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shoot apical meristem

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214944/the-vascular-plants-open-system-of-growth
#1
REVIEW
Alice Basile, Marco Fambrini, Claudio Pugliesi
What is fascinating in plants (true also in sessile animals such as corals and hydroids) is definitely their open and indeterminate growth, as a result of meristematic activity. Plants as well as animals are characterized by a multicellular organization, with which they share a common set of genes inherited from a common eukaryotic ancestor; nevertheless, circa 1.5 billion years of evolutionary history made the two kingdoms very different in their own developmental biology. Flowering plants, also known as angiosperms, arose during the Cretaceous Period (145-65 million years ago), and up to date, they count around 235,000 species, representing the largest and most diverse group within the plant kingdom...
February 18, 2017: Development Genes and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212324/differential-gene-expression-in-the-meristem-and-during-early-fruit-growth-of-pisum-sativum-l-identifies-potential-targets-for-breeding
#2
Annu Smitha Ninan, Anish Shah, Jiancheng Song, Paula E Jameson
For successful molecular breeding it is important to identify targets to the gene family level, and in the specific species of interest, in this case Pisum sativum L. The cytokinins have been identified as a key breeding target due to their influence on plant architecture, and on seed size and sink activity. We focused on the cytokinin biosynthetic gene family (the IPTs) and the gene family key to the destruction of cytokinins (the CKXs), as well as other gene families potentially affected by changing cytokinin levels...
February 16, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183832/molecular-bases-for-phyllomorph-development-in-a-one-leaf-plant-monophyllaea-glabra
#3
Naoko Ishikawa, Hirokazu Takahashi, Mikio Nakazono, Hirokazu Tsukaya
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: The aboveground part of one-leaf plants (Gesneriaceae) consists of a unique shoot-like unit called a phyllomorph, which is composed of a growing lamina and one petiolode (a stem- and petiole-like organ). The phyllomorph has three meristems: a basal meristem (BM; involved in lamina growth), a petiolode meristem (PM; required for midrib and petiolode growth), and a groove meristem (GM; contributes to inflorescence and new phyllomorph development). Although the GM has a tunica-corpus structure like a conventional shoot apical meristem (SAM), the vegetative GM of a one-leaf plant does not form any organ primordia and has been considered a defective or suppressed SAM...
February 9, 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182666/direct-protein-introduction-into-plant-cells-using-a-multi-gas-plasma-jet
#4
Yuki Yanagawa, Hiroaki Kawano, Tomohiro Kobayashi, Hidekazu Miyahara, Akitoshi Okino, Ichiro Mitsuhara
Protein introduction into cells is more difficult in plants than in mammalian cells, although it was reported that protein introduction was successful in shoot apical meristem and leaves only together with a cell-penetrating peptide. In this study, we tried to introduce superfolder green fluorescent protein (sGFP)-fused to adenylate cyclase as a reporter protein without a cell-penetrating peptide into the cells of tobacco leaves by treatment with atmospheric non-thermal plasmas. For this purpose, CO2 or N2 plasma was generated using a multi-gas plasma jet...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174250/direct-conversion-of-root-primordium-into-shoot-meristem-relies-on-timing-of-stem-cell-niche-development
#5
Olga Rosspopoff, Liudmila Chelysheva, Julie Saffar, Lena Lecorgne, Delphine Gey, Erwann Caillieux, Vincent Colot, François Roudier, Pierre Hilson, Richard Berthomé, Marco Da Costa, Philippe Rech
To understand how the identity of an organ can be switched, we studied the transformation of lateral root primordia (LRP) into shoot meristems in Arabidopsis root segments. In this system, the cytokinin-induced conversion does not involve the formation of callus-like structures. Detailed analysis showed that the conversion sequence starts with a mitotic pause and is concomitant with the differential expression of regulators of root and shoot development. The conversion requires the presence of apical stem cells and only LRP at stages VI or VII can be switched...
