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High dose influenza vaccine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063707/a-novel-vaccinological-evaluation-of-intranasal-vaccine-and-adjuvant-safety-for-preclinical-tests
#1
Eita Sasaki, Madoka Kuramitsu, Haruka Momose, Kouji Kobiyama, Taiki Aoshi, Hiroshi Yamada, Ken J Ishii, Takuo Mizukami, Isao Hamaguchi
Vaccines are administered to healthy humans, including infants, so the safety and efficacy must be very high. Therefore, evaluating vaccine safety in preclinical and clinical studies, according to World Health Organization guidelines, is crucial for vaccine development and clinical use. A change in the route of administration is considered to alter a vaccine's immunogenicity. Several adjuvants have also been developed and approved for use in vaccines. However, the addition of adjuvants to vaccines may cause unwanted immune responses, including facial nerve paralysis and narcolepsy...
January 4, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052136/intranasal-immunization-using-mannatide-as-a-novel-adjuvant-for-an-inactivated-influenza-vaccine-and-its-adjuvant-effect-compared-with-mf59
#2
Shu-Ting Ren, Xue-Mei Zhang, Peng-Fei Sun, Li-Juan Sun, Xue Guo, Tian Tian, Jian Zhang, Qi-Yuan Guo, Xue Li, Li-Jun Guo, Jin Che, Bing Wang, Hui Zhang
Intranasal vaccination is more potent than parenteral injection for the prevention of influenza. However, because the poor efficiency of antigen uptake across the nasal mucosa is a key issue, immunostimulatory adjuvants are essential for intranasal vaccines. The immunomodulator mannatide or polyactin (PA) has been used for the clinical treatment of impaired immunity in China, but its adjuvant effect on an inactivated trivalent influenza vaccine (ITIV) via intranasal vaccination is unclear. To explore the adjuvant effect of PA, an inactivated trivalent influenza virus with or without PA or MF59 was instilled intranasally once a week in BALB/c mice...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017441/extensive-swelling-of-the-limb-and-systemic-symptoms-after-a-fourth-dose-of-acellular-pertussis-containing-vaccines-in-england-in-children-aged-3-6years
#3
Jo Southern, Pauline A Waight, Nick Andrews, Elizabeth Miller
Extensive limb swelling (ESL) after a booster dose of acellular pertussis (aP) containing vaccine can cause concern and has the potential to be confused with cellulitis. In the United Kingdom aP-containing vaccine was introduced for primary immunisation at 2, 3 and 4months of age in 2004, with the first cohorts eligible to receive a fourth dose in 2007 at school entry. We assessed the frequency of ESL (here defined as swelling >100mms diameter) in 973 children receiving a fourth dose of one of four aP vaccines given combined with inactivated polio, tetanus and either low dose diphtheria (TdaP/IPV) or high dose diphtheria (DTaP/IPV) vaccine; 2 of the 3 DTaP/IPV vaccines also contained Haemophilus influenza b conjugate vaccine (Hib)...
December 22, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012814/parental-reported-full-influenza-vaccination-coverage-of-children-in-the-u-s
#4
Yusheng Zhai, Tammy A Santibanez, Katherine E Kahn, Anup Srivastav
INTRODUCTION: Depending upon influenza vaccination history, children aged 6 months-8 years need one or two doses of influenza vaccine to be considered fully vaccinated. The objectives of this study were to quantify the percentage of children aged 6 months-8 years who were fully vaccinated against influenza based on parental report, overall, by state, and by sociodemographic characteristics, and to examine sociodemographic characteristics associated with being fully vaccinated. METHODS: Data from the National Immunization Survey-Flu for the 2012-2013 and 2013-2014 influenza seasons were analyzed in 2015 using the Kaplan-Meier method to produce vaccination coverage estimates...
