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Metabolic disorders in HIV

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189172/cardiovascular-complications-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infection
#1
Daniela Sofia Martins Pinto, Manuel Joaquim Lopes Vaz da Silva
BACKGROUND: Since the introduction of antiretroviral therapy (ART), the life expectancy and health quality for patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have significantly improved. Nevertheless, as a result of not only the deleterious effects of the virus itself and prolonged ART, but also the effects of aging, cardiovascular diseases have emerged as one of the most common causes of death among these patients. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this review is to explore the new insights on the spectrum of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in HIV infection, with emphasis on the factors that contribute to the atherosclerotic process and its role in the development of acute coronary syndrome in the setting of infection...
November 29, 2017: Current Cardiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184449/diabetes-metabolic-syndrome-and-dyslipidemia-in-people-living-with-hiv-in-africa-re-emerging-challenges-not-to-be-forgotten
#2
REVIEW
Nazik Elmalaika Husain, Sufian K Noor, Wadie M Elmadhoun, Ahmed O Almobarak, Heitham Awadalla, Clare L Woodward, Dushyant Mital, Mohamed H Ahmed
Background: The current challenge in managing people living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLWHIV) includes the identification and monitoring for comorbid health risks associated with HIV and its treatment and longer survival. Dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome are increasingly seen in PLWHIV. Objective: In this narrative review, we aimed to summarize the current knowledge about diabetes, dyslipidemia and metabolic syndrome in PLWHIV in Africa and also to discuss the challenges that patients as well as health authorities in Africa may face...
2017: HIV/AIDS: Research and Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160817/impact-of-high-dose-multi-strain-probiotic-supplementation-on-neurocognitive-performance-and-central-nervous-system-immune-activation-of-hiv-1-infected-individuals
#3
Giancarlo Ceccarelli, Jason M Brenchley, Eugenio Nelson Cavallari, Giuseppe Corano Scheri, Mariangela Fratino, Claudia Pinacchio, Ivan Schietroma, Saeid Najafi Fard, Carolina Scagnolari, Ivano Mezzaroma, Vincenzo Vullo, Gabriella d'Ettorre
BACKGROUND: Gut microbiota has metabolic activity which influences mucosal homeostasis, local and systemic immune responses, and other anatomical systems (i.e., brain). The effects of dysbiosis are still poorly studied in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 (HIV-1) positive subjects and insufficient data are available on the impairment of the gut-brain axis, despite neurocognitive disorders being commonly diagnosed in these patients. This study evaluated the impact of a probiotic supplementation strategy on intrathecal immune activation and cognitive performance in combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) treated HIV-1 infected subjects...
November 21, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160505/metabolic-disorders-and-cardiovascular-risk-in-people-living-with-hiv-aids-without-the-use-of-antiretroviral-therapy
#4
Mariana Amaral Raposo, Geyza Nogueira de Almeida Armiliato, Nathalia Sernizon Guimarães, Camila Abrahão Caram, Raíssa Domingues de Simoni Silveira, Unaí Tupinambás
INTRODUCTION: Metabolic disorders in people living with HIV/AIDS (PLH) have been described even before the introduction of antiretroviral (ARV) drugs in the treatment of HIV infection and are risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. Based on this, the purpose of this study was to assess metabolic disorders and cardiovascular risk in PLH before the initiation of antiretroviral treatment (ART). METHODS: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study of 87 PLH without the use of ART, which was carried out between January and September 2012 at a specialized infectious diseases center in Minas Gerais, Brazil...
September 2017: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160443/body-fat-redistribution-and-changes-in-lipid-and-glucose-metabolism-in-people-living-with-hiv-aids
#5
Rebeca Antunes Beraldo, André Pereira Dos Santos, Mariana Palma Guimarães, Helena Siqueira Vassimon, Francisco José Albuquerque de Paula, Dalmo Roberto Lopes Machado, Maria Cristina Foss-Freitas, Anderson Marliere Navarro
INTRODUCTION: The HIV lipodystrophy syndrome is characterized by changes in metabolism, and body composition that increase cardiovascular risk of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) using highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of lipodystrophy and changes in lipid and glucose metabolism in PLWHA in use of HAART. METHODS: For the anthropometric evaluation we measured weight, height and abdominal circumference (AC)...
