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shoot apical meristem

Vittoria Brambilla, Damiano Martignago, Daniela Goretti, Martina Cerise, Marc Somssich, Matteo de Rosa, Francesca Galbiati, Roshi Shrestha, Federico Lazzaro, Rüdiger Simon, Fabio Fornara
Plants measure day or night lengths to coordinate specific developmental changes with a favorable season. In rice (Oryza sativa), the reproductive phase is initiated by exposure to short days when expression of HEADING DATE 3a (Hd3a) and RICE FLOWERING LOCUS T 1 (RFT1) is induced in leaves. The cognate proteins are components of the florigenic signal, and move systemically through the phloem to reach the shoot apical meristem (SAM). In the SAM, they form a transcriptional activation complex with the bZIP transcription factor OsFD1, to start panicle development...
October 17, 2017: Plant Cell
Mio Shibuta, Mitsutomo Abe
In facultative long-day plant, Arabidopsis thaliana, FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) encoding a mobile hormone florigen plays an essential role in modulating the optimal timing of flowering to ensure reproductive success. Under inductive long-day conditions, the transcription of FT is activated by the CONSTANS (CO)/NUCLEAR FACTOR-Y (NF-Y) protein complex in leaf phloem companion cells. FT is transported to the shoot apical meristem through interaction with florigen transporters, such as SODIUM POTASSIUM ROOT DEFECTIVE 1 (NaKR1)...
September 25, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
Yasuka L Yamaguchi, Takashi Ishida, Mika Yoshimura, Yuko Imamura, Chie Shimaoka, Shinichiro Sawa
The ligand-receptor-mediated intercellular communication system plays important roles in coordinating developmental and physiological events in multicellular organisms. In plants, CLE peptides and their cognate receptors are thought to be involved in various aspects of the plant life cycle. Although the importance of this communication is broadly recognized, most CLE peptides are yet to be functionally characterized. A major problem in research on small signaling peptide-encoding genes is the limited number of loss-of-function mutants available due to their small gene size...
September 25, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
Shiri Goldental-Cohen, Alon Israeli, Naomi Ori, Hagai Yasuor
The plant hormone auxin is a major regulator of plant development and response to environmental cues. Auxin plays a particularly central role in flower development, but the knowledge of its role of flower development in crop plants with fleshy fruits, such as tomato, is still scarce. Mutations in the Aux/IAA gene ENTIRE/Indole Acetic Acid 9 (E/IAA9) lead to the precocious development of young gynoecia into parthenocarpic fruits. Here, we compared the distribution of the auxin response sensor DR5::VENUS and the auxin efflux transporter PIN1 between the wild type and entire during successive stages of flower and fruit development...
July 31, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
Tao Xue, Xuehuan Dai, Ruipu Wang, Junzhu Wang, Zhenhua Liu, Fengning Xiang
Many plant cells retain their totipotency when cultured in vitro. The regulation of shoot regeneration from in vitro culture involves a number of gene products, but the nature of the associated post-transcriptional events remains largely unknown. Here, the post transcriptional regulator ARGONAUTE10 (AGO10), a protein which is specifically expressed in the explant during the period when pro-SAMs are forming, has been known to inhibit shoot regeneration. In in vitro cultured explants of the loss-of-function mutant ago10, a much larger than normal number of shoot apical meristems was formed, and in these, the stem-cell marker genes WUS, CLV3 and STM were all strongly expressed...
August 21, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
Izabela Dobrowolska, Edward Businge, Ilka N Abreu, Thomas Moritz, Ulrika Egertsdotter, Christophe Plomion
Transcriptome, metabolome and histological profiling were performed on normal and aberrant somatic embryo germinants of Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst) providing a simplistic systems biology description of conifer germination. Aberrant germinants (AGs) formed periderm-like tissue at the apical pole and lacked shoot growth above the cotyledons. Transcriptome profiling (RNA-Sequencing) revealed a total of 370 differentially expressed genes at ≥1 or ≤-1 log2-fold change, where 92% were down-regulated in AGs compared with normal germinants (NGs)...
June 28, 2017: Tree Physiology
Dale C Brunelle, Janice K Clark, William F Sheridan
We have previously identified embryo-specific (emb) mutations that resulted in maize kernels containing abnormal embryos with normal appearing endosperm among the progeny of active Robertson's Mutator stocks.  Our rationale for the mutant screen described here is that it should be possible to produce ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS)-induced embryo-specific mutations at a frequency higher than that obtained by transposon mutagenesis and with greater ease. This proved to be the case when we screened for mutations that are embryo-specific among progeny of materials generated with EMS-treated pollen...
