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shoot apical meristem

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424721/mirna-and-degradome-sequencing-reveal-mirna-and-their-target-genes-that-may-mediate-shoot-growth-in-spur-type-mutant-yanfu-6
#1
Chunhui Song, Dong Zhang, Liwei Zheng, Jie Zhang, Baojuan Zhang, Wenwen Luo, Youmei Li, Guangfang Li, Juanjuan Ma, Mingyu Han
The spur-type growth habit in apple trees is characterized by short internodes, increased number of fruiting spurs, and compact growth that promotes flowering and facilitates management practices, such as pruning. The molecular mechanisms responsible for regulating spur-type growth have not been elucidated. In the present study, miRNAs and the expression of their potential target genes were evaluated in shoot tips of "Nagafu 2" (CF) and spur-type bud mutation "Yanfu 6" (YF). A total of 700 mature miRNAs were identified, including 202 known apple miRNAs and 498 potential novel miRNA candidates...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424704/draco-stem-an-automatic-tool-to-generate-high-quality-3d-meshes-of-shoot-apical-meristem-tissue-at-cell-resolution
#2
Guillaume Cerutti, Olivier Ali, Christophe Godin
Context: The shoot apical meristem (SAM), origin of all aerial organs of the plant, is a restricted niche of stem cells whose growth is regulated by a complex network of genetic, hormonal and mechanical interactions. Studying the development of this area at cell level using 3D microscopy time-lapse imaging is a newly emerging key to understand the processes controlling plant morphogenesis. Computational models have been proposed to simulate those mechanisms, however their validation on real-life data is an essential step that requires an adequate representation of the growing tissue to be carried out...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408541/night-break-experiments-shed-light-on-the-photoperiod-1-mediated-flowering
#3
Stephen Pearce, Lindsay M Shaw, Huiqiong Lin, Jennifer D Cotter, Chengxia Li, Jorge Dubcovsky
Plants utilize variation in day length (photoperiod) to anticipate seasonal changes. They respond by modulating their growth and development to maximize seed production, which in cereal crops is directly related to yield. In wheat, the acceleration of flowering under long days (LD) is dependent on the light induction of PHOTOPERIOD1 (PPD1) by phytochromes. Under LD, PPD1 activates FLOWERING LOCUS T1 (FT1), a mobile signaling protein that travels from the leaves to the shoot apical meristem to promote flowering...
April 13, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389586/coordination-of-meristem-doming-and-the-floral-transition-by-late-termination-a-kelch-repeat-protein
#4
Lior Tal, Gilgi Friedlander, Netta Segal Gilboa, Tamar Unger, Shlomit Gilad, Yuval Eshed
Enlargement and doming of the shoot apical meristem (SAM) is a hallmark of the transition from vegetative growth to flowering. While this change is widespread, its role in the flowering process is unknown. The late termination (ltm) tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) mutant shows severely delayed flowering and precocious doming of the vegetative SAM. LTM encodes a kelch domain-containing protein, with no link to known meristem maintenance or flowering time pathways. LTM interacts with the TOPLESS (TPL) corepressor and with several transcription factors that can provide specificity for its functions...
