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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064439/eugenol-specialty-chemical-production-in-transgenic-poplar-populus-tremula-%C3%A3-p-alba-field-trials
#1
Da Lu, Xianghe Yuan, Sung-Jin Kim, Joaquim V Marques, P Pawan Chakravarthy, Syed G A Moinuddin, Randi Luchterhand, Barri Herman, Laurence B Davin, Norman G Lewis
A foundational study assessed effects of biochemical pathway introduction into poplar to produce eugenol, chavicol, p-anol, isoeugenol, and their sequestered storage products, from potentially available substrates, coniferyl and p-coumaryl alcohols. At the onset, it was unknown whether significant carbon flux to monolignols vs other phenylpropanoid (acetate) pathway metabolites would be kinetically favored. Various transgenic poplar lines generated eugenol and chavicol glucosides in ca. 0.45% (~0.35 and ~0...
January 8, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057689/comparative-inflorescence-development-in-selected-andean-santalales
#2
Vanessa Suaza-Gaviria, Favio González, Natalia Pabón-Mora
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Loranthaceae, Santalaceae, and Viscaceae are the most diversified hemiparasitic families of Santalales in the Andes. Their partial inflorescences (PIs) vary from solitary flowers, or dichasia in most Santalales, to congested floral groups along articles in most Viscaceae. The atypical articled inflorescences in Phoradendreae (Viscaceae), a phylogenetic novelty restricted to this tribe, have been variously described as racemes, spikes, fascicles, or as intercalary inflorescences, but no developmental studies have been performed to compare them with the construction of PIs across Santalales...
January 5, 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011871/cell-death-and-cell-cycle-arrest-of-silene-latifolia-stamens-and-pistils-after-microbotryum-lychnidis-dioicae-infection
#3
Hiroki Kawamoto, Kaori Yamanaka, Ayako Koizumi, Aiko Hirata, Shigeyuki Kawano
Mechanisms of suppression of pistil primordia in male flowers and of stamen primordia in female flowers differ in diclinous plants. In this study, we investigated how cell death and cell cycle arrest are related to flower organ formation in Silene latifolia. Using in situ hybridization and a TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling) assay, we detected both cell cycle arrest and cell death in suppressed stamens of female flowers and suppressed pistils of male flowers in S. latifolia...
December 22, 2016: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007029/arabidopsis-prc1-core-component-atring1-regulates-stem-cell-determining-carpel-development-mainly-through-repression-of-class-i-knox-genes
#4
Donghong Chen, Anne M Molitor, Lin Xu, Wen-Hui Shen
BACKGROUND: Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2)-catalyzed H3K27me3 marks are tightly associated with the WUS-AG negative feedback loop to terminate floral stem cell fate to promote carpel development, but the roles of Polycomb repressive complex 1 (PRC1) in this event remain largely uncharacterized. RESULTS: Here we show conspicuous variability in the morphology and number of carpels among individual flowers in the absence of the PRC1 core components AtRING1a and AtRING1b, which contrasts with the wild-type floral meristem consumed by uniform carpel production in Arabidopsis thaliana...
December 22, 2016: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913739/structure-activity-relation-of-amor-sugar-molecule-that-activates-pollen-tubes-for-ovular-guidance
#5
Jiao Jiao, Akane G Mizukami, Subramanian Sankaranarayanan, Junichiro Yamguchi, Kenichiro Itami, Tetsuya Higashiyawma
Successful fertilization in flowering plants depends on the precise directional growth control of pollen tube through the female pistil tissue toward the female gametophyte contained in the ovule for delivery of nonmotile sperm cells. Cys-rich peptides LUREs secreted from the synergid cells on either side of the egg cell act as ovular attractants of pollen tubes. Competency control by the pistil is crucial for the response of pollen tubes to these ovular attractants. We recently reported that ovular 4-O-methyl-glucuronosyl arabinogalactan (AMOR) induces competency of the pollen tube to respond to ovular attractant LURE peptides in Torenia fournieri...
