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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533916/pediatric-intensive-care-stress-ulcer-prevention-pic-up-a-protocol-for-a-pilot-randomized-trial
#1
Mark Duffett, Karen Choong, Jennifer Foster, Elaine Gilfoyle, Jacques Lacroix, Nikhil Pai, Lehana Thabane, Deborah J Cook
BACKGROUND: Despite sparse pediatric data on effectiveness, the majority of critically ill children receive medications to prevent gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. Stress ulcer prophylaxis may have unintended consequences-increasing the risk of nosocomial infections-which may be more serious and common than the bleeding which these drugs are prescribed to prevent. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in pediatric critical care are exceptionally challenging to complete, thus a rigorous pilot RCT is crucial...
2017: Pilot and Feasibility Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515789/towards-miscanthus-combustion-quality-improvement-the-role-of-flowering-and-senescence
#2
Elaine Jensen, Paul Robson, Kerrie Farrar, Sian Thomas Jones, John Clifton-Brown, Roger Payne, Iain Donnison
In commercially grown Miscanthus × giganteus, despite imposing a yield penalty, postwinter harvests improve quality criteria for thermal conversion and crop sustainability through remobilization of nutrients to the underground rhizome. We examined 16 Miscanthus genotypes with different flowering and senescence times for variation in N, P, K, moisture, ash, Cl and Si contents, hypothesizing that early flowering and senescence could result in improved biomass quality and/or enable an earlier harvest of biomass (in autumn at peak yield)...
May 2017: Global Change Biology. Bioenergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508234/surgical-treatment-of-extraesophageal-manifestations-of-gastroesophageal-reflux-disease
#3
REVIEW
Feroze Sidwa, Alessandra L Moore, Elaine Alligood, P Marco Fisichella
OBJECTIVE: To review the current literature on the role of antireflux surgery (ARS) for the treatment of extraesophageal manifestations of GERD. The extraesophageal manifestations of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) include chronic cough, laryngopharyngeal reflux, and asthma. They are responsible for significant morbidity in affected patients and a high economic burden on healthcare resources. We recently published a larger review on the symptoms, diagnosis, medical, and surgical treatment of the extraesophageal manifestations of GERD...
May 15, 2017: World Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502812/collecting-and-reporting-safety-data-and-monitoring-trial-conduct-in-pragmatic-trials
#4
Elaine Irving, Rutger van den Bor, Paco Welsing, Veronica Walsh, Rafael Alfonso-Cristancho, Catherine Harvey, Nadia Garman, Diederick E Grobbee
Pragmatic trials offer the opportunity to obtain real-life data on the relative effectiveness and safety of a treatment before or after market authorisation. This is the penultimate paper in a series of eight, describing the impact of design choices on the practical implementation of pragmatic trials. This paper focuses on the practical challenges of collecting and reporting safety data and of monitoring trial conduct while maintaining routine clinical care practice. Current ICH guidance recommends that, all serious adverse events (SAEs) and all drug-related events must be reported in an interventional trial...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502811/challenges-in-pragmatic-trials-selection-and-inclusion-of-usual-care-sites
#5
Sally D Worsley, Katrien Oude Rengerink, Elaine Irving, Stephane Lejeune, Koen Mol, Sue Collier, Rolf H H Groenwold, Catherine Enters-Weijnen, Matthias Egger, Thomas Rhodes
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 11, 2017: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502808/participant-eligibility-recruitment-and-retention-in-pragmatic-trials
#6
Katrien Oude Rengerink, Shona Kalkman, Susan Collier, Antonio Ciaglia, Sally D Worsley, Alison Lightbourne, Laurent Eckert, Rolf H H Groenwold, Diederick E Grobbee, Elaine A Irving
This paper addresses challenges of identifying, enrolling and retaining participants in a in a trial conducted within a routine care setting. All patients that are potential candidates for the treatments in routine clinical practice should be considered eligible for a pragmatic trial. To ensure generalizability, the recruited sample should have a similar distribution of the treatment effect modifiers as the target population. In practice this can be best achieved by including - within the selected sites - all patients without further selection...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492898/selumetinib-plus-docetaxel-compared-with-docetaxel-alone-and-progression-free-survival-in-patients-with-kras-mutant-advanced-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-the-select-1-randomized-clinical-trial
#7
Pasi A Jänne, Michel M van den Heuvel, Fabrice Barlesi, Manuel Cobo, Julien Mazieres, Lucio Crinò, Sergey Orlov, Fiona Blackhall, Juergen Wolf, Pilar Garrido, Artem Poltoratskiy, Gabriella Mariani, Dana Ghiorghiu, Elaine Kilgour, Paul Smith, Alexander Kohlmann, David J Carlile, David Lawrence, Karin Bowen, Johan Vansteenkiste
Importance: There are no specifically approved targeted therapies for the most common genomically defined subset of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), KRAS-mutant lung cancer. Objective: To compare efficacy of the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) inhibitor selumetinib + docetaxel with docetaxel alone as a second-line therapy for advanced KRAS-mutant NSCLC. Design, Setting, and Participants: Multinational, randomized clinical trial conducted at 202 sites across 25 countries from October 2013 through January 2016...
