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High dose influenza vaccine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329311/comparative-effectiveness-of-high-dose-versus-standard-dose-influenza-vaccines-among-us-medicare-beneficiaries-in-preventing-postinfluenza-deaths-during-2012-2013-and-2013-2014
#1
David K Shay, Yoganand Chillarige, Jeffrey Kelman, Richard A Forshee, Ivo M Foppa, Michael Wernecke, Yun Lu, Jill M Ferdinands, Arjun Iyengar, Alicia M Fry, Chris Worrall, Hector S Izurieta
Background.: Recipients of high-dose vs standard-dose influenza vaccines have fewer influenza illnesses. We evaluated the comparative effectiveness of high-dose vaccine in preventing postinfluenza deaths during 2012-2013 and 2013-2014, when influenza viruses and vaccines were similar. Methods.: We identified Medicare beneficiaries aged ≥65 years who received high-dose or standard-dose vaccines in community-located pharmacies offering both vaccines. The primary outcome was death in the 30 days following an inpatient or emergency department encounter listing an influenza International of Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification code...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303960/the-immune-correlates-of-protection-for-an-avian-influenza-h5n1-vaccine-in-the-ferret-model-using-oil-in-water-adjuvants
#2
Sook-San Wong, Susu Duan, Jennifer DeBeauchamp, Mark Zanin, Lisa Kercher, Stephanie Sonnberg, Thomas Fabrizio, Trushar Jeevan, Jeri-Carol Crumpton, Christine Oshansky, Yilun Sun, Li Tang, Paul Thomas, Richard Webby
Because of the pathogenicity and low incidence of avian influenza virus infections in humans, the immune correlates of protection for avian influenza vaccines cannot be determined from clinical studies. Here, we used the ferret model to address this for an avian influenza H5N1 vaccine. Using oil-in-water adjuvants, we generated groups of ferrets with undetectable (geometric mean titer [GMT] < 10), low (GMT = 28.3), or high (GMT > 761.1) hemagglutination-inhibition (HAI) titers to the A/Viet Nam/1203/2004 (H5N1) virus...
March 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301266/immunogenicity-and-safety-of-a-trivalent-inactivated-influenza-vaccine-produced-in-shenzhen-china
#3
Zhaojun Mo, Yi Nong, Shuzhen Liu, Ming Shao, Xueyan Liao, Kerry Go, Nathalie Lavis
A split-virion trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine produced according to the Chinese pharmacopeia (Shz-IIV3) has been commercially available in China since 2014. Here, we describe the results of a phase IV open-label trial to describe the immunogenicity and safety of the 2014-2015 Northern Hemisphere formulation of Shz-IIV3 in individuals ≥ 6 months of age. Subjects 6-35 months of age received 2 half-doses of Shz-IIV3 (0.25 ml) 28 d apart, and subjects ≥ 3 y of age received a single full dose (0...
February 14, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279563/a-small-molecule-irf3-agonist-functions-as-an-influenza-vaccine-adjuvant-by-modulating-the-antiviral-immune-response
#4
Peter Probst, John B Grigg, Myra Wang, Ernesto Muñoz, Yueh-Ming Loo, Renee C Ireton, Michael Gale, Shawn P Iadonato, Kristin M Bedard
Vaccine adjuvants are essential to drive a protective immune response in cases where vaccine antigens are weakly immunogenic, where vaccine antigen is limited, or where an increase in potency is needed for a specific population, such as the elderly. To discover novel vaccine adjuvants, we used a high-throughput screen (HTS) designed to identify small-molecule agonists of the RIG-I-like receptor (RLR) pathway leading to interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) activation. RLRs are a group of cytosolic pattern-recognition receptors that are essential for the recognition of viral nucleic acids during infection...
March 6, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279345/generation-of-a-live-attenuated-influenza-vaccine-that-elicits-broad-protection-in-mice-and-ferrets
#5
Lulan Wang, Su-Yang Liu, Hsiang-Wen Chen, Juan Xu, Maxime Chapon, Tao Zhang, Fan Zhou, Yao E Wang, Natalie Quanquin, Guiqin Wang, Xiaoli Tian, Zhanlong He, Longding Liu, Wenhai Yu, David Jesse Sanchez, Yuying Liang, Taijiao Jiang, Robert Modlin, Barry R Bloom, Qihan Li, Jane C Deng, Paul Zhou, F Xiao-Feng Qin, Genhong Cheng
New influenza vaccines that provide effective and broad protection are desperately needed. Live attenuated viruses are attractive vaccine candidates because they can elicit both humoral and cellular immune responses. However, recent formulations of live attenuated influenza vaccines (LAIVs) have not been protective. We combined high-coverage transposon mutagenesis of influenza virus with a rapid high-throughput screening for attenuation to generate W7-791, a live attenuated mutant virus strain. W7-791 produced only a transient asymptomatic infection in adult and neonatal mice even at doses 100-fold higher than the LD50 of the parent strain...
