 . WUS, a homeodomain transcription factor, in turn directly activates CLV3 expression and promotes stem cell activity in the shoot apical meristem11,12 ...
April 2018: Nature Plants
Chao Wei, Lixia Zhu, Jing Wen, Bin Yi, Chaozhi Ma, Jinxing Tu, Jinxiong Shen, Tingdong Fu
Plant height is a key trait of plant architecture, and is responsible for both yield and lodging resistance in Brassica napus. A dwarf mutant line (bnaC.dwf) was obtained by chemical mutagenesis of an inbred line T6. However, the molecular mechanisms and changed biological processes of the dwarf mutant remain to be determined. In this study, a comparative transcriptome analysis between bnaC.dwf and T6 plants was performed to identify genome-wide differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and possible biological processes that may explain the phenotype variations in bnaC...
May 2018: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
Hideki Takanashi, Hikari Sumiyoshi, Mirai Mogi, Yoshikazu Hayashi, Takayuki Ohnishi, Nobuhiro Tsutsumi
KEY MESSAGE: miR171a controls HAM1 functions within the protodermal cells of the embryo, and these controls are essential for normal embryogenesis in Arabidopsis. Arabidopsis thaliana miR171a is known to bind to and cleave mRNAs of three HAIRY MERISTEM (HAM) genes that encode members of the GRAS family transcriptional regulators. The molecular functions of the HAM genes are still being elucidated in Arabidopsis. However, detailed expression patterns of miR171a and the effects of the failure of miR171a to suppress HAM genes were unknown till now...
March 24, 2018: Plant Molecular Biology
Motomu Endo, Masayasu Yoshida, Youhei Sasaki, Katsuya Negishi, Kobo Horikawa, Yasufumi Daimon, Ken-Ichi Kurotani, Michitaka Notaguchi, Mitsutomo Abe, Takashi Araki
In many plants, timing of flowering is regulated by day length. In Arabidopsis, florigen, FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) protein, is synthesized in leaf phloem companion cells in response to long days and is transported to the shoot apical meristem (SAM) through the phloem. The temporal aspects of florigen transportation have been studied in various plants by physiological experiments. Nevertheless, little is known how FT protein transportation is regulated in Arabidopsis. In this study, we performed heat-shock based transient FT induction in a single leaf blade and detected the FT protein in shoot apex by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE)...
March 19, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
Bing Wang, Steven M Smith, Jiayang Li
Shoot architecture is determined by the organization and activities of apical, axillary, intercalary, secondary, and inflorescence meristems and by the subsequent development of stems, leaves, shoot branches, and inflorescences. In this review, we discuss the unifying principles of hormonal and genetic control of shoot architecture including advances in our understanding of lateral branch outgrowth; control of stem elongation, thickness, and angle; and regulation of inflorescence development. We focus on recent progress made mainly in Arabidopsis thaliana, rice, pea, maize, and tomato, including the identification of new genes and mechanisms controlling shoot architecture...
March 19, 2018: Annual Review of Plant Biology
Alicja Dolzblasz, Edyta M Gola, Katarzyna Sokołowska, Elwira Smakowska-Luzan, Adriana Twardawska, Hanna Janska
Shoot and root apical meristems (SAM and RAM, respectively) are crucial to provide cells for growth and organogenesis and therefore need to be maintained throughout the life of a plant. However, plants lacking the mitochondrial protease AtFTSH4 exhibit an intriguing phenotype of precocious cessation of growth at both the shoot and root apices when grown at elevated temperatures. This is due to the accumulation of internal oxidative stress and progressive mitochondria dysfunction. To explore the impacts of the internal oxidative stress on SAM and RAM functioning, we study the expression of selected meristem-specific ( STM , CLV3 , WOX5 ) and cell cycle-related (e...
March 14, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Paja Sijacic, Marko Bajic, Elizabeth C McKinney, Richard B Meagher, Roger B Deal
Cell differentiation is driven by changes in transcription factor (TF) activity and subsequent alterations in transcription. To study this process, differences in TF binding between cell types can be deduced by probing chromatin accessibility. We used cell type-specific nuclei purification followed by the Assay for Transposase Accessible Chromatin (ATAC-seq) to delineate differences in chromatin accessibility and TF regulatory networks between stem cells of the shoot apical meristem (SAM) and differentiated leaf mesophyll cells in Arabidopsis thaliana...
March 7, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Lilan Hong, Mathilde Dumond, Mingyuan Zhu, Satoru Tsugawa, Chun-Biu Li, Arezki Boudaoud, Olivier Hamant, Adrienne H K Roeder
Development is remarkably reproducible, producing organs with the same size, shape, and function repeatedly from individual to individual. For example, every flower on the Antirrhinum> stalk has the same snapping dragon mouth. This reproducibility has allowed taxonomists to classify plants and animals according to their morphology. Yet these reproducible organs are composed of highly variable cells. For example, neighboring cells grow at different rates in Arabidopsis leaves, sepals, and shoot apical meristems...
