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High dose influenza vaccine

Anagha Loharikar, Laure Dumolard, Susan Chu, Terri Hyde, Tracey Goodman, Carsten Mantel
Since the global Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) was launched in 1974, vaccination against six diseases (tuberculosis, polio, diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, and measles) has prevented millions of deaths and disabilities (1). Significant advances have been made in the development and introduction of vaccines, and licensed vaccines are now available to prevent 25 diseases (2,3). Historically, new vaccines only became available in low-income and middle-income countries decades after being introduced in high-income countries...
October 21, 2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Bikas K Arya, Sangeeta Das Bhattacharya, Catherine G Sutcliffe, Swapan Kumar Niyogi, Subhasish Bhattacharyya, Sunil Hemram, William J Moss, Samiran Panda, Ranjan Saurav Das, Sutapa Mandal, Dennis Robert, Pampa Ray
BACKGROUND: In addition to reducing Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) disease in vaccinated individuals, the Hib conjugate vaccine (HibCV) has indirect effects; it reduces Hib disease in unvaccinated individuals by decreasing carriage. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children are at increased risk for Hib disease and live in families where multiple members may have HIV. The aim of this study is to look at the impact of 2 doses of the HibCV on nasopharyngeal carriage of Hib in HIV-infected Indian children (2-15 years) and the indirect impact on carriage in their parents...
November 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
W Abdullah Brooks, K Zaman, Kristen D C Lewis, Justin R Ortiz, Doli Goswami, Jodi Feser, Amina Tahia Sharmeen, Kamrun Nahar, Mustafizur Rahman, Mohammed Ziaur Rahman, Burc Barin, Muhammad Yunus, Alicia M Fry, Joseph Bresee, Tasnim Azim, Kathleen M Neuzil
BACKGROUND: The rates of influenza illness and associated complications are high among children in Bangladesh. We assessed the clinical efficacy and safety of a Russian-backbone live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) at two field sites in Bangladesh. METHODS: Between Feb 27 and April 9, 2013, children aged 2-4 years in urban Kamalapur and rural Matlab, Bangladesh, were randomly assigned in a 2:1 ratio, according to a computer-generated schedule, to receive one intranasal dose of LAIV or placebo...
October 13, 2016: Lancet Global Health
Kirsten Maertens, Tessa Braeckman, Geert Top, Pierre Van Damme, Elke Leuridan
In Belgium, pertussis vaccination is recommended for all pregnant women in every pregnancy. Adults in close contact with young infants are equally advised to receive a pertussis containing booster dose. Maternal influenza vaccination is likewise recommended in Belgium in the second or third trimester of pregnancy, within the influenza season. A quantitative multicenter survey study has been performed between October 2014 and May 2015 in both postpartum women (N=823, response rate=89.2%) and health care workers (HCWs) (N=261) to assess the coverage of both vaccines during pregnancy along with the coverage of the pertussis cocoon strategy, and to evaluate the knowledge and recommending attitude of HCWs towards the maternal vaccination strategies and the cocoon strategy among surveyed women and HCWs...
October 11, 2016: Vaccine
Ioannis Sitaras, Xanthoula Rousou, Ben Peeters, Mart C M de Jong
BACKGROUND: Transmission of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses in poultry flocks is associated with huge economic losses, culling of millions of birds, as well as human infections and deaths. In the cases where vaccination against avian influenza is used as a control measure, it has been found to be ineffective in preventing transmission of field strains. Reports suggest that one of the reasons for this is the use of vaccine doses much lower than the ones recommended by the manufacturer, resulting in very low levels of immunity...
October 8, 2016: Vaccine
Holly A Hill, Laurie D Elam-Evans, David Yankey, James A Singleton, Vance Dietz
Sustained high coverage with recommended vaccinations among children has kept many vaccine-preventable diseases at low levels in the United States (1). To assess coverage with vaccinations recommended for children by age 2 years in the United States (2), CDC analyzed data collected by the 2015 National Immunization Survey (NIS) for children aged 19-35 months (born January 2012-May 2014). Overall, coverage did not change during 2014-2015. Coverage in 2015 was highest for ≥3 doses of poliovirus vaccine (93...
October 7, 2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Jonathan M Raviotta, Kenneth J Smith, Jay DePasse, Shawn T Brown, Eunha Shim, Mary Patricia Nowalk, Richard K Zimmerman
OBJECTIVES: To compare the cost-effectiveness of four influenza vaccines available in the United States for persons aged 65 and older: trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV3), quadrivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV4), a more-expensive high-dose IIV3, and a newly approved adjuvanted IIV3. DESIGN: Cost-effectiveness analysis using a Markov model and sensitivity analyses. SETTING: A hypothetical influenza vaccination season modeled according to possible U...