December 21, 2016: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27996363/randomized-double-blind-multi-center-phase-iii-clinical-trial-to-evaluate-the-immunogenicity-and-safety-of-mg1109-egg-based-pre-pandemic-influenza-a-h5n1-vaccine-in-healthy-adults
#5
Joon Young Song, Min Joo Choi, Ji Yun Noh, Won Suk Choi, Hee Jin Cheong, Seong-Heon Wie, Jin-Soo Lee, Gyu-Jin Woo, Sang Ho Lee, Woo Joo Kim
Considering the pandemic potential of avian influenza A/H5N1, development of an effective and well-tolerated vaccine is an essential part of pandemic preparedness plans. This phase III, randomized, double-blind study was conducted to assess the immunogenicity and safety profile of an alum-adjuvanted, whole virion, pre-pandemic influenza A/H5N1 vaccine (MG1109). Healthy individuals were randomly assigned, in a 3:1 ratio, to receive two doses of either MG1109 or placebo containing alum gel. Immunogenicity was determined by hemagglutination inhibition (HI) and microneutralization (MN) assays...
December 20, 2016: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989625/pneumonia-prevention-cost-effectiveness-analyses-of-two-vaccines-among-refugee-children-aged-under-two-years-haemophilus-influenzae-type-b-containing-and-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccines-during-a-humanitarian-emergency-yida-camp-south-sudan
#6
Lisa M Gargano, Rana Hajjeh, Susan T Cookson
By September 2013, war between Sudan and South Sudan resulted in >70,000 Sudanese refugees and high pneumonia incidence among the 20,000 refugees in Yida camp, South Sudan. Using Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF)-provided data and modifying our decision-tree models, we estimated if administering Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib)-containing (pentavalent vaccine, also with diphtheria pertussis and tetanus [DPT] and hepatitis B) and pneumococcal conjugate (PCV) vaccines were cost-effective against hospitalized pneumonia...
January 11, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987414/targeting-antigens-to-dec-205-on-dendritic-cells-induces-a-higher-immune-response-in-chickens-hemagglutinin-of-avian-influenza-virus-example
#7
David Jáuregui-Zúñiga, Martha Pedraza-Escalona, Gerardo Pavel Espino-Solís, Verónica Quintero-Hernández, Alejandro Olvera-Rodríguez, Marco Aurelio Díaz-Salinas, Susana López, Lourival Domingos Possani
It is widely known that targeting a variety of antigens to the DEC-205 receptor on dendritic cells (DCs) significantly potentiate immunity. This communication reports the development of a new murine monoclonal antibody (mAb) against the chicken DEC-205, using as immunogen the carbohydrate recognition domain-2 (CRD-2) heterologously expressed. This mAb recognizes a protein band of 250kDa by immunoprecipitation analysis and shows strong cross-reactivity with human and pig DEC-205. Furthermore, the hemagglutinin (HA) of avian influenza H5N2 virus was cloned and expressed using insect cell-baculovirus expression system...
December 9, 2016: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27960593/rapid-safety-assessment-of-a-seasonal-intradermal-trivalent-influenza-vaccine
#8
Marc Demeulemeester, Nathalie Lavis, Yohan Balthazar, Patrice Lechien, Stéphane Heijmans
Seasonal influenza vaccine formulations must be updated annually to correspond to the influenza viruses in circulation. This was an uncontrolled, open-label, multi-center phase IV study conducted in Belgium to comply with interim European Medicines Agency (EMA) guidelines for rapidly evaluating the safety of newly formulated seasonal influenza vaccines. Adult volunteers received one dose of the 2014-2015 Northern Hemisphere formulation of licensed intradermal trivalent influenza vaccine at either the standard dose (9 µg hemagglutinin/strain for 18-59 year-olds) or the high dose (15 µg hemagglutinin/strain for ≥ 60 year-olds)...
December 14, 2016: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27960207/antibiotic-resistance-in-community-acquired-pneumonia-pathogens
#9
Richard G Wunderink, Yudong Yin
The overwhelming majority of cases of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) can be treated with the standard antibiotic regimens of a macrolide and cephalosporin or a fluoroquinolone. Despite high rates, current levels of β-lactam resistance generally do not result in treatment failure for patients with CAP when appropriate agents and doses are used. Following the introduction of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccines, the incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease declined drastically, coinciding with a decrease in penicillin resistance...