October 4, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
Anastasiia I Evkaikina, Lidija Berke, Marina A Romanova, Estelle Proux-Wéra, Alexandra N Ivanova, Catarina Rydin, Katharina Pawlowski, Olga V Voitsekhovskaja
Lycopodiophyta-consisting of three orders, Lycopodiales, Isoetales and Selaginellales, with different types of shoot apical meristems (SAMs)-form the earliest branch among the extant vascular plants. They represent a sister group to all other vascular plants, from which they differ in that their leaves are microphylls-that is, leaves with a single, unbranched vein, emerging from the protostele without a leaf gap-not megaphylls. All leaves represent determinate organs originating on the flanks of indeterminate SAMs...
September 1, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
Marina E Battaglia, María Victoria Martin, Leandra Lechner, Giselle M A Martínez-Noël, Graciela L Salerno
Alkaline/neutral invertases (A/N-Inv), glucosidases that irreversibly hydrolyze sucrose into glucose and fructose, play significant roles in plant growth, development, and stress adaptation. They occur as multiple isoforms located in the cytosol or organelles. In Arabidopsis thaliana, two mitochondrial A/N-Inv genes (A/N-InvA and A/N-InvC) have already been investigated. In this study, we functionally characterized A/N-InvH, a third Arabidopsis gene coding for a mitochondrial-targeted protein. The phenotypic analysis of knockout mutant plants (invh) showed a severely reduced shoot growth, while root development was not affected...
2017: PloS One
Yuming Hu, Thomas Depaepe, Dajo Smet, Klara Hoyerova, Petr Klíma, Ann Cuypers, Sean Cutler, Dieter Buyst, Kris Morreel, Wout Boerjan, José Martins, Jan Petrášek, Filip Vandenbussche, Dominique Van Der Straeten
The volatile two-carbon hormone ethylene acts in concert with an array of signals to affect etiolated seedling development. From a chemical screen, we isolated a quinoline carboxamide designated ACCERBATIN (AEX) that exacerbates the 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid-induced triple response, typical for ethylene-treated seedlings in darkness. Phenotypic analyses revealed distinct AEX effects including inhibition of root hair development and shortening of the root meristem. Mutant analysis and reporter studies further suggested that AEX most probably acts in parallel to ethylene signaling...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
Haruyasu Hamada, Qianyan Linghu, Yozo Nagira, Ryuji Miki, Naoaki Taoka, Ryozo Imai
The currently favoured method for wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) transformation is inapplicable to many elite cultivars because it requires callus culture and regeneration. Here, we developed a simple, reproducible, in planta wheat transformation method using biolistic DNA delivery without callus culture or regeneration. Shoot apical meristems (SAMs) grown from dry imbibed seeds were exposed under a microscope and subjected to bombardment with different-sized gold particles coated with the GFP gene construct, introducing DNA into the L2 cell layer...
September 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
Cris Kuhlemeier
Leaves and flowers are arranged in regular patterns around the stem of a plant, a phenomenon known as phyllotaxis. Different arrangements occur, such as distichous, decussate or spiral (Figure 1). Most prevalent in nature are spirals in which the average divergence angles between successive organs are close to 137.5°, the so-called 'golden angle'. It is this exact number that has given phyllotaxis its special flavor as a quantitative developmental problem, and over the centuries, it has enjoyed the attention of scientists far beyond botany...
September 11, 2017: Current Biology: CB
Fei Zhang, Alan May, Vivian F Irish
The WUSCHEL (WUS) gene is necessary for the maintenance of stem cells in the shoot apical meristem. Four recent reports show that cytokinin responsive type-B ARABIDOPSIS RESPONSE REGULATORs (ARRs) directly activate WUS expression, providing a long-awaited explanation for how cytokinin influences the maintenance of the stem cell niche.
October 2017: Trends in Plant Science
Antonio Serrano-Mislata, Kevin Goslin, Beibei Zheng, Liina Rae, Frank Wellmer, Emmanuelle Graciet, Francisco Madueño
The gene regulatory network comprised of LEAFY (LFY), APETALA1 (AP1), the AP1 paralog CAULIFLOWER (CAL), and TERMINAL FLOWER1 (TFL1) is a major determinant of the flowering process in Arabidopsis thaliana. TFL1 activity in the shoot apical meristem provides inflorescence identity while the transcription factors LFY and AP1/CAL confer floral identity to emerging floral primordia. It has been thought that LFY and AP1/CAL control the onset of flowering in part by repressing TFL1 expression in flowers. However, in the June issue of Plant Physiology, we reported that LFY and AP1 act antagonistically in the regulation of several key flowering regulators, including TFL1...
