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Bh3 profiling

Fabio Arturo Grieco, Guido Sebastiani, Jonas Juan-Mateu, Olatz Villate, Laura Marroqui, Laurence Ladrière, Ksenya Tugay, Romano Regazzi, Marco Bugliani, Piero Marchetti, Francesco Dotta, Décio L Eizirik
Type 1 Diabetes is an autoimmune disease leading to beta cell destruction. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that control gene expression and organ formation. They participate in the pathogenesis of several autoimmune diseases, but the nature of miRNAs contributing to beta cell death in T1D and their target genes remain to be clarified.We performed a miRNA expression profile on human islet preparations exposed to the cytokines IL-1β+IFN-γ. Confirmation of miRNAs and target genes modification in human beta cells was performed by real-time qPCR...
October 13, 2016: Diabetes
Victor Peperzak, Erik Slinger, Johanna Ter Burg, Eric Eldering
For successful treatment of malignant B-cells it is crucial to understand intrinsic survival requirements in relation to their normal progenitors. Long-lived humoral immunity as well as most B-cell malignancies, originate in the germinal center (GC). Murine GC B-cells depend on pro-survival protein MCL-1, but not BCL-XL. In contrast, naive and memory B-cells depend on BCL-2, but not BCL-XL or MCL-1. For human B-cell subsets, the functional relationships among BCL-2 members are unclear, and also if and how they shift after malignant transformation...
September 30, 2016: Cell Death and Differentiation
Patrick D Bhola, Brenton G Mar, R Coleman Lindsley, Jeremy A Ryan, Leah J Hogdal, Thanh Trang Vo, Daniel J DeAngelo, Ilene Galinsky, Benjamin L Ebert, Anthony Letai
Upfront resistance to chemotherapy and relapse following remission are critical problems in leukemia that are generally attributed to subpopulations of chemoresistant tumor cells. There are, however, limited means for prospectively identifying these subpopulations, which hinders an understanding of therapeutic resistance. BH3 profiling is a functional single-cell analysis using synthetic BCL-2 BH3 domain-like peptides that measures mitochondrial apoptotic sensitivity or "priming." Here, we observed that the extent of apoptotic priming is heterogeneous within multiple cancer cell lines and is not the result of experimental noise...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Marina Konopleva, Daniel A Pollyea, Jalaja Potluri, Brenda Chyla, Leah Hogdal, Todd Busman, Evelyn McKeegan, Ahmed Hamed Salem, Ming Zhu, Justin L Ricker, William Blum, Courtney D DiNardo, Tapan Kadia, Martin Dunbar, Rachel Kirby, Nancy Falotico, Joel Leverson, Rod Humerickhouse, Mack Mabry, Richard Stone, Hagop Kantarjian, Anthony Letai
: We present a phase II, single-arm study evaluating 800 mg daily venetoclax, a highly selective, oral small-molecule B-cell leukemia/lymphoma-2 (BCL2) inhibitor in patients with high-risk relapsed/refractory acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) or unfit for intensive chemotherapy. Responses were evaluated following revised International Working Group (IWG) criteria. The overall response rate was 19%; an additional 19% of patients demonstrated antileukemic activity not meeting IWG criteria (partial bone marrow response and incomplete hematologic recovery)...
October 2016: Cancer Discovery
Seiji Shibasaki, Miki Karasaki, Shunsuke Aburaya, Hironobu Morisaka, Yumiko Takeda, Wataru Aoki, Sachie Kitano, Masayasu Kitano, Mitsuyoshi Ueda, Hajime Sano, Tsuyoshi Iwasaki
To elucidate the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), we used proteomic analysis to determine the protein profile in a synovial cell line, MH7A, established from patients with RA. Proteins were extracted from MH7A cells that were or were not stimulated with tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and then analyzed on a liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry system equipped with a unique long monolithic silica capillary. On the basis of the results of this proteomic analysis, we identified 2650 proteins from untreated MH7A cells and 2688 proteins from MH7A cells stimulated with TNF-α...
May 2016: FEBS Open Bio
Matthew D Blunt, Andrew J Steele
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 23, 2016: Blood
Joan Montero, Anthony Letai
The vast majority of efforts in precision medicine for cancer try to link static genetic information to tumor biology and from there predict clinical response. Dynamic BH3 profiling offers an alternative functional approach by measuring death signaling induced by specific drugs in tumors from patients ex vivo to predict clinical response.
