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Hanqing Guo, Nu Wang, Tami R McDonald, Anke Reinders, John M Ward
Plant ammonium transporters in the AMT/MEP/Rh superfamily have only been previously characterized in flowering plants (angiosperms). Plant AMT1s are electrogenic, while plant AMT2s are electroneutral and MEP and Rh transporters in other organisms are electroneutral. We analyzed the transport function of MpAMT1;2 from the basal land plant Marchantia polymorpha, a liverwort. MpAMT1;2 was shown to localize to the plasma membrane in Marchantia gametophyte thallus by stable transformation using a C-terminal citrine fusion...
February 12, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
Ankush Bansal, Mehul Salaria, Tashil Sharma, Tsering Stobdan, Anil Kant
Sea buckthorn is a dioecious medicinal plant found at high altitude. The plant has both male and female reproductive organs in separate individuals. In this article, whole transcriptome de novo assemblies of male and female flower bud samples were carried out using Illumina NextSeq 500 platform to determine the role of the genes involved in sex determination. Moreover, genes with differential expression in male and female transcriptomes were identified to understand the underlying sex determination mechanism...
February 2018: 3 Biotech
Miho Kaneko-Suzuki, Rie Ishikawa, Chiaki Terakawa, Chojiro Kojima, Misa Fujiwara, Izuru Ohki, Hiroyuki Tsuji, Ko Shimamoto, Ken-Ichiro Taoka
Hd3a, a rice homolog of FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT), is a florigen that induces flowering. Hd3a makes a ternary 'florigen activation complex' (FAC) with 14-3-3 protein and OsFD1 transcription factor, a rice homologue of FD that induces transcription of OsMADS15, a rice homologue of APETALA1 (AP1), which leads to flowering. TERMINAL FLOWER 1 (TFL1) represses flowering and controls inflorescence architecture. However, the molecular basis for floral repression by TFL1 remains poorly understood. Here we show that RICE CENTRORADIALIS (RCN), rice TFL1-like proteins, compete with Hd3a for 14-3-3 binding...
February 1, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
Christopher T Petersen, Mojibade Hassan, Anna B Morris, Jasmin Jeffery, Kunhee Lee, Neera Jagirdar, Ashley D Staton, Sunil S Raikar, Harold T Spencer, Todd Sulchek, Christopher R Flowers, Edmund K Waller
Adoptive therapy with ex vivo-expanded genetically modified antigen-specific T cells can induce remissions in patients with relapsed/refractory cancer. The clinical success of this therapy depends upon efficient transduction and expansion of T cells ex vivo and their homing, persistence and cytotoxicity following reinfusion. Lower rates of ex vivo expansion and clinical response using anti-CD19 chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells have been seen in heavily pretreated lymphoma patients compared with B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients and motivate the development of novel strategies to enhance ex vivo T cell expansion and their persistence in vivo...
February 13, 2018: Blood Advances
Olga Beine-Golovchuk, Alexandre Augusto Pereira Firmino, Adrianna Dąbrowska, Stefanie Schmidt, Alexander Erban, Dirk Walther, Ellen Zuther, Dirk K Hincha, Joachim Kopka
Arabidopsis REI1-LIKE (REIL) proteins, REIL1 and REIL2, are homologs of a yeast ribosome biogenesis factor (RBF) that participates in late cytoplasmic steps of 60S ribosomal subunit maturation. Strong growth inhibition at 10{degree sign}C of the reil1-1 reil2-1 mutant was complemented by expression of N-terminal FLUORESCENT PROTEIN (FP)-REIL fusion proteins under control of the UBIQUITIN 10 promoter. Arabidopsis REIL1 has a conserved function as was demonstrated by cytosolic localization of FP-REIL1 and native REIL1 interaction with the 60S subunit of Col-0 wildtype...
January 30, 2018: Plant Physiology
Induja Kalyana Sundaram, Deepika Deeptirekha Sarangi, Vignesh Sundararajan, Shinomol George, Sahabudeen Sheik Mohideen
BACKGROUND: Skin forms an important part of human innate immune system. Wrinkles, thinning and roughening of skin are some of the symptoms that affect the skin as it ages. Reactive oxygen species induced oxidative stress plays a major role in skin aging by modulating the elastase enzyme level in the skin. Extrinsic factors that affect skin aging such as UV radiation can also cause malignant melanoma. Here we selected four medicinal plant materials, namely, leaves of Nyctanthes arbor-tristis, unripe and ripe Aegle marmelos fruit pulp and the terminal meristem of Musa paradisiaca flower and investigated their anti-aging properties and cytotoxicity in vitro individually as well as in a poly herbal formulation containing the four plant extracts in different ratios...
