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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048487/the-genome-draft-of-coconut-cocos-nucifera
#1
Yong Xiao, Pengwei Xu, Haikuo Fan, Luc Baudouin, Wei Xia, Stéphanie Bocs, Junyang Xu, Qiong Li, Anping Guo, Lixia Zhou, Jing Li, Yi Wu, Zilong Ma, Alix Armero, Auguste Emmanuel Issali, Na Liu, Ming Peng, Yaodong Yang
Background: Coconut palm (Cocos nucifera, 2n = 32), a member of genus Cocos and family Arecaceae (Palmaceae), is an important tropical fruit and oil crop. Currently, coconut palm is cultivated in 93 countries, including Central and South America, East and West Africa, Southeast Asia and the Pacific island, with a total growth area of more than 12 million hectares (www.fao.org/faostat/en/). Coconut palm is generally classified into two main categories: "Tall" (flowering 8-10 years after planting) and "Dwarf" (flowering 4-6 years after planting), based on morphological characteristics and breeding habits...
October 5, 2017: GigaScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033328/the-cys-arg-n-end-rule-pathway-is-a-general-sensor-of-abiotic-stress-in-flowering-plants
#2
Jorge Vicente, Guillermina M Mendiondo, Mahsa Movahedi, Marta Peirats-Llobet, Yu-Ting Juan, Yu-Yen Shen, Charlene Dambire, Katherine Smart, Pedro L Rodriguez, Yee-Yung Charng, Julie E Gray, Michael J Holdsworth
Abiotic stresses impact negatively on plant growth, profoundly affecting yield and quality of crops. Although much is known about plant responses, very little is understood at the molecular level about the initial sensing of environmental stress. In plants, hypoxia (low oxygen, which occurs during flooding) is directly sensed by the Cys-Arg/N-end rule pathway of ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis, through oxygen-dependent degradation of group VII Ethylene Response Factor transcription factors (ERFVIIs) via amino-terminal (Nt-) cysteine [1, 2]...
October 11, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992213/repression-of-terminal-flower1-primarily-mediates-floral-induction-in-pear-pyrus-pyrifolia-nakai-concomitant-with-change-in-gene-expression-of-plant-hormone-related-genes-and-transcription-factors
#3
Songling Bai, Pham Anh Tuan, Takanori Saito, Akiko Ito, Benjamin Ewa Ubi, Yusuke Ban, Takaya Moriguchi
Floral induction is an important event in the annual growth cycle of perennial fruit trees. For pear, this event directly affects fruit production in the following year. The flower buds in many species are induced by FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT), whose effect is repressed by the meristem-expressed gene TERMINAL FLOWER1 (TFL1). In this study, we investigated the functions of pear FT and TFL1 genes during floral development. Expression of pear FTs (PpFT1a and PpFT2a) in reproductive meristems was not obviously induced prior to floral initiation, while expression of TFL1s (PpTFL1-1a and PpTFL1-2a) rapidly decreased...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959835/-cloning-and-expression-analysis-on-full-length-cds-of-zeaxanthin-epoxidase-gene-in-pseudostellaria-heterophylla
#4
Wei Zheng, Tao Zhou, Jun Li, Deng-Kai Long, Wei-Ke Jiang, Ling Ding
Zeaxanthin epoxidase plays an important role in indirect pathway of plant abscisic acid biosynthesis. According to the data of Pseudostellaria heterophylla transcriptome, zeaxanthin epoxidase gene was isolated and named as PhZEP. The results of bioinformatics analysis showed that the coding sequence of PhZEP was 1 263 bp long and encoded 420 amino acids. The putative protein molecular weight was 47.34 kDa and its theoretical isoelectric point was 6.64. The characteristic structure domains were predicted, including binding site of lipoprotein and flavoprotein monooxyenase...
February 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943902/khat-promotes-human-breast-cancer-mda-mb-231-cell-apoptosis-via-mitochondria-and-mapk-associated-pathways
#5
Yu Lu, Yanyan Li, Min Xiang, Jie Zhou, Juan Chen
Khat (Catha edulis Forsk) is a flowering evergreen plant in Eastern Africa and Southwestern Arabia. Consumption of Khat has been associated with the development of oral cancer, but its mechanism of action on the molecular level remains unclear. The present study demonstrated the cytotoxic effect of khat extracts on the human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231. Trypan blue exclusion assays, flow cytometry, fluorescent and electron microscopy, as well as western blotting were used to analyze the effects of Khat on the cell viability of breast cancer cells, expression of apoptotic-associated proteins and the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS)...
