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Metabolic disorders in HIV

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978127/hiv-1-gp120-clade-b-c-induces-a-grp78-driven-cytoprotective-mechanism-in-astrocytoma
#1
Sheila N López, Madeline Rodríguez-Valentín, Mariela Rivera, Maridaliz Rodríguez, Mohan Babu, Luis A Cubano, Huangui Xiong, Guangdi Wang, Lilia Kucheryavykh, Nawal M Boukli
HIV-1 clades are known to be one of the key factors implicated in modulating HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. HIV-1 B and C clades account for the majority of HIV-1 infections, clade B being the most neuropathogenic. The mechanisms behind HIV-mediated neuropathogenesis remain the subject of active research. We hypothesized that HIV-1 gp120 clade B and C proteins may exert differential proliferation, cell survival and NeuroAIDS effects in human astrocytoma cells via the Unfolded Protein Response, an endoplasmic reticulum- based cytoprotective mechanism...
September 15, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28949439/discrimination-of-patients-with-different-serological-evolution-of-hiv-and-co-infection-with-hcv-using-metabolic-fingerprinting-based-on-ft-ir
#2
Consuelo Pizarro, Isabel Esteban-Díez, Irene Arenzana-Rámila, José María González-Sáiz
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus that weakens the immune system and permits opportunistic diseases such as Hepatitis C (HCV) to enter the body. These diseases induce metabolic disorders in the patients and it is therefore logical to approach them from a holistic, functional perspective, studying the metabolome comprehensively to identify metabolic signatures associated with certain disease states. The metabolomics strategy here proposed involves metabolic fingerprinting using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and chemometric tools on 72 plasma samples (subdivided into 63 training and 9 test samples) to differentiate between healthy subjects and patients with different disease stages...
September 26, 2017: Journal of Biophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933627/primary-care-for-mentally-ill-adults-in-acute-residential-treatment-facilities
#3
Linda Chafetz, Gerri Collins-Bride
Psychiatric bed capacity has decreased nationally with an impact on the number and the types of patients admitted to acute in-patient units. Acute residential programs provide alternatives to hospitals for patients with problems that do not meet criteria for admission. However, these settings may not have resources to respond to the medical co-morbidities associated with severe mental illness. To understand the medical needs of patients in these settings, this research examined data from a nurse-managed primary care outreach service...
October 2017: Issues in Mental Health Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933175/-hiv-infection-a-new-disease-of-internal-medicine
#4
Svatava Snopková
Modern antiretroviral treatment belongs to the greatest success of current medicine. HIV infection has gone from a death sentence to a manageable chronic disease which develops several decades. Thanks to treatment advances, people with HIV can and do live long and full lives. In the last two decades, the incidence AIDS defining illnesses have been dramatically reduced especially opportunistic infections and malignancies, whereas the role of non-infection comorbidities has risen than age-matched HIV uninfected adults...
2017: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900395/astrocyte-senescence-and-metabolic-changes-in-response-to-hiv-antiretroviral-therapy-drugs
#5
Justin Cohen, Luca D'Agostino, Joel Wilson, Ferit Tuzer, Claudio Torres
With the advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) survival rates among patients infected by HIV have increased. However, even though survival has increased HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) still persist, suggesting that HAART-drugs may play a role in the neurocognitive impairment observed in HIV-infected patients. Given previous data demonstrating that astrocyte senescence plays a role in neurocognitive disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), we examined the role of HAART on markers of senescence in primary cultures of human astrocytes (HAs)...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895059/central-nervous-system-penetrating-antiretrovirals-impair-energetic-reserve-in-striatal-nerve-terminals
#6
Kelly L Stauch, Katy Emanuel, Benjamin G Lamberty, Brenda Morsey, Howard S Fox
The use of antiretroviral (ARV) drugs with central nervous system (CNS) penetration effectiveness (CPE) may be useful in the treatment of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) as well as targeting a CNS reservoir in strategies to achieve a functional cure for HIV. However, increased cognitive deficits are linked to at least one of these drugs (efavirenz). As mitochondrial dysfunction has been found with a number of ARVs, and as such can affect neuronal function, the objective of this study was to assess the effects of ARV with high CPE for toxicological profiles on presynaptic nerve terminal energy metabolism...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694350/prevalence-of-metabolic-syndrome-discrete-or-comorbid-diabetes-and-hypertension-in-sub-saharan-africa-among-people-living-with-hiv-versus-hiv-negative-populations-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-protocol
#7
Olamide O Todowede, Benn Sartorius
INTRODUCTION: Metabolic disorder and high blood pressure are common complications globally, and specifically among people living with HIV (PLHIV). Diabetes, metabolic syndrome and hypertension are major risk factors for cardiovascular diseases and their related complications. However, the burden of metabolic syndrome, discrete or comorbid diabetes and hypertension in PLHIV compared with HIV-negative population has not been quantified. This review and meta-analysis aims to compare and analyse the prevalence of these trio conditions between HIV-negative and HIV-positive populations in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA)...
