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terminal flower

Yohei Higuchi
Flowering time regulation has significant effects on the agricultural and horticultural industries. Plants respond to changing environments and produce appropriate floral inducers (florigens) or inhibitors (anti-florigens) that determine flowering time. Recent studies have demonstrated that members of two homologous proteins, FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) and TERMINAL FLOWER 1 (TFL1), act as florigen and anti-florigen, respectively. Studies in diverse plant species have revealed universal but diverse roles of the FT/TFL1 gene family in many developmental processes...
January 2018: Breeding Science
Lin Guo, Xiuwei Cao, Yuhao Liu, Jun Li, Yongpeng Li, Dongming Li, Ke Zhang, Caixia Gao, Aiwu Dong, Xigang Liu
WUSCHEL (WUS) is critical for plant meristem maintenance and determinacy in Arabidopsis, and the regulation of its spatiotemporal expression patterns is complex. We previously found that AGAMOUS (AG), a key MADS-domain transcription factor in floral organ identity and floral meristem determinacy, can directly suppress WUS expression through the recruitment of the Polycomb group (PcG) protein TERMINAL FLOWER2 (TFL2, also known as LIKE HETEROCHROMATIN PROTEIN1, LHP1) at the WUS locus. However, the mechanism by which WUS is repressed remains unclear...
April 16, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Joonyup Kim, Ronghui Yang, Caren Chang, Younghoon Park, Mark L Tucker
INFLORESCENCE DEFICIENT IN ABSCISSION (IDA) is a signaling peptide that regulates cell separation in Arabidopsis including floral organ abscission and lateral root emergence. IDA is highly conserved in dicotyledonous flowering plant genomes. IDA-like sequences were also found in the genomic sequences of root-knot nematodes, Meloidogyne spp., which are globally deleterious pathogens of agriculturally important plants, but the role of these genes is unknown. Exogenous treatment of the Arabidopsis ida mutant with synthetic peptide identical to the M...
April 10, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Yanfeng Zhang, Shuhua Huang, Xuefang Wang, Jianwei Liu, Xupeng Guo, Jianxin Mu, Jianhua Tian, Xiaofeng Wang
Many vegetable and oilseed crops belong to Brassica species. The seed production of these crops is hampered often by abnormal floral organs, especially under the conditions of abiotic conditions. However, the molecular reasons for these abnormal floral organs remains poorly understood. Here, we report a novel pistil-like flower mutant of B. rapa . In the flower of this mutant, the four sepals are modified to one merged carpel that look like a ring in the sepal positions, enveloping some abnormal stamens and a pistil, and resulting in poor seed production...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Wensheng Zhao, Ran Gu, Gen Che, Zhihua Cheng, Xiaolan Zhang
Cucumber is an important vegetable with indeterminate growth habit which is beneficial to its yield. In this study, we cloned the TFL1 homolog CsTFL1b in cucumber. CsTFL1b shares highly sequence similarity to TFL1 from Arabidopsis and has conservative histidine amino acid residue which is necessary for TFL1 function. However, phylogenetic analysis suggested that cucurbits TFL1s (CsTFL1b of cucumber and CmTFL1 of melon) formed a subclade which is far from the AtTFL1 in Arabidopsis or CEN in Antirrhinum. CsTFL1b was highest expressed in male flower but barely expressed in SAM which was different from TFL1 in Arabidopsis with highly transcription accumulation in SAM and CsTFL1b was located in nucleus and cytoplasm...
March 21, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Véronique Hugouvieux, Catarina S Silva, Agnès Jourdain, Arnaud Stigliani, Quentin Charras, Vanessa Conn, Simon J Conn, Cristel C Carles, François Parcy, Chloe Zubieta
The MADS transcription factors (TF) constitute an ancient family of TF found in all eukaryotes that bind DNA as obligate dimers. Plants have dramatically expanded the functional diversity of the MADS family during evolution by adding protein-protein interaction domains to the core DNA-binding domain, allowing the formation of heterotetrameric complexes. Tetramerization of plant MADS TFs is believed to play a central role in the evolution of higher plants by acting as one of the main determinants of flower formation and floral organ specification...
March 19, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Tetsuya Higashiyama
Many receptor-like kinases localized at the pollen tube tip precisely control tube functions in flowering plants. Two recent reports have identified autocrine peptide ligands and receptor systems, providing insight into the molecular machinery that controls pollen tube growth and termination.