April 7, 2017: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384649/differential-cle-peptide-perception-by-plant-receptors-implicated-from-structural-and-functional-analyses-of-tdif-tdr-interactions
#5
Zhijie Li, Sayan Chakraborty, Guozhou Xu
Tracheary Element Differentiation Inhibitory Factor (TDIF) belongs to the family of post-translationally modified CLE (CLAVATA3/embryo surrounding region (ESR)-related) peptide hormones that control root growth and define the delicate balance between stem cell proliferation and differentiation in SAM (shoot apical meristem) or RAM (root apical meristem). In Arabidopsis, Tracheary Element Differentiation Inhibitory Factor Receptor (TDR) and its ligand TDIF signaling pathway is involved in the regulation of procambial cell proliferation and inhibiting its differentiation into xylem cells...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384293/different-reprogramming-propensities-in-plants-and-mammals-are-small-variations-in-the-core-network-wirings-responsible
#6
Victor Olariu, Julia Nilsson, Henrik Jönsson, Carsten Peterson
Although the plant and animal kingdoms were separated more than 1,6 billion years ago, multicellular development is for both guided by similar transcriptional, epigenetic and posttranscriptional machinery. One may ask to what extent there are similarities and differences in the gene regulation circuits and their dynamics when it comes to important processes like stem cell regulation. The key players in mouse embryonic stem cells governing pluripotency versus differentiation are Oct4, Sox2 and Nanog. Correspondingly, the WUSCHEL and CLAVATA3 genes represent a core in the Shoot Apical Meristem regulation for plants...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379398/arabidopsis-dolichol-kinase-atdok1-is-involved-in-flowering-time-control
#7
Yueh Cho, Chao-Yuan Yu, Yuki Nakamura, Kazue Kanehara
Dolichols are a class of isoprenoids that consist of highly polymerized and unsaturated long-chain isoprenes. They play crucial roles in protein glycosylation including N-glycosylation, because the oligosaccharide is assembled on a lipid carrier, dolichyl diphosphate. Arabidopsis DOLICHOL KINASE 1, AtDOK1 (At3g45040), encodes a functional dolichol kinase that is involved in plant reproductive processes. The expression of AtDOK1 is limited to highly pluripotent cells although protein glycosylation is thought to be required ubiquitously in the entire plant body...
April 3, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371923/genetic-enhancer-analysis-reveals-that-floral-organ-number2-and-osmads3-cooperatively-regulate-maintenance-and-determinacy-of-the-flower-meristem-in-rice
#8
Yukiko Yasui, Wakana Tanaka, Tomoaki Sakamoto, Tetsuya Kurata, Hiro-Yuki Hirano
Meristems such as the shoot apical meristem and flower meristem (FM) act as a reservoir of stem cells, which reproduce themselves and supply daughter cells for the differentiation of lateral organs. In Oryza sativa (rice), FLORAL ORGAN NUMBER2 (FON2) gene, which is similar to Arabidopsis CLAVATA3, is involved in meristem maintenance. In fon2 mutants, the numbers of floral organs are increased due to an enlargement of the FM. To identify new factors regulating meristem maintenance in rice, we performed a genetic screening of mutants that enhanced the fon2 mutation, and found a mutant line (2B-424) in which pistil number was dramatically increased...
March 22, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365757/developmental-programmes-in-the-evolution-of-equisetum-reproductive-morphology-a-hierarchical-modularity-hypothesis
#9
Alexandru M F Tomescu, Ignacio H Escapa, Gar W Rothwell, Andrés Elgorriaga, N Rubén Cúneo
Background: The origin of the Equisetum strobilus has long been debated and the fossil record has played an important role in these discussions. The paradigm underlying these debates has been the perspective of the shoot as node-internode alternation, with sporangiophores attached at nodes. However, fossils historically excluded from these discussions (e.g. Cruciaetheca and Peltotheca ) exhibit reproductive morphologies that suggest attachment of sporangiophores along internodes, challenging traditional views...
March 1, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360003/zno-nanoparticle-effects-on-hormonal-pools-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#10
Radomira Vankova, Premysl Landa, Radka Podlipna, Petre I Dobrev, Sylva Prerostova, Lenka Langhansova, Alena Gaudinova, Katerina Motkova, Vojtech Knirsch, Tomas Vanek
At present, nanoparticles have been more and more used in a wide range of areas. However, very little is known about the mechanisms of their impact on plants, as both positive and negative effects have been reported. As plant interactions with the environment are mediated by plant hormones, complex phytohormone analysis has been performed in order to characterize the effect of ZnO nanoparticles (mean size 30nm, concentration range 0.16-100mgL(-1)) on Arabidopsis thaliana plants. Taking into account that plant hormones exhibit high tissue-specificity as well as an intensive cross-talk in the regulation of growth and development as well as defense, plant responses were followed by determination of the content of five main phytohormones (cytokinins, auxins, abscisic acid, salicylic acid and jasmonic acid) in apices, leaves and roots...