July 9, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683238/endocrine-trainees-exhibit-sensitive-but-conservative-attitudes-towards-the-management-of-endocrine-conditions-in-hiv-patients-in-singapore
#8
Seow Cherng Jye, Chen Abel Weiliang, Hoi Wai Han, Rinkoo Dalan
Objective With advances in the treatment of HIV infections, the life expectancy of people living with HIV (PWH) is fast approaching that of the general population. Endocrine and metabolic disorders occur more frequently in PWH than in the general population. This study assesses the knowledge, practice patterns and confidence levels among endocrinology trainees in Singapore in managing endocrine disorders in PWH. Methods An anonymous 31-item survey was administered to 23 endocrinology trainees. Four domains were assessed: (1) Previous exposure to endocrine disorders in PWH; (2) Attitudes towards treating PWH; (3) Case studies in endocrinology designed to assess for differences in treatment philosophy between a PWH and a non-infected counterpart; and (4) Confidence in managing endocrine disorders in PWH...
July 6, 2017: Endocrine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658348/new-insights-into-the-effects-of-irisin-levels-in-hiv-infected-subjects-correlation-with-adiposity-fat-free-mass-and-strength-parameters
#9
Joice Cristina Dos Santos Trombeta, Jonato Prestes, Dahan da Cunha Nascimento, Ramires Alsamir Tibana, Guilherme Borges Pereira, Thiago da Rosa Lima, Géssica Alves Fraga, Roberto Carlos Vieira-Junior, Fabrício Azevedo Voltarelli
OBJECTIVE: Patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have an increased risk of metabolic disorders and alterations on irisin levels. Therefore, the purpose of the current investigation was to quantify the circulating irisin concentration in HIV-infected subjects under highly active antiretroviral therapy and to determine possible correlations between irisin levels with fat mass, fat-free mass, body mass index (BMI), and muscle strength. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Cross-sectional study of 10 men (36...
July 2017: Archives of Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639991/evaluation-of-a-nutritional-support-intervention-in-malnourished-hiv-infected-children-in-bamako-mali
#10
Julie Jesson, Aba Coulibaly, Mariam Sylla, Clémentine NʼDiaye, Fatoumata Dicko, David Masson, Valériane Leroy
BACKGROUND: We assessed a nutritional support intervention in malnourished HIV-infected children in a HIV-care program of the University Hospital Gabriel Touré, Bamako, Mali. METHODS: All HIV-infected children younger than 15 years were diagnosed for malnutrition between 07 and 12, 2014. Malnutrition was defined according to the WHO growth standards with Z-scores. Two types were studied: acute malnutrition (AM) and chronic malnutrition (CM). All participants were enrolled in a 6-month prospective interventional cohort, receiving Ready-To-Use Therapeutic Food, according to type of malnutrition...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621726/microbiota-and-probiotics-in-health-and-hiv-infection
#11
REVIEW
Chiara D'Angelo, Marcella Reale, Erica Costantini
Microbiota play a key role in various body functions, as well as in physiological, metabolic, and immunological processes, through different mechanisms such as the regulation of the development and/or functions of different types of immune cells in the intestines. Evidence indicates that alteration in the gut microbiota can influence infectious and non-infectious diseases. Bacteria that reside on the mucosal surface or within the mucus layer interact with the host immune system, thus, a healthy gut microbiota is essential for the development of mucosal immunity...
