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Metabolic disorders in HIV

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898058/ccl5-rantes-contributes-to-hypothalamic-insulin-signaling-for-systemic-insulin-responsiveness-through-ccr5
#1
Szu-Yi Chou, Reni Ajoy, Chun Austin Changou, Ya-Ting Hsieh, Yang-Kao Wang, Barry Hoffer
Many neurodegenerative diseases are accompanied by metabolic disorders. CCL5/RANTES, and its receptor CCR5 are known to contribute to neuronal function as well as to metabolic disorders such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, obesity, atherosclerosis and metabolic changes after HIV infection. Herein, we found that the lack of CCR5 or CCL5 in mice impaired regulation of energy metabolism in hypothalamus. Immunostaining and co-immunoprecipitation revealed the specific expression of CCR5, associated with insulin receptors, in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC)...
November 29, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888531/fate-of-microglia-during-hiv-1-infection-from-activation-to-senescence
#2
REVIEW
Natalie C Chen, Andrea T Partridge, Christian Sell, Claudio Torres, Julio Martín-García
Microglia support productive human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection and disturbed microglial function could contribute to the development of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). Better understanding of how HIV-1 infection and viral protein exposure modulate microglial function during the course of infection could lead to the identification of novel therapeutic targets for both the eradication of HIV-1 reservoir and treatment of neurocognitive deficits. This review first describes microglial origins and function in the normal central nervous system (CNS), and the changes that occur during aging...
November 26, 2016: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875832/remediating-hiv-associated-neurocognitive-disorders-via-cognitive-training-a-perspective-on-neurocognitive-aging
#3
David E Vance, Shameka L Cody, Linda Moneyham
Over 50% of adults with HIV exhibit some form of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder, ranging from mild asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment to HIV-associated dementia. As adults age with HIV and become susceptible to cardiovascular and metabolic comorbidities, the prevalence and severity of such neurocognitive disorders are likely to increase. With compromised renal and hepatic functioning often accompanying HIV, pharmaceutical interventions to address such neurocognitive disorders may not be the best strategy and are not without risks...
2017: Interdisciplinary Topics in Gerontology and Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869500/lower-frailty-is-associated-with-successful-cognitive-aging-among-older-adults-with-hiv
#4
Lindsay Mk Wallace, Maria Ferrara, Thomas D Brothers, Sara Garlassi, Susan A Kirkland, Olga Theou, Stefano Zona, Cristina Mussini, David J Moore, Kenneth Rockwood, Giovanni Guaraldi
BACKGROUND: Aging with HIV poses unique and complex challenges, including avoidance of neurocognitive disorder. Our objective here is to identify the prevalence and predictors of successful cognitive aging (SCA) in sample of older adults with HIV. METHODS: One hundred three HIV-infected individuals aged 50 and older were recruited from the Modena HIV Metabolic Clinic in Italy. Participants were treated with combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) for at least one year and had suppressed plasma HIV viral load...
November 21, 2016: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825722/current-status-of-hiv-aids-in-the-art-era
#5
REVIEW
Kazuhisa Yoshimura
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) spread to humans from chimpanzees (HIV-1 groups M and N), gorillas (HIV-1 groups P and O), and sooty mangabeys (HIV-2). HIV is spread mainly through blood or body fluids. Subjects can become infected with HIV by sexual contact, needle sharing, blood transfusions, or maternal transmissions as a blood-borne virus or via breast-milk. The incubation period of HIV-1 from infection to the development of AIDS ranges from 8 to 11 years. In the past 3 decades, HIV has caused a great burden to global wealth and health...