December 2016: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919900/n-acetyl-l-cysteine-and-cysteamine-new-strategies-against-mixed-biofilms-of-non-encapsulated-streptococcus-pneumoniae-and-non-typeable-haemophilus-influenzae
#10
Mirian Domenech, Ernesto García
Acute otitis media, a polymicrobial disease of the middle ear cavity of children, is a significant public health problem worldwide. It is most frequently caused by encapsulated Streptococcus pneumoniae and non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae, although the widespread use of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines is apparently producing an increase in carriage of non-encapsulated S. pneumoniae Frequently, pneumococci and H. influenzae live together in the human nasopharynx forming a self-produced biofilm. Biofilms represent a global medical challenge since the inherent antibiotic resistance of their producers demands the use of high doses of antibiotics over prolonged periods...
December 5, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919633/greater-activation-of-peripheral-t-follicular-helper-cells-following-high-dose-influenza-vaccine-in-older-adults-forecasts-seroconversion
#11
Mark A Pilkinton, Katherine J Nicholas, Christian M Warren, Rita M Smith, Sandra M Yoder, H Keipp Talbot, Spyros A Kalams
BACKGROUND: Influenza related morbidity and mortality disproportionately impacts older adults. The serologic response to vaccine is diminished in older adults; however, high dose inactivated influenza vaccine (HD IIV) has shown improved rates of seroconversion compared to standard dose (SD IIV). We hypothesize this may be due to the superior ability of high dose vaccine to activate T follicular helper (Tfh) cells and provide B cell dependent T cell help. METHODS: We measured peripheral Tfh (pTfh) activation in 50 community dwelling adults 65years or older who were randomly assigned to receive either the HD IIV or SD IIV...
January 5, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902386/establishment-of-memory-cd8-t-cells-with-live-attenuated-influenza-virus-across-different-vaccination-doses
#12
Zhongfang Wang, Lukasz Kedzierski, Simone Nuessing, Brendon Yew Loong Chua, Sergio M Quiñones-Parra, Victor C Huber, David C Jackson, Paul G Thomas, Katherine Kedzierska
FluMist has been used in children and adults for more than 10 years. As pre-existing CD8+ T cell memory pools can provide heterologous immunity against distinct influenza viruses, it is important to understand influenza-specific CD8+ T cell responses elicited by different live attenuated influenza virus (LAIV) regimens. In this study, we immunized mice intranasally with two different doses of live-attenuated PR8 virus (PR8 ts, H1N1), low and high, and then assessed protective efficacy by challenging animals with heterosubtypic X31-H3N2 virus at 6 weeks post-vaccination...
December 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898629/influenza-like-illness-diagnosis-and-management-in-the-acute-care-setting
#13
Sharon G Humiston, Thuylinh N Pham
During influenza season, acute respiratory illness due to influenza is difficult to distinguish from other influenza-like illnesses, but testing should be reserved for situations when timely results will influence management or infection control measures. Immunization status and timing of disease onset notwithstanding, a neuraminidase inhibitor should be offered immediately for certain high-risk children; neuraminidase inhibitor treatment should be considered if shorter illness is warranted or an at-risk sibling may be protected...
December 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889711/immunogenicity-and-safety-of-a-liquid-hexavalent-vaccine-in-indian-infants
#14
Jugesh Chhatwal, Sanjay Lalwani, Emmanuel Vidor
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the immunogenicity and safety of a fully liquid, hexavalent diphtheria tetanus acellular pertussis inactivated poliovirus hepatitis B Haemophilus influenzae type b (DTaP IPV HB PRPT) vaccine in Indian infants. DESIGN: Phase III, single-arm study. SETTING: Two tertiary care hospitals. PARTICIPANTS: 177 healthy, 6-week-old infants. INTERVENTION: All participants received HB and OPV vaccines at birth and DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP~T at 6, 10, 14 weeks of age...
November 5, 2016: Indian Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869440/immunology-update-new-vaccines
#15
S Paul Starr
A new 9-valent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine is effective against more cancer-causing HPV types than previous vaccines. HPV vaccine series started with previous vaccines can be completed with the 9-valent vaccine. Two new influenza vaccines are available for adults 65 years and older: a high-dose vaccine and an enhanced adjuvant vaccine. These elicit stronger antibody responses than standard-dose vaccines. Current guidelines specify no preference for the new versus standard-dose vaccines. Two new group B meningococcal vaccines are intended for use during outbreaks and for patients with asplenia, complement deficiencies, frequent occupational meningococcus exposure, or for patients who desire protection from type B meningococcus...