June 16, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559937/the-role-of-nuclear-medicine-in-the-staging-and-management-of-human-immune-deficiency-virus-infection-and-associated-diseases
#12
REVIEW
Alfred O Ankrah, Andor W J M Glaudemans, Hans C Klein, Rudi A J O Dierckx, Mike Sathekge
Human immune deficiency virus (HIV) is a leading cause of death. It attacks the immune system, thereby rendering the infected host susceptible to many HIV-associated infections, malignancies and neurocognitive disorders. The altered immune system affects the way the human host responds to disease, resulting in atypical presentation of these disorders. This presents a diagnostic challenge and the clinician must use all diagnostic avenues available to diagnose and manage these conditions. The advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has markedly reduced the mortality associated with HIV infection but has also brought in its wake problems associated with adverse effects or drug interaction and may even modulate some of the HIV-associated disorders to the detriment of the infected human host...
June 2017: Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540084/body-composition-and-metabolic-syndrome-components-on-lipodystrophy-different-subtypes-associated-with-hiv
#13
Livia Bertazzo Sacilotto, Paulo Câmara Marques Pereira, João Paulo Vieira Manechini, Sílvia Justina Papini
HIV-associated lipodystrophy syndrome (HALS) is characterized by body fat redistribution as a consequence of the antiretroviral therapy (ART) introduction, associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease development. Subjective diagnosis, classified between three subtypes according to the body region on which fat is lost and/or accumulated, named lipoatrophy, lipohypertrophy, and mixed lipodystrophy, is possibly accompanied with metabolic alterations. Forty people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA), with clinical diagnosis of HALS and from both genders, were assessed...
2017: Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527666/hepatic-steatosis-progresses-faster-in-hiv-mono-infected-than-hiv-hcv-co-infected-patients-and-is-associated-with-liver-fibrosis
#14
Thomas Pembroke, Marc Deschenes, Bertrand Lebouché, Amine Benmassaoud, Maida Sewitch, Peter Ghali, Philip Wong, Alex Halme, Elise Vuille-Lessard, Costa Pexos, Marina B Klein, Giada Sebastiani
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Hepatic steatosis (HS) seems common in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). However, the relative effect of HIV, as well as hepatitis C virus (HCV) in those co-infected, and the influence of HS on liver fibrosis progression are unclear. METHODS: The LIVEr disease in HIV (LIVEHIV) is a Canadian prospective cohort study using transient elastography and associated controlled attenuation parameter (CAP) to screen for HS and liver fibrosis, in unselected HIV-infected adults...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437620/american-association-of-clinical-endocrinologists-and-american-college-of-endocrinology-guidelines-for-management-of-dyslipidemia-and-prevention-of-cardiovascular-disease
#15
Paul S Jellinger, Yehuda Handelsman, Paul D Rosenblit, Zachary T Bloomgarden, Vivian A Fonseca, Alan J Garber, George Grunberger, Chris K Guerin, David S H Bell, Jeffrey I Mechanick, Rachel Pessah-Pollack, Kathleen Wyne, Donald Smith, Eliot A Brinton, Sergio Fazio, Michael Davidson
OBJECTIVE: The development of these guidelines is mandated by the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE) Board of Directors and American College of Endocrinology (ACE) Board of Trustees and adheres with published AACE protocols for the standardized production of clinical practice guidelines (CPGs). METHODS: Recommendations are based on diligent reviews of the clinical evidence with transparent incorporation of subjective factors, according to established AACE/ACE guidelines for guidelines protocols...
