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Metabolic disorders in HIV

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672818/the-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-effects-of-hypoxis-hemerocallidea-on-indinavir-pharmacokinetics-modulation-of-efflux
#1
Kaylee Havenga, Efrem Abay, Lubbe Wiesner, Alvaro Viljoen, Dewald Steyn, Josias Hamman
Hypoxis hemerocallidea (African potato) is a popular medicinal plant that has been used traditionally for the treatment of various disorders. Some HIV/AIDS patients use this traditional medicine together with their antiretroviral therapy. This study aimed to determine the impact of selected H. hemerocallidea materials (i.e., a commercial product, an aqueous extract, and biomass reference plant material) on the bidirectional permeability of indinavir across Caco-2 cell monolayers as well as the bioavailability of indinavir during an acute, single administration study in Sprague-Dawley rats...
April 19, 2018: Planta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604986/hiv-associated-neurocognitive-disorder
#2
Ruaridh Cameron Smail, Bruce James Brew
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) affects roughly half the HIV-positive population. The symptoms of cognitive slowing, poor concentration, and memory problems can impact on everyday life. Its diagnosis is validated where possible by identifying deficits in two cognitive domains on neuropsychologic testing in patients either with or without symptoms. Corroborating evidence may be found on imaging, blood tests, and cerebrospinal fluid analysis, though sensitive and specific biomarkers are currently lacking...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604982/hiv-neuropathology
#3
Susan Morgello
Primary human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) neuropathologies can affect all levels of the neuraxis and occur in all stages of natural history disease. Some, like HIV encephalitis, HIV myelitis, and diffuse infiltrative lymphocytosis of peripheral nerve, reflect productive infection of the nervous system; others, like vacuolar myelopathy, distal symmetric polyneuropathy, and central and peripheral nervous system demyelination, are not clearly related to regional viral replication, and reflect more complex cascades of dysregulated host immunity and metabolic dysfunction...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29549313/astrocytic-metabolic-switch-is-a-novel-etiology-for-cocaine-and-hiv-1-tat-mediated-neurotoxicity
#4
Kalimuthusamy Natarajaseenivasan, Bianca Cotto, Santhanam Shanmughapriya, Alyssa A Lombardi, Prasun K Datta, Muniswamy Madesh, John W Elrod, Kamel Khalili, Dianne Langford
Calcium (Ca2+ ) dynamics and oxidative signaling control mitochondrial bioenergetics in the central nervous system, where astrocytes are a major energy source for neurons. Cocaine use exacerbates HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders, but little is known about disruptions in astrocyte metabolism in this context. Our data show that the HIV protein Tat and cocaine induce a metabolic switch from glucose to fatty acid oxidation in astrocytes, thereby limiting lactate transport to neurons. Mechanistic analyses revealed increased Mitochondrial Ca2+ Uniporter (MCU)-mediated Ca2+ uptake in astrocytes exposed to Tat and cocaine due to oxidation of MCU...
March 16, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29504290/myoblast-mitochondrial-respiration-is-decreased-in-chronic-binge-alcohol-administered-simian-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-antiretroviral-treated-rhesus-macaques
#5
Anthony A Duplanty, Robert W Siggins, Timothy Allerton, Liz Simon, Patricia E Molina
Work from our group demonstrated that chronic binge alcohol (CBA)-induces mitochondrial gene dysregulation at end-stage disease of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection in antiretroviral therapy (ART) naïve rhesus macaques. Alterations in gene expression can disrupt mitochondrial homeostasis and in turn contribute to the risk of metabolic comorbidities characterized by loss of skeletal muscle (SKM) functional mass that are associated with CBA, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, and prolonged ART...
March 2018: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469716/associated-conditions-in-patients-with-multiple-dermatofibromas-case-reports-and-literature-review
#6
Surget V Beatrous, Ryan R Riahi, Stratton B Grisoli, Philip R Cohen
Dermatofibromas are benign, fibrohistiocytic, dermal tumors. Solitary dermatofibromas may be incidental findings, whereas multiple dermatofibromas may be associated with systemic conditions or previous therapies. Two women and one man with multiple dermatofibromas and an associated systemic condition, immunosuppression, or both, are described. Nine dermatofibromas developed in a woman with hypothyroidism, optic neuritis, and Arnold Chiari I malformation. Five dermatofibromas developed in a woman with breast cancer who had received several systemic antineoplastic therapies...
September 22, 2017: Dermatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449278/7t-brain-mrs-in-hiv-infection-correlation-with-cognitive-impairment-and-performance-on-neuropsychological-tests
#7
M Mohamed, P B Barker, R L Skolasky, N Sacktor
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Validated neuroimaging markers of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder in patients on antiretroviral therapy are urgently needed for clinical trials. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between cognitive impairment and brain metabolism in older subjects with HIV infection. It was hypothesized that MR spectroscopy measurements related to neuronal health and function (particularly N -acetylaspartate and glutamate) would be lower in HIV-positive subjects with worse cognitive performance...