January 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869146/an-ortholog-of-leafy-in-jatropha-curcas-regulates-flowering-time-and-floral-organ-development
#6
Mingyong Tang, Yan-Bin Tao, Qiantang Fu, Yaling Song, Longjian Niu, Zeng-Fu Xu
Jatropha curcas seeds are an excellent biofuel feedstock, but seed yields of Jatropha are limited by its poor flowering and fruiting ability. Thus, identifying genes controlling flowering is critical for genetic improvement of seed yield. We isolated the JcLFY, a Jatropha ortholog of Arabidopsis thaliana LEAFY (LFY), and identified JcLFY function by overexpressing it in Arabidopsis and Jatropha. JcLFY is expressed in Jatropha inflorescence buds, flower buds, and carpels, with highest expression in the early developmental stage of flower buds...
November 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853595/finding-flowers-in-the-dark-nectar-feeding-bats-integrate-olfaction-and-echolocation-while-foraging-for-nectar
#7
Tania P Gonzalez-Terrazas, Carlos Martel, Paulo Milet-Pinheiro, Manfred Ayasse, Elisabeth K V Kalko, Marco Tschapka
Nectar-feeding bats depend mainly on floral nectar to fulfil their energetic requirements. Chiropterophilous flowers generally present strong floral scents and provide conspicuous acoustic echoes to attract bats. While floral scents are assumed to attract bats over long distances, acoustic properties of flower structures may provide detailed information, thus supporting the localization of a flower at close ranges. So far, to our knowledge, there is no study trying to understand the relative importance as well as the combination of these generally coupled cues for detection (presence) and localization (exact position) of open flowers in nature...
August 2016: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847510/molecular-characterization-and-functional-analysis-of-two-petunia-pheils
#8
Feng Liu, Li Hu, Yuanping Cai, Hong Lin, Juanxu Liu, Yixun Yu
Ethylene plays an important role in flower senescence of many plants. Arabidopsis ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE3 (EIN3) and its homolog EIL1 are the downstream component of ethylene signaling transduction. However, the function of EILs during flower senescence remains unknown. Here, a petunia EIL gene, PhEIL2, was isolated. Phylogenetic tree showed that PhEIL1, whose coding gene is previously isolated, and PhEIL2 are the homologs of Arabidopsis AtEIL3 and AtEIL1, respectively. The expression of both PhEIL1 and PhEIL2 is the highest in corollas and increased during corolla senescence...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798848/control-of-inflorescence-architecture-in-tomato-by-btb-poz-transcriptional-regulators
#9
Cao Xu, Soon Ju Park, Joyce Van Eck, Zachary B Lippman
Plant productivity depends on inflorescences, flower-bearing shoots that originate from the stem cell populations of shoot meristems. Inflorescence architecture determines flower production, which can vary dramatically both between and within species. In tomato plants, formation of multiflowered inflorescences depends on a precisely timed process of meristem maturation mediated by the transcription factor gene TERMINATING FLOWER (TMF), but the underlying mechanism is unknown. We show that TMF protein acts together with homologs of the Arabidopsis BLADE-ON-PETIOLE (BOP) transcriptional cofactors, defined by the conserved BTB (Broad complex, Tramtrack, and Bric-a-brac)/POZ (POX virus and zinc finger) domain...
September 15, 2016: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780845/the-c-terminus-of-pcf11-forms-a-novel-zinc-finger-structure-that-plays-an-essential-role-in-mrna-3-end-processing
#10
Fan Yang, Peter Hsu, Susan D Lee, Wen Yang, Derick Hoskinson, Weihao Xu, Claire Moore, Gabriele Varani
3'-End processing of pre-mRNAs prior to packaging and export to the cytoplasm of the mature transcript is a highly regulated process executed by several tens of protein factors that recognize poorly conserved RNA signals. Among them is Pcf11, a highly conserved, multidomain protein that links transcriptional elongation, 3'-end processing, and transcription termination. Here we report the structure and biochemical function of Pcf11's C-terminal domain, which is conserved from yeast to humans. We identify a novel zinc-finger fold, resembling a trillium flower...
