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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218596/regulation-of-floral-meristem-activity-through-the-interaction-of-agamous-superman-and-clavata3-in-arabidopsis
#1
Akira Uemura, Nobutoshi Yamaguchi, Yifeng Xu, WanYi Wee, Yasunori Ichihashi, Takamasa Suzuki, Arisa Shibata, Ken Shirasu, Toshiro Ito
Floral meristem size is redundantly controlled by CLAVATA3, AGAMOUS , and SUPERMAN in Arabidopsis. The proper regulation of floral meristem activity is key to the formation of optimally sized flowers with a fixed number of organs. In Arabidopsis thaliana, multiple regulators determine this activity. A small secreted peptide, CLAVATA3 (CLV3), functions as an important negative regulator of stem cell activity. Two transcription factors, AGAMOUS (AG) and SUPERMAN (SUP), act in different pathways to regulate the termination of floral meristem activity...
December 7, 2017: Plant Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204147/early-flowering-as-a-drought-escape-mechanism-in-plants-how-can-it-aid-wheat-production
#2
REVIEW
Yuri Shavrukov, Akhylbek Kurishbayev, Satyvaldy Jatayev, Vladimir Shvidchenko, Lyudmila Zotova, Francois Koekemoer, Stephan de Groot, Kathleen Soole, Peter Langridge
Drought escape (DE) is a classical adaptive mechanism which involves rapid plant development to enable the completion of the full life-cycle prior to a coming drought event. This strategy is widely used in populations of native plants, and is also applicable to cereal crops such as wheat. Early flowering time and a shorter vegetative phase can be very important for wheat production in conditions of terminal drought since this can minimize exposure to dehydration during the sensitive flowering and post-anthesis grain filling periods...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117217/morphological-and-genetic-divergence-between-agave-inaequidens-a-cupreata-and-the-domesticated-a-hookeri-analysis-of-their-evolutionary-relationships
#3
Carmen J Figueredo-Urbina, Alejandro Casas, Ignacio Torres-García
Agave inaequidens and A. cupreata are wild species with some populations under incipient management, while A. hookeri is exclusively cultivated, used for producing the fermented beverage pulque. These species are closely related and sympatric members of the Crenatae group, but taxonomists have previously hypothesized that A. inaequidens is the most probable ancestor of A. hookeri. Our study aims at evaluating patterns of morphological and genetic divergence among populations of the three species, in order to analyze their ecological and possible evolutionary relationships...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102902/ectopic-expression-of-iiful-isolated-from-isatis-indigotica-could-change-the-reproductive-growth-of-arabidopsis-thaliana
#4
Yan-Qin Ma, Dian-Zhen Li, Li Zhang, Qi Li, Jing-Wen Yao, Zheng Ma, Xuan Huang, Zi-Qin Xu
The coding sequence of IiFUL in Isatis indigotica was isolated and was used in transformation of Arabidopsis. IiFUL overexpressing Arabidopsis plants exhibited early flowering phenotype, accompanied with the reduction of flower number and the production of terminal flower on the top of the main stems. In development process, the flowers located on the top of the main stems generated a lot of variations in phenotype, including abnormal swelling of pistil, withering and numerical change of stamens and petals, appearance of stigmatoid tissues and naked ovules at the margin or inside of sepals...
November 2, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093470/functional-divergence-and-intron-variability-during-evolution-of-angiosperm-terminal-flower1-tfl1-genes
#5
Jian Gao, Bing-Hong Huang, Yu-Ting Wan, JenYu Chang, Jun-Qing Li, Pei-Chun Liao
The protein encoded by the TERMINAL FLOWER1 (TFL1) gene maintains indeterminacy in inflorescence meristem to repress flowering, and has undergone multiple duplications. However, basal angiosperms have one copy of a TFL1-like gene, which clusters with eudicot TFL1/CEN paralogs. Functional conservation has been reported in the paralogs CENTRORADIALIS (CEN) in eudicots, and ROOTS CURL IN NPA (RCNs) genes in monocots. In this study, long-term functional conservation and selective constraints were found between angiosperms, while the relaxation of selective constraints led to subfunctionalisation between paralogs...