February 15, 2018: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430124/incidental-global-hypometabolism-in-the-brain-of-patient-with-aids-related-dementia-seen-on-18f-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron-emission-tomography-computed-tomography
#8
Priyanka Verma, Ramesh V Asopa
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related dementia is the most severe form of neurocognitive disorder in patients with AIDS. It is relatively uncommon in postantiretroviral therapy (HAART) era and is associated with a high cerebrospinal fluid CSF/plasma viral load. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT) has proven useful in malignancies, infections, and central nervous system lesions in HIV-infected patients and has been used to explore regional cerebral glucose metabolism patterns in HIV-positive patients with and without cognitive impairment...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Nuclear Medicine: IJNM: the Official Journal of the Society of Nuclear Medicine, India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29394497/the-current-state-of-gpcr-based-drug-discovery-to-treat-metabolic-disease
#9
REVIEW
Kyle W Sloop, Paul J Emmerson, Michael A Statnick, Francis S Willard
One approach of modern drug discovery is to identify agents that enhance or diminish signal transduction cascades in various cell types and tissues by modulating the activity of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs). This strategy has resulted in the development of new medicines to treat many conditions, including cardiovascular disease, psychiatric disorders, HIV/AIDS, certain forms of cancer, and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). These successes justify further pursuit of GPCRs as disease targets and provide key learning that should help guide identifying future therapeutic agents...
February 2, 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29383534/psychosocial-complications-of-hiv-aids-metabolic-disorder-comorbidities-among-patients-in-a-rural-area-of-southeastern-united-states
#10
Dominica Hernandez, Seth C Kalichman, Harold P Katner, Kaylee Burnham, Moira O Kalichman, Marnie Hill
As people living with HIV experience longer life-expectancies resulting from antiretroviral therapy, comorbid conditions are increasing, particularly metabolic disorders. There is potential for psychosocial factors such as stigma experiences, depression, and alcohol use to complicate both HIV infection and metabolic disorders, including diabetes mellitus and hyperlipidemia. While the impact of these psychosocial factors on HIV infection alone are widely studied, their role in potentially complicating HIV co-morbid metabolic conditions has received little attention...
January 30, 2018: Journal of Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356205/antiviral-potential-of-medicinal-plants-against-hiv-hsv-influenza-hepatitis-and-coxsackievirus-a-systematic-review
#11
REVIEW
Muhammad Akram, Imtiaz Mahmood Tahir, Syed Muhammad Ali Shah, Zahed Mahmood, Awais Altaf, Khalil Ahmad, Naveed Munir, Muhammad Daniyal, Suhaila Nasir, Huma Mehboob
Viral infections are being managed therapeutically through available antiviral regimens with unsatisfactory clinical outcomes. The refractory viral infections resistant to available antiviral drugs are alarming threats and a serious health concern. For viral hepatitis, the interferon and vaccine therapies solely are not ultimate solutions due to recurrence of hepatitis C virus. Owing to the growing incidences of viral infections and especially of resistant viral strains, the available therapeutic modalities need to be improved, complemented with the discovery of novel antiviral agents to combat refractory viral infections...
January 22, 2018: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352292/rna-seq-of-kaposi-s-sarcoma-reveals-alterations-in-glucose-and-lipid-metabolism
#12
For Yue Tso, Andrew V Kossenkov, Salum J Lidenge, Owen Ngalamika, John R Ngowi, Julius Mwaiselage, Jayamanna Wickramasinghe, Eun Hee Kwon, John T West, Paul M Lieberman, Charles Wood
Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the etiologic agent of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS). It is endemic in a number of sub-Saharan African countries with infection rate of >50%. The high prevalence of HIV-1 coupled with late presentation of advanced cancer staging make KS the leading cancer in the region with poor prognosis and high mortality. Disease markers and cellular functions associated with KS tumorigenesis remain ill-defined. Several studies have attempted to investigate changes of the gene profile with in vitro infection of monoculture models, which are not likely to reflect the cellular complexity of the in vivo lesion environment...
January 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330881/cocaine-and-hiv-1-tat-disrupt-cholesterol-homeostasis-in-astrocytes-implications-for-hiv-associated-neurocognitive-disorders-in-cocaine-user-patients
#13
Bianca Cotto, Kalimuthusamy Natarajaseenivasan, Kimberly Ferrero, Leroy Wesley, Matthew Sayre, Dianne Langford
Cholesterol synthesis and clearance by astrocytes are tightly regulated to maintain constant levels within the brain. In this context, liver X receptors (LXRs) are the master regulators of cholesterol homeostasis in the central nervous system (CNS). Increasing levels of cholesterol in astrocytes trigger LXR activation leading to the transcription of target genes involved in cholesterol trafficking and efflux, including apolipoprotein E, cytochrome P450 enzymes, sterol regulatory binding protein, and several ATP-binding cassette transporter proteins...
