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shoot apical meristem

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918940/beyond-flexibility-controlling-stem-cells-in-an-ever-changing-environment
#1
REVIEW
Anne Pfeiffer, Christian Wenzl, Jan U Lohmann
Developmental plasticity is a defining feature of plants allowing them to colonize a wide range of different ecosystems by promoting environmental adaptation. Their postembryonic development requires life-long maintenance of stem cells, which are embedded into specialized tissues, called meristems. The shoot apical meristem gives rise to all above ground tissues and is a complex and dynamic three-dimensional structure harboring cells of different clonal origins and fates. Functionally divergent subdomains are stably maintained despite permanent cell division, however their relative sizes are modified in response to developmental and environmental signals...
December 2, 2016: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918939/the-shady-side-of-leaf-development-the-role-of-the-revoluta-kanadi1-module-in-leaf-patterning-and-auxin-mediated-growth-promotion
#2
REVIEW
Paz Merelo, Esther Botterweg Paredes, Marcus G Heisler, Stephan Wenkel
Leaves are present in all land plants and are specialized organs for light harvesting. They arise at the flanks of the shoot apical meristem (SAM), and develop into lamina structures that exhibit adaxial/abaxial (upper/lower side of the leaf) polarity. At the molecular level, an intricate regulatory network determines ad-/abaxial polarity in Arabidopsis thaliana leaves, where the Class III Homeodomain Leucine Zipper (HD-ZIPIII) and KANADI (KAN) proteins are key mediators. The HD-ZIPIII REVOLUTA (REV) is expressed in the adaxial domain of lateral organs, whereas KAN1 is involved in abaxial differentiation...
December 2, 2016: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895202/the-lbd12-1-transcription-factor-suppresses-apical-meristem-size-by-repressing-argonaute-10-expression
#3
Weiwei Ma, Fuqing Wu, Peike Sheng, Xiaole Wang, Zhe Zhang, Kunneng Zhou, Huan Zhang, Jinlong Hu, Qibing Lin, Zhijun Cheng, Jiulin Wang, Shanshan Zhu, Xin Zhang, Xiuping Guo, Haiyang Wang, Chuanyin Wu, Jianmin Wan
The shoot apical meristem (SAM) consists of a population of multipotent cells that generate all aerial structures and regenerates itself. SAM maintenance and lateral organ development are regulated by several complex signaling pathways, in which the Argonaute gene mediated pathway plays a key role. One Argonaute gene, AGO10, functions as a miRNA locker that attenuates miR165/166 activity and positively regulates shoot apical meristem development, but little is known about when and how AGO10 is regulated at the transcriptional level...
November 28, 2016: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891134/cucumber-cucumis-sativus-l-nitric-oxide-synthase-associated-gene1-csnoa1-plays-a-role-in-chilling-stress
#4
Xingwang Liu, Bin Liu, Shudan Xue, Yanlinq Cai, Wenzhu Qi, Chen Jian, Shuo Xu, Ting Wang, Huazhong Ren
Nitric oxide (NO) is a gaseous signaling molecule in plants, transducing information as a result of exposure to low temperatures. However, the underlying molecular mechanism linking NO with chilling stress is not well understood. Here, we functionally characterized the cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) nitric oxide synthase-associated gene, NITRIC OXIDE ASSOCIATED 1 (CsNOA1). Expression analysis of CsNOA1, using quantitative real-time PCR, in situ hybridization, and a promoter::β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter assay, revealed that it is expressed mainly in the root and shoot apical meristem (SAM), and that expression is up-regulated by low temperatures...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878597/the-sweet-cherry-prunus-avium-flowering-locus-t-gene-is-expressed-during-floral-bud-determination-and-can-promote-flowering-in-a-winter-annual-arabidopsis-accession
#5
Antonia Yarur, Esteban Soto, Gabriel León, Andrea Miyasaka Almeida
FT gene is expressed in leaves and buds and is involved in floral meristem determination and bud development in sweet cherry. In woody fruit perennial trees, floral determination, dormancy and bloom, depends on perception of different environmental and endogenous cues which converge to a systemic signaling gene known as FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT). In long-day flowering plants, FT is expressed in the leaves on long days. The protein travels through the phloem to the shoot apical meristem, where it induces flower determination...
