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Mingyong Tang, Yan-Bin Tao, Qiantang Fu, Yaling Song, Longjian Niu, Zeng-Fu Xu
Jatropha curcas seeds are an excellent biofuel feedstock, but seed yields of Jatropha are limited by its poor flowering and fruiting ability. Thus, identifying genes controlling flowering is critical for genetic improvement of seed yield. We isolated the JcLFY, a Jatropha ortholog of Arabidopsis thaliana LEAFY (LFY), and identified JcLFY function by overexpressing it in Arabidopsis and Jatropha. JcLFY is expressed in Jatropha inflorescence buds, flower buds, and carpels, with highest expression in the early developmental stage of flower buds...
November 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
Tania P Gonzalez-Terrazas, Carlos Martel, Paulo Milet-Pinheiro, Manfred Ayasse, Elisabeth K V Kalko, Marco Tschapka
Nectar-feeding bats depend mainly on floral nectar to fulfil their energetic requirements. Chiropterophilous flowers generally present strong floral scents and provide conspicuous acoustic echoes to attract bats. While floral scents are assumed to attract bats over long distances, acoustic properties of flower structures may provide detailed information, thus supporting the localization of a flower at close ranges. So far, to our knowledge, there is no study trying to understand the relative importance as well as the combination of these generally coupled cues for detection (presence) and localization (exact position) of open flowers in nature...
August 2016: Royal Society Open Science
Feng Liu, Li Hu, Yuanping Cai, Hong Lin, Juanxu Liu, Yixun Yu
Ethylene plays an important role in flower senescence of many plants. Arabidopsis ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE3 (EIN3) and its homolog EIL1 are the downstream component of ethylene signaling transduction. However, the function of EILs during flower senescence remains unknown. Here, a petunia EIL gene, PhEIL2, was isolated. Phylogenetic tree showed that PhEIL1, whose coding gene is previously isolated, and PhEIL2 are the homologs of Arabidopsis AtEIL3 and AtEIL1, respectively. The expression of both PhEIL1 and PhEIL2 is the highest in corollas and increased during corolla senescence...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Cao Xu, Soon Ju Park, Joyce Van Eck, Zachary B Lippman
Plant productivity depends on inflorescences, flower-bearing shoots that originate from the stem cell populations of shoot meristems. Inflorescence architecture determines flower production, which can vary dramatically both between and within species. In tomato plants, formation of multiflowered inflorescences depends on a precisely timed process of meristem maturation mediated by the transcription factor gene TERMINATING FLOWER (TMF), but the underlying mechanism is unknown. We show that TMF protein acts together with homologs of the Arabidopsis BLADE-ON-PETIOLE (BOP) transcriptional cofactors, defined by the conserved BTB (Broad complex, Tramtrack, and Bric-a-brac)/POZ (POX virus and zinc finger) domain...
September 15, 2016: Genes & Development
Fan Yang, Peter Hsu, Susan D Lee, Wen Yang, Derick Hoskinson, Weihao Xu, Claire Moore, Gabriele Varani
3'-end processing of pre-mRNAs prior to packaging and export to the cytoplasm of the mature transcript is a highly regulated process executed by several tens of protein factors that recognize poorly conserved RNA signals. Among them is Pcf11, a highly conserved, multi-domain protein that links transcriptional elongation, 3'-end processing and transcription termination. Here we report the structure and biochemical function of Pcf11's C-terminal domain, which is conserved from yeast to humans. We identify a novel zinc finger fold, resembling a trillium flower...
October 25, 2016: RNA
Ana Lúcia Anversa Segatto, Claudia Elizabeth Thompson, Loreta Brandão Freitas
Developmental genes are believed to contribute to major changes during plant evolution, from infrageneric to higher levels. Due to their putative high sequence conservation, developmental genes are rarely used as molecular markers, and few studies including these sequences at low taxonomic levels exist. WUSCHEL-related homeobox genes (WOX) are transcription factors exclusively present in plants and are involved in developmental processes. In this study, we characterized the infrageneric genetic variation of Petunia WOX genes...
October 20, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Biology
Seyed Hossein Hoseinifar, Fazel Zoheiri, Carlo C Lazado
Immunostimulation through the use of sustainable and eco-friendly dietary additives is one of the current prophylactic strategies in fish husbandry. Plant-based immunostimulants are highly considered for this intent, both for their scientific and practical advantages. Persian hogweed (Heracleum persicum) is a flower-bearing herb that possesses interesting pharmacological importance due to its bioactive compounds. It is commonly used as spice, food additive, dietary supplement and traditional remedy. The present study evaluated the potential of H...