November 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065308/the-spindle-assembly-checkpoint-in-arabidopsis-is-rapidly-shut-off-during-severe-stress
#6
Shinichiro Komaki, Arp Schnittger
The spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) in animals and yeast assures equal segregation of chromosomes during cell division. The prevalent occurrence of polyploidy in flowering plants together with the observation that many plants can be readily forced to double their genomes by application of microtubule drugs raises the question of whether plants have a proper SAC. Here, we provide a functional framework of the core SAC proteins in Arabidopsis. We reveal that Arabidopsis will delay mitosis in a SAC-dependent manner if the spindle is perturbed...
October 23, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048487/the-genome-draft-of-coconut-cocos-nucifera
#7
Yong Xiao, Pengwei Xu, Haikuo Fan, Luc Baudouin, Wei Xia, Stéphanie Bocs, Junyang Xu, Qiong Li, Anping Guo, Lixia Zhou, Jing Li, Yi Wu, Zilong Ma, Alix Armero, Auguste Emmanuel Issali, Na Liu, Ming Peng, Yaodong Yang
Coconut palm (Cocos nucifera,2n = 32), a member of genus Cocos and family Arecaceae (Palmaceae), is an important tropical fruit and oil crop. Currently, coconut palm is cultivated in 93 countries, including Central and South America, East and West Africa, Southeast Asia and the Pacific Islands, with a total growth area of more than 12 million hectares [1]. Coconut palm is generally classified into 2 main categories: "Tall" (flowering 8-10 years after planting) and "Dwarf" (flowering 4-6 years after planting), based on morphological characteristics and breeding habits...
November 1, 2017: GigaScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033328/the-cys-arg-n-end-rule-pathway-is-a-general-sensor-of-abiotic-stress-in-flowering-plants
#8
Jorge Vicente, Guillermina M Mendiondo, Mahsa Movahedi, Marta Peirats-Llobet, Yu-Ting Juan, Yu-Yen Shen, Charlene Dambire, Katherine Smart, Pedro L Rodriguez, Yee-Yung Charng, Julie E Gray, Michael J Holdsworth
Abiotic stresses impact negatively on plant growth, profoundly affecting yield and quality of crops. Although much is known about plant responses, very little is understood at the molecular level about the initial sensing of environmental stress. In plants, hypoxia (low oxygen, which occurs during flooding) is directly sensed by the Cys-Arg/N-end rule pathway of ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis, through oxygen-dependent degradation of group VII Ethylene Response Factor transcription factors (ERFVIIs) via amino-terminal (Nt-) cysteine [1, 2]...
October 23, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992213/repression-of-terminal-flower1-primarily-mediates-floral-induction-in-pear-pyrus-pyrifolia-nakai-concomitant-with-change-in-gene-expression-of-plant-hormone-related-genes-and-transcription-factors
#9
Songling Bai, Pham Anh Tuan, Takanori Saito, Akiko Ito, Benjamin Ewa Ubi, Yusuke Ban, Takaya Moriguchi
Floral induction is an important event in the annual growth cycle of perennial fruit trees. For pear, this event directly affects fruit production in the following year. The flower buds in many species are induced by FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT), whose effect is repressed by the meristem-expressed gene TERMINAL FLOWER1 (TFL1). In this study, we investigated the functions of pear FT and TFL1 genes during floral development. Expression of pear FTs (PpFT1a and PpFT2a) in reproductive meristems was not obviously induced prior to floral initiation, while expression of TFL1s (PpTFL1-1a and PpTFL1-2a) rapidly decreased...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959835/-cloning-and-expression-analysis-on-full-length-cds-of-zeaxanthin-epoxidase-gene-in-pseudostellaria-heterophylla
#10
Wei Zheng, Tao Zhou, Jun Li, Deng-Kai Long, Wei-Ke Jiang, Ling Ding
Zeaxanthin epoxidase plays an important role in indirect pathway of plant abscisic acid biosynthesis. According to the data of Pseudostellaria heterophylla transcriptome, zeaxanthin epoxidase gene was isolated and named as PhZEP. The results of bioinformatics analysis showed that the coding sequence of PhZEP was 1 263 bp long and encoded 420 amino acids. The putative protein molecular weight was 47.34 kDa and its theoretical isoelectric point was 6.64. The characteristic structure domains were predicted, including binding site of lipoprotein and flavoprotein monooxyenase...