February 7, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161901/shoot-meristemless-trafficking-controls-axillary-meristem-formation-meristem-size-and-organ-boundaries-in-arabidopsis
#6
Rachappa Balkunde, Munenori Kitagawa, Xianfeng Morgan Xu, Jing Wang, David Jackson
The shoot stem cell niche, contained within the shoot apical meristem (SAM) is maintained in Arabidopsis by the homeodomain protein SHOOT MERISTEMLESS (STM). STM is a mobile protein that traffics cell-to-cell, presumably through plasmodesmata. In maize, the STM homolog KNOTTED1 shows clear differences between mRNA and protein localization domains in the SAM. However, the STM mRNA and protein localization domains are not obviously different in Arabidopsis, and the functional relevance of STM mobility is unknown...
February 5, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158306/identification-of-cyst-nematode-b-type-cle-peptides-and-modulation-of-the-vascular-stem-cell-pathway-for-feeding-cell-formation
#7
Xiaoli Guo, Jianying Wang, Michael Gardner, Hiroo Fukuda, Yuki Kondo, J Peter Etchells, Xiaohong Wang, Melissa Goellner Mitchum
Stem cell pools in the SAM (shoot apical meristem), RAM (root apical meristem) and vascular procambium/cambium are regulated by CLE-receptor kinase-WOX signaling modules. Previous data showed that cyst nematode CLE-like effector proteins delivered into host cells through a stylet, act as ligand mimics of plant A-type CLE peptides and are pivotal for successful parasitism. Here we report the identification of a new class of CLE peptides from cyst nematodes with functional similarity to the B-type CLE peptide TDIF (tracheary element differentiation inhibitory factor) encoded by the CLE41 and CLE44 genes in Arabidopsis...
February 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104719/molecular-regulation-of-temperature-dependent-floral-induction-in-tulipa-gesneriana
#8
Hendrika Leeggangers, Harm Nijveen, Judit Nadal Bigas, Henk W M Hilhorst, Richard G H Immink
The vegetative to reproductive phase change in tulip is promoted by increasing temperatures during spring. The warm winters of recent years interfere with this process and are calling for new adapted cultivars. A better understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms would be of help, but unlike the model plant Arabidopsis, very little is known about floral induction in tulip. To shed light on the gene regulatory network controlling flowering in tulip, RNA-sequencing was performed on meristem-enriched tissue collected under two contrasting temperature conditions, low and high...
January 19, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096328/dynamic-pin-formed-auxin-efflux-carrier-phosphorylation-at-the-plasma-membrane-controls-auxin-efflux-dependent-growth
#9
Benjamin Weller, Melina Zourelidou, Lena Frank, Inês C R Barbosa, Astrid Fastner, Sandra Richter, Gerd Jürgens, Ulrich Z Hammes, Claus Schwechheimer
The directional distribution of the phytohormone auxin is essential for plant development. Directional auxin transport is mediated by the polarly distributed PIN-FORMED (PIN) auxin efflux carriers. We have previously shown that efficient PIN1-mediated auxin efflux requires activation through phosphorylation at the four serines S1-S4 in Arabidopsis thaliana The Brefeldin A (BFA)-sensitive D6 PROTEIN KINASE (D6PK) and the BFA-insensitive PINOID (PID) phosphorylate and activate PIN1 through phosphorylation at all four phosphosites...
January 31, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077071/an-integrated-analysis-of-qtl-mapping-and-rna-sequencing-provides-further-insights-and-promising-candidates-for-pod-number-variation-in-rapeseed-brassica-napus-l
#10
Jiang Ye, Yuhua Yang, Bo Chen, Jiaqin Shi, Meizhong Luo, Jiepeng Zhan, Xinfa Wang, Guihua Liu, Hanzhong Wang
BACKGROUND: As the most important yield component in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.), pod number is determined by a series of successive growth and development processes. Pod number shows extensive variation in rapeseed natural germplasm, which is valuable for genetic improvement. However, the genetic and especially the molecular mechanism for this kind of variation are poorly understood. In this study, we conducted QTL mapping and RNA sequencing, respectively, using the BnaZNRIL population and its two parental cultivars Zhongshuang11 and No...
