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shoot apical meristem

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816596/expression-profiling-of-development-related-genes-in-rice-plants-ectopically-expressing-attor
#1
Achala Bakshi, Mazahar Moin, Raju Datla, P B Kirti
Expression analysis of genes associated with development at different growth stages such as shoot apical meristem (SAM), root apical meristem (RAM), shoot and root tissues 10 DAG, flowers and grains of two high expression transgenic lines of rice ectopically expressing AtTOR revealed the involvement of AtTOR in transcriptional regulation of these genes. We have observed that in the SAM of these two selected lines, TR-2.24 and TR-15.1, OsFON1 and OsFON4 (orthologs of AtCLV1 and AtCLV3, respectively), OsKNOX2, OsKNOX3 and OsWOX3 became up-regulated...
August 17, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747699/osfh15-a-class-i-formin-interacts-with-microfilaments-and-microtubules-to-regulate-grain-size-via-affecting-cell-expansion-in-rice
#2
Tiantian Sun, Shanwei Li, Haiyun Ren
Grain size is an important agronomic trait determining rice yield and is mainly restricted by spikelet hull size. However, it remains largely unknown how the spikelet hull size is regulated. In this study, OsFH15, a class I formin protein in Oryza sativa, was found to be able to regulate the size of cells and spikelet hull. OsFH15-Cas9 and OsFH15-RNAi mutants had decreased grain size with reduced cell length, cell width and cell area of inner epidermal cells of the lemma compared with wild-type plants. By contrast, OsFH15-overexpressed plants had increased grain size with larger cells, as well as more abundant microtubules (MTs) and actin filaments (AFs) arrays...
July 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727810/cucumber-mosaic-virus-coat-protein-modulates-the-accumulation-of-2b-protein-and-antiviral-silencing-that-causes-symptom-recovery-in-planta
#3
Xiao-Peng Zhang, De-Shui Liu, Teng Yan, Xiao-Dong Fang, Kai Dong, Jin Xu, Ying Wang, Jia-Lin Yu, Xian-Bing Wang
Shoot apical meristems (SAM) are resistant to most plant viruses due to RNA silencing, which is restrained by viral suppressors of RNA silencing (VSRs) to facilitate transient viral invasion of the SAM. In many cases chronic symptoms and long-term virus recovery occur, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we found that wild-type Cucumber mosaic virus (CMVWT) invaded the SAM transiently, but was subsequently eliminated from the meristems. Unexpectedly, a CMV mutant, designated CMVRA that harbors an alanine substitution in the N-terminal arginine-rich region of the coat protein (CP) persistently invaded the SAM and resulted in visible reductions in apical dominance...
July 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726732/characterization-of-the-dioscorin-gene-family-in-dioscorea-alata-reveals-a-role-in-tuber-development-and-environmental-response
#4
Linya Liu, Yacheng Huang, Xiaolong Huang, Jianghua Yang, Wenqiang Wu, Yun Xu, Ziwen Cong, Jun Xie, Wei Xia, Dongyi Huang
Dioscorin is one of the major soluble proteins in yam tubers. Unlike other well-known plant storage proteins, such as patatin and sporamin, dioscorin is argued for its function as storage proteins, and the molecular mechanisms underlying its expressional complexity are little understood. In this study, we isolated five dioscorin genes from Dioscorea alata L., comprising three class A (Da-dio1, -3 and -4) and two class B (Da-dio2 and -5) isoforms. Expressions of all dioscorin genes gradually decreased in mother tubers during yam sprouting and regrowth...
July 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708264/redox-regulation-at-the-site-of-primary-growth-auxin-cytokinin-and-ros-crosstalk
#5
REVIEW
Vanesa B Tognetti, Agnieszka Bielach, Mónika Hrtyan
To maintain the activity of meristems is an absolute requirement for plant growth and development, and the role of the plant hormones auxin and cytokinin in apical meristem function is well established. Only little attention has been given, however, to the function of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) gradient along meristematic tissues and its interplay with hormonal regulatory networks. The interdependency between auxin-, cytokinin-, and ROS-related circuits controls primary growth and development while modulating plant morphology in response to detrimental environmental factors...