July 2017: Revista Brasileira de Epidemiologia, Brazilian Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127275/allogeneic-stem-cell-transplantation-in-fully-mhc-matched-mauritian-cynomolgus-macaques-recapitulates-diverse-human-clinical-outcomes
#6
Benjamin J Burwitz, Helen L Wu, Shaheed Abdulhaqq, Christine Shriver-Munsch, Tonya Swanson, Alfred W Legasse, Katherine B Hammond, Stephanie L Junell, Jason S Reed, Benjamin N Bimber, Justin M Greene, Gabriela M Webb, Mina Northrup, Wolfram Laub, Paul Kievit, Rhonda MacAllister, Michael K Axthelm, Rebecca Ducore, Anne Lewis, Lois M A Colgin, Theodore Hobbs, Lauren D Martin, Betsy Ferguson, Charles R Thomas, Angela Panoskaltsis-Mortari, Gabrielle Meyers, Jeffrey J Stanton, Richard T Maziarz, Jonah B Sacha
Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a critically important therapy for hematological malignancies, inborn errors of metabolism, and immunodeficiency disorders, yet complications such as graft-vs.-host disease (GvHD) limit survival. Development of anti-GvHD therapies that do not adversely affect susceptibility to infection or graft-vs.-tumor immunity are hampered by the lack of a physiologically relevant, preclinical model of allogeneic HSCT. Here we show a spectrum of diverse clinical HSCT outcomes including primary and secondary graft failure, lethal GvHD, and stable, disease-free full donor engraftment using reduced intensity conditioning and mobilized peripheral blood HSCT in unrelated, fully MHC-matched Mauritian-origin cynomolgus macaques...
November 10, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117238/tdf-and-quantitative-ultrasound-bone-quality-in-african-patients-on-second-line-art-anrs-12169-2lady-sub-study
#7
Firmin Nongodo Kabore, Sabrina Eymard-Duvernay, Jacques Zoungrana, Stéphanie Badiou, Guillaume Bado, Arsène Héma, Assane Diouf, Eric Delaporte, Sinata Koulla-Shiro, Laura Ciaffi, Amandine Cournil
BACKGROUND: Bone demineralization, which leads to osteoporosis and increased fracture risk, is a common metabolic disorder in HIV-infected individuals. In this study, we aimed to assess the change in bone quality using quantitative ultrasound (QUS) over 96 weeks of follow-up after initiation of second-line treatment, and to identify factors associated with change in bone quality. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In a randomized trial (ANRS 12169), TDF and PI-naïve participants failing standard first-line treatment, from Burkina Faso, Cameroon, and Senegal were randomized to receive either TDF/FTC/LPVr, ABC/ddI/LPVr or TDF/FTC/DRVr...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058550/immunomodulatory-role-of-complement-proteins-in-the-neuropathology-associated-with-opiate-abuse-and-hiv-1-co-morbidity
#8
Supriya D Mahajan, Ravikumar Aalinkeel, Neil U Parikh, Alexander Jacob, Katherine Cwiklinski, Prateet Sandhu, Kevin Le, Alexander W Loftus, Stanley A Schwartz, Richard J Quigg, Jessy J Alexander
The complement system which is a critical mediator of innate immunity plays diverse roles in the neuropathogenesis of HIV-1 infection such as clearing HIV-1 and promoting productive HIV-1 replication. In the development of HIV-1 associated neurological disorders (HAND), there may be an imbalance between complement activation and regulation, which may contribute to the neuronal damage as a consequence of HIV-1 infection. It is well recognized that opiate abuse exacerbates HIV-1 neuropathology, however, little is known about the role of complement proteins in opiate induced neuromodulation, specifically in the presence of co-morbidity such as HIV-1 infection...
November 2017: Immunological Investigations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978127/hiv-1-gp120-clade-b-c-induces-a-grp78-driven-cytoprotective-mechanism-in-astrocytoma
#9
Sheila N López, Madeline Rodríguez-Valentín, Mariela Rivera, Maridaliz Rodríguez, Mohan Babu, Luis A Cubano, Huangui Xiong, Guangdi Wang, Lilia Kucheryavykh, Nawal M Boukli
HIV-1 clades are known to be one of the key factors implicated in modulating HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. HIV-1 B and C clades account for the majority of HIV-1 infections, clade B being the most neuropathogenic. The mechanisms behind HIV-mediated neuropathogenesis remain the subject of active research. We hypothesized that HIV-1 gp120 clade B and C proteins may exert differential proliferation, cell survival and NeuroAIDS effects in human astrocytoma cells via the Unfolded Protein Response, an endoplasmic reticulum- based cytoprotective mechanism...