October 3, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
April H Hastwell, Thomas C de Bang, Peter M Gresshoff, Brett J Ferguson
CLE peptide hormones are critical regulators of many cell proliferation and differentiation mechanisms in plants. These 12-13 amino acid glycosylated peptides play vital roles in a diverse range of plant tissues, including the shoot, root and vasculature. CLE peptides are also involved in controlling legume nodulation. Here, the entire family of CLE peptide-encoding genes was identified in Medicago truncatula (52) and Lotus japonicus (53), including pseudogenes and non-functional sequences that were identified...
August 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
Saeid Mirzaei, Jacqueline Batley, Tarik El-Mellouki, Shiming Liu, Khalid Meksem, Brett J Ferguson, Peter M Gresshoff
The CLAVATA pathway that regulates stem cell numbers of the shoot apical meristem has exclusively been studied in Arabidopsis; as such insight into other species is warranted. In this study, a GmCLV1A mutant (F-S562L) with altered lateral organ development, and two mutants of GmNARK, isolated from a Forrest M2 population (EMS-mutated soybean) were studied. GmCLV1A and GmNARK encode for LRR receptor kinases, and share 92% of protein sequence. While GmNARK is critical for systemic regulation of nodulation (new organ made on the root through symbiosis), we show that GmCLV1A functions locally and has no apparent function in nodulation or root development...
August 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
Antonio Serrano-Mislata, Stefano Bencivenga, Max Bush, Katharina Schiessl, Scott Boden, Robert Sablowski
DELLA proteins associate with transcription factors to control plant growth in response to gibberellin (1) . Semi-dwarf DELLA mutants with improved harvest index and decreased lodging greatly improved global food security during the 'green revolution' in the 1960-1970s (2) . However, DELLA mutants are pleiotropic and the developmental basis for their effects on plant architecture remains poorly understood. Here, we show that DELLA proteins have genetically separable roles in controlling stem growth and the size of the inflorescence meristem, where flowers initiate...
August 21, 2017: Nature Plants
Achala Bakshi, Mazahar Moin, Raju Datla, P B Kirti
Expression analysis of genes associated with development at different growth stages such as shoot apical meristem (SAM), root apical meristem (RAM), shoot and root tissues 10 DAG, flowers and grains of 2 high expression transgenic lines of rice ectopically expressing AtTOR revealed the involvement of AtTOR in transcriptional regulation of these genes. We have observed that in the SAM of these 2 selected lines, TR-2.24 and TR-15.1, OsFON1 and OsFON4 (orthologs of AtCLV1 and AtCLV3, respectively), OsKNOX2, OsKNOX3 and OsWOX3 became upregulated...
August 17, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Tiantian Sun, Shanwei Li, Haiyun Ren
Grain size is an important agronomic trait determining rice yield and is mainly restricted by spikelet hull size. However, it remains largely unknown how the spikelet hull size is regulated. In this study, OsFH15, a class I formin protein in Oryza sativa, was found to be able to regulate the size of cells and spikelet hull. OsFH15-Cas9 and OsFH15-RNAi mutants had decreased grain size with reduced cell length, cell width and cell area of inner epidermal cells of the lemma compared with wild-type plants. By contrast, OsFH15-overexpressed plants had increased grain size with larger cells, as well as more abundant microtubules (MTs) and actin filaments (AFs) arrays...
July 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
Xiao-Peng Zhang, De-Shui Liu, Teng Yan, Xiao-Dong Fang, Kai Dong, Jin Xu, Ying Wang, Jia-Lin Yu, Xian-Bing Wang
Shoot apical meristems (SAM) are resistant to most plant viruses due to RNA silencing, which is restrained by viral suppressors of RNA silencing (VSRs) to facilitate transient viral invasion of the SAM. In many cases chronic symptoms and long-term virus recovery occur, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we found that wild-type Cucumber mosaic virus (CMVWT) invaded the SAM transiently, but was subsequently eliminated from the meristems. Unexpectedly, a CMV mutant, designated CMVRA that harbors an alanine substitution in the N-terminal arginine-rich region of the coat protein (CP) persistently invaded the SAM and resulted in visible reductions in apical dominance...
July 2017: PLoS Pathogens
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