May 9, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490674/physical-form-of-dietary-fat-alters-postprandial-substrate-utilization-and-glycemic-response-in-healthy-chinese-men
#8
Sze-Yen Tan, Elaine Peh, Evelyn Lau, Alejandro G Marangoni, Christiani Jeyakumar Henry
Background: Dietary fats elicit various physiological responses, with the physical form of fat reported to alter fat digestion and absorption.Objectives: The primary aims were to compare the effects of dietary fat in 2 physical forms (liquid and oleogel) and 2 degrees of saturation (saturated and polyunsaturated) on postprandial energy expenditure (EE) and substrate oxidation, glycemia, and appetite.Methods: The study was a randomized, controlled crossover trial. Sixteen normal-weight, healthy Chinese men completed the study [mean ± SD age: 28 ± 6 y; body mass index (in kg/m(2)): 22...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489031/effect-of-cold-storage-and-reheating-of-parboiled-rice-on-postprandial-glycaemic-response-satiety-palatability-and-chewed-particle-size-distribution
#9
Louise Weiwei Lu, Bernard Venn, Jun Lu, John Monro, Elaine Rush
Background: Globally, hot cooked refined rice is consumed in large quantities and is a major contributor to dietary glycaemic load. This study aimed to compare the glycaemic potency of hot- and cold-stored parboiled rice to widely available medium-grain white rice. Method: Twenty-eight healthy volunteers participated in a three-treatment experiment where postprandial blood glucose was measured over 120 min after consumption of 140 g of rice. The three rice samples were freshly cooked medium-grain white rice, freshly cooked parboiled rice, and parboiled rice stored overnight at 4 °C...
May 10, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473636/acute-declines-in-renal-function-during-intensive-bp-lowering-implications-for-future-esrd-risk
#10
Elaine Ku, George Bakris, Kirsten L Johansen, Feng Lin, Mark J Sarnak, Vito M Campese, Kenneth Jamerson, Jennifer J Gassman, Miroslaw Smogorzewski, Chi-Yuan Hsu
The magnitude of decline in renal function that should be tolerated during intensive BP lowering and its association with risk of ESRD are unclear. To determine whether the acute declines in kidney function in the intensive BP lowering arm of two trials in CKD associated with higher risk of ESRD, we performed a retrospective study of 899 African American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension (AASK) and 761 Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) Trial participants previously randomized to strict versus usual BP control...
May 4, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466293/-renal-replacement-therapy-in-acute-kidney-injury
#11
REVIEW
S J Klein, M Joannidis
Acute kidney injury is still a common complication in intensive care units and is associated with a significantly increased risk for morbidity and mortality. Various treatment concepts, like continuous renal replacement therapy (RRT) or (modified) intermittent procedures, as well as different methods of anticoagulation and the general decision of when and if to initiate RRT have to be considered by the treating physician. While giving vital input on when to initiate RRT, the German ELAIN (Early versus late initiation of renal replacement therapy in critically ill patients) trial and the French AKIKI (The artificial kidney initiation in kidney injury) trial raised many more questions...