September 15, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28949439/discrimination-of-patients-with-different-serological-evolution-of-hiv-and-co-infection-with-hcv-using-metabolic-fingerprinting-based-on-ft-ir
#10
Consuelo Pizarro, Isabel Esteban-Díez, Irene Arenzana-Rámila, José María González-Sáiz
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus that weakens the immune system and permits opportunistic diseases such as Hepatitis C (HCV) to enter the body. These diseases induce metabolic disorders in the patients and it is therefore logical to approach them from a holistic, functional perspective, studying the metabolome comprehensively to identify metabolic signatures associated with certain disease states. The metabolomics strategy here proposed involves metabolic fingerprinting using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and chemometric tools on 72 plasma samples (subdivided into 63 training and 9 test samples) to differentiate between healthy subjects and patients with different disease stages...
September 26, 2017: Journal of Biophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933627/primary-care-for-mentally-ill-adults-in-acute-residential-treatment-facilities
#11
Linda Chafetz, Gerri Collins-Bride
Psychiatric bed capacity has decreased nationally with an impact on the number and the types of patients admitted to acute in-patient units. Acute residential programs provide alternatives to hospitals for patients with problems that do not meet criteria for admission. However, these settings may not have resources to respond to the medical co-morbidities associated with severe mental illness. To understand the medical needs of patients in these settings, this research examined data from a nurse-managed primary care outreach service...
October 2017: Issues in Mental Health Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933175/-hiv-infection-a-new-disease-of-internal-medicine
#12
Svatava Snopková
Modern antiretroviral treatment belongs to the greatest success of current medicine. HIV infection has gone from a death sentence to a manageable chronic disease which develops several decades. Thanks to treatment advances, people with HIV can and do live long and full lives. In the last two decades, the incidence AIDS defining illnesses have been dramatically reduced especially opportunistic infections and malignancies, whereas the role of non-infection comorbidities has risen than age-matched HIV uninfected adults...
2017: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900395/astrocyte-senescence-and-metabolic-changes-in-response-to-hiv-antiretroviral-therapy-drugs
#13
Justin Cohen, Luca D'Agostino, Joel Wilson, Ferit Tuzer, Claudio Torres
With the advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) survival rates among patients infected by HIV have increased. However, even though survival has increased HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) still persist, suggesting that HAART-drugs may play a role in the neurocognitive impairment observed in HIV-infected patients. Given previous data demonstrating that astrocyte senescence plays a role in neurocognitive disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), we examined the role of HAART on markers of senescence in primary cultures of human astrocytes (HAs)...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895059/central-nervous-system-penetrating-antiretrovirals-impair-energetic-reserve-in-striatal-nerve-terminals
#14
Kelly L Stauch, Katy Emanuel, Benjamin G Lamberty, Brenda Morsey, Howard S Fox
The use of antiretroviral (ARV) drugs with central nervous system (CNS) penetration effectiveness (CPE) may be useful in the treatment of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) as well as targeting a CNS reservoir in strategies to achieve a functional cure for HIV. However, increased cognitive deficits are linked to at least one of these drugs (efavirenz). As mitochondrial dysfunction has been found with a number of ARVs, and as such can affect neuronal function, the objective of this study was to assess the effects of ARV with high CPE for toxicological profiles on presynaptic nerve terminal energy metabolism...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694350/prevalence-of-metabolic-syndrome-discrete-or-comorbid-diabetes-and-hypertension-in-sub-saharan-africa-among-people-living-with-hiv-versus-hiv-negative-populations-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-protocol
#15
Olamide O Todowede, Benn Sartorius
INTRODUCTION: Metabolic disorder and high blood pressure are common complications globally, and specifically among people living with HIV (PLHIV). Diabetes, metabolic syndrome and hypertension are major risk factors for cardiovascular diseases and their related complications. However, the burden of metabolic syndrome, discrete or comorbid diabetes and hypertension in PLHIV compared with HIV-negative population has not been quantified. This review and meta-analysis aims to compare and analyse the prevalence of these trio conditions between HIV-negative and HIV-positive populations in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA)...