March 8, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277801/the-immunogenicity-and-safety-of-a-hib-menac-vaccine-a-non-inferiority-randomized-observer-blind-trial-in-infants-aged-3-5-months
#6
Yu-Xiao Wang, Hong Tao, Jian-Li Hu, Jing-Xin Li, Wei-Ming Dai, Jin-Fang Sun, Pei Liu, Jie Tang, Wen-Yu Liu, Feng-Cai Zhu
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to evaluate the immunogenicity and safety of the novel combined Haemophilus influenzae type b-Neisseria meningitidis serogroup A and C-tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine (Hib-MenAC). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We conducted a non-inferiority, randomized, observer-blind, positive control clinical trial in 900 healthy infants aged between 3-5 months in Funing County, Jiangsu Province, China. Participants were randomly allocated, in a ratio of 2:1 (block=6), to receive experimental combined Hib-MenAC vaccines co-administrated with placebo or the co-administration of licensed Hib vaccine and MenAC vaccine, according to a three-dose immunization schedule...
March 9, 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219461/evaluating-the-impact-of-pharmacies-on-pandemic-influenza-vaccine-administration
#7
Joy Schwerzmann, Samuel B Graitcer, Barbara Jester, David Krahl, Daniel Jernigan, Carolyn B Bridges, Joseph Miller
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to quantify the potential retail pharmacy vaccine administration capacity and its possible impact on pandemic influenza vaccine uptake. METHODS: We developed a discrete event simulation model by use of ExtendSim software (Imagine That Inc, San Jose, CA) to forecast the potential effect of retail pharmacy vaccine administration on total weekly vaccine administration and the time needed to reach 80% vaccination coverage with a single dose of vaccine per person...
February 21, 2017: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187952/immunogenicity-and-safety-of-an-as03-adjuvanted-h7n1-vaccine-in-healthy-adults-a-phase-i-ii-observer-blind-randomized-controlled-trial
#8
Anuradha Madan, Murdo Ferguson, Eric Sheldon, Nathan Segall, Laurence Chu, Azhar Toma, Paul Rheault, Damien Friel, Jyoti Soni, Ping Li, Bruce L Innis, Anne Schuind
BACKGROUND: H7 influenza strains have pandemic potential. AS03-adjuvanted H7N1 A/mallard/Netherlands/12/2000 split-virion vaccine formulations were evaluated as model H7-subtype vaccine and tested after H7N9 emerged in China, and caused severe human disease with high mortality. METHODS: In this phase I/II, observer-blind, randomized trial in US and Canada, 420 healthy adults (21-64years) were randomized to receive 1 of 4 H7N1 vaccine formulations (3.75 or 7.5μg hemagglutinin adjuvanted with either AS03A or AS03B), 15μg unadjuvanted H7N1 hemagglutinin, or saline placebo, given as 2-dose series...
February 7, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159612/a-prime-boost-vaccination-with-ha-dna-and-pichia-produced-ha-protein-elicits-a-strong-humoral-response-in-chickens-against-h5n1
#9
Anna Stachyra, Maria Pietrzak, Agnieszka Macioła, Anna Protasiuk, Monika Olszewska, Krzysztof Śmietanka, Zenon Minta, Anna Góra-Sochacka, Edyta Kopera, Agnieszka Sirko
Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses cause severe disease and huge economic losses in domestic poultry and might pose a serious threat to people because of the high mortality rates in case of an accidental transmission to humans. The main goal of this work was to evaluate the immune responses and hemagglutination inhibition potential elicited by a combined DNA/recombinant protein prime/boost vaccination compared to DNA/DNA and protein/protein regimens in chickens. A plasmid encoding hemagglutinin (HA) from the A/swan/Poland/305-135V08/2006 (H5N1) virus, or the recombinant HA protein produced in Pichia pastoris system, both induced H5 HA-specific humoral immune responses in chickens...
January 31, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109709/the-effect-of-gamma-irradiation-conditions-on-the-immunogenicity-of-whole-inactivated-influenza-a-virus-vaccine
#10
Shannon C David, Josyane Lau, Eve V Singleton, Rachelle Babb, Justin Davies, Timothy R Hirst, Shaun R McColl, James C Paton, Mohammed Alsharifi
Gamma-irradiation, particularly an irradiation dose of 50kGy, has been utilised widely to sterilise highly pathogenic agents such as Ebola, Marburg Virus, and Avian Influenza H5N1. We have reported previously that intranasal vaccination with a gamma-irradiated Influenza A virus vaccine (γ-Flu) results in cross-protective immunity. Considering the possible inclusion of highly pathogenic Influenza strains in future clinical development of γ-Flu, an irradiation dose of 50kGy may be used to enhance vaccine safety beyond the internationally accepted Sterility Assurance Level (SAL)...
