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Elderly and influenza

Mary Patricia Nowalk
Influenza is an acute viral respiratory disease caused by the influenza A and B viruses. The epidemiologic characteristics of influenza are in constant flux as the viruses mutate frequently, and the subsequent spread of illness depends on the affected population's susceptibility to the new antigens. These viral mutations necessitate frequent updates to the annual seasonal influenza vaccine. Those most at risk for serious complications of influenza are young children and elderly persons. Although influenza vaccination rates are highest among adults 65 years or older, vaccine effectiveness in this age group is often less than among younger persons...
March 2018: American Journal of Managed Care
Eita Sasaki, Haruka Momose, Yuki Hiradate, Ken J Ishii, Takuo Mizukami, Isao Hamaguchi
Vaccines are inoculated in healthy individuals from children to the elderly, and thus high levels of safety and consistency of vaccine quality in each lot must meet the required specifications by using preclinical and lot release testing. Because vaccines are inoculated into humans, recapitulation of biological reactions in humans should be considered for test methods. We have developed a new method to evaluate the safety of influenza vaccines using biomarker gene expression in mouse and rat models. Some biomarker genes are already known to be expressed in human lymphocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells; therefore, we considered some of these genes might be common biomarkers for human and mice to evaluate influenza vaccine safety...
December 2018: Journal of Immunotoxicology
Susan L Baldwin, Fan-Chi Hsu, Neal Van Hoeven, Emily Gage, Brian Granger, Jeffrey A Guderian, Sasha E Larsen, Erica C Lorenzo, Laura Haynes, Steven G Reed, Rhea N Coler
Elderly people are at high risk for influenza-related morbidity and mortality due to progressive immunosenescence. While toll-like receptor (TLR) agonist containing adjuvants, and other adjuvants, have been shown to enhance influenza vaccine-induced protective responses, the mechanisms underlying how these adjuvanted vaccines could benefit the elderly remain elusive. Here, we show that a split H1N1 influenza vaccine (sH1N1) combined with a TLR4 agonist, glucopyranosyl lipid adjuvant formulated in a stable oil-in-water emulsion (GLA-SE), boosts IgG2c:IgG1 ratios, enhances hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) titers, and increases protection in aged mice...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Donatella Panatto, Alessio Signori, Piero Luigi Lai, Roberto Gasparini, Daniela Amicizia
AIM: Influenza has many age-dependent characteristics. A previous systematic review of randomized controlled trials showed that the detection rate of influenza B was higher in children than in non-elderly adults. However, no comprehensive reviews have targeted the elderly, who carry the main burden of disease. We aimed to quantify the relative detection rates of virus types A and B among the elderly, to identify factors affecting these proportions and to compare type distribution among seniors and younger age-classes...
March 2, 2018: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Ainara Mira-Iglesias, F Xavier López-Labrador, Beatriz Guglieri-López, Miguel Tortajada-Girbés, Víctor Baselga-Moreno, Laura Cano, Juan Mollar-Maseres, Mario Carballido-Fernández, Germán Schwarz-Chavarri, Javier Díez-Domingo, Joan Puig-Barberà, Valencia Hospital Network For The Study Of Influenza And Respiratory Viruses Disease
IntroductionSeasonal influenza vaccination is widely recommended for people with risk factors, especially for people who are elderly. However, influenza vaccine effectiveness (IVE) varies year after year because of the variable antigenic composition of the circulating viruses and the vaccine composition. Methods: We summarise the results of IVE and the impact of previous vaccination among subjects 60 years of age and over in a multicentre prospective study in the Valencia Hospital Surveillance Network for the Study of Influenza and Respiratory Viruses Disease (VAHNSI) in Spain...
February 2018: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
Edwin P Armitage, Janko Camara, Sulayman Bah, Alice S Forster, Ed Clarke, Beate Kampmann, Thushan I de Silva
BACKGROUND: The burden of influenza is increasingly recognised in Africa. The WHO recommends introducing influenza vaccination to high-risk groups: pregnant women, children <5 years, and the elderly. The Gambia currently has no influenza vaccination policy, but the NASIMMUNE study, a clinical trial of intranasal live attenuated influenza vaccines (LAIV) in young children provided an opportunity to study maternal attitudes towards LAIV for the first time in sub-Saharan Africa. We assess acceptability of LAIV, influenza knowledge and attitudes towards influenza vaccination in Gambian women...
