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Elderly and influenza

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441935/direct-and-indirect-effects-of-influenza-vaccination
#1
Martin Eichner, Markus Schwehm, Linda Eichner, Laetitia Gerlier
BACKGROUND: After vaccination, vaccinees acquire some protection against infection and/or disease. Vaccination, therefore, reduces the number of infections in the population. Due to this herd protection, not everybody needs to be vaccinated to prevent infections from spreading. METHODS: We quantify direct and indirect effects of influenza vaccination examining the standard Susceptible-Infected-Recovered (SIR) and Susceptible-Infected-Recovered-Susceptible (SIRS) model as well as simulation results of a sophisticated simulation tool which allows for seasonal transmission of four influenza strains in a population with realistic demography and age-dependent contact patterns...
April 26, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432994/assessment-of-temporal-variation-for-the-risk-of-particulate-matters-on-asthma-hospitalization
#2
Hyomi Kim, Honghyok Kim, Yoon-Hyung Park, Jong-Tae Lee
Increased ambient concentration of particulate matters are considered as one of major causes for increased prevalence or exacerbation of asthma or asthma like symptoms. Recently, possible temporal variation in risks of PM on mortality has been suggested. We investigated short-term effect of both PM10 and PM2.5 on asthma hospitalization, and assessed temporal variation of PM risks in Seoul, Korea, 2003-2011. Generalized additive model was used to estimate PM risks on asthma hospitalization with consideration by long-term trend, influenza epidemic, day of week, meteorological factors...
April 19, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431815/efficacy-and-safety-of-high-dose-influenza-vaccine-in-elderly-adults-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#3
REVIEW
Krista Wilkinson, Yichun Wei, Andrea Szwajcer, Rasheda Rabbani, Ryan Zarychanski, Ahmed M Abou-Setta, Salaheddin M Mahmud
INTRODUCTION: Older adults are prioritized for influenza vaccination but also have lowered antibody responses to the vaccine. Higher-doses of influenza antigen may increase immune response and thus be more effective. Our objectives were to compare the efficacy and safety of the high-dose influenza vaccine to the standard-dose influenza vaccine in the elderly (age>65). METHODS: Data sources: Randomized trials (RCTs) from Medline (Ovid), EMBASE (Ovid), Cochrane Library (Wiley), ClinicalTrials...
April 18, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428558/a-joint-analysis-of-influenza-associated-hospitalizations-and-mortality-in-hong-kong-1998-2013
#4
Peng Wu, Anne M Presanis, Helen S Bond, Eric H Y Lau, Vicky J Fang, Benjamin J Cowling
Influenza viruses may cause severe human infections leading to hospitalization or death. Linear regression models were fitted to population-based data on hospitalizations and deaths. Surveillance data on influenza virus activity permitted inference on influenza-associated hospitalizations and deaths. The ratios of these estimates were used as a potential indicator of severity. Influenza was associated with 431 (95% CrI: 358-503) respiratory deaths and 12,700 (95% CrI: 11,700-13,700) respiratory hospitalizations per year...
April 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416961/predictive-factors-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-infection-in-elderly-patients-with-community-onset-pneumonia
#5
Hyeyoung Jwa, Jong Wook Beom, Jong Hoo Lee
BACKGROUND: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection is a severe and life-threatening disease in patients with community-onset (CO) pneumonia. However, the current guidelines lack specificity for a screening test for MRSA infection. METHODS: This study was retrospectively conducted in elderly patients aged ≥65 years, who had contracted CO-pneumonia during hospitalization at the Jeju National University Hospital, between January 2012 and December 2014...
April 2017: Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413134/the-in-vitro-mimic%C3%A2-platform-reflects-age-associated-changes-in-immunological-responses-after-influenza-vaccination
#6
Allison Dauner, Pankaj Agrawal, Jose Salvatico, Tenekua Tapia, Vipra Dhir, S Farzana Shaik, Donald R Drake, Anthony M Byers
Increasing research and development costs coupled with growing concerns over healthcare expenditures necessitate the generation of pre-clinical testing models better able to predict the efficacy of vaccines, drugs and biologics. An ideal system for evaluating vaccine immunogenicity will not only be reliable but also physiologically relevant, able to be influenced by immunomodulatory characteristics such as age or previous exposure to pathogens. We have previously described a fully autologous human cell-based MIMIC® (Modular IMmune In vitro Construct) platform which enables the evaluation of innate and adaptive immunity in vitro, including naïve and recall responses...