February 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943902/khat-promotes-human-breast-cancer-mda-mb-231-cell-apoptosis-via-mitochondria-and-mapk-associated-pathways
#11
Yu Lu, Yanyan Li, Min Xiang, Jie Zhou, Juan Chen
Khat (Catha edulis Forsk) is a flowering evergreen plant in Eastern Africa and Southwestern Arabia. Consumption of Khat has been associated with the development of oral cancer, but its mechanism of action on the molecular level remains unclear. The present study demonstrated the cytotoxic effect of khat extracts on the human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231. Trypan blue exclusion assays, flow cytometry, fluorescent and electron microscopy, as well as western blotting were used to analyze the effects of Khat on the cell viability of breast cancer cells, expression of apoptotic-associated proteins and the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS)...
October 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878788/transcriptomic-analysis-reveals-candidate-genes-for-female-sterility-in-pomegranate-flowers
#12
Lina Chen, Jie Zhang, Haoxian Li, Juan Niu, Hui Xue, Beibei Liu, Qi Wang, Xiang Luo, Fuhong Zhang, Diguang Zhao, Shangyin Cao
Pomegranate has two types of flowers on the same plant: functional male flowers (FMF) and bisexual flowers (BF). BF are female-fertile flowers that can set fruits. FMF are female-sterile flowers that fail to set fruit and that eventually drop. The putative cause of pomegranate FMF female sterility is abnormal ovule development. However, the key stage at which the FMF pomegranate ovules become abnormal and the mechanism of regulation of pomegranate female sterility remain unknown. Here, we studied ovule development in FMF and BF, using scanning electron microscopy to explore the key stage at which ovule development was terminated and then analyzed genes differentially expressed (differentially expressed genes - DEGs) between FMF and BF to investigate the mechanism responsible for pomegranate female sterility...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874507/a-specific-gibberellin-20-oxidase-dictates-the-flowering-runnering-decision-in-diploid-strawberry
#13
Tracey Tenreira, Maria João Pimenta Lange, Theo Lange, Cécile Bres, Marc Labadie, Amparo Monfort, Michel Hernould, Christophe Rothan, Béatrice Denoyes
Asexual and sexual reproduction occur jointly in many angiosperms. Stolons (elongated stems) are used for asexual reproduction in the crop species potato (Solanum tuberosum) and strawberry (Fragaria spp), where they produce tubers and clonal plants, respectively. In strawberry, stolon production is essential for vegetative propagation at the expense of fruit yield, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are unknown. Here, we show that the stolon deficiency trait of the runnerless (r) natural mutant in woodland diploid strawberry (Fragaria vesca) is due to a deletion in the active site of a gibberellin20-oxidase (GA20ox) gene, which is expressed primarily in the axillary meristem dome and primordia and in developing stolons...
September 2017: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873010/regulatory-interplay-between-leafy-apetala1-cauliflower-and-terminal-flower1-new-insights-into-an-old-relationship
#14
Antonio Serrano-Mislata, Kevin Goslin, Beibei Zheng, Liina Rae, Frank Wellmer, Emmanuelle Graciet, Francisco Madueño
The gene regulatory network comprised of LEAFY (LFY), APETALA1 (AP1), the AP1 paralog CAULIFLOWER (CAL), and TERMINAL FLOWER1 (TFL1) is a major determinant of the flowering process in Arabidopsis thaliana. TFL1 activity in the shoot apical meristem provides inflorescence identity while the transcription factors LFY and AP1/CAL confer floral identity to emerging floral primordia. It has been thought that LFY and AP1/CAL control the onset of flowering in part by repressing TFL1 expression in flowers. However, in the June issue of Plant Physiology, we reported that LFY and AP1 act antagonistically in the regulation of several key flowering regulators, including TFL1...
October 3, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832232/anti-inflammatory-effect-of-pomegranate-flower-in-lipopolysaccharide-lps-stimulated-raw264-7-macrophages
#15
Jianjun Xu, Yongxin Zhao, Haji Akber Aisa
CONTEXT: Punica granatum L (Punicaceae) flower is an important diabetes treatment in oriental herbal medicine. OBJECTIVE: This study investigates the inflammation effects of pomegranate flower (PFE) ethanol extract in LPS-induced RAW264.7 cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: PFE (10, 25, 50, 100 μg/mL) was applied to 1 μg/mL LPS-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages in vitro. Levels of nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β (IL-1β), interleukin (IL)-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) in the supernatant fraction were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)...