December 2016: Plant Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867389/modeling-the-morphometric-evolution-of-the-maize-shoot-apical-meristem
#6
Samuel Leiboff, Christopher K DeAllie, Michael J Scanlon
The maize (Zea mays subsp. mays L.) shoot apical meristem (SAM) is a self-replenishing pool of stem cells that produces all above-ground plant tissues. Improvements in image acquisition and processing techniques have allowed high-throughput, quantitative genetic analyses of SAM morphology. As with other large-scale phenotyping efforts, meaningful descriptions of genetic architecture depend on the collection of relevant measures. In this study, we tested two quantitative image processing methods to describe SAM morphology within the genus Zea, represented by 33 wild relatives of maize and 841 lines from a domesticated maize by wild teosinte progenitor (MxT) backcross population, along with previously reported data from several hundred diverse maize inbred lines...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864962/the-aquilegia-jagged-homolog-promotes-proliferation-of-adaxial-cell-types-in-both-leaves-and-stems
#7
Ya Min, Elena M Kramer
In order to explore the functional conservation of JAGGED, a key gene involved in the sculpting of lateral organs in several model species, we identified its ortholog AqJAG in the lower eudicot species Aquilegia coerulea. We analyzed the expression patterns of AqJAG in various tissues and developmental stages, and used RNAi-based methods to generate knockdown phenotypes of AqJAG. AqJAG was strongly expressed in shoot apices, floral meristems, lateral root primordia and all lateral organ primordia. Silencing of AqJAG revealed a wide range of defects in the developing stems, leaves and flowers; strongest phenotypes include severe reduction of leaflet laminae due to a decrease in cell size and number, change of adaxial cell identity, outgrowth of laminar-like tissue on the inflorescence stem, and early arrest of floral meristems and floral organ primordia...
November 16, 2016: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864752/real-time-analysis-of-the-apical-hook-development
#8
Qiang Zhu, Petra Žádníková, Dajo Smet, Dominique Van Der Straeten, Eva Benková
Mechanisms for cell protection are essential for survival of multicellular organisms. In plants, the apical hook, which is transiently formed in darkness when the germinating seedling penetrates towards the soil surface, plays such protective role and shields the vitally important shoot apical meristem and cotyledons from damage. The apical hook is formed by bending of the upper hypocotyl soon after germination, and it is maintained in a closed stage while the hypocotyl continues to penetrate through the soil and rapidly opens when exposed to light in proximity of the soil surface...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862530/the-mutation-nrpb1-a325v-in-the-largest-subunit-of-rna-polymerase-ii-suppresses-compromised-growth-of-arabidopsis-plants-deficient-in-a-function-of-the-general-transcription-factor-iif
#9
Elena Babiychuk, Khai Trinh Hoang, Klaas Vandepoele, Eveline Van De Slijke, Danny Geelen, Geert De Jaeger, Junichi Obokata, Sergei Kushnir
The evolutionarily conserved 12-subunit RNA polymerase II (Pol II) is a central catalytic component that drives RNA synthesis during the transcription cycle that consists of transcription initiation, elongation, and termination. A diverse set of general transcription factors, including a multifunctional TFIIF, govern Pol II selectivity, kinetic properties, and transcription coupling with posttranscriptional processes. Here, we show that TFIIF of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) resembles the metazoan complex that is composed of the TFIIFα and TFIIFβ polypeptides...
November 10, 2016: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859288/exploring-key-cellular-processes-and-candidate-genes-regulating-the-primary-thickening-growth-of-moso-underground-shoots
#10
Qiang Wei, Chen Jiao, Lin Guo, Yulong Ding, Junjie Cao, Jianyuan Feng, Xiaobo Dong, Linyong Mao, Honghe Sun, Fen Yu, Guangyao Yang, Peijian Shi, Guodong Ren, Zhangjun Fei
The primary thickening growth of Moso (Phyllostachys edulis) underground shoots largely determines the culm circumference. However, its developmental mechanisms remain largely unknown. Using an integrated anatomy, mathematics and genomics approach, we systematically studied cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the growth of Moso underground shoots. We discovered that the growth displayed a spiral pattern and pith played an important role in promoting the primary thickening process of Moso underground shoots and driving the evolution of culms with different sizes among different bamboo species...