July 9, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683238/endocrine-trainees-exhibit-sensitive-but-conservative-attitudes-towards-the-management-of-endocrine-conditions-in-hiv-patients-in-singapore
#16
Seow Cherng Jye, Chen Abel Weiliang, Hoi Wai Han, Rinkoo Dalan
OBJECTIVE: With advances in the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections, the life expectancy of people with HIV (PWH) is fast approaching that of the general population. Endocrine and metabolic disorders occur more frequently in PWH than in the general population. This study assessed the knowledge, practice patterns, and confidence levels among endocrinology trainees in Singapore in managing endocrine disorders in PWH. METHODS: An anonymous, 31-item survey was administered to 23 endocrinology trainees...
September 2017: Endocrine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658348/new-insights-into-the-effects-of-irisin-levels-in-hiv-infected-subjects-correlation-with-adiposity-fat-free-mass-and-strength-parameters
#17
Joice Cristina Dos Santos Trombeta, Jonato Prestes, Dahan da Cunha Nascimento, Ramires Alsamir Tibana, Guilherme Borges Pereira, Thiago da Rosa Lima, Géssica Alves Fraga, Roberto Carlos Vieira-Junior, Fabrício Azevedo Voltarelli
OBJECTIVE: Patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have an increased risk of metabolic disorders and alterations on irisin levels. Therefore, the purpose of the current investigation was to quantify the circulating irisin concentration in HIV-infected subjects under highly active antiretroviral therapy and to determine possible correlations between irisin levels with fat mass, fat-free mass, body mass index (BMI), and muscle strength. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Cross-sectional study of 10 men (36...
July 2017: Archives of Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639991/evaluation-of-a-nutritional-support-intervention-in-malnourished-hiv-infected-children-in-bamako-mali
#18
Julie Jesson, Aba Coulibaly, Mariam Sylla, Clémentine NʼDiaye, Fatoumata Dicko, David Masson, Valériane Leroy
BACKGROUND: We assessed a nutritional support intervention in malnourished HIV-infected children in a HIV-care program of the University Hospital Gabriel Touré, Bamako, Mali. METHODS: All HIV-infected children younger than 15 years were diagnosed for malnutrition between 07 and 12, 2014. Malnutrition was defined according to the WHO growth standards with Z-scores. Two types were studied: acute malnutrition (AM) and chronic malnutrition (CM). All participants were enrolled in a 6-month prospective interventional cohort, receiving Ready-To-Use Therapeutic Food, according to type of malnutrition...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621726/microbiota-and-probiotics-in-health-and-hiv-infection
#19
REVIEW
Chiara D'Angelo, Marcella Reale, Erica Costantini
Microbiota play a key role in various body functions, as well as in physiological, metabolic, and immunological processes, through different mechanisms such as the regulation of the development and/or functions of different types of immune cells in the intestines. Evidence indicates that alteration in the gut microbiota can influence infectious and non-infectious diseases. Bacteria that reside on the mucosal surface or within the mucus layer interact with the host immune system, thus, a healthy gut microbiota is essential for the development of mucosal immunity...
June 16, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559937/the-role-of-nuclear-medicine-in-the-staging-and-management-of-human-immune-deficiency-virus-infection-and-associated-diseases
#20
REVIEW
Alfred O Ankrah, Andor W J M Glaudemans, Hans C Klein, Rudi A J O Dierckx, Mike Sathekge
Human immune deficiency virus (HIV) is a leading cause of death. It attacks the immune system, thereby rendering the infected host susceptible to many HIV-associated infections, malignancies and neurocognitive disorders. The altered immune system affects the way the human host responds to disease, resulting in atypical presentation of these disorders. This presents a diagnostic challenge and the clinician must use all diagnostic avenues available to diagnose and manage these conditions. The advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has markedly reduced the mortality associated with HIV infection but has also brought in its wake problems associated with adverse effects or drug interaction and may even modulate some of the HIV-associated disorders to the detriment of the infected human host...
June 2017: Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
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