December 2017: Pharmaceutical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815698/altered-regulation-of-terminal-flower-1-causes-the-unique-vernalisation-response-in-an-arctic-woodland-strawberry-accession
#16
Elli A Koskela, Takeshi Kurokura, Tuomas Toivainen, Anita Sønsteby, Ola M Heide, Daniel J Sargent, Sachiko Isobe, Laura Jaakola, Hrannar Hilmarsson, Paula Elomaa, Timo Hytönen
Vernalisation requirement is an agriculturally important trait that postpones the development of cold-sensitive floral organs until the spring. The family Rosaceae includes many agriculturally important fruit and berry crops that suffer from crop losses caused by frost injury to overwintering flower buds. Recently, a vernalisation-requiring accession of the Rosaceae model woodland strawberry (Fragaria vesca) has been identified in northern Norway. Understanding the molecular basis of the vernalisation requirement in this accession would advance the development of strawberry cultivars better adapted to temperate climate...
August 16, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769969/functional-characterization-of-a-novel-r2r3-myb-transcription-factor-modulating-the-flavonoid-biosynthetic-pathway-from-epimedium-sagittatum
#17
Wenjun Huang, Haiyan Lv, Ying Wang
Epimedium species have been widely used both as traditional Chinese medicinal plants and ornamental perennials. Both flavonols, acting as the major bioactive components (BCs) and anthocyanins, predominantly contributing to the color diversity of Epimedium flowers belong to different classes of flavonoids. It is well-acknowledged that flavonoid biosynthetic pathway is predominantly regulated by R2R3-MYB transcription factor (TF) as well as bHLH TF and WD40 protein at the transcriptional level. MYB TFs specifically regulating anthocyanin or flavonol biosynthetic pathway have been already isolated and functionally characterized from Epimedium sagittatum, but a R2R3-MYB TF involved in regulating both these two pathways has not been functionally characterized to date in Epimedium plants...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769957/aba-mediated-stomatal-response-in-regulating-water-use-during-the-development-of-terminal-drought-in-wheat
#18
REVIEW
Renu Saradadevi, Jairo A Palta, Kadambot H M Siddique
End-of-season drought or "terminal drought," which occurs after flowering, is considered the most significant abiotic stress affecting crop yields. Wheat crop production in Mediterranean-type environments is often exposed to terminal drought due to decreasing rainfall and rapid increases in temperature and evapotranspiration during spring when wheat crops enter the reproductive stage. Under such conditions, every millimeter of extra soil water extracted by the roots benefits grain filling and yield and improves water use efficiency (WUE)...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759789/changes-in-carbohydrate-levels-and-relative-water-content-rwc-to-distinguish-dormancy-phases-in-sweet-cherry
#19
Heiko Kaufmann, Michael Blanke
Perennial trees require chilling, i.e. a period of cold temperature in the winter, for flowering next spring; sweet cherry is particularly prone to lack of chilling. The objective of this study is to identify possible transition points to clearly distinguish dormancy phases by relating carbohydrate and relative water content (RWC) in reproductive buds to concomitant chilling fulfilment. This contribution proposes the use of four transition points between the dormancy phases and their characterization in terms of carbohydrates, water contents in combination with chilling values and may allow upscaling to other dormancy studies in trees; two groups of cherry varieties were defined based on their different initial sorbitol and starch level in the autumn...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752516/cycling-dof-factor-1-represses-transcription-through-the-topless-co-repressor-to-control-photoperiodic-flowering-in-arabidopsis
#20
Greg S Goralogia, Tong-Kun Liu, Lin Zhao, Paul M Panipinto, Evan D Groover, Yashkarn S Bains, Takato Imaizumi
CYCLING DOF FACTOR 1 (CDF1) and its homologs play an important role in the floral transition by repressing the expression of floral activator genes such as CONSTANS (CO) and FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) in Arabidopsis. The day-length-specific removal of CDF1-dependent repression is a critical mechanism in photoperiodic flowering. However, the mechanism by which CDF1 represses CO and FT transcription remained elusive. Here we demonstrate that Arabidopsis CDF proteins contain non-EAR motif-like conserved domains required for interaction with the TOPLESS (TPL) co-repressor protein...
October 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
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