October 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878788/transcriptomic-analysis-reveals-candidate-genes-for-female-sterility-in-pomegranate-flowers
#6
Lina Chen, Jie Zhang, Haoxian Li, Juan Niu, Hui Xue, Beibei Liu, Qi Wang, Xiang Luo, Fuhong Zhang, Diguang Zhao, Shangyin Cao
Pomegranate has two types of flowers on the same plant: functional male flowers (FMF) and bisexual flowers (BF). BF are female-fertile flowers that can set fruits. FMF are female-sterile flowers that fail to set fruit and that eventually drop. The putative cause of pomegranate FMF female sterility is abnormal ovule development. However, the key stage at which the FMF pomegranate ovules become abnormal and the mechanism of regulation of pomegranate female sterility remain unknown. Here, we studied ovule development in FMF and BF, using scanning electron microscopy to explore the key stage at which ovule development was terminated and then analyzed genes differentially expressed (differentially expressed genes - DEGs) between FMF and BF to investigate the mechanism responsible for pomegranate female sterility...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874507/a-specific-gibberellin-20-oxidase-dictates-the-flowering-runnering-decision-in-diploid-strawberry
#7
Tracey Tenreira, Maria João Pimenta Lange, Theo Lange, Cécile Bres, Marc Labadie, Amparo Monfort, Michel Hernould, Christophe Rothan, Béatrice Denoyes
Asexual and sexual reproduction occur jointly in many angiosperms. Stolons (elongated stems) are used for asexual reproduction in the crop species potato (Solanum tuberosum) and strawberry (Fragaria spp), where they produce tubers and clonal plants, respectively. In strawberry, stolon production is essential for vegetative propagation at the expense of fruit yield, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are unknown. Here, we show that the stolon deficiency trait of the runnerless (r) natural mutant in woodland diploid strawberry (Fragaria vesca) is due to a deletion in the active site of a gibberellin20-oxidase (GA20ox) gene, which is expressed primarily in the axillary meristem dome and primordia and in developing stolons...
September 2017: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873010/regulatory-interplay-between-leafy-apetala1-cauliflower-and-terminal-flower1-new-insights-into-an-old-relationship
#8
Antonio Serrano-Mislata, Kevin Goslin, Beibei Zheng, Liina Rae, Frank Wellmer, Emmanuelle Graciet, Francisco Madueño
The gene regulatory network comprised of LEAFY (LFY), APETALA1 (AP1), the AP1 paralog CAULIFLOWER (CAL), and TERMINAL FLOWER1 (TFL1) is a major determinant of the flowering process in Arabidopsis thaliana. TFL1 activity in the shoot apical meristem provides inflorescence identity while the transcription factors LFY and AP1/CAL confer floral identity to emerging floral primordia. It has been thought that LFY and AP1/CAL control the onset of flowering in part by repressing TFL1 expression in flowers. However, in the June issue of Plant Physiology, we reported that LFY and AP1 act antagonistically in the regulation of several key flowering regulators, including TFL1...
October 3, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832232/anti-inflammatory-effect-of-pomegranate-flower-in-lipopolysaccharide-lps-stimulated-raw264-7-macrophages
#9
Jianjun Xu, Yongxin Zhao, Haji Akber Aisa
CONTEXT: Punica granatum L (Punicaceae) flower is an important diabetes treatment in oriental herbal medicine. OBJECTIVE: This study investigates the inflammation effects of pomegranate flower (PFE) ethanol extract in LPS-induced RAW264.7 cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: PFE (10, 25, 50, 100 μg/mL) was applied to 1 μg/mL LPS-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages in vitro. Levels of nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β (IL-1β), interleukin (IL)-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) in the supernatant fraction were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)...