May 2016: Molecular & Cellular Oncology
Monica Pallis, Francis Burrows, Jeremy Ryan, Martin Grundy, Claire Seedhouse, Amina Abdul-Aziz, Joan Montero, Anthony Letai, Nigel Russell
Direct co-operation between sensitiser molecules BAD and NOXA in mediating apoptosis suggests that therapeutic agents which sensitise to BAD may complement agents which sensitise to NOXA. Dynamic BH3 profiling is a novel methodology that we have applied to the measurement of complementarity between sensitiser BH3 peptide mimetics and therapeutic agents. Using dynamic BH3 profiling, we show that the agent TG02, which downregulates MCL-1, sensitises to the BCL-2-inhibitory BAD-BH3 peptide, whereas the BCL-2 antagonist ABT-199 sensitises to MCL-1 inhibitory NOXA-BH3 peptide in acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) cells...
April 15, 2016: Oncotarget
Mary Ann Anderson, Jing Deng, John F Seymour, Constantine Tam, Su Young Kim, Joshua Fein, Lijian Yu, Jennifer R Brown, David Westerman, Eric G Si, Ian J Majewski, David Segal, Sari L Heitner Enschede, David C S Huang, Matthew S Davids, Anthony Letai, Andrew W Roberts
BCL2 blunts activation of the mitochondrial pathway to apoptosis, and high-level expression is required for chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) survival. Venetoclax (ABT-199) is a small-molecule selective inhibitor of BCL2 currently in clinical trials for CLL and other malignancies. In conjunction with the phase 1 first-in-human clinical trial of venetoclax in patients with relapsed or refractory CLL (M12-175), we investigated the mechanism of action of venetoclax in vivo, explored whether in vitro sensitivity assays or BH3 profiling correlated with in vivo responses in patients, and determined whether loss of TP53 function affected responses in vitro and in vivo...
June 23, 2016: Blood
Michael Butterworth, Andrew Pettitt, Shankar Varadarajan, Gerald M Cohen
BACKGROUND: Anti-apoptotic BCL-2 family members antagonise apoptosis by sequestering their pro-apoptotic counterparts. The balance between the different BCL-2 family members forms the basis of BH3 profiling, a peptide-based technique used to predict chemosensitivity of cancer cells. Recent identification of cell-permeable, selective inhibitors of BCL-2, BCL-XL and MCL-1, further facilitates the determination of the BCL-2 family dependency of cancer cells. METHODS: We use BH3 profiling in combination with cell death analyses using a chemical inhibitor toolkit to assess chemosensitivity of cancer cells...
March 15, 2016: British Journal of Cancer
Jeremy Ryan, Joan Montero, James Rocco, Anthony Letai
Dysregulation of the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis, controlled by the BCL-2 family of proteins, leads to disease states including cancer. Rapid analysis of a cell's dependency on the BCL-2 family of proteins is hindered by the complex interactions of more than a dozen proteins. Transcript or even protein levels are therefore generally insufficient to predict a cell's response to perturbations like chemotherapy. Previously, we developed the JC-1 BH3 method to provide a same day functional assay to assess a cell's propensity to undergo apoptosis and demonstrated its utility in predicting response to chemotherapy...
July 1, 2016: Biological Chemistry
Jemal Adem, Antti Ropponen, Jonna Eeva, Mine Eray, Ulla Nuutinen, Jukka Pelkonen
Bcl-2 family comprises proapoptotic and antiapoptotic proteins. The balance between these proteins is critical for the survival of the cells. Overexpression of the antiapoptotic protein, Bcl-2, is the hallmark of follicular lymphoma (FL). High expression of Bcl-2 provides survival advantage and may facilitate chemotherapeutic resistance in FL. In the present study, we examined expression profile of Bcl-2 family proteins such as Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, and Bim in human FL cell lines, HF1A3 and HF28. We assessed the correlation between the expression levels of these proteins and cells' sensitivity to dexamethasone (Dex)-mediated and B-cell receptor (BCR)-mediated apoptosis...
January 2016: Journal of Immunotherapy
Christopher J Gibson, Matthew S Davids
Despite significant improvements in treatment, cure rates for many cancers remain suboptimal. The rise of cytotoxic chemotherapy has led to curative therapy for a subset of cancers, though intrinsic treatment resistance is difficult to predict for individual patients. The recent wave of molecularly targeted therapies has focused on druggable-activating mutations, and is thus limited to specific subsets of patients. The lessons learned from these two disparate approaches suggest the need for therapies that borrow aspects of both, targeting biologic properties of cancer that are at once distinct from normal cells and yet common enough to make the drugs widely applicable across a range of cancer subtypes...
November 15, 2015: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Ting Song, Gaobo Chai, Yubo Liu, Xiaoyan Yu, Ziqian Wang, Zhichao Zhang
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Although the ongoing clinical trials of ABT-263 and ABT-199 in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) have indicated that BH3 mimetics hold considerable promise, understanding the mechanism of CLL resistance to BH3 mimetics remains a challenge. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: The LD50 values of ABT-737, ABT-263 and ABT-199 in a number of primary CLL cells from 40 patients, were determined. The levels of Bcl-2 family proteins, including phosphorylated Bcl-2 (pBcl-2) and their interactions were measured by immunoblotting and co-immunoprecipitation...