January 2017: RNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768156/contribution-of-wuschel-related-homeobox-wox-genes-to-identify-the-phylogenetic-relationships-among-petunia-species
#11
Ana Lúcia Anversa Segatto, Claudia Elizabeth Thompson, Loreta Brandão Freitas
Developmental genes are believed to contribute to major changes during plant evolution, from infrageneric to higher levels. Due to their putative high sequence conservation, developmental genes are rarely used as molecular markers, and few studies including these sequences at low taxonomic levels exist. WUSCHEL-related homeobox genes (WOX) are transcription factors exclusively present in plants and are involved in developmental processes. In this study, we characterized the infrageneric genetic variation of Petunia WOX genes...
October 2016: Genetics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27751916/dietary-phytoimmunostimulant-persian-hogweed-heracleum-persicum-has-more-remarkable-impacts-on-skin-mucus-than-on-serum-in-common-carp-cyprinus-carpio
#12
Seyed Hossein Hoseinifar, Fazel Zoheiri, Carlo C Lazado
Immunostimulation through the use of sustainable and eco-friendly dietary additives is one of the current prophylactic strategies in fish husbandry. Plant-based immunostimulants are highly considered for this intent, both for their scientific and practical advantages. Persian hogweed (Heracleum persicum) is a flower-bearing herb that possesses interesting pharmacological importance due to its bioactive compounds. It is commonly used as spice, food additive, dietary supplement and traditional remedy. The present study evaluated the potential of H...
December 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27744286/a-rapid-sampling-plan-for-scirtothrips-dorsalis-thysanoptera-thripidae-on-container-shrub-rose-rosa-radrazz
#13
Luis F Aristizábal, Gabriel Moura Mascarin, Ron Cherry, Bernardo Chaves-Cordoba, Steven P Arthurs
The development of simple and reliable pest sampling programs is needed for growers to adopt economic or aesthetic injury levels. We developed a sampling plan for monitoring chilli thrips Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood populations on KnockOut shrub roses under simulated nursery conditions. The distribution of S. dorsalis among different plant structures revealed that most adults and larvae are found on foliar terminals, when compared with buds and flowers. Based on thrips distribution, the third leaf of actively growing terminals was used to determine a sequential sampling model...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717449/gl2-type-homeobox-gene-roc4-in-rice-promotes-flowering-time-preferentially-under-long-days-by-repressing-ghd7
#14
Jinhuan Wei, Heebak Choi, Ping Jin, Yunfei Wu, Jinmi Yoon, Yang-Seok Lee, Taiyong Quan, Gynheung An
Under long day (LD) lengths, flowering can be delayed in rice by modulating several regulatory genes. We found activation tagging lines that showed an early flowering phenotype preferentially under LD conditions. Expression of Rice outermost cell-specific gene 4 (Roc4), encoding a homeodomain Leu-zipper class IV family protein, was significantly increased. Transcript levels of Grain number, plant height, and heading date7 (Ghd7) were significantly reduced while those of Ghd7 downstream genes were increased...
November 2016: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27689906/aqueous-synthesis-of-21%C3%AC-0-oxygen-terminated-defect-free-hierarchical-zno-particles-and-their-heat-treatment-for-enhanced-reactivity
#15
Amir Masoud Pourrahimi, Dongming Liu, Richard L Andersson, Valter Ström, Ulf W Gedde, Richard T Olsson
Controlled aqueous growth of 1 μm flower-shaped ZnO particles with a hierarchical subset of exposed nanosheets represented by {21̅0} crystal faces, followed by annealing at temperatures up to 1000 °C, is presented. The flower-shaped particles showed superior photocatalytic performance compared to the crystal faces of 20 nm ZnO nanoparticles. The photocatalytic reaction rate of the flower-shaped particles before annealing was 2.4 times higher per m(2) compared with that of the nanoparticles with double specific surface area...
