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Metabolic disorders in HIV

Jody K Takemoto, Tracie L Miller, Jiajia Wang, Denise L Jacobson, Mitchell E Geffner, Russell B Van Dyke, Mariana Gerschenson
OBJECTIVE: To identify relationships between insulin resistance (IR) and mitochondrial respiration in perinatally HIV-infected (pHIV) youth. DESIGN: Case-control study METHODS:: Mitochondrial respiration was assessed in pHIV youth in Tanner stages 2-5, 25 youth with IR (IR+) and 50 without IR (IR-) who were enrolled in the Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study (PHACS). IR was defined as a Homeostatic Model of Assessment for Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) value ≥4.0. A novel, high-throughput oximetry method was used to evaluate cellular respiration in peripheral blood mononuclear cells...
October 14, 2016: AIDS
Rosângela Dos Santos Ferreira, Rita de Cássia Avellaneda Guimarães, Elenir Rose Jardim Cury Pontes, Valter Aragão do Nascimento, Priscila Aiko Hiane
Cardiovascular events due to decompensated lipid metabolism are commonly found in Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS) patients using anti-retroviral therapy (HAART). Thus, the aim of this study was to identify the effect of a bioactive food compound (BFC) containing functional foods on individuals with HIV undergoing HAART. Particularly, this study aims to verify the clinical outcome in the change of the lipid profile due to the use of this compound. This study includes 115 individuals with HIV on HAART...
October 8, 2016: Nutrients
Patricia Pérez-Matute, José G Pichel, María Iñiguez, Emma Recio-Fernández, Laura Pérez-Martínez, Raquel Torrens, José Ramón Blanco, José Antonio Oteo
BACKGROUND: Any strategy designed to decrease the macrophage content in adipose tissue (AT) is of great value as a way to decrease inflammation in this fat depot and also as a way to prevent or treat obesity and associated disorders. Maraviroc (MVC), a CCR5 antagonist approved for the treatment of HIV-infected patients, has beneficial effects on metabolism. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of MVC on AT macrophage recruitment in a mouse model of obesity. The plausible underlying mechanisms of action were also investigated...
October 11, 2016: Antiviral Therapy
Sophie Desmonde, Tessa Goetghebuer, Claire Thorne, Valériane Leroy
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The number of HIV-exposed but uninfected (HEU) infants exposed to both HIV and multiple antiretroviral drugs in utero and during prolonged breastfeeding is increasing in low-income countries where HIV prevalence is the highest. We review recent evidence on the effects of perinatal/postnatal exposure to maternal HIV and combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) on health outcomes of HEU children (mitochondrial and metabolic toxicity, adverse pregnancy outcomes, neurodevelopment, growth, infectious morbidity, and mortality)...
September 2016: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
Rebecca J Brown, David Araujo-Vilar, Pik To Cheung, David Dunger, Abhimanyu Garg, Michelle Jack, Lucy Mungai, Elif A Oral, Nivedita Patni, Kristina Rother, Julia von Schnurbein, Ekaterina Sorkina, Takara Stanley, Corinne Vigouroux, Martin Wabitsch, Rachel Williams, Tohru Yorifuji
OBJECTIVE: Lipodystrophy syndromes are extremely rare disorders of deficient body fat associated with potentially serious metabolic complications, including diabetes, hypertriglyceridemia, and steatohepatitis. Due to their rarity, most clinicians are not familiar with their diagnosis and management. This practice guideline summarizes diagnosis and management of lipodystrophy syndromes not associated with HIV or injectable drugs. PARTICIPANTS: Seventeen participants were nominated by worldwide endocrine societies or selected by the committee as content experts...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Jean-Jacques Monsuez, Catherine Belin, Olivier Bouchaud
Combined antiretroviral therapy (CART) has turned HIV-infection to a treatable chronic disease during which many patients survive to middle and older age. However, they prematurely develop non-AIDS comorbidities such as cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). Microcirculatory changes and endothelial dysfunction occur early both in HIV-infected and in aging patients, in whom they usually precede cardiovascular and neurocognitive impairments. Also, mild cognitive involvement has been reported in women during the menopausal transition...
October 5, 2016: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
Inder Pal Singh, Purvi Shah
INTRODUCTION: 1,2,3,4-Tetrahydroisoquinoline (THIQ) is one of the "privileged scaffolds", commonly found in nature. Initially, this class of compounds was known for its neurotoxicity. Later on, 1-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline was proved as an endogeneous Parkinsonism-preventing agent in mammals. The fused THIQs have been studied for their role as anticancer antibiotics. The US FDA approval of the trabectedin for the treatment of soft tissue sarcomas, is a milestone in the anticancer drug discovery...
