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shoot apical meristem

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440592/eligulum-a-regulates-lateral-branch-and-leaf-development-in-barley
#1
Ron J Okagaki, Allison Haaning, Hatice Bilgic, Shane Heinen, Arnis Druka, Micha Bayer, Robbie Waugh, Gary J Muehlbauer
The shoot apical and axillary meristems control shoot development, effectively influencing lateral branch and leaf formation. The barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) uniculm2 (cul2) mutation blocks axillary meristem development and mutant plants lack lateral branches (tillers) that normally develop from the crown. A genetic screen for cul2 suppressors recovered two recessive alleles of ELIGULUM-A (ELI-A) that partially rescued the cul2 tillering phenotype. Mutations in ELI-A produce shorter plants with fewer tillers and disrupt the leaf blade-sheath boundary, producing liguleless leaves and reduced secondary cell wall development in stems and leaves...
February 12, 2018: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422669/genetic-control-of-meristem-arrest-and-life-span-in-arabidopsis-by-a-fruitfull-apetala2-pathway
#2
Vicente Balanzà, Irene Martínez-Fernández, Shusei Sato, Martin F Yanofsky, Kerstin Kaufmann, Gerco C Angenent, Marian Bemer, Cristina Ferrándiz
Monocarpic plants have a single reproductive cycle in their lives, where life span is determined by the coordinated arrest of all meristems, or global proliferative arrest (GPA). The molecular bases for GPA and the signaling mechanisms involved are poorly understood, other than systemic cues from developing seeds of unknown nature. Here we uncover a genetic pathway regulating GPA in Arabidopsis that responds to age-dependent factors and acts in parallel to seed-derived signals. We show that FRUITFULL (FUL), a MADS-box gene involved in flowering and fruit development, has a key role in promoting meristem arrest, as GPA is delayed and fruit production is increased in ful mutants...
February 8, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415713/a-phosphoinositide-map-at-the-shoot-apical-meristem-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#3
Thomas Stanislas, Matthieu Pierre Platre, Mengying Liu, Léa E S Rambaud-Lavigne, Yvon Jaillais, Olivier Hamant
BACKGROUND: In plants, the shoot apical meristem (SAM) has two main functions, involving the production of all aerial organs on the one hand and self-maintenance on the other, allowing the production of organs during the entire post-embryonic life of the plant. Transcription factors, microRNA, hormones, peptides and forces have been involved in meristem function. Whereas phosphatidylinositol phosphates (PIPs) have been involved in almost all biological functions, including stem cell maintenance and organogenesis in animals, the processes in meristem biology to which PIPs contribute still need to be delineated...
February 7, 2018: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405646/auxin-polar-transport-flanking-incipient-primordium-initiates-leaf-adaxial-abaxial-polarity-patterning
#4
REVIEW
Jiaqiang Dong, Hai Huang
The leaves of higher plants are polar along their adaxial-abaxial axis, and the development of the adaxial domain (upper side) and the abaxial domain (lower side) makes the leaf a highly efficient photosynthetic organ. It has been proposed that a hypothetical signal transported from the shoot apical meristem (SAM) to the incipient leaf primordium, or conversely, the plant hormone auxin transported from the leaf primordium to the SAM, initiates leaf adaxial-abaxial patterning. This hypothetical signal has been referred to as the Sussex signal, because the research of Ian Sussex published in 1951 was the first to imply its existence...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Integrative Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29401419/feedback-from-lateral-organs-controls-shoot-apical-meristem-growth-by-modulating-auxin-transport
#5
Bihai Shi, Xiaolu Guo, Ying Wang, Yuanyuan Xiong, Jin Wang, Ken-Ichiro Hayashi, Jinzhi Lei, Lei Zhang, Yuling Jiao
Stem cells must balance self-renewal and differentiation; thus, their activities are precisely controlled. In plants, the control circuits that underlie division and differentiation within meristems have been well studied, but those that underlie feedback on meristems from lateral organs remain largely unknown. Here we show that long-distance auxin transport mediates this feedback in a non-cell-autonomous manner. A low-auxin zone is associated with the shoot apical meristem (SAM) organization center, and auxin levels negatively affect SAM size...