January 11, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062751/transcriptome-wide-mapping-of-rna-5-methylcytosine-in-arabidopsis-mrnas-and-non-coding-rnas
#11
Rakesh David, Alice Burgess, Brian Parker, Jun Li, Kalinya Pulsford, Tennille Sibbritt, Thomas Preiss, Iain R Searle
Post-transcriptional methylation of RNA cytosine residues to 5-methylcytosine (m5C) is an important modification with diverse roles, such as regulating stress responses, stem cell proliferation, and RNA metabolism. Here, we used RNA bisulfite sequencing (bsRNA-seq) for transcriptome-wide quantitative mapping of m5C in the model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana. We discovered more than a thousand m5C sites in Arabidopsis mRNAs, long non-coding RNAs, and other non-coding RNAs across three tissue types (siliques, seedling shoots, and roots) and validated a number of these sites...
January 6, 2017: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039129/the-ontogeny-phyllotactic-diversity-and-discontinuous-transitions-of-diphasiastrum-digitatum-lycopodiaceae
#12
Xiaofeng Yin, Roger D Meicenheimer
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Fibonacci phyllotactic patterns in seed plants are well documented, but whether such predominance holds true for lower vascular plants is relatively unknown. We investigated Diphasiastrum digitatum (Lycopodiaceae) phyllotaxis throughout its ontogeny to extend our knowledge of pattern frequency of lower vascular plants and to measure quantitative variables associated with discontinuous phyllotactic transitions. These investigations allowed us to test whether the same mechanisms inherent in shoot apical meristem (SAM) development of seed plants are applicable to early-diverged lower vascular plants SAM development...
December 30, 2016: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035495/molecular-cloning-phylogenetic-analysis-and-expression-patterns-of-lateral-suppressor-like-and-regulator-of-axillary-meristem-formation-like-genes-in-sunflower-helianthus-annuus-l
#13
Marco Fambrini, Mariangela Salvini, Claudio Pugliesi
The wild sunflower (Helianthus annuus) plants develop a highly branched form with numerous small flowering heads. The origin of a no branched sunflower, producing a single large head, has been a key event in the domestication process of this species. The interaction between hormonal factors and several genes organizes the initiation and outgrowth of axillary meristems (AMs). From sunflower, we have isolated two genes putatively involved in this process, LATERAL SUPPRESSOR (LS)-LIKE (Ha-LSL) and REGULATOR OF AXILLARY MERISTEM FORMATION (ROX)-LIKE (Ha-ROXL), encoding for a GRAS and a bHLH transcription factor (TF), respectively...
December 29, 2016: Development Genes and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988471/early-histological-hormonal-and-molecular-changes-during-pineapple-ananas-comosus-l-merrill-artificial-flowering-induction
#14
Maita Eulalia Ávila Espinosa, Rafael Oliveira Moreira, André Almeida Lima, Solange Aparecida Ságio, Horllys Gomes Barreto, Sara Lazara Pérez Luiz, Carlos Eduardo Aragón Abreu, Ermis Yanes-Paz, Yanelis Capdesuñer Ruíz, Justo Lorenzo González-Olmedo, Antonio Chalfun-Júnior
Natural flowering can cause serious scheduling problems in the pineapple (Ananas comosus) industry and increase harvest costs. Pineapple flowering is thought to be triggered by increased ethylene levels and artificial forcing of pineapple flowering is a common practice to promote flowering synchronisation. However, little is known about the early hormonal and molecular changes of pineapple flowering induction and development. Here, we aimed to analyse the molecular, hormonal, and histological changes during artificial pineapple flowering by Ethrel(®)48 treatment...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27968983/aprf1-promotes-flowering-under-long-days-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#15
Georgios Kapolas, Despoina Beris, Efthimia Katsareli, Pantelis Livanos, Aris Zografidis, Andreas Roussis, Dimitra Milioni, Kosmas Haralampidis
Arabidopsis thaliana flowering time mutants revealed the function of numerous genes that regulate the transition from vegetative to reproductive growth. Analyses of their loci have shown that many of them act as chromatin modifiers. In this study, a combination of molecular and genetic approaches have been implemented, to characterize the function of APRF1 (ANTHESIS POMOTING FACTOR 1) gene in A. thaliana and to investigate its role in plant development. APRF1 encodes for a low molecular weight nuclear WDR protein which displays functional homology to the Swd2 protein, an essential subunit of the yeast histone methylation COMPASS complex...