December 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Luis F Aristizábal, Gabriel Moura Mascarin, Ron Cherry, Bernardo Chaves-Cordoba, Steven P Arthurs
The development of simple and reliable pest sampling programs is needed for growers to adopt economic or aesthetic injury levels. We developed a sampling plan for monitoring chilli thrips Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood populations on KnockOut shrub roses under simulated nursery conditions. The distribution of S. dorsalis among different plant structures revealed that most adults and larvae are found on foliar terminals, when compared with buds and flowers. Based on thrips distribution, the third leaf of actively growing terminals was used to determine a sequential sampling model...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Economic Entomology
Jinhuan Wei, Heebak Choi, Ping Jin, Yunfei Wu, Jinmi Yoon, Yang-Seok Lee, Taiyong Quan, Gynheung An
Under long day (LD) lengths, flowering can be delayed in rice by modulating several regulatory genes. We found activation tagging lines that showed an early flowering phenotype preferentially under LD conditions. Expression of Rice outermost cell-specific gene 4 (Roc4), encoding a homeodomain Leu-zipper class IV family protein, was significantly increased. Transcript levels of Grain number, plant height, and heading date7 (Ghd7) were significantly reduced while those of Ghd7 downstream genes were increased...
November 2016: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
Amir Masoud Pourrahimi, Dongming Liu, Richard L Andersson, Valter Ström, Ulf W Gedde, Richard T Olsson
Controlled aqueous growth of 1 μm flower-shaped ZnO particles with a hierarchical subset of exposed nanosheets represented by {21̅0} crystal faces, followed by annealing at temperatures up to 1000 °C, is presented. The flower-shaped particles showed superior photocatalytic performance compared to the crystal faces of 20 nm ZnO nanoparticles. The photocatalytic reaction rate of the flower-shaped particles before annealing was 2.4 times higher per m(2) compared with that of the nanoparticles with double specific surface area...
October 10, 2016: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Tania P Gonzalez-Terrazas, Jens C Koblitz, Theodore H Fleming, Rodrigo A Medellín, Elisabeth K V Kalko, Hans-Ulrich Schnitzler, Marco Tschapka
Nectar-feeding bats show morphological, physiological, and behavioral adaptations for feeding on nectar. How they find and localize flowers is still poorly understood. While scent cues alone allow no precise localization of a floral target, the spatial properties of flower echoes are very precise and could play a major role, particularly at close range. The aim of this study is to understand the role of echolocation for classification and localization of flowers. We compared the approach behavior of Leptonycteris yerbabuenae to flowers of a columnar cactus, Pachycereus pringlei, to that to an acrylic hollow hemisphere that is acoustically conspicuous to bats, but has different acoustic properties and, contrary to the cactus flower, present no scent...
2016: PloS One
James H Cane
Reproduction is a nutritionally costly activity for many insects, as their eggs are rich in lipids and proteins. That cost seems especially acute for non-social bees, which for their size, lay enormous eggs. All adult female bees visit flowers, most of them to collect pollen and nectar, or sometimes oils, to feed their progeny. For adult bees, the need for pollen feeding has only been detailed for the honey bee, Apis mellifera. To experimentally test for the reproductive value of adult pollen feeding by a non-social bee, Osmia californica (Hymenoptera: Apiformes: Megachilidae), young female bees plus males were released into large glasshouse cages provided with either a male-fertile sunflower cultivar or a pollen-less one...
December 2016: Journal of Insect Physiology
Zhigang Huang, Ting Shi, Binglian Zheng, Rae Eden Yumul, Xigang Liu, Chenjiang You, Zhihong Gao, Langtao Xiao, Xuemei Chen
APETALA2 (AP2) is best known for its function in the outer two floral whorls, where it specifies the identities of sepals and petals by restricting the expression of AGAMOUS (AG) to the inner two whorls in Arabidopsis thaliana. Here, we describe a role of AP2 in promoting the maintenance of floral stem cell fate, not by repressing AG transcription, but by antagonizing AG activity in the center of the flower. We performed a genetic screen with ag-10 plants, which exhibit a weak floral determinacy defect, and isolated a mutant with a strong floral determinacy defect...