April 13, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406746/immunogenicity-and-safety-of-a-cell-culture-derived-inactivated-quadrivalent-influenza-vaccine-nbp607-qiv-a-randomized-double-blind-multi-center-phase-iii-clinical-trial-in-adults-and-elderly-subjects
#7
Won Suk Choi, Ji Yun Noh, Joon Young Song, Hee Jin Cheong, Seong-Heon Wie, Jin Soo Lee, Jacob Lee, Shin-Woo Kim, Hye Won Jeong, Sook-In Jung, Yeon-Sook Kim, Heung Jeong Woo, Kyung Ho Kim, Hun Kim, Woo Joo Kim
BACKGROUND: The influenza B virus has two lineages; Yamagata and Victoria. The two lineages are antigenically distinct and it is difficult to expect cross-protection between the lineages. Actually, the mismatch between circulating influenza B viruses and vaccine strains has been occurred frequently. The cell-culture system for the production of influenza vaccine can contribute to improve vaccine strain selection and expand vaccine supplies. We investigated the immunogenicity and safety of cell culture-derived quadrivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (NBP607-QIV) in adults and elderly subjects...
April 13, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399801/is-the-impact-of-childhood-influenza-vaccination-less-than-expected-a-transmission-modelling-study
#8
Felix Weidemann, Cornelius Remschmidt, Silke Buda, Udo Buchholz, Bernhard Ultsch, Ole Wichmann
BACKGROUND: To reduce the burden of severe influenza, most industrialized countries target specific risk-groups with influenza vaccines, e.g. the elderly or individuals with comorbidities. Since children are the main spreaders, some countries have recently implemented childhood vaccination programs to reduce overall virus transmission and thereby influenza disease in the whole population. The introduction of childhood vaccination programs was often supported by modelling studies that predicted substantial incidence reductions...
April 11, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395850/the-impact-of-stratified-immunity-on-the-transmission-dynamics-of-influenza
#9
Hsiang-Yu Yuan, Marc Baguelin, Kin O Kwok, Nimalan Arinaminpathy, Edwin van Leeuwen, Steven Riley
Although empirical studies show that protection against influenza infection in humans is closely related to antibody titres, influenza epidemics are often described under the assumption that individuals are either susceptible or not. Here we develop a model in which antibody titre classes are enumerated explicitly and mapped onto a variable scale of susceptibility in different age groups. Fitting only with pre- and post-wave serological data during 2009 pandemic in Hong Kong, we demonstrate that with stratified immunity, the timing and the magnitude of the epidemic dynamics can be reconstructed more accurately than is possible with binary seropositivity data...
March 12, 2017: Epidemics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394705/establishment-of-a-cohort-for-deep-phenotyping-of-the-immune-response-to-influenza-vaccination-among-elderly-individuals-recruited-from-the-general-population
#10
Manas K Akmatov, Peggy Riese, Marcus May, Leonhard Jentsch, Malik W Ahmed, Damaris Werner, Anja Rösel, Megan Tyler, Kevin Pessler, Jana Prokein, Inga Bernemann, Norman Klopp, Blair Prochnow, Stephanie Trittel, Aravind Tallam, Thomas Illig, Christoph Schindler, Carlos A Guzmán, Frank Pessler
Elderly individuals have the highest burden of disease from influenza infection but also the lowest immune response to influenza vaccination. A better understanding of the host response to influenza vaccination in the elderly is therefore urgently needed. We conducted a biphasic prospective, population-based study from Dec. 2014 to May 2015 (pilot study) and Sept. 2015 to May 2016 (main study). Individuals 65-80 y of age were randomly selected from the residents' registration office in Hannover, Germany, for the pilot (n = 34) and main study (n = 200)...