September 13, 2016: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Patents
Nicolae Sarbu, Robert Y Shih, Robert V Jones, Iren Horkayne-Szakaly, Laura Oleaga, James G Smirniotopoulos
White matter diseases include a wide spectrum of disorders that have in common impairment of normal myelination, either by secondary destruction of previously myelinated structures (demyelinating processes) or by primary abnormalities of myelin formation (dysmyelinating processes). The pathogenesis of many white matter diseases remains poorly understood. Demyelinating disorders are the object of this review and will be further divided into autoimmune, infectious, vascular, and toxic-metabolic processes. Autoimmune processes include multiple sclerosis and related diseases: tumefactive demyelinating lesions, Balo concentric sclerosis, Marburg and Schilder variants, neuromyelitis optica (Devic disease), acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, and acute hemorrhagic leukoencephalopathy (Hurst disease)...
September 2016: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
Setha Limsreng, Olivier Marcy, Sowath Ly, Vara Ouk, Hak Chanroeurn, Saem Thavary, Ban Boroath, Ana Canestri, Gérald Viretto, Jean-François Delfraissy, Olivier Ségéral
BACKGROUND: Lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) is widely used in Cambodia with high efficacy but scarce data exist on long-term metabolic toxicity. METHODS: We carried out a cross-sectional and retrospective study evaluating metabolic disorders and cardiovascular risk in Cambodian patients on LPV/r-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) for > 1 year followed in Calmette Hospital, Phnom Penh. Data collected included cardiovascular risk factors, fasting blood lipids and glucose, and retrospective collection of bioclinical data...
2016: PloS One
Mirele Savegnago Mialich, André Pereira Dos Santos, Bruna Ramos da Silva, Francisco José de Albuquerque de Paula, Alceu Afonso Jordão, Anderson Marliere Navarro
Metabolism disorders, as well as body shape abnormalities, have been associated with the introduction of antiretroviral therapy. The objective of this study was to compare the diagnostic ability of adiposity indices and to discuss criteria for the classification of lipodystrophy and sarcopenia (SP) in HIV-positive individuals. Anthropometric measurements were determined in 268 individuals of both genders, also submitted to the dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry exam. The adiposity indices calculated were body mass index, body mass index adjusted for fat mass (BMIfat), body adiposity index, body adiposity Index for the Fels Longitudinal Study sample, and The Clínica Universidad de Navarra body adiposity estimator...
July 18, 2016: Journal of Clinical Densitometry
Ravindra Kumar Garg, Hardeep Singh Malhotra, Neeraj Kumar
Myeloneuropathy is a frequently encountered condition and often poses a diagnostic challenge. A variety of nutritional, toxic, metabolic, infective, inflammatory, and paraneoplastic disorders can present with myeloneuropathy. Deficiencies of vitamin B12, folic acid, copper, and vitamin E may lead to myeloneuropathy with a clinical picture of subacute combined degeneration of the spinal cord. Among infective causes, chikungunya virus has been shown to produce a syndrome similar to myeloneuropathy. Vacuolar myelopathy seen in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is clinically very similar to subacute combined degeneration...
April 2016: Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology
Gili Zilberman-Schapira, Niv Zmora, Shlomik Itav, Stavros Bashiardes, Hila Elinav, Eran Elinav
HIV/AIDS causes severe dysfunction of the immune system through CD4+ T cell depletion, leading to dysregulation of both the adaptive and innate immune arms. A primary target for viral infection is the gastrointestinal tract, which is a reservoir of CD4+ T cells. In addition to being a major immune hub, the human gastrointestinal tract harbors trillions of commensal microorganisms, the microbiota, which have recently been shown to play critical roles in health. Alterations in the composition and function of microbiota have been implicated in a variety of 'multi-factorial' disorders, including infectious, autoimmune, metabolic, and neoplastic disorders...
2016: BMC Medicine
M Nasi, S De Biasi, L Gibellini, E Bianchini, S Pecorini, V Bacca, G Guaraldi, C Mussini, M Pinti, A Cossarizza
Nowadays, HIV(+) patients have an expected lifespan that is only slightly shorter than healthy individuals. For this reason, along with the fact that infection can be acquired at a relatively advanced age, the effects of ageing on HIV(+) people have begun to be evident. Successful anti-viral treatment is, on one hand, responsible for the development of side effects related to drug toxicity; on the other hand, it is not able to inhibit the onset of several complications caused by persistent immune activation and chronic inflammation...
