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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536585/exploring-niches-for-short-season-grain-legumes-in-semi-arid-eastern-kenya-coping-with-the-impacts-of-climate-variability
#1
Anne Sennhenn, Donald M G Njarui, Brigitte L Maass, Anthony M Whitbread
Climate variability is the major risk to agricultural production in semi-arid agroecosystems and the key challenge to sustain farm livelihoods for the 500 million people who inhabit these areas worldwide. Short-season grain legumes have great potential to address this challenge and help to design more resilient and productive farming systems. However, grain legumes display a great diversity and differ widely in growth, development, and resource use efficiency. Three contrasting short season grain legumes common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533784/the-divergence-of-flowering-time-modulated-by-ft-tfl1-is-independent-to-their-interaction-and-binding-activities
#2
Zhen Wang, Ruiguang Yang, Upendra K Devisetty, Julin N Maloof, Yang Zuo, Jingjing Li, Yuxiao Shen, Jian Zhao, Manzhu Bao, Guogui Ning
FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) and TERMINAL FLOWER1 (TFL1) proteins share highly conserved amino acid residues but they play opposite regulatory roles in promoting and repressing the flowering response, respectively. Previous substitution models and functional analysis have identified several key amino acid residues which are critical for the promotion of flowering. However, the precise relationship between naturally occurring FT/TFL1 homologs and the mechanism of their role in flowering is still unclear. In this study, FT/TFL1 homologs from eight Rosaceae species, namely, Spiraea cantoniensis, Pyracantha fortuneana, Photinia serrulata, Fragaria ananassa, Rosa hybrida, Prunus mume, Prunus persica and Prunus yedoensis, were isolated...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500697/light-induced-conformational-changes-in-the-plant-cryptochrome-photolyase-homology-region-resolved-by-selective-isotope-labeling-and-infrared-spectroscopy
#3
Constanze Sommer, Marina S Dietz, Thomas Patschkowski, Tilo Mathes, Tilman Kottke
Plant cryptochromes are photoreceptors that regulate flowering, circadian rhythm and photomorphogenesis in response to blue and UV-A light. It has been demonstrated that the oxidized flavin cofactor is photoreduced to the neutral radical state via separate electron and proton transfer. Conformational changes have been found in the C-terminal extension, but few studies have addressed the changes in secondary structure in the sensory photolyase homology region (PHR). Here, we investigated the PHR of the plant cryptochrome from the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii by light-induced infrared difference spectroscopy in combination with global (13) C and (15) N isotope labeling...
May 2017: Photochemistry and Photobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475718/within-plant-distribution-and-dynamics-of-thrips-species-thysanoptera-thripidae-in-cotton
#4
Francis P F Reay-Jones, Jeremy K Greene, D Ames Herbert, Alana L Jacobson, George G Kennedy, Dominic D Reisig, Phillip M Roberts
A 2-yr study in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) was conducted to determine the abundance and species composition of thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on different plant parts throughout the season in Alabama, Georgia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Virginia. Plant parts sampled included seedlings, terminals with two expanded leaves, leaves from the upper, middle, and lower sections of the canopy, white flowers, and medium-sized bolls. Adult thrips were significantly more abundant on seedlings and flowers in 2014, and on flowers followed by seedlings and leaves from the middle canopy in 2015...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470711/carbohydrate-recognition-by-the-rhamnose-binding-lectin-sul-i-with-a-novel-three-domain-structure-isolated-from-the-venom-of-globiferous-pedicellariae-of-the-flower-sea-urchin-toxopneustes-pileolus
#5
Tomomitsu Hatakeyama, Ayaka Ichise, Hideaki Unno, Shuichiro Goda, Tatsuya Oda, Hiroaki Tateno, Jun Hirabayashi, Hitomi Sakai, Hideyuki Nakagawa
The globiferous pedicellariae of the venomous sea urchin Toxopneustes pileolus contains several biologically active proteins. We have cloned the cDNA of one of the toxin components, SUL-I, which is a rhamnose-binding lectin that acts as a mitogen through binding to carbohydrate chains on target cells. Recombinant SUL-I (rSUL-I) was produced in Escherichia coli cells, and its carbohydrate-binding specificity was examined with the glycoconjugate microarray analysis, which suggested that potential target carbohydrate structures are galactose-terminated N-glycans...