January 29, 2018: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Ke Zhang, Ruozhong Wang, Hailing Zi, Yongpeng Li, Xiuwei Cao, Dongming Li, Lin Guo, Jianhua Tong, Yanyun Pan, Yuling Jiao, Renyi Liu, Langtao Xiao, Xigang Liu
Successful floral meristem (FM) determinacy is critical for subsequent reproductive development and the plant life cycle. Although the phytohormones cytokinin and auxin interact to coregulate many aspects of plant development, whether and how cytokinin and auxin function in FM determinacy remain unclear. Here we show that in Arabidopsis thaliana, cytokinin homeostasis is critical for FM determinacy. In this developmental context, auxin promotes the expression of AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR3 (ARF3) to repress cytokinin activity...
January 25, 2018: Plant Cell
Wenhui Lyu, Jennifer Selinski, Lu Li, David A Day, Monika W Murcha, James Whelan, Yan Wang
Mitochondria are essential organelles involved in numerous metabolic pathways in plants, most notably the production of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) from the oxidation of reduced compounds such as nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FADH2). The complete annotation of the Arabidopsis thaliana genome has established it as the most widely used plant model system, and thus the need to purify mitochondria from a variety of organs (leaf, root, or flower) is necessary to fully utilize the tools that are now available for Arabidopsis to study mitochondrial biology...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Xiaofei Cheng, Guifen Li, Yuhong Tang, Jiangqi Wen
Development of inflorescence architecture is controlled by genetic regulatory networks. TERMINAL FLOWER1 (TFL1), APETALA1 (AP1), LEAFY (LFY), and FRUITFULL (FUL) are core regulators for inflorescence development. To understand the regulation of compound inflorescence development, we characterized mutants of corresponding orthologous genes, MtTFL1, MtAP1, SINGLE LEAFLET1 (SGL1), and MtFULc, in Medicago truncatula, and analyzed expression patterns of these genes. Results indicate that MtTFL1, MtFULc, MtAP1, and SGL1 play specific roles in identity determination of primary inflorescence meristems, secondary inflorescence meristems, floral meristems, and common primordia, respectively...
January 18, 2018: Development
Xiaochao Chen, Uwe Ludewig
Plants generally produce more biomass when all nutrients are available in sufficient amounts. In addition to environmental constraints, genetic and developmental factors, such as the transition from vegetative to reproductive growth, restrict maximal yield. Here we report the peculiar observation that a subset of Arabidopsis thaliana accessions produced larger shoot rosette diameters when grown in zinc (Zn)-deficient conditions, compared with Zn-sufficient conditions. This was associated with early flowering that restricted the leaf length under Zn sufficiency...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Zhong Chen, Pian Rao, Xiaoyu Yang, Xiaoxing Su, Tianyun Zhao, Kai Gao, Xiong Yang, Xinmin An
To obtain a comprehensive overview of the dynamic transcriptome during male floral bud development in Populus tomentosa, high-throughput RNA-seq was conducted during eight flowering-related stages. Among the 109,212 de novo assembled unigenes, 6,959 were differentially expressed during the eight stages. The overrepresented classed of genes identified by Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment included 'response to environmental stimuli' and 'plant-type spore development'. One-third of the differentially expressed genes were transcription factors (TFs)...
January 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Encarnación Rodríguez-Cazorla, Samanta Ortuño-Miquel, Héctor Candela, Lindsay J Bailey-Steinitz, Martin F Yanofsky, Antonio Martínez-Laborda, Juan-José Ripoll, Antonio Vera
Ovules are fundamental for plant reproduction and crop yield as they are the precursors of seeds. Therefore, ovule specification is a critical developmental program. In Arabidopsis thaliana, ovule identity is redundantly conferred by the homeotic D-class genes SHATTERPROOF1 (SHP1), SHP2 and SEEDSTICK (STK), phylogenetically related to the MADS-domain regulatory gene AGAMOUS (AG), essential in floral organ specification. Previous studies have shown that the HUA-PEP activity, comprised of a suite of RNA-binding protein (RBP) encoding genes, regulates AG pre-mRNA processing and thus flower patterning and organ identity...
January 12, 2018: PLoS Genetics
Wenjie Wang, Youhong Fan, Xiangli Niu, Min Miao, Joanna Kud, Bangjun Zhou, Lirong Zeng, Yongsheng Liu, Fangming Xiao
Seven in absentia (SINA) protein is one subgroup of ubiquitin ligases possessing an N-terminal cysteine-rich Really Interesting New Gene (RING) domain, two zinc-finger motifs and a C-terminal domain responsible for substrate-binding and dimerization. In tomato (Solanum Lycopersicum), the SINA gene family has six members and we characterize in this study all tomato SINA (SlSINA) genes and the gene products. Our results show that SlSINA genes are differentially regulated in leaf, bud, stem, flower and root. All SlSINA proteins possess RING-dependent E3 ubiquitin ligase activity, exhibiting similar specificity towards the E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme...
January 10, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
Chao Ma, Jingjing Yang, Qing Cheng, Aijun Mao, Jian Zhang, Shiping Wang, Yiqun Weng, Changlong Wen
Determinate cucumber is a type of short vines, fewer nodes, and terminal flowers, it is suitable for high-density planting and available harvesting in field cultivation, whereas the indeterminate cucumber is preferred to cultivate in greenhouses. However, many biotic or abiotic stresses could lead indeterminate cucumber to be determinate in greenhouse cultivation, which may decrease yield and fruit quality. Therefore, it is urgent and essential to investigate the key factors forming determinate and terminal flowering in cucumber...