November 2016: FP Essentials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856263/rational-design-of-protamine-nanocapsules-as-antigen-delivery-carriers
#16
José Vicente González-Aramundiz, Elena Presas, Inmaculada Dalmau-Mena, Susana Martínez-Pulgarín, Covadonga Alonso, José M Escribano, María J Alonso, Noemi Stefánia Csaba
: Current challenges in global immunization indicate the demand for new delivery strategies, which could be applied to the development of new vaccines against emerging diseases, as well as to improve safety and efficacy of currently existing vaccine formulations. Here, we report a novel antigen nanocarrier consisting of an oily core and a protamine shell, further stabilized with pegylated surfactants. These nanocarriers, named protamine nanocapsules, were rationally designed to promote the intracellular delivery of antigens to immunocompetent cells and to trigger an efficient and long-lasting immune response...
November 14, 2016: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834623/evaluation-of-the-immunogenicity-of-a-potyvirus-like-particle-as-an-adjuvant-of-a-synthetic-peptide
#17
Albertina Cárdenas-Vargas, Darwin Elizondo-Quiroga, Abel Gutierrez-Ortega, Claudia Charles-Niño, César Pedroza-Roldán
Improvement of current vaccines is highly necessary to increase immunogenicity levels and protection against several pathogens. Virus-like particles (VLPs) are promising approaches for vaccines because they emulate infectious virus structure, but lack any genetic material needed for replication. Plant viruses have emerged as a potential framework for VLP design, mainly because there is no preexisting immunity in mammals. In this study, we evaluated the scaffold of the papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) as a VLP adjuvant for a short synthetic peptide derived from the Hemagglutinin protein of AH1 N1 influenza virus-hemagglutinin (VLP-HA)...
December 2016: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814377/antibody-persistence-and-booster-responses-to-split-virion-h5n1-avian-influenza-vaccine-in-young-and-elderly-adults
#18
Rajeka Lazarus, Sarah Kelly, Matthew D Snape, Corinne Vandermeulen, Merryn Voysey, Karel Hoppenbrouwers, Annick Hens, Pierre Van Damme, Stephanie Pepin, Isabel Leroux-Roels, Geert Leroux-Roels, Andrew J Pollard
: Avian influenza continues to circulate and remains a global health threat not least because of the associated high mortality. In this study antibody persistence, booster vaccine response and cross-clade immune response between two influenza A(H5N1) vaccines were compared. Participants aged over 18-years who had previously been immunized with a clade 1, A/Vietnam vaccine were re-immunized at 6-months with 7.5 μg of the homologous strain or at 22-months with a clade 2, alum-adjuvanted, A/Indonesia vaccine...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813430/fluzone%C3%A2-high-dose-influenza-vaccine
#19
Corwin A Robertson, Carlos A DiazGranados, Michael D Decker, Ayman Chit, Monica Mercer, David P Greenberg
Fluzone® High-Dose (IIV3-HD) is a trivalent, inactivated, split-virus influenza vaccine indicated for use in older adults (≥65 years of age). It contains 60 µg hemagglutinin of each influenza strain, which is four times the hemagglutinin content of standard-dose influenza vaccines, including Fluzone (IIV3-SD). IIV3-HD has been licensed for use in older adults in the US since December 2009 and in Canada since February 2016. Areas covered: In this review, we summarize postlicensure studies on the immunogenicity, safety, and effectiveness of IIV3-HD and estimates of its cost-effectiveness in older adults...
November 14, 2016: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770803/the-response-of-mute-swans-cygnus-olor-gm-1789-to-vaccination-against-avian-influenza-with-an-inactivated-h5n2-vaccine
#20
Beata Dolka, Artur Żbikowski, Izabella Dolka, Piotr Szeleszczuk
BACKGROUND: Recent epidemics of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) produced an unprecedented number of cases in mute swans (Cygnus olor) in European countries, which indicates that these birds are very sensitive to the H5N1 virus. The HPAI outbreaks stirred a debate on the controversial stamping-out policy in populations of protected bird species. After preventive vaccination had been approved in the European Union, several countries have introduced vaccination schemes to protect poultry, captive wild birds or exotic birds in zoos against HPAI...
October 22, 2016: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
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