December 2016: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930326/cell-size-and-growth-regulation-in-the-arabidopsis-thaliana-apical-stem-cell-niche
#16
Lisa Willis, Yassin Refahi, Raymond Wightman, Benoit Landrein, José Teles, Kerwyn Casey Huang, Elliot M Meyerowitz, Henrik Jönsson
Cell size and growth kinetics are fundamental cellular properties with important physiological implications. Classical studies on yeast, and recently on bacteria, have identified rules for cell size regulation in single cells, but in the more complex environment of multicellular tissues, data have been lacking. In this study, to characterize cell size and growth regulation in a multicellular context, we developed a 4D imaging pipeline and applied it to track and quantify epidermal cells over 3-4 d in Arabidopsis thaliana shoot apical meristems...
December 20, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928690/from-shoot-to-leaf-step-wise-shifts-in-meristem-and-knox1-activity-correlate-with-the-evolution-of-a-unifoliate-body-plan-in-gesneriaceae
#17
Kanae Nishii, Bing-Hong Huang, Chun-Neng Wang, Michael Möller
Typical dicots possess equal-sized cotyledons and leaf-bearing shoots topped with a shoot apical meristem (SAM), the source of lateral organs, and where KNOX1 homeobox genes act as key regulators. New World Gesneriaceae show typical cotyledons, whereas Old World Gesneriaceae show anisocotyly, the unequal post-germination growth of cotyledons, and include unifoliate (one-leaf) plants. One-leaf plants show an extremely reduced body plan: the adult above-ground photosynthetic tissue consisting of a single cotyledon, a macrocotyledon enlarged by the basal meristem (BM), but lacking a SAM...
January 2017: Development Genes and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918940/beyond-flexibility-controlling-stem-cells-in-an-ever-changing-environment
#18
REVIEW
Anne Pfeiffer, Christian Wenzl, Jan U Lohmann
Developmental plasticity is a defining feature of plants allowing them to colonize a wide range of different ecosystems by promoting environmental adaptation. Their postembryonic development requires life-long maintenance of stem cells, which are embedded into specialized tissues, called meristems. The shoot apical meristem gives rise to all above ground tissues and is a complex and dynamic three-dimensional structure harboring cells of different clonal origins and fates. Functionally divergent subdomains are stably maintained despite permanent cell division, however their relative sizes are modified in response to developmental and environmental signals...
December 2, 2016: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918939/the-shady-side-of-leaf-development-the-role-of-the-revoluta-kanadi1-module-in-leaf-patterning-and-auxin-mediated-growth-promotion
#19
REVIEW
Paz Merelo, Esther Botterweg Paredes, Marcus G Heisler, Stephan Wenkel
Leaves are present in all land plants and are specialized organs for light harvesting. They arise at the flanks of the shoot apical meristem (SAM), and develop into lamina structures that exhibit adaxial/abaxial (upper/lower side of the leaf) polarity. At the molecular level, an intricate regulatory network determines ad-/abaxial polarity in Arabidopsis thaliana leaves, where the Class III Homeodomain Leucine Zipper (HD-ZIPIII) and KANADI (KAN) proteins are key mediators. The HD-ZIPIII REVOLUTA (REV) is expressed in the adaxial domain of lateral organs, whereas KAN1 is involved in abaxial differentiation...
December 2, 2016: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895202/the-lbd12-1-transcription-factor-suppresses-apical-meristem-size-by-repressing-argonaute-10-expression
#20
Weiwei Ma, Fuqing Wu, Peike Sheng, Xiaole Wang, Zhe Zhang, Kunneng Zhou, Huan Zhang, Jinlong Hu, Qibin Lin, Zhijun Cheng, Jiulin Wang, Shanshan Zhu, Xin Zhang, Xiuping Guo, Haiyang Wang, Chuanyin Wu, Huqu Zhai, Jianmin Wan
The shoot apical meristem (SAM) consists of a population of multipotent cells that generates all aerial structures and regenerates itself. SAM maintenance and lateral organ development are regulated by several complex signaling pathways, in which the Argonaute gene-mediated pathway plays a key role. One Argonaute gene, AGO10, functions as a microRNA locker that attenuates miR165/166 activity and positively regulates shoot apical meristem development, but little is known about when and how AGO10 is regulated at the transcriptional level...
January 2017: Plant Physiology
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