March 27, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348258/flower-development-from-morphodynamics-to-morphomechanics
#11
Ursula Abad, Massimiliano Sassi, Jan Traas
The shoot apical meristem (SAM) is a small population of stem cells that continuously generates organs and tissues. We will discuss here flower formation at the SAM, which involves a complex network of regulatory genes and signalling molecules. A major downstream target of this network is the extracellular matrix or cell wall, which is a local determinant for both growth rates and growth directions. We will discuss here a number of recent studies aimed at analysing the link between cell wall structure and molecular regulation...
May 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334013/correction-centering-the-organizing-center-in-the-arabidopsis-thaliana-shoot-apical-meristem-by-a-combination-of-cytokinin-signaling-and-self-organization
#12
Milad Adibi, Saiko Yoshida, Dolf Weijers, Christian Fleck
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0147830.].
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316604/expression-of-the-knotted-homeobox-genes-in-the-cactaceae-cambial-zone-suggests-their-involvement-in-wood-development
#13
Jorge Reyes-Rivera, Gustavo Rodríguez-Alonso, Emilio Petrone, Alejandra Vasco, Francisco Vergara-Silva, Svetlana Shishkova, Teresa Terrazas
The vascular cambium is a lateral meristem that produces secondary xylem (i.e., wood) and phloem. Different Cactaceae species develop different types of secondary xylem; however, little is known about the mechanisms underlying wood formation in the Cactaceae. The KNOTTED HOMEOBOX (KNOX) gene family encodes transcription factors that regulate plant development. The role of class I KNOX genes in the regulation of the shoot apical meristem, inflorescence architecture, and secondary growth is established in a few model species, while the functions of class II KNOX genes are less well understood, although the Arabidopsis thaliana class II KNOX protein KNAT7 is known to regulate secondary cell wall biosynthesis...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272988/chlorophyllide-a-oxygenase-cao-deficiency-affects-the-levels-of-singlet-oxygen-and-formation-of-plasmodesmata-in-leaves-and-shoot-apical-meristems-of-barley
#14
Valeria A Dmitrieva, Alexandra N Ivanova, Elena V Tyutereva, Anastasiia I Evkaikina, Ekaterina A Klimova, Olga V Voitsekhovskaja
In plants, organogenesis and specification of cell layers and tissues rely on precise symplastic delivery of regulatory molecules via plasmodesmata. Accordingly, abundance and aperture of plasmodesmata at individual cell boundaries should be controlled by the plant. Recently, studies in Arabidopsis established reactive oxygen species as major regulators of plasmodesmata formation and gating. We show that in a barley mutant deficient in the synthesis of chlorophyll b, the numbers of plasmodesmata in leaves and in the shoot apical meristem are significantly higher than in the corresponding wild type, probably due to redox imbalance in the mutant...
March 8, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270611/coordination-of-auxin-triggered-leaf-initiation-by-tomato-leafless
#15
Yossi Capua, Yuval Eshed
Lateral plant organs, particularly leaves, initiate at the flanks of the shoot apical meristem (SAM) following auxin maxima signals; however, little is known about the underlying mechanisms. Here, we show that tomato leafless (lfs) mutants fail to produce cotyledons and leaves and grow a naked pin while maintaining an active SAM. A similar phenotype was observed among pin-like shoots induced by polar auxin transport inhibitors such as 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA). Both types of pin-like shoots showed reduced expression of primordia markers as well as abnormal auxin distribution, as evidenced by expression of the auxin reporters pPIN1:PIN1:GFP and DR5:YFP Upon auxin microapplication, both lfs meristems and TIBA-pin apices activated DR5:YFP expression with similar kinetics; however, only lfs plants failed to concurrently initiate leaf primordia...