July 14, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686626/big-leaf-is-a-regulator-of-organ-size-and-adventitious-root-formation-in-poplar
#6
Yordan S Yordanov, Cathleen Ma, Elena Yordanova, Richard Meilan, Steven H Strauss, Victor B Busov
Here we report the discovery through activation tagging and subsequent characterization of the BIG LEAF (BL) gene from poplar. In poplar, BL regulates leaf size via positively affecting cell proliferation. Up and downregulation of the gene led to increased and decreased leaf size, respectively, and these phenotypes corresponded to increased and decreased cell numbers. BL function encompasses the early stages of leaf development as native BL expression was specific to the shoot apical meristem and leaf primordia and was absent from the later stages of leaf development and other organs...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681564/arr12-promotes-de-novo-shoot-regeneration-in-arabidopsis-thaliana-via-activation-of-wuschel-expression
#7
Xuehuan Dai, Zhenhua Liu, Meng Qiao, Juan Li, Shuo Li, Fengning Xiang
Auxin and cytokinin direct cell proliferation and differentiation during the in vitro culture of plant cells, but the molecular basis of these processes, especially de novo shoot regeneration, has not been fully elucidated. Here, we describe the regulatory control of shoot regeneration in Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh, based on the interaction of ARABIDOPSIS RESPONSE REGULATOR12 (ARR12) and WUSCHEL (WUS). The major site of ARR12 expression coincided with the location where the shoot apical meristem (SAM) initiated...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Integrative Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655778/six-rowed-spike3-vrs3-is-a-histone-demethylase-that-controls-lateral-spikelet-development-in-barley
#8
G Wilma van Esse, Agatha Walla, Andreas Finke, Maarten Koornneef, Ales Pecinka, Maria von Korff
The complex nature of crop genomes has long prohibited the efficient isolation of agronomically relevant genes. However, recent advances in next-generation sequencing technologies provide new ways to accelerate fine-mapping and gene isolation in crops. We used RNA sequencing of allelic six-rowed spike3 (vrs3) mutants with altered spikelet development for gene identification and functional analysis in barley (Hordeum vulgare). Variant calling in two allelic vrs3 mutants revealed that VRS3 encodes a putative histone Lys demethylase with a conserved zinc finger and Jumonji C and N domain...
August 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650217/a-new-outlook-on-sporadic-flowering-of-bamboo
#9
Rico Gamuyao, Keisuke Nagai, Motoyuki Ashikari, Stefan Reuscher
Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis) is a temperate grass species with a tree-like habitus and an unusual reproduction strategy. While flowering is irregular and infrequent, new clonal bamboo shoots are established from an underground rhizome network during the spring season. In our previous study, we performed transcriptome analyses using bamboo shoot buds to understand the initiation of bamboo stem elongation. Interestingly, the expression profile in the shoot apical meristem (SAM) region of young bamboo shoots is similar to that of other plants...
June 26, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600722/genetic-dissection-of-plant-growth-habit-in-chickpea
#10
Hari D Upadhyaya, Deepak Bajaj, Rishi Srivastava, Anurag Daware, Udita Basu, Shailesh Tripathi, Chellapilla Bharadwaj, Akhilesh K Tyagi, Swarup K Parida
A combinatorial genomics-assisted breeding strategy encompassing association analysis, genetic mapping and expression profiling is found most promising for quantitative dissection of complex traits in crop plants. The present study employed GWAS (genome-wide association study) using 24,405 SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms) obtained with genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) of 92 sequenced desi and kabuli accessions of chickpea. This identified eight significant genomic loci associated with erect (E)/semi-erect (SE) vs...