February 23, 2018: Vaccine
Li Zhang, Yang Pan, Chunna Ma, Wei Duan, Ying Sun, Shuangsheng Wu, Man Zhang, Yi Tian, Yang Zheng, Peng Yang, Quanyi Wang
BACKGROUND: Since 2007, trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine has been provided free-of-charge to older adults aged ≥60 years in Beijing, China, but the data regarding influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) among these people are very limited so far. We sought to estimate influenza VE against medically-attended laboratory-confirmed influenza illness among older adults during the 2013-2014 season. METHODS: The influenza-like illness (ILI) patients aged 60 years and older who participated in the influenza virological surveillance of Beijing during 2013-2014 influenza season were recruited in this study...
February 20, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Yung-Feng Yen, Sheng-Wei Pan, Vincent Yi-Fong Su, Pei-Hung Chuang, Jia-Yih Feng, Wei-Juin Su
Experimental studies have demonstrated that influenza vaccination may protect against tuberculosis (TB) through a Th17 response. This nationwide cohort study aimed to evaluate the association of influenza vaccination with incident TB among elderly persons in Taiwan. This 2005-2012 study included 99,982 elderly persons (64,290 vaccinated and 35,692 unvaccinated) from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. During the 738,367 person-years of follow-up, 1,141 (1.14%) persons had incident TB. The cumulative incidences of TB were 145...
March 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Emanuel Rodrigues, Ausenda Machado, Susana Silva, Baltazar Nunes
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to estimate excess pneumonia and influenza (P&I) hospitalizations during influenza epidemics and measure their correlation with influenza vaccine coverage in the 65 and more years old, according to the type/subtype of influenza virus. METHODS: The study period comprised week 40/1998-40/2015. Age-specific weekly P&I hospitalizations (ICD-9: 480-487) as main diagnosis were extracted from the National Hospital Discharge database...
January 2018: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Miriam Levi, Paolo Bonanni, Marco Biffino, Michele Conversano, Maria Corongiu, Paolo Morato, Tommasa Maio
Introduction The aim of the present study was to evaluate orientation, organizational procedures implemented and difficulties faced by general practitioners (GPs) during the 2014/15 seasonal influenza vaccination programme, as well as GPs' general attitude towards vaccinations. Methods An ad hoc online survey was developed and administered to general practitioners members of the Italian Federation of GPs (Federazione Italiana Medici di Medicina Generale - FIMMG). Overall, 10,000 survey invitations were sent...
February 16, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Benoit Egarnes, Jean Gosselin
Influenza A virus (IAV) is recognized to cause severe pulmonary illnesses in humans, particularly in elderly and children. One of the features associated with IAV infection is an excessive lung inflammation due to an uncontrolled immune response. The nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 2 (NOD2) receptor is known to recognize ssRNA viruses such as IAV, but its role in the inflammatory process during viral infections remains to be clarified. In a previous report, we have shown that activation of NOD2 with muramyl dipeptide (MDP) significantly reduces both viral loads and lung inflammation and also improves pulmonary function during IAV infection...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Sara P H van den Berg, Albert Wong, Marion Hendriks, Ronald H J Jacobi, Debbie van Baarle, Josine van Beek
Older adults are more vulnerable to influenza virus infection and at higher risk for severe complications and influenza-related death compared to younger adults. Unfortunately, influenza vaccine responses tend to be impaired in older adults due to aging of the immune system (immunosenescence). Latent infection with cytomegalovirus (CMV) is assumed to enhance age-associated deleterious changes of the immune system. Although lower responses to influenza vaccination were reported in CMV-seropositive compared to CMV-seronegative adults and elderly, beneficial effects of CMV infection were observed as well...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Francesco Di Nardo, Sara Boccalini, Giovanna Elisa Calabrò, Andrea Marcellusi, Matteo Ruggeri, Paolo Bonanni, Raffaella Vitali, Eleonora Capannini, Francesco Saverio Mennini, Americo Cicchetti, Donatella Panatto, Roberto Gasparini, Walter Ricciardi, Chiara De Waure
INTRODUCTION: Decision-making in healthcare should rely on evidence-based approaches able to make possible a transparent and robust assessment of all the aspects related to health technologies. One of the assessment elements is represented by the efficiency that is the specific objective of economic evaluations and also of Health Technology Assessment (HTA). The collection and synthesis of evidence is the first indispensable step in order to foster a proper convey of scientific knowledge to the decision-makers...