January 18, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089151/influenza-vaccination-reduces-hemorrhagic-stroke-risk-in-patients-with-atrial-fibrillation-a-population-based-cohort-study
#11
Ju-Chi Liu, Ta-Jung Wang, Li-Chin Sung, Pai-Feng Kao, Tsung-Yeh Yang, Wen-Rui Hao, Chun-Chao Chen, Yi-Ping Hsu, Szu-Yuan Wu
PURPOSE: The risk of hemorrhagic stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) is low but the consequences of its occurrence are extremely severe. In this study, we investigated the association of influenza vaccination with the risk of hemorrhagic stroke to develop an efficient strategy for reducing this risk in patients with AF. METHODS: In this study, data were retrieved from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. The study cohort comprised all patients who received a diagnosis of AF (n=14,454) before January 1, 2005 (index date) and were followed until December 31, 2012...
December 21, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063707/a-novel-vaccinological-evaluation-of-intranasal-vaccine-and-adjuvant-safety-for-preclinical-tests
#12
Eita Sasaki, Madoka Kuramitsu, Haruka Momose, Kouji Kobiyama, Taiki Aoshi, Hiroshi Yamada, Ken J Ishii, Takuo Mizukami, Isao Hamaguchi
Vaccines are administered to healthy humans, including infants, so the safety and efficacy must be very high. Therefore, evaluating vaccine safety in preclinical and clinical studies, according to World Health Organization guidelines, is crucial for vaccine development and clinical use. A change in the route of administration is considered to alter a vaccine's immunogenicity. Several adjuvants have also been developed and approved for use in vaccines. However, the addition of adjuvants to vaccines may cause unwanted immune responses, including facial nerve paralysis and narcolepsy...
February 1, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052136/intranasal-immunization-using-mannatide-as-a-novel-adjuvant-for-an-inactivated-influenza-vaccine-and-its-adjuvant-effect-compared-with-mf59
#13
Shu-Ting Ren, Xue-Mei Zhang, Peng-Fei Sun, Li-Juan Sun, Xue Guo, Tian Tian, Jian Zhang, Qi-Yuan Guo, Xue Li, Li-Jun Guo, Jin Che, Bing Wang, Hui Zhang
Intranasal vaccination is more potent than parenteral injection for the prevention of influenza. However, because the poor efficiency of antigen uptake across the nasal mucosa is a key issue, immunostimulatory adjuvants are essential for intranasal vaccines. The immunomodulator mannatide or polyactin (PA) has been used for the clinical treatment of impaired immunity in China, but its adjuvant effect on an inactivated trivalent influenza vaccine (ITIV) via intranasal vaccination is unclear. To explore the adjuvant effect of PA, an inactivated trivalent influenza virus with or without PA or MF59 was instilled intranasally once a week in BALB/c mice...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017441/extensive-swelling-of-the-limb-and-systemic-symptoms-after-a-fourth-dose-of-acellular-pertussis-containing-vaccines-in-england-in-children-aged-3-6years
#14
Jo Southern, Pauline A Waight, Nick Andrews, Elizabeth Miller
Extensive limb swelling (ESL) after a booster dose of acellular pertussis (aP) containing vaccine can cause concern and has the potential to be confused with cellulitis. In the United Kingdom aP-containing vaccine was introduced for primary immunisation at 2, 3 and 4months of age in 2004, with the first cohorts eligible to receive a fourth dose in 2007 at school entry. We assessed the frequency of ESL (here defined as swelling >100mms diameter) in 973 children receiving a fourth dose of one of four aP vaccines given combined with inactivated polio, tetanus and either low dose diphtheria (TdaP/IPV) or high dose diphtheria (DTaP/IPV) vaccine; 2 of the 3 DTaP/IPV vaccines also contained Haemophilus influenza b conjugate vaccine (Hib)...
December 22, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012814/parental-reported-full-influenza-vaccination-coverage-of-children-in-the-u-s
#15
Yusheng Zhai, Tammy A Santibanez, Katherine E Kahn, Anup Srivastav
INTRODUCTION: Depending upon influenza vaccination history, children aged 6 months-8 years need one or two doses of influenza vaccine to be considered fully vaccinated. The objectives of this study were to quantify the percentage of children aged 6 months-8 years who were fully vaccinated against influenza based on parental report, overall, by state, and by sociodemographic characteristics, and to examine sociodemographic characteristics associated with being fully vaccinated. METHODS: Data from the National Immunization Survey-Flu for the 2012-2013 and 2013-2014 influenza seasons were analyzed in 2015 using the Kaplan-Meier method to produce vaccination coverage estimates...