May 2, 2017: Medizinische Klinik, Intensivmedizin und Notfallmedizin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460711/application-of-shortwave-diathermy-to-lower-limb-increases-arterial-blood-flow-velocity-and-skin-temperature-in-women-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#12
Natanael Teixeira Alves De Sousa, Elaine Caldeira De Oliveira Guirro, João Guilherme Calió, Mariane Cristina De Queluz, Rinaldo Roberto De Jesus Guirro
BACKGROUND: Shortwave diathermy (SWD) and microwave diathermy (MWD) are frequently used by physical therapists to treat musculoskeletal conditions. The therapeutic benefits are usually associated with an increase in tissue temperature; however, there is no consensus on the changes in blood flow. OBJECTIVES: 1) To evaluate the behavior of temperature and arterial blood flow after the application of SWD and MWD to the lower limb of healthy women aged 18-30 and 2) to assess whether changes in limb positioning can influence SWD response...
March 2017: Brazilian Journal of Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459084/incidence-of-neutropenia-in-veterans-receiving-lung-cancer-chemotherapy-a-comparison-of-administrative-coding-and-electronic-laboratory-data
#13
Sarah Knerr, Elaine Y Hu, Steven B Zeliadt
INTRODUCTION: The frequency of neutropenia associated with lung cancer chemotherapy outside of randomized trials is largely unknown because administrative coding underestimates its prevalence. This study compared International Classification of Diseases (ICD) diagnosis codes and electronic laboratory results, alone and in combination, for identifying neutropenia events. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study of 718 veterans receiving their first course of chemotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer...
2017: EGEMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450193/developing-standardized-corticosteroid-treatment-for-duchenne-muscular-dystrophy
#14
Michela Guglieri, Kate Bushby, Michael P McDermott, Kimberly A Hart, Rabi Tawil, William B Martens, Barbara E Herr, Elaine McColl, Jennifer Wilkinson, Janbernd Kirschner, Wendy M King, Michele Eagle, Mary W Brown, Tracey Willis, Deborah Hirtz, Perry B Shieh, Volker Straub, Anne-Marie Childs, Emma Ciafaloni, Russell J Butterfield, Iain Horrocks, Stefan Spinty, Kevin M Flanigan, Nancy L Kuntz, Giovanni Baranello, Helen Roper, Leslie Morrison, Jean K Mah, Adnan Y Manzur, Craig M McDonald, Ulrike Schara, Maja von der Hagen, Richard J Barohn, Craig Campbell, Basil T Darras, Richard S Finkel, Giuseppe Vita, Imelda Hughes, Tiziana Mongini, Elena Pegoraro, Matthew Wicklund, Ekkehard Wilichowski, W Bryan Burnette, James F Howard, Hugh J McMillan, Mathula Thangarajh, Robert C Griggs
Despite corticosteroids being the only treatment documented to improve strength and function in boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) corticosteroid prescription is inconsistent and in some countries, corticosteroids are not prescribed. We are conducting a clinical trial that (1) compares the 3 most frequently prescribed corticosteroid regimes; (2) standardizes treatment of DMD complications; and (3) standardizes prevention of corticosteroid side effects. Investigators at 38 sites in 5 countries plan to recruit 300 boys aged 4-7 who are randomly assigned to one of three regimens: daily prednisone; daily deflazacort; or intermittent prednisone (10days on/10days off)...
April 24, 2017: Contemporary Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444574/a-randomized-controlled-trial-of-the-effectiveness-of-a-psychoeducational-intervention-on-family-caregivers-of-patients-with-mental-disorders
#15
Viviane Tabeleão, Elaine Tomasi, Luciana de Avila Quevedo
The present study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of a psychoeducational intervention on caregivers of patients assisted by the Center for Psychosocial Health Care (CPHC) focusing on the patient's psychopathology. This was a randomized clinical trial with 130 caregivers with higher mean burden scores assessed using the Zarit Burden Interview Scale (ZBI) (66 caregivers in the intervention group and 64 in the control group). The intervention included six home visits of psychoeducational interventions according to each mental disorder identified in the CPHC records...