September 2017: Igiene e Sanità Pubblica
Esther W de Bekker-Grob, Jorien Veldwijk, Marcel Jonker, Bas Donkers, Jan Huisman, Sylvia Buis, Joffre Swait, Emily Lancsar, Cilia L M Witteman, Gouke Bonsel, Patrick Bindels
OBJECTIVES: To improve information for patients and to facilitate a vaccination coverage that is in line with the EU and World Health Organization goals, we aimed to quantify how vaccination and patient characteristics impact on influenza vaccination uptake of elderly people. METHODS: An online discrete choice experiment (DCE) was conducted among 1261 representatives of the Dutch general population aged 60 years or older. In the DCE, we used influenza vaccination scenarios based on five vaccination characteristics: effectiveness, risk of severe side effects, risk of mild side effects, protection duration, and absorption time...
February 6, 2018: Vaccine
Michael D Schweitzer, Andrew S Calzadilla, Oriana Salamo, Arash Sharifi, Naresh Kumar, Gregory Holt, Michael Campos, Mehdi Mirsaeidi
Dust storms are strong winds which lead to particle exposure over extensive areas. These storms influence air quality on both a local and global scale which lead to both short and long-term effects. The frequency of dust storms has been on the rise during the last decade. Forecasts suggest that their incidence will increase as a response to the effects of climate change and anthropogenic activities. Elderly people, young children, and individuals with chronic cardiopulmonary diseases are at the greatest risk for health effects of dust storms...
February 6, 2018: Environmental Research
Stefano Capri, Marco Barbieri, Chiara de Waure, Sara Boccalini, Donatella Panatto
ABSRACT In the perspective of reaching at least 75% influenza vaccination coverage in the elderly and substantial budget constraints, Italian decision makers are facing important challenges in determining an optimal immunization strategy for this growing and particularly vulnerable population. Four different influenza vaccines are currently available for Italian older adults aged 65 years or above, namely trivalent inactivated vaccines (TIVs), MF59-adjuvanted TIV (MF59-TIV), intradermal TIV (ID-TIV) and quadrivalent inactivated vaccines (QIVs)...
February 9, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Scott A McDonald, Maarten van Wijhe, Liselotte van Asten, Wim van der Hoek, Jacco Wallinga
We estimated the influenza mortality burden in adults 60 years of age and older in the Netherlands in terms of years of life lost, taking into account competing mortality risks. Weekly laboratory surveillance data for influenza and other respiratory pathogens and weekly extreme temperature served as covariates in Poisson regression models fitted to weekly age-group specific mortality data for the period 1999/2000 through 2012/13. Burden for age-groups 60-64 through 85-89 years was computed as years of life lost before age 90 (YLL90) using restricted mean lifetimes survival analysis and accounting for competing risks...
February 6, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
Tzu-Lin Yeh, Pei-Ching Shih, Shu-Jung Liu, Chao-Hsu Lin, Jui-Ming Liu, Wei-Te Lei, Chien-Yu Lin
Background: Influenza infection is a common disease with a huge disease burden. Influenza vaccination has been widely used, but concerns regarding vaccine efficacy exist, especially in the elderly. Probiotics are live microorganisms with immunomodulatory effects and may enhance the immune responses to influenza vaccination. Methods: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the influence of prebiotics/probiotics/synbiotics supplementation on vaccine responses to influenza vaccination...
2018: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
Chia-Hsin Ju, Lisa K Blum, Sarah Kongpachith, Nithya Lingampalli, Rong Mao, Petter Brodin, Cornelia L Dekker, Mark M Davis, William H Robinson
Seasonal influenza vaccines elicit antibody responses that can prevent infection, but their efficacy is reduced in the elderly. While a subset of elderly individuals can still mount sufficient vaccine-induced antibody responses, little is known about the properties of the vaccine-induced antibody repertoires in elderly as compared to young responders. To gain insights into the effects of aging on influenza vaccine-induced antibody responses, we used flow cytometry and a cell-barcoding method to sequence antibody heavy and light chain gene pairs expressed by individual blood plasmablasts generated in response to influenza vaccination in elderly (aged 70-89) and young (aged 20-29) responders...
February 2, 2018: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
T Kan, J Zhang
OBJECTIVES: To explore the behaviour-related factors influencing influenza vaccination among elderly people using a framework derived from the Health Belief Model (HBM) and the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA). STUDY DESIGN: Systematic review. METHODS: Five databases were searched using predetermined strategies in March 2016, and 1927 citations were identified. Articles were selected according to inclusion and exclusion criteria. Key information was extracted from selected studies using a predesigned sheet...
January 26, 2018: Public Health
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