April 2018: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323711/hiv-1-increases-extracellular-amyloid-beta-levels-through-neprilysin-regulation-in-primary-cultures-of-human-astrocytes
#14
Marta Martínez-Bonet, M Ángeles Muñoz-Fernández, Susana Álvarez
Since the success of combined antiretroviral therapy, HIV-1-infected individuals are now living much longer. This increased life expectancy is accompanied by a higher prevalence of HIV-1 associated neurocognitive disorders. Rising too is the incidence in these patients of pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease such as increased deposition of amyloid beta protein (Aβ). Although neurons are major sources of Aβ in the brain, astrocytes are the most numerous glial cells, therefore, even a small level of astrocytic Aβ metabolism could make a significant contribution to brain pathology...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313284/endocrinological-aspects-of-hiv-infection
#15
REVIEW
F S Mirza, P Luthra, L Chirch
PURPOSE: Patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are living longer with effective antiretroviral therapies and are enjoying near normal life span. Therefore, they are encountering endocrine issues faced by the general population along with those specific to HIV infection. The purpose of this article is to review the common endocrine aspects of HIV infection, and the early detection and management strategies for these complications. METHODS: Recent literature on HIV and endocrine disease was reviewed...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259605/role-of-monocyte-macrophages-during-hiv-siv-infection-in-adult-and-pediatric-acquired-immune-deficiency-syndrome
#16
REVIEW
Kristen M Merino, Carolina Allers, Elizabeth S Didier, Marcelo J Kuroda
Monocytes/macrophages are a diverse group of cells that act as first responders in innate immunity and then as mediators for adaptive immunity to help clear infections. In performing these functions, however, the macrophage inflammatory responses can also contribute to pathogenesis. Various monocyte and tissue macrophage subsets have been associated with inflammatory disorders and tissue pathogeneses such as occur during HIV infection. Non-human primate research of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) has been invaluable in better understanding the pathogenesis of HIV infection...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189172/cardiovascular-disease-in-the-setting-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infection
#17
Daniela Sofia Martins Pinto, Manuel Joaquim Lopes Vaz da Silva
BACKGROUND: Since the introduction of Antiretroviral Therapy (ART), the life expectancy and health quality for patients infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) have significantly improved. Nevertheless, as a result of not only the deleterious effects of the virus itself and prolonged ART, but also the effects of aging, cardiovascular diseases have emerged as one of the most common causes of death among these patients. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this review is to explore the new insights on the spectrum of Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) in HIV infection, with emphasis on the factors that contribute to the atherosclerotic process and its role in the development of acute coronary syndrome in the setting of infection...
March 14, 2018: Current Cardiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184449/diabetes-metabolic-syndrome-and-dyslipidemia-in-people-living-with-hiv-in-africa-re-emerging-challenges-not-to-be-forgotten
#18
REVIEW
Nazik Elmalaika Husain, Sufian K Noor, Wadie M Elmadhoun, Ahmed O Almobarak, Heitham Awadalla, Clare L Woodward, Dushyant Mital, Mohamed H Ahmed
Background: The current challenge in managing people living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLWHIV) includes the identification and monitoring for comorbid health risks associated with HIV and its treatment and longer survival. Dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome are increasingly seen in PLWHIV. Objective: In this narrative review, we aimed to summarize the current knowledge about diabetes, dyslipidemia and metabolic syndrome in PLWHIV in Africa and also to discuss the challenges that patients as well as health authorities in Africa may face...
2017: HIV/AIDS: Research and Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160817/impact-of-high-dose-multi-strain-probiotic-supplementation-on-neurocognitive-performance-and-central-nervous-system-immune-activation-of-hiv-1-infected-individuals
#19
Giancarlo Ceccarelli, Jason M Brenchley, Eugenio Nelson Cavallari, Giuseppe Corano Scheri, Mariangela Fratino, Claudia Pinacchio, Ivan Schietroma, Saeid Najafi Fard, Carolina Scagnolari, Ivano Mezzaroma, Vincenzo Vullo, Gabriella d'Ettorre
BACKGROUND: Gut microbiota has metabolic activity which influences mucosal homeostasis, local and systemic immune responses, and other anatomical systems (i.e., brain). The effects of dysbiosis are still poorly studied in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 (HIV-1) positive subjects and insufficient data are available on the impairment of the gut-brain axis, despite neurocognitive disorders being commonly diagnosed in these patients. This study evaluated the impact of a probiotic supplementation strategy on intrathecal immune activation and cognitive performance in combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) treated HIV-1 infected subjects...
November 21, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160505/metabolic-disorders-and-cardiovascular-risk-in-people-living-with-hiv-aids-without-the-use-of-antiretroviral-therapy
#20
Mariana Amaral Raposo, Geyza Nogueira de Almeida Armiliato, Nathalia Sernizon Guimarães, Camila Abrahão Caram, Raíssa Domingues de Simoni Silveira, Unaí Tupinambás
INTRODUCTION: Metabolic disorders in people living with HIV/AIDS (PLH) have been described even before the introduction of antiretroviral (ARV) drugs in the treatment of HIV infection and are risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. Based on this, the purpose of this study was to assess metabolic disorders and cardiovascular risk in PLH before the initiation of antiretroviral treatment (ART). METHODS: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study of 87 PLH without the use of ART, which was carried out between January and September 2012 at a specialized infectious diseases center in Minas Gerais, Brazil...
September 2017: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
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