March 5, 2018: Annual Review of Plant Biology
Hongyu Chen, Shuqin Li, Lu Li, Hengjin Hu, Jie Zhao
In higher plants, embryo development originated from fertilized egg cell is the first step of the life cycle. The chloroplast participates in many essential metabolic pathways, and its function is highly associated with embryo development. However, the mechanisms and relevant genetic components by which the chloroplast functions in embryogenesis are largely uncharacterized. In this paper, we describe the Arabidopsis EMB1990 gene, encoding a plastid-targeted YlmG protein which is required for chloroplast biogenesis and embryo development...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Ron J Okagaki, Allison Haaning, Hatice Bilgic, Shane Heinen, Arnis Druka, Micha Bayer, Robbie Waugh, Gary J Muehlbauer
The shoot apical and axillary meristems control shoot development, effectively influencing lateral branch and leaf formation. The barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) uniculm2 (cul2) mutation blocks axillary meristem development and mutant plants lack lateral branches (tillers) that normally develop from the crown. A genetic screen for cul2 suppressors recovered two recessive alleles of ELIGULUM-A (ELI-A) that partially rescued the cul2 tillering phenotype. Mutations in ELI-A produce shorter plants with fewer tillers and disrupt the leaf blade-sheath boundary, producing liguleless leaves and reduced secondary cell wall development in stems and leaves...
February 12, 2018: Plant Physiology
Vicente Balanzà, Irene Martínez-Fernández, Shusei Sato, Martin F Yanofsky, Kerstin Kaufmann, Gerco C Angenent, Marian Bemer, Cristina Ferrándiz
Monocarpic plants have a single reproductive cycle in their lives, where life span is determined by the coordinated arrest of all meristems, or global proliferative arrest (GPA). The molecular bases for GPA and the signaling mechanisms involved are poorly understood, other than systemic cues from developing seeds of unknown nature. Here we uncover a genetic pathway regulating GPA in Arabidopsis that responds to age-dependent factors and acts in parallel to seed-derived signals. We show that FRUITFULL (FUL), a MADS-box gene involved in flowering and fruit development, has a key role in promoting meristem arrest, as GPA is delayed and fruit production is increased in ful mutants...
February 8, 2018: Nature Communications
Thomas Stanislas, Matthieu Pierre Platre, Mengying Liu, Léa E S Rambaud-Lavigne, Yvon Jaillais, Olivier Hamant
BACKGROUND: In plants, the shoot apical meristem (SAM) has two main functions, involving the production of all aerial organs on the one hand and self-maintenance on the other, allowing the production of organs during the entire post-embryonic life of the plant. Transcription factors, microRNA, hormones, peptides and forces have been involved in meristem function. Whereas phosphatidylinositol phosphates (PIPs) have been involved in almost all biological functions, including stem cell maintenance and organogenesis in animals, the processes in meristem biology to which PIPs contribute still need to be delineated...
February 7, 2018: BMC Biology
Jiaqiang Dong, Hai Huang
The leaves of higher plants are polar along their adaxial-abaxial axis, and the development of the adaxial domain (upper side) and the abaxial domain (lower side) makes the leaf a highly efficient photosynthetic organ. It has been proposed that a hypothetical signal transported from the shoot apical meristem (SAM) to the incipient leaf primordium, or conversely, the plant hormone auxin transported from the leaf primordium to the SAM, initiates leaf adaxial-abaxial patterning. This hypothetical signal has been referred to as the Sussex signal, because the research of Ian Sussex published in 1951 was the first to imply its existence...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Integrative Plant Biology
Bihai Shi, Xiaolu Guo, Ying Wang, Yuanyuan Xiong, Jin Wang, Ken-Ichiro Hayashi, Jinzhi Lei, Lei Zhang, Yuling Jiao
Stem cells must balance self-renewal and differentiation; thus, their activities are precisely controlled. In plants, the control circuits that underlie division and differentiation within meristems have been well studied, but those that underlie feedback on meristems from lateral organs remain largely unknown. Here we show that long-distance auxin transport mediates this feedback in a non-cell-autonomous manner. A low-auxin zone is associated with the shoot apical meristem (SAM) organization center, and auxin levels negatively affect SAM size...
January 22, 2018: Developmental Cell
Ian R Willick, Daisuke Takahashi, D Brian Fowler, Matsuo Uemura, Karen K Tanino
The wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) crown is the critical organ of low temperature stress survival over winter. In cold-acclimated crowns, ice formation in the apoplast causes severe tissue disruption as it grows at the expense of intracellular water. While previous crown studies have shown the vascular transition zone (VTZ) to have a higher freezing sensitivity than the shoot apical meristem (SAM), the mechanism behind the differential freezing response is not fully understood. Cooling cold-acclimated crowns to -10 °C resulted in an absence of VTZ tetrazolium chloride staining, whereas the temperatures at which 50% of the SAM stained positive and 50% of plants recovered (LT50) were similar after cold acclimation for 21 (-16 °C) and 42 d (-20 °C) at 4 °C...
January 24, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
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