March 21, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257070/plasmodesmata-mediated-cell-to-cell-communication-in-the-shoot-apical-meristem-how-stem-cells-talk
#16
REVIEW
Munenori Kitagawa, David Jackson
Positional information is crucial for the determination of plant cell fates, and it is established based on coordinated cell-to-cell communication, which in turn is essential for plant growth and development. Plants have evolved a unique communication pathway, with tiny channels called plasmodesmata (PD) spanning the cell wall. PD interconnect most cells in the plant and generate a cytoplasmic continuum, to mediate short- and long-distance trafficking of various molecules. Cell-to-cell communication through PD plays a role in transmitting positional signals, however, the regulatory mechanisms of PD-mediated trafficking are still largely unknown...
March 1, 2017: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254780/osftip1-mediated-regulation-of-florigen-transport-in-rice-is-negatively-regulated-by-the-ubiquitin-like-domain-kinase-osubdk%C3%AE-4
#17
Shiyong Song, Ying Chen, Lu Liu, Yanwen Wang, Shengjie Bao, Xuan Zhou, Zhi Wei Norman Teo, Chuanzao Mao, Yinbo Gan, Hao Yu
Flowering time is a critical agronomic trait that determines successful seed production and adaptation of crop plants. Photoperiodic control of this process in flowering plants is mediated by the long-distance mobile signal called florigen partly encoded by FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) in Arabidopsis thaliana and its orthologs in other plant species. Despite the progress in understanding FT transport in the dicot model Arabidopsis, the mechanisms of florigen transport in monocots, which provide most of the biomass in agriculture, are unknown...
March 2017: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250070/mitochondrial-abc-transporter-atm3-is-essential-for-cytosolic-iron-sulfur-cluster-assembly
#18
Jia Zuo, Zhigeng Wu, Ying Li, Zedan Shen, Xiangyang Feng, Mingyong Zhang, Hong Ye
The mitochondrial ATP-binding cassette transporter ATM3 has been studied in Arabidopsis. Its function, however, is poorly understood in other model plant species. This study reports that the ATM3 is required for cytosolic iron-sulfur cluster assembly and is essential for meristem maintenance in rice (Oryza sativa). The loss of function of OsATM3 is lethal in rice at the four-leaf stage. In the osatm3 T-DNA insertion mutant, the fourth leaf fails to develop and the lateral roots are short. Cytosolic iron-sulfur protein activities were significantly reduced in both osatm3 and RNA interference transgenic lines...
April 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214944/the-vascular-plants-open-system-of-growth
#19
REVIEW
Alice Basile, Marco Fambrini, Claudio Pugliesi
What is fascinating in plants (true also in sessile animals such as corals and hydroids) is definitely their open and indeterminate growth, as a result of meristematic activity. Plants as well as animals are characterized by a multicellular organization, with which they share a common set of genes inherited from a common eukaryotic ancestor; nevertheless, circa 1.5 billion years of evolutionary history made the two kingdoms very different in their own developmental biology. Flowering plants, also known as angiosperms, arose during the Cretaceous Period (145-65 million years ago), and up to date, they count around 235,000 species, representing the largest and most diverse group within the plant kingdom...
February 18, 2017: Development Genes and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212324/differential-gene-expression-in-the-meristem-and-during-early-fruit-growth-of-pisum-sativum-l-identifies-potential-targets-for-breeding
#20
Annu Smitha Ninan, Anish Shah, Jiancheng Song, Paula E Jameson
For successful molecular breeding it is important to identify targets to the gene family level, and in the specific species of interest, in this case Pisum sativum L. The cytokinins have been identified as a key breeding target due to their influence on plant architecture, and on seed size and sink activity. We focused on the cytokinin biosynthetic gene family (the IPTs) and the gene family key to the destruction of cytokinins (the CKXs), as well as other gene families potentially affected by changing cytokinin levels...
February 16, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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