May 3, 2017: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400493/a-virus-induced-assay-for-functional-dissection-and-analysis-of-monocot-and-dicot-flowering-time-genes
#6
Cheng Qin, Wei Wei Chen, Jiajia Shen, Linming Cheng, Femi Akande, Ke Zhang, Chen Yuan, Chunyang Li, Pengcheng Zhang, Nongnong Shi, Qi Cheng, Yule Liu, Stephen Jackson, Yiguo Hong
Virus-induced flowering (VIF) uses virus vectors to express Flowering Locus T (FT) to induce flowering in plants. This approach has recently attracted wide interest for its practical applications in accelerating breeding in crops and woody fruit-trees. However, the insight into VIF and its potential as a powerful tool for dissecting florigenic proteins remained to be elucidated. Here, we describe the mechanism and further applications of Potato virus X (PVX)-based VIF in the short-day Nicotinana tabacum cultivar Maryland Mammoth...
April 11, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394399/a-single-target-mitochondrial-rna-editing-factor-of-funaria-hygrometrica-can-fully-reconstitute-rna-editing-at-two-sites-in-physcomitrella-patens
#7
Mareike Schallenberg-Rüdinger, Bastian Oldenkott, Manuel Hiss, Phuong Le Trinh, Volker Knoop, Stefan A Rensing
Nuclear-encoded pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins are key factors for site-specific RNA editing, converting cytidines into uridines in plant mitochondria and chloroplasts. All editing factors in the model moss Physcomitrella patens have a C-terminal DYW domain with similarity to cytidine deaminase. However, numerous editing factors in flowering plants lack such a terminal DYW domain, questioning its immediate role in the pyrimidine base conversion process. Here we further investigate the Physcomitrella DYW-type PPR protein PPR_78, responsible for mitochondrial editing sites cox1eU755SL and rps14eU137SL...
March 1, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392919/respiratory-bronchiolitis-associated-interstitial-lung-disease-secondary-to-electronic-nicotine-delivery-system-use-confirmed-with-open-lung-biopsy
#8
Mark Flower, Lakshmy Nandakumar, Mahendra Singh, David Wyld, Morgan Windsor, David Fielding
As a modern phenomenon, there is currently limited understanding of the possible toxic effects and broader implications of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS). Large volumes of aerosolized particles are inhaled during "vaping" and there are now an increasing number of case reports demonstrating toxic effects of ENDS, as well as human studies demonstrating impaired lung function in users. This article presents a case of respiratory bronchiolitis interstitial lung disease (RB-ILD) precipitated by vaping in a 33-year-old male with 10 pack years of traditional cigarette and prior treatment for mixed germ cell tumour...
May 2017: Respirology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389586/coordination-of-meristem-doming-and-the-floral-transition-by-late-termination-a-kelch-repeat-protein
#9
Lior Tal, Gilgi Friedlander, Netta Segal Gilboa, Tamar Unger, Shlomit Gilad, Yuval Eshed
Enlargement and doming of the shoot apical meristem (SAM) is a hallmark of the transition from vegetative growth to flowering. While this change is widespread, its role in the flowering process is unknown. The late termination (ltm) tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) mutant shows severely delayed flowering and precocious doming of the vegetative SAM LTM encodes a kelch domain-containing protein, with no link to known meristem maintenance or flowering time pathways. LTM interacts with the TOPLESS corepressor and with several transcription factors that can provide specificity for its functions...