February 2016: British Journal of Pharmacology
Tomohiro Kubo, Yutaka Kawano, Nobuaki Himuro, Shintaro Sugita, Yasushi Sato, Kazuma Ishikawa, Kohichi Takada, Kazuyuki Murase, Koji Miyanishi, Tsutomu Sato, Rishu Takimoto, Masayoshi Kobune, Takayuki Nobuoka, Koichi Hirata, Tetsuji Takayama, Mitsuru Mori, Tadashi Hasegawa, Junji Kato
BACKGROUND: Preoperative chemotherapy is a promising strategy for downstaging advanced gastric cancer before radical resection, although severe adverse events can occur and clinical outcomes are often unsatisfactory. To identify predictive biomarkers of drug sensitivity, we used a well-designed functional apoptosis assay and assessed the correlations between chemosensitivity and clinical outcomes. METHODS: Drug sensitivity to docetaxel, cisplatin, and 5-fluorouracil was examined in 11 gastric cancer cell lines...
July 2016: Gastric Cancer
J Scott Lee, Sarah S Tang, Veronica Ortiz, Thanh-Trang Vo, David A Fruman
The PI3K/AKT/mTOR axis promotes survival and is a frequently mutated pathway in cancer. Yet, inhibitors targeting this pathway are insufficient to induce cancer cell death as single agents in some contexts, including diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL). In these situations, combinations with inhibitors targeting BCL-2 survival proteins (ABT-199 and ABT-263) may hold potential. Indeed, studies have demonstrated marked synergy in contexts where PI3K/mTOR inhibitors suppress expression of the pro-survival protein, MCL-1...
November 3, 2015: Oncotarget
Christine M Burrer, Glenna W Foight, Amy E Keating, Gary C Chan
Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is associated with B-cell lymphomas including primary effusion lymphoma and multicentric Castleman's disease. KSHV establishes latency within B cells by modulating or mimicking the antiapoptotic Bcl-2 family of proteins to promote cell survival. Our previous BH3 profiling analysis, a functional assay that assesses the contribution of Bcl-2 proteins towards cellular survival, identified two Bcl-2 proteins, cellular Mcl-1 and viral KsBcl-2, as potential regulators of mitochondria polarization within a latently infected B-cell line, Bcbl-1...
January 4, 2016: Virus Research
Christine B Karim, L Michel Espinoza-Fonseca, Zachary M James, Eric A Hanse, Jeffrey S Gaynes, David D Thomas, Ameeta Kelekar
We showed previously that phosphorylation of Noxa, a 54-residue Bcl-2 protein, at serine 13 (Ser13) inhibited its ability to promote apoptosis through interactions with canonical binding partner, Mcl-1. Using EPR spectroscopy, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and binding assays, we offer evidence that a structural alteration caused by phosphorylation partially masks Noxa's BH3 domain, inhibiting the Noxa-Mcl-1 interaction. EPR of unphosphorylated Noxa, with spin-labeled amino acid TOAC incorporated within the BH3 domain, revealed equilibrium between ordered and dynamically disordered states...
September 28, 2015: Scientific Reports
Jo Ishizawa, Kensuke Kojima, Teresa McQueen, Vivian Ruvolo, Dhruv Chachad, Graciela M Nogueras-Gonzalez, Xuelin Huang, William E Pierceall, E J Dettman, Michael H Cardone, Sharon Shacham, Marina Konopleva, Michael Andreeff
BH3 profiling measures the propensity of transformed cells to undergo intrinsic apoptosis and is determined by exposing cells to BH3-mimicking peptides. We hypothesized that basal levels of prosurvival BCL-2 family proteins may modulate the predictive power of BH3 profiling and termed it mitochondrial profiling. We investigated the correlation between cell sensitivity to apoptogenic agents and mitochondrial profiling, using a panel of acute myeloid leukemias induced to undergo apoptosis by exposure to cytarabine, the BH3 mimetic ABT-199, the MDM2 inhibitor Nutlin-3a, or the CRM1 inhibitor KPT-330...
2015: PloS One
Amin Torabi, Chitra Murli, Yang Song, Viktor N Staroverov
Recent theoretical investigations of high-pressure structures of diborane have yielded many intriguing predictions which have so far remained untested due to challenges of acquiring experimental data at extreme pressures. Here we report new pressure-induced polymorphic transformations of crystalline diborane observed between 36 and 88 GPa by in situ Raman spectroscopy and interpreted using electronic structure calculations. Two previously unknown phase transitions are identified near 42 and 57 GPa, as evidenced by significant changes in the Raman profiles...
2015: Scientific Reports
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