September 8, 2016: New Phytologist
Weiwei Yang, Benoît Pallas, Jean-Baptiste Durand, Sébastien Martinez, Mingyu Han, Evelyne Costes
Water stress (WS) generates a number of physiological and morphological responses in plants that depend on the intensity and duration of stress as well as the plant species and development stage. In perennial plants, WS may affect plant development through cumulative effects that modify plant functions, architecture and production over time. Plant architecture depends on the fate of the terminal and axillary buds that can give rise, in the particular case of apple, to reproductive or vegetative growth units (GUs) of different lengths...
November 2016: Tree Physiology
Hongju Li, Wei-Cai Yang
Different from animals, sessile plants are equipped with a large receptor-like kinase (RLK) superfamily. RLKs are a family of single trans-membrane proteins with divergent N-terminal extracellular domains capped by a signal peptide and C-terminal intracellular kinase. Researches in the last two decades have uncovered an increasing number of RLKs that regulate plant development, stress response and sexual reproduction, highlighting a dominant role of RLK signaling in cell-to-cell communications. Sexual reproduction in flowering plants is featured by interactions between the male gametophyte and the female tissues to facilitate sperm delivery and fertilization...
September 2016: Science China. Life Sciences
Yinglu Zhang, Katarzyna Rataj, Gordon G Simpson, Liang Tong
The Arabidopsis protein FPA controls flowering time by regulating the alternative 3'-end processing of the FLOWERING LOCUS (FLC) antisense RNA. FPA belongs to the split ends (SPEN) family of proteins, which contain N-terminal RNA recognition motifs (RRMs) and a SPEN paralog and ortholog C-terminal (SPOC) domain. The SPOC domain is highly conserved among FPA homologs in plants, but the conservation with the domain in other SPEN proteins is much lower. We have determined the crystal structure of Arabidopsis thaliana FPA SPOC domain at 2...
2016: PloS One
Wenwen Liu, Yushuai Wang, Xu Shen, Tian Tang
Transposable elements are key players in eukaryotic genomic diversity. Due to their high abundance, great heterogeneity, and replicative transposition, long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons are well suited as molecular markers for breeding and biodiversity studies, whereas their utilities in non-model organisms have been hindered by the lack of prior sequence knowledge. In this study, a putative complete (5362 bp) LTR retrotransposon was isolated and characterized in the mangrove species Kandelia candel (named KCRE1), and its transcription, insertional polymorphisms and copy number variations were also investigated...
August 4, 2016: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
Hayet Neghliz, Hervé Cochard, Nicole Brunel, Pierre Martre
Seed dehydration is the normal terminal event in the development of orthodox seeds and is physiologically related to the cessation of grain dry mass accumulation and crop grain yield. For a better understanding of grain dehydration, we evaluated the hypothesis that hydraulic conductance of the ear decreases during the latter stages of development and that this decrease results from disruption or occlusion of xylem conduits. Whole ear, rachis, and stem nodes hydraulic conductance and percentage loss of xylem conductivity were measured from flowering to harvest-ripeness on bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Jihye Yoo, Sang-Joon Park, Sang-Wha Lee
Flower-like gold nanoparticles, so called gold nanoflowers (AuNFs), were synthesized through the reduction of HAuC4 with ascorbic acid in the presence of chitosan polymers. Chitosan-mediated AuNFs exhibited the distinct SERS signals of 2-chlorothiophenol (CTP) due to the presence of many interstitial gaps (so called hot spots) on the surface. For the facile silica coating, the AuNFs were conjugated with terminal carboxylate groups of (3-glycidyloxypropyl)trimethoxysilane (GPTMS), consequently forming alkoxy-terminated AuNFs which could facilely participate in the sol-gel reaction for silica coating...
June 2016: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Haiyan Hu, Xin He, Lili Tu, Longfu Zhu, Sitao Zhu, Zonghe Ge, Xianlong Zhang
Jasmonic acid (JA) signalling has been well studied in Arabidopsis. Most reports focus on the role of JA in biological pathways such as stress resistance, trichome initiation and anthocyanin accumulation. The JASMONATE ZIM-DOMAIN (JAZ) protein is one of the important repressors in the JA signalling pathway. Previous studies showed that JA functions in fiber initiation and elongation, but little is known about how JAZ genes function in fiber development. In this study, a cotton JAZ protein (GhJAZ2) containing a highly conserved TIFY motif and a C-terminal Jas domain was identified, and its function during cotton fiber development was analysed...
July 15, 2016: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
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