April 2017: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386268/doap1-promotes-flowering-in-the-orchid-dendrobium-chao-praya-smile
#10
Nunchanoke Sawettalake, Sumontip Bunnag, Yanwen Wang, Lisha Shen, Hao Yu
APETALA1 (AP1) encodes a key MADS-box transcription factor that specifies the floral meristem identity on the flank of the inflorescence meristem, and determines the identity of perianth floral organs in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Orchids are members of the Orchidaceae, one of the largest families of angiosperms. Although the expression patterns of a few AP1-like genes in orchids have been reported, their actual functions in orchid reproductive development are so far largely unknown. In this study, we isolated and characterized an AP1 ortholog, DOAP1, from Dendrobium Chao Praya Smile...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385730/transcription-factor-interplay-between-leafy-and-apetala1-cauliflower-during-floral-initiation
#11
Kevin Goslin, Beibei Zheng, Antonio Serrano-Mislata, Liina Rae, Patrick T Ryan, Kamila Kwaśniewska, Bennett Thomson, Diarmuid O'Maoileidigh, Francisco Madueno, Frank Wellmer, Emmanuelle Graciet
The transcription factors LEAFY (LFY) and APETALA1 (AP1), together with the AP1 paralog CAULIFLOWER (CAL), control the onset of flower development in a partially redundant manner. This redundancy is thought to be mediated, at least in part, through the regulation of a shared set of target genes. However, whether these genes are independently or cooperatively regulated by LFY and AP1/CAL, is currently unknown. To better understand the regulatory relationship between LFY and AP1/CAL during floral initiation, we monitored the activity of LFY in the absence of AP1/CAL function...
April 6, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382045/genome-wide-identification-of-the-mikc-type-mads-box-gene-family-in-gossypium-hirsutum-l-unravels-their-roles-in-flowering
#12
Zhongying Ren, Daoqian Yu, Zhaoen Yang, Changfeng Li, Ghulam Qanmber, Yi Li, Jie Li, Zhao Liu, Lili Lu, Lingling Wang, Hua Zhang, Quanjia Chen, Fuguang Li, Zuoren Yang
Cotton is one of the major world oil crops. Cottonseed oil meets the increasing demand of fried food, ruminant feed, and renewable bio-fuels. MADS intervening keratin-like and C-terminal (MIKC)-type MADS-box genes encode transcription factors that have crucial roles in various plant developmental processes. Nevertheless, this gene family has not been characterized, nor its functions investigated, in cotton. Here, we performed a comprehensive analysis of MIKC-type MADS genes in the tetraploid Gossypium hirsutum L...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374778/structural-basis-for-a-novel-type-of-cytokinin-activating-protein
#13
Hogyun Seo, Kyung-Jin Kim
The Lonely Guy (LOG) protein has been identified as a crucial enzyme involved in the production of cytokinins, which are important phytohormones, in plants and plant-interacting organisms. However, C. glutamicum has an isoform (Cg1261) of LOG that contains an extended N-terminal region compared to those of known LOGs, and this type of isoforms are also found in a variety of organisms. Nevertheless, these proteins are considered as lysine decarboxylases, without their functional characterization. To investigate the function of Cg1261, we determined its crystal structure at a resolution of 1...
April 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374591/diversity-and-hierarchy-in-supramolecular-assemblies-of-triphenylalanine-from-laminated-helical-ribbons-to-toroids
#14
Enric Mayans, Jordi Casanovas, Ana M Gil, Ana I Jiménez, Carlos Cativiela, Jordi Puiggalí, Carlos Alemán
Microstructures from small phenylalanine-based peptides have attracted great attention lately because these compounds are considered to be a new class of tunable materials. In spite of the extensive studies on uncapped diphenylalanine and tetraphenylalanine peptides, studies on the self-assembly of uncapped triphenylananine (FFF) are very scarce and nonsystematic. In this work, we demonstrate that FFF assemblies can organize in a wide number of well-defined supramolecular structures, which include laminated helical-ribbons, leaflike dendrimers, doughnut-, needle-, and flower-shapes...
April 11, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373131/cartilage-oligomeric-matrix-protein-forms-protein-complexes-with-synovial-lubricin-via-non-covalent-and-covalent-interactions
#15
S A Flowers, S Kalamajski, L Ali, L I Björkman, J R Raj, A Aspberg, N G Karlsson, C Jin
OBJECTIVE: Understanding the cartilage surface structure, lost in arthritic disease, is essential for developing strategies to effectively restore it. Given that adherence of the lubricating protein, lubricin, to the cartilage surface is critical for boundary lubrication, an interaction with cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) was investigated. COMP, an abundant cartilage protein, is known to be important for matrix formation. DESIGN: Synovial fluid (SF) from arthritic patients was used to detect possible COMP-lubricin complexes by immunological methods...