January 22, 2018: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29373702/tissue-specific-changes-in-apoplastic-proteins-and-cell-wall-structure-during-cold-acclimation-of-winter-wheat-crowns
#6
Ian R Willick, Daisuke Takahashi, D Brian Fowler, Matsuo Uemura, Karen K Tanino
The wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) crown is the critical organ of low temperature stress survival over winter. In cold-acclimated crowns, ice formation in the apoplast causes severe tissue disruption as it grows at the expense of intracellular water. While previous crown studies have shown the vascular transition zone (VTZ) to have a higher freezing sensitivity than the shoot apical meristem (SAM), the mechanism behind the differential freezing response is not fully understood. Cooling cold-acclimated crowns to -10 °C resulted in an absence of VTZ tetrazolium chloride staining, whereas the temperatures at which 50% of the SAM stained positive and 50% of plants recovered (LT50) were similar after cold acclimation for 21 (-16 °C) and 42 d (-20 °C) at 4 °C...
January 24, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29363596/nitrate-modulates-stem-cell-dynamics-in-arabidopsis-shoot-meristems-through-cytokinins
#7
Benoit Landrein, Pau Formosa-Jordan, Alice Malivert, Christoph Schuster, Charles W Melnyk, Weibing Yang, Colin Turnbull, Elliot M Meyerowitz, James C W Locke, Henrik Jönsson
The shoot apical meristem (SAM) is responsible for the generation of all the aerial parts of plants. Given its critical role, dynamical changes in SAM activity should play a central role in the adaptation of plant architecture to the environment. Using quantitative microscopy, grafting experiments, and genetic perturbations, we connect the plant environment to the SAM by describing the molecular mechanism by which cytokinins signal the level of nutrient availability to the SAM. We show that a systemic signal of cytokinin precursors mediates the adaptation of SAM size and organogenesis rate to the availability of mineral nutrients by modulating the expression of WUSCHEL, a key regulator of stem cell homeostasis...
January 23, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29357024/plant-regeneration-via-direct-somatic-embryogenesis-from-leaf-explants-of-tolumnia-louise-elmore-elsa
#8
Hui-Ju Shen, Jen-Tsung Chen, Hsiao-Hang Chung, Wei-Chin Chang
BACKGROUND: Tolumnia genus (equitant Oncidium) is a group of small orchids with vivid flower color. Thousands of hybrids have been registered on Royal Horticulture Society and showed great potential for ornamental plant market. The aim of this study is to establish an efficient method for in vitro propagation. RESULTS: Leaf explants taken from in vitro-grown plants were used to induce direct somatic embryogenesis on a modified 1/2 MS medium supplemented with five kinds of cytokinins, 2iP, BA, kinetin, TDZ and zeatin at 0...
January 22, 2018: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356153/mun-meristem-unstructured-encoding-a-spc24-homolog-of-ndc80-kinetochore-complex-affects-development-through-cell-division-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#9
Jinwoo Shin, Goowon Jeong, Jong-Yoon Park, Hoyeun Kim, Ilha Lee
Kinetochore, a protein super-complex on the centromere of chromosomes, mediates chromosome segregation during cell division by providing attachment sites for spindle microtubules. The NDC80 complex, composed of four proteins, NDC80, NUF2, SPC24, and SPC25, is localized at the outer kinetochore and connects spindle fibers to the kinetochore. Although it is conserved across species, functional studies of this complex are rare in Arabidopsis. Here, we characterize a recessive mutant, meristem unstructured-1 (mun-1), exhibiting an abnormal phenotype with unstructured shoot apical meristem caused by ectopic expression of the WUSCHEL gene in unexpected tissues...
January 21, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284399/profiling-the-onset-of-somatic-embryogenesis-in-arabidopsis
#10
E Magnani, J M Jiménez-Gómez, L Soubigou-Taconnat, L Lepiniec, E Fiume
BACKGROUND: Totipotency is the ability of a cell to regenerate a whole organism. Plant somatic embryogenesis (SE) is a remarkable example of totipotency because somatic cells reverse differentiation, respond to an appropriate stimulus and initiate embryo development. Although SE is an ideal system to investigate de-differentiation and differentiation, we still lack a deep molecular understanding of the phenomenon due to experimental restraints. RESULTS: We applied the INTACT method to specifically isolate the nuclei of those cells undergoing SE among the majority of non-embryogenic cells that make up a callus...