November 5, 2016: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812290/tryptophan-metabolism-and-its-relationship-with-depression-and-cognitive-impairment-among-hiv-infected-individuals
#6
Michael R Keegan, Seetharamaiah Chittiprol, Scott L Letendre, Alan Winston, Dietmar Fuchs, Adriano Boasso, Jennifer Iudicello, Ronald J Ellis
OBJECTIVE: Cognitive impairment (CI) and major depressive disorder (MDD) remain prevalent in treated HIV-1 disease; however, the pathogenesis remains elusive. A possible contributing mechanism is immune-mediated degradation of tryptophan (TRP) via the kynurenine (KYN) pathway, resulting in decreased production of serotonin and accumulation of TRP degradation products. We explored the association of these biochemical pathways and their relationship with CI and MDD in HIV-positive (HIV+) individuals...
2016: International Journal of Tryptophan Research: IJTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796941/hepatic-porphyria-a-narrative-review
#7
REVIEW
Sumant Arora, Steven Young, Sudha Kodali, Ashwani K Singal
Porphyrias are a group of metabolic disorders, which result from a specific abnormality in one of the eight enzymes of the heme biosynthetic pathway. These have been subdivided based on the predominant site of enzyme defect into hepatic and erythropoietic types and based on clinical presentation into acute neurovisceral and cutaneous blistering porphyrias. This review focuses on hepatic porphyrias, which include acute intermittent porphyria (AIP), variegate porphyria (VP), hereditary coproporphyria (HCP), aminolevulinic acid dehydratase deficiency porphyria (ADP), and porphyria cutanea tarda (PCT)...
October 31, 2016: Indian Journal of Gastroenterology: Official Journal of the Indian Society of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755108/insulin-resistance-in-hiv-infected-youth-is-associated-with-decreased-mitochondrial-respiration
#8
Jody K Takemoto, Tracie L Miller, Jiajia Wang, Denise L Jacobson, Mitchell E Geffner, Russell B Van Dyke, Mariana Gerschenson
OBJECTIVE: To identify relationships between insulin resistance (IR) and mitochondrial respiration in perinatally HIV-infected youth. DESIGN: Case-control study. METHODS: Mitochondrial respiration was assessed in perinatally HIV-infected youth in Tanner stages 2-5, 25 youth with IR (IR+) and 50 without IR (IR-) who were enrolled in the Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study. IR was defined as a homeostatic model of assessment for IR value at least 4...
January 2, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27740592/the-effectiveness-of-a-bioactive-food-compound-in-the-lipid-control-of-individuals-with-hiv-aids
#9
Rosângela Dos Santos Ferreira, Rita de Cássia Avellaneda Guimarães, Elenir Rose Jardim Cury Pontes, Valter Aragão do Nascimento, Priscila Aiko Hiane
Cardiovascular events due to decompensated lipid metabolism are commonly found in Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS) patients using anti-retroviral therapy (HAART). Thus, the aim of this study was to identify the effect of a bioactive food compound (BFC) containing functional foods on individuals with HIV undergoing HAART. Particularly, this study aims to verify the clinical outcome in the change of the lipid profile due to the use of this compound. This study includes 115 individuals with HIV on HAART...
October 8, 2016: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725337/maraviroc-ameliorates-the-increased-adipose-tissue-macrophage-recruitment-induced-by-a-high-fat-diet-in-a-mouse-model-of-obesity
#10
Patricia Pérez-Matute, José G Pichel, María Iñiguez, Emma Recio-Fernández, Laura Pérez-Martínez, Raquel Torrens, José Ramón Blanco, José Antonio Oteo
BACKGROUND: Any strategy designed to decrease the macrophage content in adipose tissue (AT) is of great value as a way to decrease inflammation in this fat depot and also as a way to prevent or treat obesity and associated disorders. Maraviroc (MVC), a CCR5 antagonist approved for the treatment of HIV-infected patients, has beneficial effects on metabolism. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of MVC on AT macrophage recruitment in a mouse model of obesity. The plausible underlying mechanisms of action were also investigated...