2018: PloS One
Norbert Bollier, Adrien Sicard, Julie Leblond-Castaing, David Latrasse, Nathalie Gonzalez, Frédéric Gévaudant, Moussa Benhamed, Cécile Raynaud, Michael Lenhard, Christian Chevalier, Michel Hernould, Frédéric Delmas
In angiosperms, the gynoecium is the last structure to develop within the flower due to the determinate fate of floral meristem (FM) stem cells. The maintenance of stem cell activity before its arrest at the stage called FM termination affects the number of carpels that develop. The necessary inhibition at this stage of WUSCHEL (WUS), which is responsible for stem cell maintenance, involves a two-step mechanism. Direct repression mediated by the MADS-domain transcription factor AGAMOUS (AG), followed by indirect repression requiring the C2H2 zinc-finger protein KNUCKLES (KNU), allow for the complete termination of floral stem cell activity...
January 3, 2018: Plant Cell
Hemant B Patil, Akhilesh K Chaurasia, Abdul Azeez, Bal Krishna, V R Subramaniam, Aniruddha P Sane, Prafullachandra V Sane
FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) and TERMINAL FLOWER1/CENTRORADIALIS (TFL1/CEN) are the key regulators of flowering time in plants with FT promoting flowering and TFL1 repressing flowering. TFL1 also controls floral meristem identity and its maintenance. In this study we have characterized two pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) TFL1/CEN-like genes designated as PgTFL1 and PgCENa. The expression of PgTFL1 and PgCENa fluctuated through alternate pruning and flowering cycles, being highly expressed during the vegetative phase (immediately after pruning) and decreasing gradually in the months thereafter such that their lowest levels, especially for PgCENa coincided with the flowering phase...
December 21, 2017: Tree Physiology
Mercedes Verdugo-Perales, Rosabel Velez-de la Rocha, Josefina León-Félix, Tomas Osuna-Enciso, José B Heredia, Juan A Osuna-Castro, Maria A Islas-Osuna, J Adriana Sañudo-Barajas
Lysine-rich (Lys-rich) proteins encoded by AGP17, AGP18, and AGP19 genes are cell wall-associated glycopeptides related to sexual reproduction in flowering plants. This subclass belongs to classical arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) widely studied in model plants like Arabidopsis. In this study, we identified the CaAGP18 cDNA from bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.), as well as its expression pattern during vegetative and reproductive development. The deduced amino acid sequence revealed a Lys-rich AGP18 protein of 238 amino acids residues in length with an estimated molecular mass of 22...
January 2018: 3 Biotech
Jing Feng, Jiang Lu
Polycomb group (PcG) proteins within the polycomb repressive complex 1 (PRC1) and PRC2 are significant epigenetic regulatory factors involved in important cellular and developmental processes in eukaryotes. In Arabidopsis, LIKE HETEROCHROMATIN PROTEIN 1 (LHP1), also known as TERMINAL FLOWER 2, has been proposed as a plant specific subunit of PRC1 that could bind the trimethylated lysine 27 of histone H3 (H3K27me3), which is established by PRC2 and is required for a functional plant PcG system. LHP1 not only interacts with PRC1 to catalyze monoubiquitination at lysine 119 of histone H2A but also functions with PRC2 to establish H3K27me3...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Akira Uemura, Nobutoshi Yamaguchi, Yifeng Xu, WanYi Wee, Yasunori Ichihashi, Takamasa Suzuki, Arisa Shibata, Ken Shirasu, Toshiro Ito
Floral meristem size is redundantly controlled by CLAVATA3, AGAMOUS , and SUPERMAN in Arabidopsis. The proper regulation of floral meristem activity is key to the formation of optimally sized flowers with a fixed number of organs. In Arabidopsis thaliana, multiple regulators determine this activity. A small secreted peptide, CLAVATA3 (CLV3), functions as an important negative regulator of stem cell activity. Two transcription factors, AGAMOUS (AG) and SUPERMAN (SUP), act in different pathways to regulate the termination of floral meristem activity...
December 7, 2017: Plant Reproduction
Yuri Shavrukov, Akhylbek Kurishbayev, Satyvaldy Jatayev, Vladimir Shvidchenko, Lyudmila Zotova, Francois Koekemoer, Stephan de Groot, Kathleen Soole, Peter Langridge
Drought escape (DE) is a classical adaptive mechanism which involves rapid plant development to enable the completion of the full life-cycle prior to a coming drought event. This strategy is widely used in populations of native plants, and is also applicable to cereal crops such as wheat. Early flowering time and a shorter vegetative phase can be very important for wheat production in conditions of terminal drought since this can minimize exposure to dehydration during the sensitive flowering and post-anthesis grain filling periods...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
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