December 29, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283991/arabidopsis-choline-transporter-like-1-ctl1-regulates-secretory-trafficking-of-auxin-transporters-to-control-seedling-growth
#11
Yuan Wang, Lei Yang, Yumei Tang, Renjie Tang, Yanping Jing, Chi Zhang, Bin Zhang, Xiaojuan Li, Yaning Cui, Chunhua Zhang, Jisen Shi, Fugeng Zhao, Wenzhi Lan, Sheng Luan
Auxin controls a myriad of plant developmental processes and plant response to environmental conditions. Precise trafficking of auxin transporters is essential for auxin homeostasis in plants. Here, we report characterization of Arabidopsis CTL1, which controls seedling growth and apical hook development by regulating intracellular trafficking of PIN-type auxin transporters. The CTL1 gene encodes a choline transporter-like protein with an expression pattern highly correlated with auxin distribution and is enriched in shoot and root apical meristems, lateral root primordia, the vascular system, and the concave side of the apical hook...
December 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274285/cslfy-is-required-for-shoot-meristem-maintenance-via-interaction-with-wuschel-in-cucumber-cucumis-sativus
#12
Wensheng Zhao, Zijing Chen, Xiaofeng Liu, Gen Che, Ran Gu, Jianyu Zhao, Zhongyi Wang, Yu Hou, Xiaolan Zhang
Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) is an agronomically important vegetable with indeterminant growth habit, in which leaves are produced from the shoot apical meristem (SAM), and unisexual flowers are generated from the leaf axils. LEAFY (LFY) and its homologs have been shown to play important roles in promoting flower development and branching. The LFY homolog gene CsLFY was cloned in cucumber. Molecular biology, developmental biology and biochemical tools were combined to explore the biological function of the LFY homologous gene CsLFY in cucumber...
December 23, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241559/mir393-inhibits-in-vitro-shoot-regeneration-in-arabidopsis-thaliana-via-repressing-tir1
#13
Long Wang, Zhenhua Liu, Meng Qiao, Fengning Xiang
A large number of genes are involved in the control of shoot regeneration from in vitro cultured plant material. The abundance of the miR393 was different between regenerable and non-regenerable calli induced from Arabidopsis thaliana explants. The regenerability of root explants derived from p35S:miR393a (the miR393a over-expressing line) was shown here to be poorer than that of the wild type (WT). Also, explants derived from plants engineered to constitutively express MIM393 (a mutated form of miR393) had an enhanced level of shoot regeneration...
January 2018: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238397/a-method-to-generate-the-surface-cell-layer-of-the-3d-virtual-shoot-apex-from-apical-initials
#14
Krzysztof Kucypera, Marcin Lipowczan, Anna Piekarska-Stachowiak, Jerzy Nakielski
Background: The development of cell pattern in the surface cell layer of the shoot apex can be investigated in vivo by use of a time-lapse confocal images, showing naked meristem in 3D in successive times. However, how this layer is originated from apical initials and develops as a result of growth and divisions of their descendants, remains unknown. This is an open area for computer modelling. A method to generate the surface cell layer is presented on the example of the 3D paraboloidal shoot apical dome...
2017: Plant Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227650/molecular-evidence-for-catechin-synthesis-and-accumulation-in-tea-buds-camellia-sinensis
#15
Xinzhen Wang, Lina Guo, Liping Gao, Xingxing Shi, Xuecheng Zhao, Xiubing Ma, Tao Xia, Yunsheng Wang
Early spring buds of the Camellia sinensis variety Shuchazao were separated into two parts, including the shoot tip (ST) and non-expanded young leaves (YL). Then, the synthesis and accumulation of catechins in the two parts were assessed by HPLC, DMACA staining, qRT-PCR and in situ hybridization. HPLC showed that EGCG and ECG amounts in YL were increased significantly by 74.0% and 71.8%, respectively. The results of DMACA staining indicated that catechins in buds accumulated mainly in mesophyll cells and bud shaft of YL...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217754/erecta-family-genes-coordinate-stem-cell-functions-between-the-epidermal-and-internal-layers-of-the-shoot-apical-meristem
#16
Yuka Kimura, Masao Tasaka, Keiko U Torii, Naoyuki Uchida
The epidermal cell layer and the tissues that lie underneath have different intrinsic functions during plant development. The stem cells within the shoot apical meristem (SAM) that give rise to aerial structures are located in the epidermal and internal tissue layers. However, our understanding of how the functions of these stem cells are coordinated across tissue layers so stem cells can behave as a single population remains limited. WUSCHEL (WUS) functions as a master regulator of stem cell activity. Here we show that loss of function in the ERECTA (ER)-family receptor kinase genes can rescue the mutant phenotype of wus plants (loss of stem cells), as demonstrated by the reinstated expression of a stem cell marker gene in the SAM epidermis...