October 11, 2016: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716731/health-and-survival-of-hiv-perinatally-exposed-but-uninfected-children-born-to-hiv-infected-mothers
#11
Sophie Desmonde, Tessa Goetghebuer, Claire Thorne, Valériane Leroy
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The number of HIV-exposed but uninfected (HEU) infants exposed to both HIV and multiple antiretroviral drugs in utero and during prolonged breastfeeding is increasing in low-income countries where HIV prevalence is the highest. We review recent evidence on the effects of perinatal/postnatal exposure to maternal HIV and combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) on health outcomes of HEU children (mitochondrial and metabolic toxicity, adverse pregnancy outcomes, neurodevelopment, growth, infectious morbidity, and mortality)...
September 2016: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27710244/the-diagnosis-and-management-of-lipodystrophy-syndromes-a-multi-society-practice-guideline
#12
Rebecca J Brown, David Araujo-Vilar, Pik To Cheung, David Dunger, Abhimanyu Garg, Michelle Jack, Lucy Mungai, Elif A Oral, Nivedita Patni, Kristina Rother, Julia von Schnurbein, Ekaterina Sorkina, Takara Stanley, Corinne Vigouroux, Martin Wabitsch, Rachel Williams, Tohru Yorifuji
OBJECTIVE: Lipodystrophy syndromes are extremely rare disorders of deficient body fat associated with potentially serious metabolic complications, including diabetes, hypertriglyceridemia, and steatohepatitis. Due to their rarity, most clinicians are not familiar with their diagnosis and management. This practice guideline summarizes diagnosis and management of lipodystrophy syndromes not associated with HIV or injectable drugs. PARTICIPANTS: Seventeen participants were nominated by worldwide endocrine societies or selected by the committee as content experts...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27709330/microvascular-function-in-aging-among-women-living-with-hiv
#13
REVIEW
Jean-Jacques Monsuez, Catherine Belin, Olivier Bouchaud
Combined antiretroviral therapy (CART) has turned HIV-infection to a treatable chronic disease during which many patients survive to middle and older age. However, they prematurely develop non-AIDS comorbidities such as cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). Microcirculatory changes and endothelial dysfunction occur early both in HIV-infected and in aging patients, in whom they usually precede cardiovascular and neurocognitive impairments. Also, mild cognitive involvement has been reported in women during the menopausal transition...
December 2016: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27623022/tetrahydroisoquinolines-in-therapeutics-a-patent-review-2010-2015
#14
Inder Pal Singh, Purvi Shah
INTRODUCTION: 1,2,3,4-Tetrahydroisoquinoline (THIQ) is one of the "privileged scaffolds", commonly found in nature. Initially, this class of compounds was known for its neurotoxicity. Later on, 1-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline was proved as an endogeneous Parkinsonism-preventing agent in mammals. The fused THIQs have been studied for their role as anticancer antibiotics. The US FDA approval of the trabectedin for the treatment of soft tissue sarcomas, is a milestone in the anticancer drug discovery...
September 13, 2016: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Patents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27618323/white-matter-diseases-with-radiologic-pathologic-correlation
#15
Nicolae Sarbu, Robert Y Shih, Robert V Jones, Iren Horkayne-Szakaly, Laura Oleaga, James G Smirniotopoulos
White matter diseases include a wide spectrum of disorders that have in common impairment of normal myelination, either by secondary destruction of previously myelinated structures (demyelinating processes) or by primary abnormalities of myelin formation (dysmyelinating processes). The pathogenesis of many white matter diseases remains poorly understood. Demyelinating disorders are the object of this review and will be further divided into autoimmune, infectious, vascular, and toxic-metabolic processes. Autoimmune processes include multiple sclerosis and related diseases: tumefactive demyelinating lesions, Balo concentric sclerosis, Marburg and Schilder variants, neuromyelitis optica (Devic disease), acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, and acute hemorrhagic leukoencephalopathy (Hurst disease)...