October 6, 2016: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
Bernd Salzberger, Barbara Schmidt
The burden of disease of influenza in Germany has been dominated by high rates of complications in elderly patients in years with high circulation of H3N2 viruses after the introduction of the new H1N1 strain in 2009. Human infections with avian influenza viruses occur mostly in China. Due to the potential of reassortment with human strains these cases are monitored closely. The efficacy of neuraminidase inhibitors (NI) has been newly rated. In randomized studies effects on reduction of complications could not be found, although large cohort studies have demonstrated a reduction of mortality in patients treated with vs...
September 2016: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
Theano Georgakopoulou, Damianos Menegas, Antonis Katsioulis, Maria Theodoridou, Jenny Kremastinou, Christos Hadjichristodoulou
Vaccination coverage studies are important in determining a population vaccination status and strategically adjusting national immunization programs. This study assessed full and timely vaccination coverage of preschool children aged 2-3 years attending nurseries-kindergartens (N-K) nationwide at the socioeconomic crisis onset. Geographically stratified cluster sampling was implemented considering prefectures as strata and N-K as clusters. The N-K were selected by simple random sampling from the sampling frame while their number was proportional to the stratum size...
September 26, 2016: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Debbie L Becker, Ayman Chit, Carlos A DiazGranados, Michael Maschio, Eddy Yau, Michael Drummond
Seasonal influenza infects approximately 10-20% of Canadians each year, causing an estimated 12,200 hospitalizations and 3,500 deaths annually, mostly occurring in adults ≥65 years old (seniors). A 32,000-participant, randomized controlled clinical trial (FIM12; NCT01427309) showed that high-dose inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV-HD) is superior to standard-dose vaccine (SD) in preventing laboratory-confirmed influenza illness in seniors. In this study, we performed a cost-utility analysis (CUA) of IIV-HD versus SD in FIM12 participants from a Canadian perspective...
September 26, 2016: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Niharika Sharma-Chawla, Vicky Sender, Olivia Kershaw, Achim D Gruber, Julia Volckmar, Birgitta Henriques-Normark, Sabine Stegemann-Koniszewski, Dunja Bruder
Influenza A virus (IAV) and Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pn.) are major causes of respiratory tract infections, particularly during co-infection. The synergism between these two pathogens is characterized by a complex network of dysregulated immune responses, some of which last until recovery post IAV infection. Despite the high serotype-diversity of S. pn. and the serotype-replacement observed since the introduction of conjugate vaccines, little is known about pneumococcal strain-dependency in the enhanced susceptibility to severe secondary S...
September 19, 2016: Infection and Immunity
Justin R Ortiz, Marc Perut, Laure Dumolard, Pushpa Ranjan Wijesinghe, Pernille Jorgensen, Alba Maria Ropero, M Carolina Danovaro-Holliday, James D Heffelfinger, Carol Tevi-Benissan, Nadia A Teleb, Philipp Lambach, Joachim Hombach
INTRODUCTION: The WHO recommends annual influenza vaccination to prevent influenza illness in high-risk groups. Little is known about national influenza immunization policies globally. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The 2014 WHO/UNICEF Joint Reporting Form (JRF) on Immunization was adapted to capture data on influenza immunization policies. We combined this dataset with additional JRF information on new vaccine introductions and strength of immunization programmes, as well as publicly available data on country economic status...
October 26, 2016: Vaccine
H A Hussein, B M Ahmed, S M Aly, A H El-Deeb, A A El-Sanousi, M A Rohaim, A A Arafa, M R Gadalla
In this study, a recombinant DNA plasmid was constructed, encoding for HA1 of a selected Egyptian H5N1 virus (isolated during the 2012 outbreaks). In the immunization and challenge experiments, SPF chickens received 1 or 2 doses of H5-DNA plasmid prime, and boosted with the inactivated H5N2 vaccine. Haemagglutination inhibition (HI) titers, protection levels, and the magnitude of virus shedding were compared to that of the chickens that received either DNA plasmid or inactivated H5N2 vaccine alone. H5N1 virus A/chicken/Egypt/128s/2012 (H5N1) highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) clade 2...
2016: Acta Virologica
Matthew L Basiaga, Evanette K Burrows, Michelle R Denburg, Kevin E Meyers, Andrew B Grossman, Petar Mamula, Robert W Grundmeier, Jon M Burnham
OBJECTIVE: To assess preventive care measure prescribing in children exposed to glucocorticoids and identify prescribing variation according to subspecialty and patient characteristics. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study of children initiating chronic glucocorticoids in the gastroenterology, nephrology, and rheumatology divisions at a pediatric tertiary care center. Outcomes included 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) and lipid testing, pneumococcal polysaccharide (PPV) and influenza vaccination, and stress dose hydrocortisone prescriptions...