April 25, 2017: Community Mental Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441971/the-clinical-and-cost-effectiveness-of-stratified-care-for-patients-with-sciatica-the-scopic-randomised-controlled-trial-protocol-isrctn75449581
#16
Nadine E Foster, Kika Konstantinou, Martyn Lewis, Reuben Ogollah, Kate M Dunn, Danielle van der Windt, Ruth Beardmore, Majid Artus, Bernadette Bartlam, Jonathan C Hill, Sue Jowett, Jesse Kigozi, Christian Mallen, Benjamin Saunders, Elaine M Hay
BACKGROUND: Sciatica has a substantial impact on patients, and is associated with high healthcare and societal costs. Although there is variation in the clinical management of sciatica, the current model of care usually involves an initial period of 'wait and see' for most patients, with simple measures of advice and analgesia, followed by conservative and/or more invasive interventions if symptoms fail to resolve. A model of care is needed that does not over-treat those with a good prognosis yet identifies patients who do need more intensive treatment to help with symptoms, and return to everyday function including work...
April 26, 2017: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426519/toward-a-universal-antiretroviral-regimen-special-considerations-of-pregnancy-and-breast-feeding
#17
Amy L Slogrove, Polly Clayden, Elaine J Abrams
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: As optimized antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimens are prepared for introduction in low-income and middle-income countries (LMIC), we consider the current evidence related to dosing, efficacy and safety during pregnancy and breastfeeding of next-generation first-line and second-line ART regimens proposed for imminent introduction in the global marketplace. RECENT FINDINGS: Pregnancy pharmacokinetic considerations include potentially insufficient efavirenz exposure if dosed at 400 mg/day, the need for twice daily darunavir dosing and the paucity of data related to tenofovir alafenamide and dolutegravir dosing, safety and efficacy...
April 19, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426239/performance-of-an-artificial-pancreas-system-for-young-children-with-type-1-diabetes
#18
Mark D DeBoer, Marc D Breton, Christian Wakeman, Elaine M Schertz, Emma G Emory, Jessica L Robic, Laura L Kollar, Boris P Kovatchev, Daniel R Cherñavvsky
BACKGROUND: Young children 5-8 years old with type 1 diabetes (T1D) exhibit clear needs for improved glycemic control but may be limited in their ability to safely interact with an artificial pancreas system. Our goal was to evaluate the safety and performance of an artificial pancreas (AP) system among young children with T1D. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: In a randomized, crossover trial, children with T1D age 5-8 years were enrolled to receive on separate study periods (in random order) either the UVa AP using the DiAs Control Platform software with child-resistant lock-out screens (followed as an out-patient admission) or their usual insulin pump+continuous glucose monitor (CGM) care at home...
May 2017: Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419200/switching-to-efavirenz-versus-remaining-on-ritonavir-boosted-lopinavir-in-hiv-infected-children-exposed-to-nevirapine-long-term-outcomes-of-a-randomized-trial
#19
Pamela M Murnane, Renate Strehlau, Stephanie Shiau, Faeezah Patel, Ndileke Mbete, Gillian Hunt, Elaine J Abrams, Ashraf Coovadia, Louise Kuhn
Background: We previously demonstrated the non-inferiority of switching to efavirenz (EFV) versus remaining on ritonavir-boosted lopinavir (LPV/r) for virologic control in HIV-infected children exposed to nevirapine (NVP) for prevention of mother-to-child transmission. Here we assess outcomes up to four years post-randomization. Methods: From 2010-2013, 298 NVP-exposed HIV-infected children ≥3 years of age were randomized to switch to EFV or remain on LPV/r in Johannesburg, South Africa (Clinicaltrials...
April 17, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419124/a-randomised-controlled-trial-of-losartan-as-an-anti-fibrotic-agent-in-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis
#20
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Stuart McPherson, Nina Wilkinson, Dina Tiniakos, Jennifer Wilkinson, Alastair D Burt, Elaine McColl, Deborah D Stocken, Nick Steen, Jane Barnes, Nicola Goudie, Stephen Stewart, Yvonne Bury, Derek Mann, Quentin M Anstee, Christopher P Day
INTRODUCTION: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common liver disease worldwide. Experimental and small clinical trials have demonstrated that angiotensin II blockers (ARB) may be anti-fibrotic in the liver. The aim of this randomised controlled trial was to assess whether treatment with Losartan for 96 weeks slowed, halted or reversed the progression of fibrosis in patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). METHODS: Double-blind randomised-controlled trial of Losartan 50 mg once a day versus placebo for 96 weeks in patients with histological evidence of NASH...
2017: PloS One
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