December 21, 2016: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27996363/randomized-double-blind-multi-center-phase-iii-clinical-trial-to-evaluate-the-immunogenicity-and-safety-of-mg1109-egg-based-pre-pandemic-influenza-a-h5n1-vaccine-in-healthy-adults
#16
Joon Young Song, Min Joo Choi, Ji Yun Noh, Won Suk Choi, Hee Jin Cheong, Seong-Heon Wie, Jin-Soo Lee, Gyu-Jin Woo, Sang Ho Lee, Woo Joo Kim
Considering the pandemic potential of avian influenza A/H5N1, development of an effective and well-tolerated vaccine is an essential part of pandemic preparedness plans. This phase III, randomized, double-blind study was conducted to assess the immunogenicity and safety profile of an alum-adjuvanted, whole virion, pre-pandemic influenza A/H5N1 vaccine (MG1109). Healthy individuals were randomly assigned, in a 3:1 ratio, to receive two doses of either MG1109 or placebo containing alum gel. Immunogenicity was determined by hemagglutination inhibition (HI) and microneutralization (MN) assays...
December 20, 2016: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989625/pneumonia-prevention-cost-effectiveness-analyses-of-two-vaccines-among-refugee-children-aged-under-two-years-haemophilus-influenzae-type-b-containing-and-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccines-during-a-humanitarian-emergency-yida-camp-south-sudan
#17
Lisa M Gargano, Rana Hajjeh, Susan T Cookson
By September 2013, war between Sudan and South Sudan resulted in >70,000 Sudanese refugees and high pneumonia incidence among the 20,000 refugees in Yida camp, South Sudan. Using Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF)-provided data and modifying our decision-tree models, we estimated if administering Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib)-containing (pentavalent vaccine, also with diphtheria pertussis and tetanus [DPT] and hepatitis B) and pneumococcal conjugate (PCV) vaccines were cost-effective against hospitalized pneumonia...
January 11, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987414/targeting-antigens-to-dec-205-on-dendritic-cells-induces-a-higher-immune-response-in-chickens-hemagglutinin-of-avian-influenza-virus-example
#18
David Jáuregui-Zúñiga, Martha Pedraza-Escalona, Gerardo Pavel Espino-Solís, Verónica Quintero-Hernández, Alejandro Olvera-Rodríguez, Marco Aurelio Díaz-Salinas, Susana López, Lourival Domingos Possani
It is widely known that targeting a variety of antigens to the DEC-205 receptor on dendritic cells (DCs) significantly potentiate immunity. This communication reports the development of a new murine monoclonal antibody (mAb) against the chicken DEC-205, using as immunogen the carbohydrate recognition domain-2 (CRD-2) heterologously expressed. This mAb recognizes a protein band of 250kDa by immunoprecipitation analysis and shows strong cross-reactivity with human and pig DEC-205. Furthermore, the hemagglutinin (HA) of avian influenza H5N2 virus was cloned and expressed using insect cell-baculovirus expression system...
December 9, 2016: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27960593/rapid-safety-assessment-of-a-seasonal-intradermal-trivalent-influenza-vaccine
#19
Marc Demeulemeester, Nathalie Lavis, Yohan Balthazar, Patrice Lechien, Stéphane Heijmans
Seasonal influenza vaccine formulations must be updated annually to correspond to the influenza viruses in circulation. This was an uncontrolled, open-label, multi-center phase IV study conducted in Belgium to comply with interim European Medicines Agency (EMA) guidelines for rapidly evaluating the safety of newly formulated seasonal influenza vaccines. Adult volunteers received one dose of the 2014-2015 Northern Hemisphere formulation of licensed intradermal trivalent influenza vaccine at either the standard dose (9 µg hemagglutinin/strain for 18-59 year-olds) or the high dose (15 µg hemagglutinin/strain for ≥ 60 year-olds)...
December 14, 2016: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27960207/antibiotic-resistance-in-community-acquired-pneumonia-pathogens
#20
Richard G Wunderink, Yudong Yin
The overwhelming majority of cases of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) can be treated with the standard antibiotic regimens of a macrolide and cephalosporin or a fluoroquinolone. Despite high rates, current levels of β-lactam resistance generally do not result in treatment failure for patients with CAP when appropriate agents and doses are used. Following the introduction of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccines, the incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease declined drastically, coinciding with a decrease in penicillin resistance...
December 2016: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
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