December 7, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211860/changes-in-the-epigenome-and-transcriptome-of-the-poplar-shoot-apical-meristem-in-response-to-water-availability-affect-preferentially-hormone-pathways
#17
Clément Lafon-Placette, Anne-Laure Le Gac, Didier Chauveau, Vincent Segura, Alain Delaunay, Marie-Claude Lesage-Descauses, Irène Hummel, David Cohen, Béline Jesson, Didier Le Thiec, Marie-Béatrice Bogeat-Triboulot, Franck Brignolas, Stéphane Maury
The adaptive capacity of long-lived organisms such as trees to the predicted climate changes, including severe and successive drought episodes, will depend on the presence of genetic diversity and phenotypic plasticity. Here, the involvement of epigenetic mechanisms in phenotypic plasticity toward soil water availability was examined in Populus×euramericana. This work aimed at characterizing (i) the transcriptome plasticity, (ii) the genome-wide plasticity of DNA methylation, and (iii) the function of genes affected by a drought-rewatering cycle in the shoot apical meristem...
December 2, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205298/growing-competitive-or-tolerant-significance-of-apical-dominance-in-the-overcompensating-herb-gentianella-campestris
#18
Tommy Lennartsson, Satu Ramula, Juha Tuomi
As a compensatory response to herbivory, plants may branch vigorously when the growth of dormant meristems is triggered by shoot damage. Undamaged plants, on the other hand, often restrain branching, and this limitation on growth can be considered a cost of tolerance to herbivory. Restrained branching is caused by apical dominance and may, alternatively, be associated with fitness benefits in competitive environments that favor fast vertical growth. To test these hypotheses regarding selection for restrained branching, we compared the performance of two subspecies of the biennial grassland herb Gentianella campestris; the tall, apically dominant ssp...
December 2, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194659/a-stress-associated-protein-atsap13-from-arabidopsis-thaliana-provides-tolerance-to-multiple-abiotic-stresses
#19
Anirudha Dixit, Parul Tomar, Evan Vaine, Hesham Abdullah, Samuel Hazen, Om Parkash Dhankher
Members of Stress Associated Protein (SAP) family in plants have been shown to impart tolerance to multiple abiotic stresses, however, their mode of action in providing tolerance to multiple abiotic stresses is largely unknown. There are 14 SAP genes in Arabidopsis thaliana containing A20, AN1, and Cys2-His2 zinc finger domains. AtSAP13, a member of the SAP family, carries two AN1 zinc finger domains and an additional Cys2-His2 domain. AtSAP13 transcripts showed upregulation in response to Cd, ABA and salt stresses...
November 30, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186512/doft-and-doftip1-affect-reproductive-development-in-the-orchid-dendrobium-chao-praya-smile
#20
Yanwen Wang, Lu Liu, Shiyong Song, Yan Li, Lisha Shen, Hao Yu
FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) in Arabidopsis encodes the florigen that moves from leaves to the shoot apical meristem to induce flowering, and this is partly mediated by FT-INTERACTING PROTEIN 1 (FTIP1). Although FT orthologs have been identified in some flowering plants, their endogenous roles in Orchidaceae, which is one of the largest families of flowering plants, are still largely unknown. In this study, we show that DOFT and DOFTIP1, the orchid orthologs of FT and FTIP1, respectively, play important roles in promoting flowering in the orchid Dendrobium Chao Praya Smile...
November 24, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
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