April 1, 2017: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261246/possible-role-of-mads-affecting-flowering-3-and-b-box-domain-protein-19-in-flowering-time-regulation-of-arabidopsis-mutants-with-defects-in-nonsense-mediated-mrna-decay
#16
Zeeshan Nasim, Muhammad Fahim, Ji Hoon Ahn
Eukaryotic cells use nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) to clear aberrant mRNAs from the cell, thus preventing the accumulation of truncated proteins. In Arabidopsis, two UP-Frameshift (UPF) proteins, UPF1 and UPF3, play a critical role in NMD. Although deficiency of UPF1 and UPF3 leads to various developmental defects, little is known about the mechanism underlying the regulation of flowering time by NMD. Here, we showed that the upf1-5 and upf3-1 mutants had a late-flowering phenotype under long-day conditions and the upf1-5 upf3-1 double mutants had an additive effect in delaying flowering time...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254571/structural-elucidation-of-a-polysaccharide-from-lonicera-japonica-flowers-and-its-neuroprotective-effect-on-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-rat
#17
Danying Su, Shi Li, Wei Zhang, Jing Wang, Jingjing Wang, Manhua Lv
A water-soluble polysaccharide, LJPB2, was purified from Lonicera japonica flowers. The present study was aimed to illustrate its structural features and its neuroprotective effect via anti-oxidant activity on focal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in rat brain. Via chemical and spectral methods, LJPB2, a polysaccharide with molecular weight of 8.9×10(3)Da, was composed of arabinose, mannose, glucose, and galactose, in a molar ratio of 1.8: 1.0: 3.6: 3.7. In addition, the linkage analysis revealed that it mainly contained 1, 4, 6-linked mannose, 1, 4-linked glucose and 1, 4-linked galactose, with a highly branched structure of araban and terminal glucose...
June 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244754/1-2-dithiolane-derived-dynamic-covalent-materials-cooperative-self-assembly-and-reversible-cross-linking
#18
Xiangyi Zhang, Robert M Waymouth
The use of dithiolane-containing polymers to construct responsive and dynamic networks is an attractive strategy in material design. Here, we provide a detailed mechanistic study on the self-assembly and gelation behavior of a class of ABA triblock copolymers containing a central poly(ethylene oxide) block and terminal polycarbonate blocks with pendant 1,2-dithiolane functionalities. In aqueous solution, these amphiphilic block copolymers self-assemble into bridged flower micelles at high concentrations. The addition of a thiol initiates the reversible ring-opening polymerizations of dithiolanes in the micellar cores to induce the cross-linking and gelation of the micellar network...
February 28, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225036/three-tfl1-homologues-regulate-floral-initiation-in-the-biofuel-plant-jatropha-curcas
#19
Chaoqiong Li, Qiantang Fu, Longjian Niu, Li Luo, Jianghua Chen, Zeng-Fu Xu
Recent research revealed that TERMINAL FLOWER 1 (TFL1) homologues are involved in the critical developmental process of floral initiation in several plant species. In this study, the functions of three putative TFL1 homologues (JcTFL1a, JcTFL1b and JcTFL1c) in the biofuel plant Jatropha curcas were analysed using the transgenic approach. JcTFL1b and JcTFL1c, but not JcTFL1a, could complement the TFL1 function and rescue early flowering and determinate inflorescence phenotype in tfl1-14 Arabidopsis mutant, thus suggesting that JcTFL1b and JcTFL1c may be homologues of TFL1...
February 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198417/chilling-affects-phytohormone-and-post-embryonic-development-pathways-during-bud-break-and-fruit-set-in-apple-malus-domestica-borkh
#20
Gulshan Kumar, Khushboo Gupta, Shivalika Pathania, Mohit Kumar Swarnkar, Usha Kumari Rattan, Gagandeep Singh, Ram Kumar Sharma, Anil Kumar Singh
The availability of sufficient chilling during bud dormancy plays an important role in the subsequent yield and quality of apple fruit, whereas, insufficient chilling availability negatively impacts the apple production. The transcriptome profiling during bud dormancy release and initial fruit set under low and high chill conditions was performed using RNA-seq. The comparative high number of differentially expressed genes during bud break and fruit set under high chill condition indicates that chilling availability was associated with transcriptional reorganization...
February 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
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