November 12, 2016: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833620/camp-signaling-regulates-synchronised-growth-of-symbiotic-epichlo%C3%A3-fungi-with-the-host-grass-lolium-perenne
#11
Christine R Voisey, Michael T Christensen, Linda J Johnson, Natasha T Forester, Milan Gagic, Gregory T Bryan, Wayne R Simpson, Damien J Fleetwood, Stuart D Card, John P Koolaard, Paul H Maclean, Richard D Johnson
The seed-transmitted fungal symbiont, Epichloë festucae, colonizes grasses by infecting host tissues as they form on the shoot apical meristem (SAM) of the seedling. How this fungus accommodates the complexities of plant development to successfully colonize the leaves and inflorescences is unclear. Since adenosine 3', 5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent signaling is often essential for host colonization by fungal pathogens, we disrupted the cAMP cascade by insertional mutagenesis of the E. festucae adenylate cyclase gene (acyA)...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754878/a-model-of-differential-growth-guided-apical-hook-formation-in-plants
#12
Petra Žádníková, Krzysztof Wabnik, Anas Abuzeineh, Marçal Gallemi, Dominique Van Der Straeten, Richard S Smith, Dirk Inzé, Jiří Friml, Przemysław Prusinkiewicz, Eva Benková
Differential cell growth enables flexible organ bending in the presence of environmental signals such as light or gravity. A prominent example of the developmental processes based on differential cell growth is the formation of the apical hook that protects the fragile shoot apical meristem when it breaks through the soil during germination. Here, we combined in silico and in vivo approaches to identify a minimal mechanism producing auxin gradient-guided differential growth during the establishment of the apical hook in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana Computer simulation models based on experimental data demonstrate that asymmetric expression of the PIN-FORMED auxin efflux carrier at the concave (inner) versus convex (outer) side of the hook suffices to establish an auxin maximum in the epidermis at the concave side of the apical hook...
October 2016: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27743891/altered-meristem-program1-has-conflicting-effects-on-the-tolerance-to-heat-shock-and-symptom-development-after-pseudomonas-syringae-infection
#13
Min Woo Lee, Rira Seo, Yu Jeong Lee, Ju Hye Bae, Jung-Kwon Park, Joung-Hahn Yoon, Jei Wan Lee, Ho Won Jung
An Arabidopsis thaliana ALTERED MERISTEM PROGRAM1 (AtAMP1), which encodes a putative glutamate carboxypeptidase, not only controls shoot apical meristem development, but also is involved in tolerance response to abiotic stresses. Here, we introduce a novel mutant; named amp1-32 that is a phenocopier to previously isolated different amp1 mutant alleles. Interestingly, tiny leaves were continuously developed at the bottom of pre-emerged leaves in the amp1-32. The amp1-32 mutant was less sensitive to heat shock treatment lasting for 3 h, whereas disease symptoms were severely developed in the mutant after Pseudomonas syringae infection...
October 12, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27743414/choline-transporter-like1-cher1-is-crucial-for-plasmodesmata-maturation-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#14
Max E Kraner, Katrin Link, Michael Melzer, Arif B Ekici, Steffen Uebe, Pablo Tarazona, Ivo Feussner, Jörg Hofmann, Uwe Sonnewald
Plasmodesmata (PD) are microscopic pores connecting plant cells and enable cell-to-cell transport. Currently, little is known about the molecular mechanisms regulating PD formation and development. To uncover components of PD development we made use of the 17 kDa movement protein (MP17) encoded by the Potato leafroll virus (PLRV). The protein is required for cell-to-cell movement of the virus and localises to complex PD. Forward genetic screening for Arabidopsis mutants with altered PD-binding of MP17 revealed several mutant lines, while molecular genetics, biochemical and microscopic studies allowed further characterisation...
October 15, 2016: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729523/germline-replications-and-somatic-mutation-accumulation-are-independent-of-vegetative-life-span-in-arabidopsis
#15
J Matthew Watson, Alexander Platzer, Anita Kazda, Svetlana Akimcheva, Sona Valuchova, Viktoria Nizhynska, Magnus Nordborg, Karel Riha
In plants, gametogenesis occurs late in development, and somatic mutations can therefore be transmitted to the next generation. Longer periods of growth are believed to result in an increase in the number of cell divisions before gametogenesis, with a concomitant increase in mutations arising due to replication errors. However, there is little experimental evidence addressing how many cell divisions occur before gametogenesis. Here, we measured loss of telomeric DNA and accumulation of replication errors in Arabidopsis with short and long life spans to determine the number of replications in lineages leading to gametes...