April 10, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392443/enhanced-immunogenicity-following-mir-155-incorporation-into-the-influenza-a-virus-genome
#11
Leonard Izzard, Daniel Dlugolenski, Yingju Xia, Meagan McMahon, Deborah Middleton, Ralph A Tripp, John Stambas
Influenza A vaccine efficacy in the elderly is generally poor and so identification of novel molecular adjuvants to improve immunogenicity is important to reduce the overall burden of disease. Short non-coding RNAs, known as microRNAs (miRNAs) are known to regulate gene expression and have the potential to influence immune responses. One such miRNA, miR-155, has been shown to modulate T and B cell development and function. We incorporated miR-155 into the influenza A virus (IAV) genome creating a self-adjuvanting 'live vaccine' with the ability to modify immunogenicity...
April 6, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391291/rejuvenation-of-mucosal-immunosenescence-by-adipose-tissue-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#12
Akitoshi Tsuruhara, Kazuyoshi Aso, Daisuke Tokuhara, Junichiro Ohori, Masaki Kawabata, Yuichi Kurono, Jerry R McGhee, Kohtaro Fujihashi
Age-associated alterations in the mucosal immune system are generally termed mucosal immunosenescence. The major change seen in the aged mucosa is a failure to elicit an antigen-specific secretory IgA (SIgA) antibody response, which is a central player for host defense from various pathogens at mucosal surfaces. In this regard, it would be a first priority to compensate for mucosal dysregulation in the elderly in order to maintain their health in aging. We have successfully established antigen-specific SIgA antibody responses in aged (2 years old) mice, which provide protective immunity from Streptococcus pneumoniae and influenza virus infections, by using a new adjuvant system consisting of a plasmid encoding Flt3 ligand (pFL) and CpG ODN...
January 1, 2017: International Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378403/dose-sparing-and-lack-of-dose-response-relationship-with-an-influenza-vaccine-in-adult-and-elderly-patients-a-randomised-double-blind-clinical-trial
#13
Zoltan Vajo, Gergely Balaton, Peter Vajo, Laszlo Kalabay, Adam Erdman, Peter Torzsa
AIMS: The currently licensed seasonal trivalent influenza vaccines contain 15 micrograms of hemagglutinin per strain for adult, and up to 60 micrograms for elderly patients. However, due to recent shortages, dose sparing to increase production capacity would be highly desirable. In the present study, we attempted to find a dose-response relationship for immunogenicity and thus, the optimal dose for seasonal influenza vaccines in adult and elderly patients. METHODS: A total of 256 subjects, including adult (ages 18-60 years) and elderly (age over 60 years) were enrolled...
April 5, 2017: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375554/inflammatory-responses-to-influenza-vaccination-at-the-extremes-of-age
#14
Jacqueline U McDonald, Ziyun Zhong, Helen T Groves, John S Tregoning
Age affects the immune response to vaccination, with individuals at the extremes of age responding poorly. The initial inflammatory response to antigenic materials shapes the subsequent adaptive response and so understanding is required about the effect of age on the profile of acute inflammatory mediators. In this study we measured the local and systemic inflammatory response after influenza vaccination or infection in neonatal, young adult and aged mice. Mice were immunised intramuscularly with inactivated influenza vaccine with and without the adjuvant MF59 and then challenged with H1N1 influenza...
April 4, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369163/estimating-direct-and-indirect-protective-effect-of-influenza-vaccination-in-the-united-states
#15
Nimalan Arinaminpathy, Inkyu Kevin Kim, Paul Gargiullo, Michael Haber, Ivo M Foppa, Manoj Gambhir, Joseph Bresee
With influenza vaccination rates in the United States recently exceeding 45% of the population, it is important to understand the impact that vaccination is having on influenza transmission. In this study, we used a Bayesian modeling approach, combined with a simple dynamical model of influenza transmission, to estimate this impact. The combined framework synthesized evidence from a range of data sources relating to influenza transmission and vaccination in the United States. We found that, for seasonal epidemics, the number of infections averted ranged from 9...