October 10, 2016: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27684373/how-nectar-feeding-bats-localize-their-food-echolocation-behavior-of-leptonycteris-yerbabuenae-approaching-cactus-flowers
#16
Tania P Gonzalez-Terrazas, Jens C Koblitz, Theodore H Fleming, Rodrigo A Medellín, Elisabeth K V Kalko, Hans-Ulrich Schnitzler, Marco Tschapka
Nectar-feeding bats show morphological, physiological, and behavioral adaptations for feeding on nectar. How they find and localize flowers is still poorly understood. While scent cues alone allow no precise localization of a floral target, the spatial properties of flower echoes are very precise and could play a major role, particularly at close range. The aim of this study is to understand the role of echolocation for classification and localization of flowers. We compared the approach behavior of Leptonycteris yerbabuenae to flowers of a columnar cactus, Pachycereus pringlei, to that to an acrylic hollow hemisphere that is acoustically conspicuous to bats, but has different acoustic properties and, contrary to the cactus flower, present no scent...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27659135/adult-pollen-diet-essential-for-egg-maturation-by-a-solitary-osmia-bee
#17
James H Cane
Reproduction is a nutritionally costly activity for many insects, as their eggs are rich in lipids and proteins. That cost seems especially acute for non-social bees, which for their size, lay enormous eggs. All adult female bees visit flowers, most of them to collect pollen and nectar, or sometimes oils, to feed their progeny. For adult bees, the need for pollen feeding has only been detailed for the honey bee, Apis mellifera. To experimentally test for the reproductive value of adult pollen feeding by a non-social bee, Osmia californica (Hymenoptera: Apiformes: Megachilidae), young female bees plus males were released into large glasshouse cages provided with either a male-fertile sunflower cultivar or a pollen-less one...
December 2016: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27604611/apetala2-antagonizes-the-transcriptional-activity-of-agamous-in-regulating-floral-stem-cells-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#18
Zhigang Huang, Ting Shi, Binglian Zheng, Rae Eden Yumul, Xigang Liu, Chenjiang You, Zhihong Gao, Langtao Xiao, Xuemei Chen
APETALA2 (AP2) is best known for its function in the outer two floral whorls, where it specifies the identities of sepals and petals by restricting the expression of AGAMOUS (AG) to the inner two whorls in Arabidopsis thaliana. Here, we describe a role of AP2 in promoting the maintenance of floral stem cell fate, not by repressing AG transcription, but by antagonizing AG activity in the center of the flower. We performed a genetic screen with ag-10 plants, which exhibit a weak floral determinacy defect, and isolated a mutant with a strong floral determinacy defect...
September 8, 2016: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27587485/the-impact-of-long-term-water-stress-on-tree-architecture-and-production-is-related-to-changes-in-transitions-between-vegetative-and-reproductive-growth-in-the-granny-smith-apple-cultivar
#19
Weiwei Yang, Benoît Pallas, Jean-Baptiste Durand, Sébastien Martinez, Mingyu Han, Evelyne Costes
Water stress (WS) generates a number of physiological and morphological responses in plants that depend on the intensity and duration of stress as well as the plant species and development stage. In perennial plants, WS may affect plant development through cumulative effects that modify plant functions, architecture and production over time. Plant architecture depends on the fate of the terminal and axillary buds that can give rise, in the particular case of apple, to reproductive or vegetative growth units (GUs) of different lengths...
November 2016: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27525988/rlks-orchestrate-the-signaling-in-plant-male-female-interaction
#20
REVIEW
Hongju Li, Wei-Cai Yang
Different from animals, sessile plants are equipped with a large receptor-like kinase (RLK) superfamily. RLKs are a family of single trans-membrane proteins with divergent N-terminal extracellular domains capped by a signal peptide and C-terminal intracellular kinase. Researches in the last two decades have uncovered an increasing number of RLKs that regulate plant development, stress response and sexual reproduction, highlighting a dominant role of RLK signaling in cell-to-cell communications. Sexual reproduction in flowering plants is featured by interactions between the male gametophyte and the female tissues to facilitate sperm delivery and fertilization...
September 2016: Science China. Life Sciences
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