June 9, 2017: Functional & Integrative Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594957/distinctive-features-and-differential-regulation-of-the-drts-genes-of-arabidopsis-thaliana
#11
Antonio Maniga, Stefania Ghisaura, Lara Perrotta, Maria Giovanna Marche, Rino Cella, Diego Albani
In plants and protists, dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) and thymidylate synthase (TS) are part of a bifunctional enzyme (DRTS) that allows efficient recycling of the dihydrofolate resulting from TS activity. Arabidopsis thaliana possesses three DRTS genes, called AtDRTS1, AtDRTS2 and AtDRTS3, that are located downstream of three members of the sec14-like SFH gene family. In this study, a characterization of the AtDRTS genes identified alternatively spliced transcripts coding for AtDRTS isoforms which may account for monofunctional DHFR enzymes supporting pathways unrelated to DNA synthesis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588590/a-conserved-carbon-starvation-response-underlies-bud-dormancy-in-woody-and-herbaceous-species
#12
Carlos Tarancón, Eduardo González-Grandío, Juan C Oliveros, Michael Nicolas, Pilar Cubas
Plant shoot systems give rise to characteristic above-ground plant architectures. Shoots are formed from axillary meristems and buds, whose growth and development is modulated by systemic and local signals. These cues convey information about nutrient and water availability, light quality, sink/source organ activity and other variables that determine the timeliness and competence to maintain development of new shoots. This information is translated into a local response, in meristems and buds, of growth or quiescence...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579995/live-imaging-of-shoot-meristems-on-an-inverted-confocal-microscope-using-an-objective-lens-inverter-attachment
#13
Zachary L Nimchuk, Tony D Perdue
Live imaging of above ground meristems can lead to new insights in plant development not possible from static imaging of fixed tissue. The use of an upright confocal microscope offers several technical and biological advantages for live imaging floral or shoot meristems. However, many departments and core facilities possess only inverted confocal microscopes and lack the funding for an additional upright confocal microscope. Here we show that imaging of living apical meristems can be performed on existing inverted confocal microscopes with the use of an affordable and detachable InverterScope accessory...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576846/type-b-arabidopsis-response-regulators-specify-the-shoot-stem-cell-niche-by-dual-regulation-of-wuschel
#14
Wen Jing Meng, Zhi Juan Cheng, Ya Lin Sang, Miao Miao Zhang, Xiao Fei Rong, Zhi Wei Wang, Ying Ying Tang, Xian Sheng Zhang
Plants are known for their capacity to regenerate the whole body through de novo formation of apical meristems from a mass of proliferating cells named callus. Exogenous cytokinin and auxin determine cell fate for the establishment of the stem cell niche, which is the vital step of shoot regeneration, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we show that type-B ARABIDOPSIS RESPONSE REGULATORs (ARRs), critical components of cytokinin signaling, activate the transcription of WUSCHEL (WUS), which encodes a key regulator for maintaining stem cells...
June 2017: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574629/reduction-of-iaa-methyltransferase-activity-compensates-for-high-temperature-male-sterility-in-arabidopsis
#15
Mohamad Abbas, Jorge Hernández-García, Noel Blanco-Touriñán, Norma Aliaga, Eugenio G Minguet, David Alabadí, Miguel A Blázquez
High temperature is a general stress factor that causes a decrease in crop yield. It has been shown that auxin application reduces the male sterility caused by exposure to higher temperatures. However, widespread application of a hormone with vast effects on plant physiology may be discouraged in many cases. Therfore, the generation of new plant varieties that locally enhance auxin in reproductive organs may represent an alternative strategy. We have explored the possibility of increasing indoleacetic acid (IAA) in ovaries by reducing IAA METHYLTRANSFERASE1 (IAMT1) activity in Arabidopsis thaliana...