March 19, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Julia Karmann, Benedikt Müller, Ulrich Z Hammes
Pathways for assimilates. During their life cycle, plants alternate between a haploid stage, the gametophyte, and a diploid stage, the sporophyte. In higher plants, meiosis generates the gametophyte deeply embedded in the maternal tissue of the flower. The megaspore mother cell undergoes meiosis, and then, the surviving megaspore of the four megaspores produced undergoes mitotic divisions and finally gives rise to the female gametophyte, consisting of the egg cell, two synergids, the central cell, which due to the fusion of two nuclei is diploid (double haploid) in Arabidopsis and most angiosperms and the antipods, whose number is not fixed and varies significantly between species (Yadegari and Drews in Plant Cell 16(Suppl):S133-S141, 2004)...
March 16, 2018: Plant Reproduction
Zhanfeng Si, Hui Liu, Jiankun Zhu, Jiedan Chen, Qiong Wang, Lei Fang, Fengkai Gao, Yue Tian, Yali Chen, Lijing Chang, Bingliang Liu, Zegang Han, Baoliang Zhou, Yan Hu, Xianzhong Huang, Tianzhen Zhang
In cotton, the formation of fruiting branches affects both plant architecture and fiber yield. Here, we report map-based cloning of the Gossypium barbadense axillary flowering (GbAF) mutation gene, which causes bolls to be borne directly on the main plant stem, and of the G. hirsutum clustered boll (cl1) mutation gene. Both mutant alleles were found to represent point mutations at the Cl1 locus of the corresponding species, and therefore we propose that the GbAF mutation be referred to as cl1b. These Cl1 loci correspond to homologs of tomato SELF-PRUNING (SP), i...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Liyu Shi, Shifeng Cao, Xin Chen, Wei Chen, Yonghua Zheng, Zhenfeng Yang
Proanthocyanidins (PAs) are distributed widely in Chinese bayberry fruit and have been associated with human health benefits, but molecular and biochemical characterization of PA biosynthesis remains unclear. Here, two genes encoding key PA biosynthetic enzymes, anthocyanidin reductase (ANR) and leucoanthocyanidin reductase (LAR) were isolated in bayberry fruit. MrANR was highly expressed at the early stage of fruit development when soluble PAs accumulated at high levels. Meanwhile, the transcript abundance of both MrANR and MrLAR observed at the late stage was paralleled with the high amounts of insoluble PAs...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Jiaxin Li, Yujie Wang, Jian Xue, Pengsi Wang, Shangmei Shi
To investigate the dietary exposure risk of flonicamid application on Lonicerae Japonicae Flos and the effect of flonicamid on constituents of Lonicerae Japonicae Flos, field experiments were conducted in Fengqiu, Henan province, and flonicamid residue in samples collected was detected by gas chromatography equipped with electron capture detector (GC-ECD). And chlorogenic acid and luteoloside were determined by HPLC. Dietary exposure risk assessment was conducted through comparing the estimated daily intake (EDI) which was calculated by using the consumed residual level along with the acceptable daily intake (ADI)...
March 14, 2018: Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Mengqiang Chen, Mengyun Xu, Yao Xiao, Dandan Cui, Yongqiang Qin, Jiaqi Wu, Wenyi Wang, Guoping Wang
Anthocyanins are the main pigments in flowers and fruits. These pigments are responsible for the red, red-purple, violet, and purple color in plants, and act as insect and animal attractants. In this study, phenotypic analysis of the purple flower color in eggplant indicated that the flower color is controlled by a single dominant gene, FAS . Using an F₂ mapping population derived from a cross between purple-flowered 'Blacknite' and white-flowered 'Small Round', Flower Anthocyanidin Synthase ( FAS ) was fine mapped to an approximately 165...
March 9, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Kai Peng, Qianqian Huang, Zhongjun Xu, Tim A McAllister, Surya Acharya, Irene Mueller-Harvey, Christopher Drake, Junming Cao, Yanhua Huang, Yuping Sun, Shunxi Wang, Yuxi Wang
Conservation methods have been shown to affect forage nutrient composition and value, but little information is available about the effect of forage conservation on plant condensed tannins (CT). The objective of this study was to assess the effects of conservation method on the concentration, chemical composition and biological activity of CT. Whole-plant purple prairie clover (PPC, Dalea purpurea Vent.) was harvested at full flower and conserved as freeze-dried forage (FD), hay (HAY) or silage (SIL). Concentration of CT in conserved PPC was determined by the butanol-HCl-acetone method...
March 6, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Honglan Qu, Wei Yang, Jie Li
In present study, we purified a polysaccharide, TFPB1, from the flower buds of Tussilago farfara using DEAE-cellulose 52 anion-exchange and Sephacryl S-300 HR gel filtration chromatography. TFPB1 was a homogeneous polysaccharide with a molecular weight of 37.8 kDa and composed of rhamnose, galacturonic acid, glucose, galactose, and arabinose, in a ratio of 13:13:1:7:12. Methylation and NMR results demonstrated that TFPB1 contained a rhamnogalacturonan I backbone consisting of a repeat disaccharide unit →4)-α-D -GalAp-(1 → 2)-α-L -Rhap-(1→, substituted by various type II arabinogalactan branches including terminal galactose, (1 → 3)-β-D -galactan and (1 → 5)-α-L -arabinan, attached to the O-4 of (1 → 2)-α-L -Rhap...