December 2017: Pharmaceutical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815698/altered-regulation-of-terminal-flower-1-causes-the-unique-vernalisation-response-in-an-arctic-woodland-strawberry-accession
#10
Elli A Koskela, Takeshi Kurokura, Tuomas Toivainen, Anita Sønsteby, Ola M Heide, Daniel J Sargent, Sachiko Isobe, Laura Jaakola, Hrannar Hilmarsson, Paula Elomaa, Timo Hytönen
Vernalisation requirement is an agriculturally important trait that postpones the development of cold-sensitive floral organs until the spring. The family Rosaceae includes many agriculturally important fruit and berry crops that suffer from crop losses caused by frost injury to overwintering flower buds. Recently, a vernalisation-requiring accession of the Rosaceae model woodland strawberry (Fragaria vesca) has been identified in northern Norway. Understanding the molecular basis of the vernalisation requirement in this accession would advance the development of strawberry cultivars better adapted to temperate climate...
August 16, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769969/functional-characterization-of-a-novel-r2r3-myb-transcription-factor-modulating-the-flavonoid-biosynthetic-pathway-from-epimedium-sagittatum
#11
Wenjun Huang, Haiyan Lv, Ying Wang
Epimedium species have been widely used both as traditional Chinese medicinal plants and ornamental perennials. Both flavonols, acting as the major bioactive components (BCs) and anthocyanins, predominantly contributing to the color diversity of Epimedium flowers belong to different classes of flavonoids. It is well-acknowledged that flavonoid biosynthetic pathway is predominantly regulated by R2R3-MYB transcription factor (TF) as well as bHLH TF and WD40 protein at the transcriptional level. MYB TFs specifically regulating anthocyanin or flavonol biosynthetic pathway have been already isolated and functionally characterized from Epimedium sagittatum, but a R2R3-MYB TF involved in regulating both these two pathways has not been functionally characterized to date in Epimedium plants...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769957/aba-mediated-stomatal-response-in-regulating-water-use-during-the-development-of-terminal-drought-in-wheat
#12
REVIEW
Renu Saradadevi, Jairo A Palta, Kadambot H M Siddique
End-of-season drought or "terminal drought," which occurs after flowering, is considered the most significant abiotic stress affecting crop yields. Wheat crop production in Mediterranean-type environments is often exposed to terminal drought due to decreasing rainfall and rapid increases in temperature and evapotranspiration during spring when wheat crops enter the reproductive stage. Under such conditions, every millimeter of extra soil water extracted by the roots benefits grain filling and yield and improves water use efficiency (WUE)...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759789/changes-in-carbohydrate-levels-and-relative-water-content-rwc-to-distinguish-dormancy-phases-in-sweet-cherry
#13
Heiko Kaufmann, Michael Blanke
Perennial trees require chilling, i.e. a period of cold temperature in the winter, for flowering next spring; sweet cherry is particularly prone to lack of chilling. The objective of this study is to identify possible transition points to clearly distinguish dormancy phases by relating carbohydrate and relative water content (RWC) in reproductive buds to concomitant chilling fulfilment. This contribution proposes the use of four transition points between the dormancy phases and their characterization in terms of carbohydrates, water contents in combination with chilling values and may allow upscaling to other dormancy studies in trees; two groups of cherry varieties were defined based on their different initial sorbitol and starch level in the autumn...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752516/cycling-dof-factor-1-represses-transcription-through-the-topless-co-repressor-to-control-photoperiodic-flowering-in-arabidopsis
#14
Greg S Goralogia, Tong-Kun Liu, Lin Zhao, Paul M Panipinto, Evan D Groover, Yashkarn S Bains, Takato Imaizumi
CYCLING DOF FACTOR 1 (CDF1) and its homologs play an important role in the floral transition by repressing the expression of floral activator genes such as CONSTANS (CO) and FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) in Arabidopsis. The day-length-specific removal of CDF1-dependent repression is a critical mechanism in photoperiodic flowering. However, the mechanism by which CDF1 represses CO and FT transcription remained elusive. Here we demonstrate that Arabidopsis CDF proteins contain non-EAR motif-like conserved domains required for interaction with the TOPLESS (TPL) co-repressor protein...