October 25, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27710768/active-suppression-of-a-leaf-meristem-orchestrates-determinate-leaf-growth
#16
John Paul Alvarez, Chihiro Furumizu, Idan Efroni, Yuval Eshed, John L Bowman
Leaves are flat determinate organs derived from indeterminate shoot apical meristems. The presence of a specific leaf meristem is debated, as anatomical features typical of meristems are not present in leaves. Here we demonstrate that multiple NGATHA (NGA) and CINCINNATA-class-TCP (CIN-TCP) transcription factors act redundantly, shortly after leaf initiation, to gradually restrict the activity of a leaf meristem in Arabidopsis thaliana to marginal and basal domains, and that their absence confers persistent marginal growth to leaves, cotyledons and floral organs...
October 6, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27701112/plant-development-regulated-by-cytokinin-sinks
#17
Evelyne Zürcher, Jingchun Liu, Martin di Donato, Markus Geisler, Bruno Müller
Morphogenetic signals control the patterning of multicellular organisms. Cytokinins are mobile signals that are perceived by subsets of plant cells. We found that the responses to cytokinin signaling during Arabidopsis development are constrained by the transporter PURINE PERMEASE 14 (PUP14). In our experiments, the expression of PUP14 was inversely correlated to the cytokinin signaling readout. Loss of PUP14 function allowed ectopic cytokinin signaling accompanied by aberrant morphogenesis in embryos, roots, and the shoot apical meristem...
September 2, 2016: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27683582/floral-initiation-in-response-to-planting-date-reveals-the-key-role-of-floral-meristem-differentiation-prior-to-budding-in-canola-brassica-napus-l
#18
Yaofeng Zhang, Dongqing Zhang, Huasheng Yu, Baogang Lin, Ying Fu, Shuijin Hua
In Brassica napus, floral development is a decisive factor in silique formation, and it is influenced by many cultivation practices including planting date. However, the effect of planting date on floral initiation in canola is poorly understood at present. A field experiment was conducted using a split plot design, in which three planting dates (early, 15 September, middle, 1 October, and late, 15 October) served as main plot and five varieties differing in maturity (1358, J22, Zhongshuang 11, Zheshuang 8, and Zheyou 50) employed as subplot...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27671653/threshold-dependent-transcriptional-discrimination-underlies-stem-cell-homeostasis
#19
Mariano Perales, Kevin Rodriguez, Stephen Snipes, Ram Kishor Yadav, Mercedes Diaz-Mendoza, G Venugopala Reddy
Transcriptional mechanisms that underlie the dose-dependent regulation of gene expression in animal development have been studied extensively. However, the mechanisms of dose-dependent transcriptional regulation in plant development have not been understood. In Arabidopsis shoot apical meristems, WUSCHEL (WUS), a stem cell-promoting transcription factor, accumulates at a higher level in the rib meristem and at a lower level in the central zone where it activates its own negative regulator, CLAVATA3 (CLV3). How WUS regulates CLV3 levels has not been understood...
October 11, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27666746/control-of-oriented-tissue-growth-through-repression-of-organ-boundary-genes-promotes-stem-morphogenesis
#20
Stefano Bencivenga, Antonio Serrano-Mislata, Max Bush, Samantha Fox, Robert Sablowski
The origin of the stem is a major but poorly understood aspect of plant development, partly because the stem initiates in a relatively inaccessible region of the shoot apical meristem called the rib zone (RZ). We developed quantitative 3D image analysis and clonal analysis tools, which revealed that the Arabidopsis homeodomain protein REPLUMLESS (RPL) establishes distinct patterns of oriented cell division and growth in the central and peripheral regions of the RZ. A genome-wide screen for target genes connected RPL directly to many of the key shoot development pathways, including the development of organ boundaries; accordingly, mutation of the organ boundary gene LIGHT-SENSITIVE HYPOCOTYL 4 restored RZ function and stem growth in the rpl mutant...
September 14, 2016: Developmental Cell
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