March 2, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Willian B Silva, Mateus H Vicente, Jessenia M Robledo, Diego S Reartes, Renata C Ferrari, Ricardo E Bianchetti, Wagner L Araújo, Luciano Freschi, Lázaro Eustáquio Pereira Peres, Agustin Zsögön
The SELF PRUNING (SP) gene is a key regulator of growth habit in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). It is an ortholog of TERMINAL FLOWER 1, a phosphatidyl-ethanolamine binding protein with anti-florigenic activity in Arabidopsis thaliana. A spontaneous loss-of-function mutation (sp) has been bred into several industrial tomato cultivars, as it produces a suite of pleiotropic effects that are favorable for mechanical harvesting, including determinate growth habit, short plant stature and simultaneous fruit ripening...
March 2, 2018: Plant Physiology
Dan Peng, Yueqiao Jiang, Xuanming Liu, Bo Zhou
Sapium sebiferum (L.) Roxb [S. sebiferum L.] is not only one of the most important economic woody oil trees, but is also a significant traditional herbal medicine in China. The CONSTANS (CO) gene is a key regulator of the long day-dependent flowering pathway in Arabidopsis and other plants. To gain insight into the role of CO in woody oil trees, SsCO from S. sebiferum L. was isolated and characterized in this study. The corresponding SsCO protein, with 340 amino acid residues, included two putative zinc finger motifs B-Box1 and B-Box2 in the N-terminal region and a conserved CCT domain in the C-terminal region...
February 18, 2018: Gene
Hanqing Guo, Nu Wang, Tami R McDonald, Anke Reinders, John M Ward
Plant ammonium transporters in the AMT/MEP/Rh superfamily have only been previously characterized in flowering plants (angiosperms). Plant AMT1s are electrogenic, while plant AMT2s are electroneutral and MEP and Rh transporters in other organisms are electroneutral. We analyzed the transport function of MpAMT1;2 from the basal land plant Marchantia polymorpha, a liverwort. MpAMT1;2 was shown to localize to the plasma membrane in Marchantia gametophyte thallus by stable transformation using a C-terminal citrine fusion...
February 12, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
Ankush Bansal, Mehul Salaria, Tashil Sharma, Tsering Stobdan, Anil Kant
Sea buckthorn is a dioecious medicinal plant found at high altitude. The plant has both male and female reproductive organs in separate individuals. In this article, whole transcriptome de novo assemblies of male and female flower bud samples were carried out using Illumina NextSeq 500 platform to determine the role of the genes involved in sex determination. Moreover, genes with differential expression in male and female transcriptomes were identified to understand the underlying sex determination mechanism...
February 2018: 3 Biotech
Miho Kaneko-Suzuki, Rie Ishikawa, Chiaki Terakawa, Chojiro Kojima, Misa Fujiwara, Izuru Ohki, Hiroyuki Tsuji, Ko Shimamoto, Ken-Ichiro Taoka
Hd3a, a rice homolog of FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT), is a florigen that induces flowering. Hd3a makes a ternary 'florigen activation complex' (FAC) with 14-3-3 protein and OsFD1 transcription factor, a rice homologue of FD that induces transcription of OsMADS15, a rice homologue of APETALA1 (AP1), which leads to flowering. TERMINAL FLOWER 1 (TFL1) represses flowering and controls inflorescence architecture. However, the molecular basis for floral repression by TFL1 remains poorly understood. Here we show that RICE CENTRORADIALIS (RCN), rice TFL1-like proteins, compete with Hd3a for 14-3-3 binding...
February 1, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
Christopher T Petersen, Mojibade Hassan, Anna B Morris, Jasmin Jeffery, Kunhee Lee, Neera Jagirdar, Ashley D Staton, Sunil S Raikar, Harold T Spencer, Todd Sulchek, Christopher R Flowers, Edmund K Waller
Adoptive therapy with ex vivo-expanded genetically modified antigen-specific T cells can induce remissions in patients with relapsed/refractory cancer. The clinical success of this therapy depends upon efficient transduction and expansion of T cells ex vivo and their homing, persistence and cytotoxicity following reinfusion. Lower rates of ex vivo expansion and clinical response using anti-CD19 chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells have been seen in heavily pretreated lymphoma patients compared with B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients and motivate the development of novel strategies to enhance ex vivo T cell expansion and their persistence in vivo...
February 13, 2018: Blood Advances
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