October 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741704/methylation-of-protein-phosphatase-2a-influence-of-regulators-and-environmental-stress-factors
#15
Maria T Creighton, Anna Kolton, Amr R A Kataya, Jodi Maple-Grødem, Irina O Averkina, Behzad Heidari, Cathrine Lillo
Protein phosphatase 2A catalytic subunit (PP2A-C) has a terminal leucine subjected to methylation, a regulatory mechanism conserved from yeast to mammals and plants. Two enzymes, LCMT1 and PME1, methylate and demethylate PP2A-C, respectively. The physiological importance of these posttranslational modifications is still enigmatic. We investigated these processes in Arabidopsis thaliana by mutant phenotyping, by global expression analysis, and by monitoring methylation status of PP2A-C under different environmental conditions...
October 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724621/mildew-resistance-locus-o-function-in-pollen-tube-reception-is-linked-to-its-oligomerization-and-subcellular-distribution
#16
Daniel S Jones, Jing Yuan, Benjamin E Smith, Andrew C Willoughby, Emily L Kumimoto, Sharon A Kessler
Sexual reproduction in flowering plants requires communication between synergid cells and a tip-elongating pollen tube (PT) for the successful delivery of sperm cells to the embryo sac. The reception of the PT relies on signaling within the synergid cell that ultimately leads to the degeneration of the receptive synergid and PT rupture, releasing the sperm cells for double fertilization. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), NORTIA, a member of the MILDEW RESISTANCE LOCUS O (MLO) family of proteins, plays a critical role in the communication processes regulating PT reception...
September 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724076/gbs-based-genomic-selection-for-pea-grain-yield-under-severe-terminal-drought
#17
Paolo Annicchiarico, Nelson Nazzicari, Luciano Pecetti, Massimo Romani, Barbara Ferrari, Yanling Wei, E Charles Brummer
Terminal drought is the main stress that limits pea ( L.) grain yield in Mediterranean-climate regions. This study provides an unprecedented assessment of the predictive ability of genomic selection (GS) for grain yield under severe terminal drought using genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) data. Additional aims were to assess the GS predictive ability for different GBS data quality filters and GS models, comparing intrapopulation with interpopulation GS predictive ability and to perform genome-wide association (GWAS) studies...
July 2017: Plant Genome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698232/genome-wide-sequence-and-expression-analysis-of-the-nac-transcription-factor-family-in-polyploid-wheat
#18
Philippa Borrill, Sophie A Harrington, Cristobal Uauy
Many important genes in agriculture correspond to transcription factors (TFs) that regulate a wide range of pathways from flowering to responses to disease and abiotic stresses. In this study, we identified 5776 TFs in hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum) and classified them into gene families. We further investigated the NAC family exploring the phylogeny, C-terminal domain (CTD) conservation, and expression profiles across 308 RNA-seq samples. Phylogenetic trees of NAC domains indicated that wheat NACs divided into eight groups similar to rice (Oryza sativa) and barley (Hordeum vulgare)...
September 7, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671640/chrysin-attenuates-vcam-1-expression-and-monocyte-adhesion-in-lipopolysaccharide-stimulated-brain-endothelial-cells-by-preventing-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling
#19
Bo Kyung Lee, Won Jae Lee, Yi-Sook Jung
Adhesion of leukocytes to endothelial cells plays an important role in neuroinflammation. Therefore, suppression of the expression of adhesion molecules in brain endothelial cells may inhibit neuroinflammation. Chrysin (5,7-dihydroxyflavone) is a flavonoid component of propolis, blue passion flowers, and fruits. In the present study, we examined the effects of chrysin on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) in mouse cerebral vascular endothelial (bEnd.3) cells...
July 3, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634297/superman-prevents-class-b-gene-expression-and-promotes-stem-cell-termination-in-the-fourth-whorl-of-arabidopsis-thaliana-flowers
#20
Nathanaël Prunet, Weibing Yang, Pradeep Das, Elliot M Meyerowitz, Thomas P Jack
The molecular and genetic networks underlying the determination of floral organ identity are well studied, but much less is known about how the flower is partitioned into four developmentally distinct whorls. The SUPERMAN gene is required for proper specification of the boundary between stamens in whorl 3 and carpels in whorl 4, as superman mutants exhibit supernumerary stamens but usually lack carpels. However, it has remained unclear whether extra stamens in superman mutants originate from an organ identity change in whorl 4 or the overproliferation of whorl 3...
July 3, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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