September 2016: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27579612/dyslipidemias-and-elevated-cardiovascular-risk-on-lopinavir-based-antiretroviral-therapy-in-cambodia
#16
Setha Limsreng, Olivier Marcy, Sowath Ly, Vara Ouk, Hak Chanroeurn, Saem Thavary, Ban Boroath, Ana Canestri, Gérald Viretto, Jean-François Delfraissy, Olivier Ségéral
BACKGROUND: Lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) is widely used in Cambodia with high efficacy but scarce data exist on long-term metabolic toxicity. METHODS: We carried out a cross-sectional and retrospective study evaluating metabolic disorders and cardiovascular risk in Cambodian patients on LPV/r-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) for > 1 year followed in Calmette Hospital, Phnom Penh. Data collected included cardiovascular risk factors, fasting blood lipids and glucose, and retrospective collection of bioclinical data...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27439325/relationship-between-adiposity-indices-lipodystrophy-and-sarcopenia-in-hiv-positive-individuals-with-and-without-lipodystrophy
#17
Mirele Savegnago Mialich, André Pereira Dos Santos, Bruna Ramos da Silva, Francisco José de Albuquerque de Paula, Alceu Afonso Jordão, Anderson Marliere Navarro
Metabolism disorders, as well as body shape abnormalities, have been associated with the introduction of antiretroviral therapy. The objective of this study was to compare the diagnostic ability of adiposity indices and to discuss criteria for the classification of lipodystrophy and sarcopenia (SP) in HIV-positive individuals. Anthropometric measurements were determined in 268 individuals of both genders, also submitted to the dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry exam. The adiposity indices calculated were body mass index, body mass index adjusted for fat mass (BMIfat), body adiposity index, body adiposity Index for the Fels Longitudinal Study sample, and The Clínica Universidad de Navarra body adiposity estimator...
July 18, 2016: Journal of Clinical Densitometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27293327/approach-to-a-case-of-myeloneuropathy
#18
Ravindra Kumar Garg, Hardeep Singh Malhotra, Neeraj Kumar
Myeloneuropathy is a frequently encountered condition and often poses a diagnostic challenge. A variety of nutritional, toxic, metabolic, infective, inflammatory, and paraneoplastic disorders can present with myeloneuropathy. Deficiencies of vitamin B12, folic acid, copper, and vitamin E may lead to myeloneuropathy with a clinical picture of subacute combined degeneration of the spinal cord. Among infective causes, chikungunya virus has been shown to produce a syndrome similar to myeloneuropathy. Vacuolar myelopathy seen in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is clinically very similar to subacute combined degeneration...
April 2016: Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27256449/the-gut-microbiome-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infection
#19
REVIEW
Gili Zilberman-Schapira, Niv Zmora, Shlomik Itav, Stavros Bashiardes, Hila Elinav, Eran Elinav
HIV/AIDS causes severe dysfunction of the immune system through CD4+ T cell depletion, leading to dysregulation of both the adaptive and innate immune arms. A primary target for viral infection is the gastrointestinal tract, which is a reservoir of CD4+ T cells. In addition to being a major immune hub, the human gastrointestinal tract harbors trillions of commensal microorganisms, the microbiota, which have recently been shown to play critical roles in health. Alterations in the composition and function of microbiota have been implicated in a variety of 'multi-factorial' disorders, including infectious, autoimmune, metabolic, and neoplastic disorders...
June 3, 2016: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27198731/ageing-and-inflammation-in-patients-with-hiv-infection
#20
M Nasi, S De Biasi, L Gibellini, E Bianchini, S Pecorini, V Bacca, G Guaraldi, C Mussini, M Pinti, A Cossarizza
Nowadays, HIV(+) patients have an expected lifespan that is only slightly shorter than healthy individuals. For this reason, along with the fact that infection can be acquired at a relatively advanced age, the effects of ageing on HIV(+) people have begun to be evident. Successful anti-viral treatment is, on one hand, responsible for the development of side effects related to drug toxicity; on the other hand, it is not able to inhibit the onset of several complications caused by persistent immune activation and chronic inflammation...
May 20, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
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