May 20, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
Karuna Lamarca, Ana García Sarasola, Francesc Vidal, Pere Domingo
INTRODUCTION: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has become a chronic disease often associated with dyslipidaemia and insulin resistance. Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) may contribute to metabolic disturbances, eventually leading to increased cardiovascular disease (CVR) in this population. Escalating interventions to decrease CVR include promoting a healthy lifestyle, such as quitting smoking, diet and regular exercise. If they do not achieve the goals, a change of cART should be considered, followed by or used concomitantly with the use of chemical therapies...
July 2016: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Ekta Khambhla, Viral Shah, Kalpesh Baviskar
The current epoch has witnessed a lifestyle impregnated with stress, which is a major cause of several neurological disorders. High morbidity and mortality rate due to neurological diseases and disorders have generated a huge social impact. Despite voluminous research, patients suffering from fatal and/or debilitating CNS diseases such as brain tumors, HIV, encephalopathy, Alzheimer's, epilepsy, Parkinson's, migraine and multiple sclerosis outnumbered those suffering from systemic cancer or heart diseases. The brain being a highly sensitive neuronal organ, has evolved with vasculature barriers, which regulates the efflux and influx of substances to CNS...
2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Deanna Saylor, Alex M Dickens, Ned Sacktor, Norman Haughey, Barbara Slusher, Mikhail Pletnikov, Joseph L Mankowski, Amanda Brown, David J Volsky, Justin C McArthur
In the past two decades, several advancements have improved the care of HIV-infected individuals. Most importantly, the development and deployment of combination antiretroviral therapy (CART) has resulted in a dramatic decline in the rate of deaths from AIDS, so that people living with HIV today have nearly normal life expectancies if treated with CART. The term HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) has been used to describe the spectrum of neurocognitive dysfunction associated with HIV infection. HIV can enter the CNS during early stages of infection, and persistent CNS HIV infection and inflammation probably contribute to the development of HAND...
April 2016: Nature Reviews. Neurology
M Manie
Inflammatory myopathy (IM) is a rubric term to describe a heterogeneous group of muscle diseases typified by dermatomyositis and polymyositis. The current classifications are unsatisfactory, but IM associated with other connective tissue diseases (CTDs), such as systemic lupus erythematosus, underlying malignancy and HIV, should also be included. Although uncommon, IM should always be considered in a patient who presents with proximal weakness of gradual onset and has raised serum muscle enzymes. The diagnosis may be obvious if the patient has diagnostic skin signs such as heliotropic rash (peri-orbital discoloration) and Gottron’s lesions (typically on the extensor surfaces of the fingers)...
December 2015: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
Rebeca Antunes Beraldo, Gabriela Cristina Meliscki, Bruna Ramos Silva, Anderson Marliere Navarro, Valdes Roberto Bollela, André Schmidt, Maria Cristina Foss-Freitas
BACKGROUND: Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) can cause side effects in HIV patients, as the metabolic syndrome. Early identification of risk for development of cardiovascular diseases using available reliable and practical methods is fundamental. On this basis, the aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of anthropometric indicators to identify metabolic syndrome in HIV patients on HAART. METHODS: It is a cross-sectional study. A number of 280 stable HIV patients were studied...
2016: PloS One
Sadanori Okada, Mitsuru Konishi, Hitoshi Ishii
Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is associated with multiple metabolic disorders, including lipodystrophy, dyslipidaemia and insulin resistance. HIV/HAART-associated lipodystrophy syndrome (HALS) is characterised by subcutaneous fat wasting, central fat accumulation and increased risk of diabetes. Thiazolidinediones are considered a promising treatment for HALS, because they improve insulin sensitivity and increase subcutaneous fat mass. In previous studies, pioglitazone increased overall fat mass in patients with HALS but whether fat distribution changes remains unclear...
2016: BMJ Case Reports
Kalavathi Dasuri, Jennifer K Pepping, Sun-Ok Fernandez-Kim, Sunita Gupta, Jeffrey N Keller, Philipp E Scherer, Annadora J Bruce-Keller
HIV protease inhibitors are key components of HIV antiretroviral therapies, which are fundamental in the treatment of HIV infection. However, the protease inhibitors are well-known to induce metabolic dysfunction which can in turn escalate the complications of HIV, including HIV associated neurocognitive disorders. As experimental and epidemiological data support a therapeutic role for adiponectin in both metabolic and neurologic homeostasis, this study was designed to determine if increased adiponectin could prevent the detrimental effects of protease inhibitors in mice...
June 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
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