April 2017: Endocrine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427421/cerebrospinal-fluid-csf-biomarkers-of-iron-status-are-associated-with-csf-viral-load-antiretroviral-therapy-and-demographic-factors-in-hiv-infected-adults
#16
Stephanie M Patton, Quan Wang, Todd Hulgan, James R Connor, Peilin Jia, Zhongming Zhao, Scott L Letendre, Ronald J Ellis, William S Bush, David C Samuels, Donald R Franklin, Harpreet Kaur, Jennifer Iudicello, Igor Grant, Asha R Kallianpur
BACKGROUND: HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) remains common, despite antiretroviral therapy (ART). HIV dysregulates iron metabolism, but cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of iron and iron-transport proteins in HIV-infected (HIV+) persons are largely unknown. The objectives of this study were to characterize CSF iron-related biomarkers in HIV+ adults and explore their relationships to known predictors of HAND. METHODS: We quantified total iron, transferrin and heavy-chain (H)-ferritin by immunoassay in CSF sampled by lumbar puncture in 403 HIV+ participants in a multi-center, observational study and evaluated biomarker associations with demographic and HIV-related correlates of HAND [e...
April 21, 2017: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418268/the-folding-competence-of-hiv-1-tat-mediated-by-interaction-with-tar-rna
#17
Jung Min Kim, Hee Sun Choi, Baik Lin Seong
The trans-activator Tat protein of HIV-1 belongs to the large family of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs), and is known to recruit various host proteins for the transactivation of viral RNA synthesis. Tat protein interacts with the transactivator response RNA (TAR RNA), exhibiting RNA chaperone activities for structural rearrangement of interacting RNAs. Here, considering that Tat-TAR RNA interaction is mutually cooperative, we examined the potential role of TAR RNA as Chaperna - RNA that provides chaperone function to proteins - for the folding of HIV-1 Tat...
July 3, 2017: RNA Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414683/recurrent-hypertriglyceridemic-pancreatitis-htgp-and-the-use-of-insulin-drip-as-treatment
#18
T Tran, N Lee
INTRODUCTION: Chronic pancreatitis by definition is a recurrent episode of acute pancreatitis and is commonly associated with alcoholism in the US. Another cause of chronic pancreatitis is hypertriglyceridemia (HTGP);, occurring in 1-5 percent of cases. The incidence of HTGP is higher in patients with diabetes and HIV, usually requiring triglyceride levels > 1000 mg/dL. CASE: A 33 year old man with uncontrolled type 1 diabetes and recurrent pancreatitis, first diagnosed 5 years prior, presented as a transfer from an outside hospital for a recurrent episode of HTGP...
March 2017: Journal of the Louisiana State Medical Society: Official Organ of the Louisiana State Medical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398960/prevalence-and-risk-factors-of-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-hiv-monoinfection
#19
James B Maurice, Amee Patel, Alasdair J Scott, Krish Patel, Mark Thursz, Maud Lemoine
OBJECTIVE: To identify the prevalence and risk factors of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and fibrosis in HIV-monoinfected patients. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS: We searched Medline and Embase and included studies that enrolled HIV-monoinfected patients with NAFLD defined by imaging and/or liver histology. Data on prevalence and risk factors for NAFLD, NASH and fibrosis were collected for meta-analysis using random effects models...
July 17, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397245/interactions-between-integrase-inhibitors-and-human-arginase-1
#20
Lucia Lisi, Michela Pizzoferrato, Fabiola Teresa Miscioscia, Alessandra Topai, Pierluigi Navarra
The neuro-pathogenic mechanism(s) underlying HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders are mostly unknown. HIV-infected macrophages and microglial cells play a crucial role and the metabolic fate of l-arginine may be highly relevant to microglia activation. In this context, arginase (ARG), which uses l-arginine as substrate, can be on the same time a target and source of oxidative stress and inflammation. In this study, we investigated whether integrase strand transfer inhibitors share with the other antiretroviral drugs the ability to inhibit ARG activity...
July 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
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