June 2, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551700/macroautophagy-occurs-in-distal-tmv-uninfected-root-tip-tissue-of-tomato-taking-place-systemic-pcd
#16
Shumin Zhou, Qiang Hong, Yang Li, Qi Li, Ruisha Li, Hongli Zhang, Mao Wang, Xiaojun Yuan
Autophagy is an important mechanism for recycling cell materials upon encountering stress conditions. Our previous studies had shown that TMV infection could lead to systemic PCD in the distal uninfected tissues, including root tip and shoot tip tissues. But it is not clear whether there is autophagy in the distal apical meristem of TMV-induced plants. To better understand the autophagy process during systemic PCD, here we investigated the formation and type of autophagy in the root meristem cells occurring PCD...
May 27, 2017: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526723/anisotomous-dichotomy-results-from-an-unequal-bifurcation-of-the-original-shoot-apical-meristem-in-diphasiastrum-digitatum-lycopodiaceae
#17
Xiaofeng Yin, Roger D Meicenheimer
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Two types of dichotomy are recognized in Lycopodiaceae: isotomous (equal) and anisotomous (unequal). Anisotomous dichotomy (anisotomy) has been hypothesized to result from unequal growth of an equal bifurcation of the original shoot apical meristem (SAM). Diphasiastrum digitatum (Lycopodiaceae) exhibits anisotomy at various locations. We thus used D. digitatum to test this classic hypothesis about anisotomy. METHODS: Transverse areas of original and derived SAMs of anisotomy exhibited by the rhizome and the vertical aerial vegetative stem were measured using scanning electron microscopy...
May 19, 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513600/temporal-dynamics-of-gene-expression-and-histone-marks-at-the-arabidopsis-shoot-meristem-during-flowering
#18
Yuan You, Aneta Sawikowska, Manuela Neumann, David Posé, Giovanna Capovilla, Tobias Langenecker, Richard A Neher, Paweł Krajewski, Markus Schmid
Plants can produce organs throughout their entire life from pluripotent stem cells located at their growing tip, the shoot apical meristem (SAM). At the time of flowering, the SAM of Arabidopsis thaliana switches fate and starts producing flowers instead of leaves. Correct timing of flowering in part determines reproductive success, and is therefore under environmental and endogenous control. How epigenetic regulation contributes to the floral transition has eluded analysis so far, mostly because of the poor accessibility of the SAM...
May 17, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499069/the-association-of-hormone-signaling-genes-transcription-and-changes-in-shoot-anatomy-during-moso-bamboo-growth
#19
Long Li, Zhanchao Cheng, Yanjun Ma, Qingsong Bai, Xiangyu Li, Zhihua Cao, Zhongneng Wu, Jian Gao
Moso bamboo is a large, woody bamboo with the highest ecological, economic, and cultural value of all the bamboo types and accounts for up to 70% of the total area of bamboo grown. However, the spatio-temporal variation role of moso bamboo shoot during growth period is still unclear. We found that the bamboo shoot growth can be divided into three distinct periods, including winter growth, early growth, and late growth based on gene expression and anatomy. In the early growth period, lateral buds germinated from the top of the bamboo joint in the shoot tip...
May 12, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475733/quatre-quart1-is-an-indispensable-u12-intron-containing-gene-that-plays-a-crucial-role-in-arabidopsis-development
#20
Kyung Jin Kwak, Bo Mi Kim, Kwanuk Lee, Hunseung Kang
Despite increasing understanding of the importance of the splicing of U12-type introns in plant development, the key question of which U12 intron-containing genes are essential for plant development has not yet been explored. Here, we assessed the functional role of the quatre-quart1 (QQT1) gene, one of the ~230 U12 intron-containing genes in Arabidopsis thaliana. Expression of QQT1 in the U11/U12-31K small nuclear ribonucleoprotein mutant (31k) rescued the developmental-defect phenotypes of the 31k mutant, whereas the miRNA-mediated qqt1 knockdown mutants displayed severe defects in growth and development, including severely arrested stem growth, small size, and the formation of serrated leaves...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
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