September 9, 2016: Journal of Pediatrics
Trong Lan Phan, Vinh Thang Ho, Minh Huong Vu, Tuyet Nga Nguyen, Huu Thai Duong, Renee Holt, Rahnuma Wahid, John Donnelly, Jorge Flores
We tested an inactivated egg-grown whole virus influenza A/H5N1 vaccine candidate developed by the Institute of Vaccines and Medical Biologicals (IVAC), a state-run vaccine manufacturer in Vietnam, in a Phase 1, placebo controlled, double blinded, randomized trial. The vaccine was adjuvanted with aluminum hydroxide. The trial enrolled 75 subjects who were randomized to receive two injections of one of the following: low-dose of vaccine (7.5 mcg HA), high-dose of vaccine (15 mcg HA), or placebo. The vaccine candidate was well tolerated with minimal local reactogenicity consisting of mild, short-lived injection site pain and/or tenderness...
October 26, 2016: Vaccine
Aiden K Varan, Alfonso Rodriguez-Lainz, Holly A Hill, Laurie D Elam-Evans, David Yankey, Qian Li
Healthy People 2020 targets high vaccination coverage among children. Although reductions in coverage disparities by race/ethnicity have been described, data by nativity are limited. The National Immunization Survey is a random-digit-dialed telephone survey that estimates vaccination coverage among U.S. children aged 19-35 months. We assessed coverage among 52,441 children from pooled 2010-2012 data for individual vaccines and the combined 4:3:1:3*:3:1:4 series (which includes ≥4 doses of diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis vaccine/diphtheria and tetanus toxoids vaccine/diphtheria, tetanus toxoids, and pertussis vaccine, ≥3 doses of poliovirus vaccine, ≥1 dose of measles-containing vaccine, ≥3 or ≥4 doses of Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine (depending on product type of vaccine; denoted as 3* in the series name), ≥3 doses of hepatitis B vaccine, ≥1 dose of varicella vaccine, and ≥4 doses of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine)...
August 1, 2016: Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health
Jun-Liang Yuan, Shuang-Kun Wang, Xiao-Juan Guo, Wen-Li Hu
Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system, which has been associated with several vaccines such as rabies, diphtheria-tetanus-polio, smallpox, measles, mumps, rubella, Japanese B encephalitis, pertussis, influenza, and the Hog vaccine. Here, we presented a case of 12-year-old child who suffered from ADEM three weeks after hepatitis B vaccination. He was admitted to our hospital with symptoms of weakness of limbs, high fever, and alteration of consciousness...
2016: Case Reports in Neurological Medicine
Jin Hyang Kim, H Keipp Talbot, Margarita Mishina, Yuwei Zhu, Jufu Chen, Weiping Cao, Adrian J Reber, Marie R Griffin, David K Shay, Sarah M Spencer, Suryaprakash Sambhara
UNLABELLED: High-dose (HD) influenza vaccine shows improved relative efficacy against influenza disease compared to standard-dose (SD) vaccine in individuals ⩾65years. This has been partially credited to superior serological responses, but a comprehensive understanding of cell-mediated immunity (CMI) of HD vaccine remains lacking. In the current study, a total of 105 participants were randomly administered HD or SD vaccine and were evaluated for serological responses. Subsets of the group (n=12-26 per group) were evaluated for B and T cell responses at days 0, 7, 14 and 28 post-vaccination by flow cytometry or ELISPOT assay...
August 31, 2016: Vaccine
Stefan Gravenstein, Monica Taljaard, Pedro Gozalo, Roshani Dahal, H Edward Davidson, Lisa Han, Jessica Ogarek, Vincent Mor
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2015: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Hwee-Ing Ng, Germain J P Fernando, Alexandra C I Depelsenaire, Mark A F Kendall
Adjuvants play a key role in boosting immunogenicity of vaccines, particularly for subunit protein vaccines. In this study we investigated the induction of antibody response against trivalent influenza subunit protein antigen and a saponin adjuvant, QS-21. Clinical trials of QS-21 have demonstrated the safety but, also a need of high dose for optimal immunity, which could possibly reduce patient acceptability. Here, we proposed the use of a skin delivery technology - the Nanopatch - to reduce both adjuvant and antigen dose but also retain its immune stimulating effects when compared to the conventional needle and syringe intramuscular (IM) delivery...
2016: Scientific Reports
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