March 25, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347293/comparison-of-a-novel-microcrystalline-tyrosine-adjuvant-with-aluminium-hydroxide-for-enhancing-vaccination-against-seasonal-influenza
#16
M D Heath, N J Swan, A C Marriott, N J Silman, B Hallis, C Prevosto, K E Gooch, M A Skinner
BACKGROUND: Vaccination against seasonal influenza strains is recommended for "high risk" patient groups such as infants, elderly and those with respiratory or circulatory diseases. However, efficacy of the trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV) is poor in many cases and in the event of an influenza pandemic, mono-valent vaccines have been rapidly developed and deployed. One of the main issues with use of vaccine in pandemic situations is the lack of a suitable quantity of vaccine early enough during the pandemic to exert a major influence on the transmission of virus and disease outcome...
March 27, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343782/lifestyle-socioeconomic-characteristics-and-medical-history-of-elderly-persons-who-receive-seasonal-influenza-vaccination-in-a-tax-supported-healthcare-system
#17
Maja Hellfritzsch, Reimar Wernich Thomsen, Lisbeth Munksgård Baggesen, Finn Breinholt Larsen, Henrik Toft Sørensen, Christian Fynbo Christiansen
BACKGROUND: Observational studies on effectiveness of influenza vaccination in the elderly are thought to be biased by healthier lifestyles and higher socioeconomic status among vaccinated vs. unvaccinated persons. We examined this hypothesis in a uniform tax-supported health care system with free-of-charge influenza vaccination to the elderly. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study among Danes aged 65-79years participating in a survey. We compared elderly persons with and without a recent (within six months) influenza vaccination in terms of (i) lifestyle and socioeconomic characteristics obtained from the survey and (ii) health factors including medical history provided by Danish registries...
March 23, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338806/influenza-associated-hospitalizations-for-cardiovascular-diseases-in-the-tropics
#18
Li Wei Ang, Jonathan Yap, Vernon Lee, Wei Qiang Chng, Fazlur Rehman Jaufeerally, Carolyn Su Ping Lam, Jeffery Cutter, Khung Keong Yeo, Stefan Ma
Influenza is a major cause of mortality and morbidity. We aimed to examine the influenza-associated hospitalization rates and proportions for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in tropical Singapore. Hospital admissions for ischemic heart disease (IHD), congestive heart failure (CHF), and overall CVD were obtained from the national inpatient database for the period of 2010-2014. We used, as the key indicator of influenza virus activity, the overall proportion of specimens from outpatients with influenza-like illness in the community that tested positive for influenza as part of the national influenza surveillance program...
February 25, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325769/analysis-of-anti-influenza-virus-neuraminidase-antibodies-in-children-adults-and-the-elderly-by-elisa-and-enzyme-inhibition-evidence-for-original-antigenic-sin
#19
Madhusudan Rajendran, Raffael Nachbagauer, Megan E Ermler, Paul Bunduc, Fatima Amanat, Ruvim Izikson, Manon Cox, Peter Palese, Maryna Eichelberger, Florian Krammer
Antibody responses to influenza virus hemagglutinin provide protection against infection and are well studied. Less is known about the human antibody responses to the second surface glycoprotein, neuraminidase. Here, we assessed human antibody reactivity to a panel of N1, N2, and influenza B virus neuraminidases in different age groups, including children, adults, and the elderly. Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), we determined the breadth, magnitude, and isotype distribution of neuraminidase antibody responses to historic, current, and avian strains, as well as to recent isolates to which these individuals have not been exposed...
March 21, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302407/immunogenicity-and-safety-of-an-as03-adjuvanted-h7n1-vaccine-in-adults-65years-of-age-and-older-a-phase-ii-observer-blind-randomized-controlled-trial
#20
Anuradha Madan, Murdo Ferguson, Paul Rheault, David Seiden, Azhar Toma, Damien Friel, Jyoti Soni, Ping Li, Bruce L Innis, Anne Schuind
BACKGROUND: H7 influenza strains can cause severe and often fatal human infections, especially in the elderly. This phase II, observer-blind, randomized trial (www.ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01949090) assessed the immunogenicity and safety of a novel AS03-adjuvanted H7N1 vaccine that may serve as a model H7-subtype vaccine. METHODS: 360 adults ≥65years of age in stable health received either 1 of 4 adjuvanted A/mallard/Netherlands/12/2000 split virion vaccine formulations (3...
April 4, 2017: Vaccine
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