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Elderly and influenza

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773050/the-importance-of-complying-with-vaccination-protocols-in-developed-countries-anti-vax-hysteria-and-the-spread-of-severe-preventable-diseases
#1
Franco Pandolfi, Laura Franza, Laura Todi, Valentina Carusi, Michele Centrone, Alessandro Bonomo, Estelle E Newton, Domenico Schiavino, Eleonora Nucera
BACKGROUND: Vaccines are very effective medical tools for disease prevention and life span increase. Controversies have raised concern about their safety, from autism to polio vaccine contamination with simian virus 40 (SV-40). Hysteria surrounding vaccine-associated risks has resulted in a declining number of vaccinations in developed countries. Outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases (e.g. measles) have occurred in Europe and North America, causing also some causalities. OBJECTIVES: In this review, data on safety and efficacy of vaccines are discussed, showing that the benefits of vaccines far outweigh the risks and that it is important to comply with vaccination protocols, to avoid spreading of severe, preventable diseases...
May 17, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769253/effectiveness-of-23-valent-pneumococcal-polysaccharide-vaccine-on-elderly-long-term-cancer-survivors-a-population-based-propensity-score-matched-cohort-study
#2
Wen-Yen Chiou, Moon-Sing Lee, Shih-Kai Hung, Hon-Yi Lin, Yuan-Chen Lo, Feng-Chun Hsu, Shiang-Jiun Tsai, Chung-Yi Li
OBJECTIVE: The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices in 2012 recommended the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23) for adults with high risk of pneumonia. However, its effectiveness in cancer survivors has not been investigated. Our aim was to investigate the effectiveness of PPSV23 in these patients. DESIGN: Population-based matched cohort study. SETTING: Claim data were obtained from 1 million people registered with the National Health Insurance Research Database in 1996, and followed to 2010...
May 16, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758916/assessing-the-cold-temperature-effect-on-hospital-visit-by-allergic-rhinitis-in-seoul-korea
#3
Hyomi Kim, Honghyok Kim, Jong-Tae Lee
The association between temperature and health outcome has been studied in worldwide. However, studies for mild diseases such as AR, with high prevalence and considerable economic burden, are lacking compared to other relatively severe respiratory diseases. We aimed to assess the trend of hospital visit by AR and estimate the cold temperature effect on hospital visit by allergic rhinitis in Seoul, Korea, 2003-2011. We fitted generalized additive model with quasi-poisson distribution, controlling for humidity, long-term trend, day of week, national holiday, and influenza epidemic...
August 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743372/-breadth-and-functionality-of-varicella-zoster-virus-glycoprotein-specific-antibodies-identified-after-zostavax-vaccination-in-humans
#4
Nicole L Sullivan, Morgan A Reuter-Monslow, Janet Sei, Eberhard Durr, Carl W Davis, Cathy Chang, Megan McCausland, Andreas Wieland, David Krah, Nadine Rouphael, Aneesh K Mehta, Mark J Mulligan, Bali Pulendran, Rafi Ahmed, Kalpit A Vora
Herpes zoster (HZ/shingles) is the clinical manifestation of varicella zoster virus (VZV) reactivation. HZ typically develops as people age due to decreased cell-mediated immunity. However, the importance of antibodies for immunity against HZ prevention remains to be understood. The goal of this study was to examine the breadth and functionality of VZV-specific antibodies after vaccination with a live attenuated HZ vaccine (Zostavax). Direct enumeration of VZV-specific antibody secreting cells (ASC) via ELISPOT showed that Zostavax can induce both IgG and IgA ASCs seven days after vaccination, but not IgM ASCs...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743125/significant-spike-in-excess-mortality-in-england-in-winter-2014-15-influenza-the-likely-culprit
#5
R G Pebody, H K Green, F Warburton, M Sinnathamby, J Ellis, K Mølbak, J Nielsen, S de Lusignan, N Andrews
Significant increases in excess all-cause mortality, particularly in the elderly, were observed during the winter of 2014/15 in England. With influenza A(H3N2) the dominant circulating influenza A subtype, this paper determines the contribution of influenza to this excess controlling for weather. A standardised multivariable Poisson regression model was employed with weekly all-cause deaths the dependent variable for the period 2008-2015. Adjusting for extreme temperature, a total of 26 542 (95% CI 25 301-27 804) deaths in 65+ and 1942 (95% CI 1834-2052) in 15-64-year-olds were associated with influenza from week 40, 2014 to week 20, 2015...
May 10, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742237/vaccination-coverage-and-use-of-the-brazilian-health-system-for-vaccination-against-influenza-and-pneumonia-in-adults-and-elderly-with-self-reported-diabetes-municipality-of-s%C3%A3-o-paulo-2003-2008-and-2015
#6
Camila Nascimento Monteiro, Reinaldo José Gianini, Sheila Rizzato Stopa, Neuber José Segri, Marilisa Berti de Azevedo Barros, Chester Luiz Galvão Cesar, Moisés Goldbaum
OBJECTIVE: to estimate the vaccination coverage against influenza and pneumonia and to analyze the utilization of Brazilian National Health System-SUS for vaccination in adults and elderly with self-reported diabetes in São Paulo, Brazil, in 2003, 2008 and 2015. METHODS: Cross-sectional studies with data from the ISA-Capital (population-based household surveys). RESULTS: 3,357, 3,271 and 4,043 were interviewed in 2003, 2008 and 2015; the prevalence of diabetes mellitus were 5...
2018: Epidemiologia e Servicos de Saude: Revista do Sistema Unico de Saude do Brasil
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739721/trends-in-influenza-vaccination-coverage-rates-in-south-korea-from-2005-to-2014-effect-of-public-health-policies-on-vaccination-behavior
#7
Jeongmin Seo, Juwon Lim
BACKGROUND: Influenza is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Annual vaccination is effective in its prevention and is recommended especially in susceptible populations such as the elderly over 65 years, children younger than 5, pregnant women, and people with chronic diseases. Overall, South Korea has a high vaccination rate owing to its National Immunization Program, although the method and extent of its coverage varies among the target subgroups. The aim of this study is to assess the trend of influenza vaccination coverage between 2005 and 2014 in South Korea to address the influence of sociodemographic and disease factors on vaccination behavior...
May 5, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728118/recurrence-of-pericarditis-after-influenza-vaccination-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#8
Riccardo Mei, Emanuel Raschi, Elisabetta Poluzzi, Igor Diemberger, Fabrizio De Ponti
BACKGROUND: This case report describes a patient with pericarditis likely attributed to influenza vaccination (positive rechallenge), with a literature review. CASE PRESENTATION: A 87-year old patient developed pericarditis after influenza vaccination, with acute chest pain, without ECG abnormalities or increased cardiac enzyme levels. Echocardiogram showed moderate pericardial effusion. Recovery was obtained through steroids One year later, few days after re-immunization, the patient experienced the same symptoms and was admitted to hospital with diagnosis of recurrence of pericarditis with severe pericardial effusion, again treated with steroids...
May 5, 2018: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724509/does-consecutive-influenza-vaccination-reduce-protection-against-influenza-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#9
REVIEW
Jessica J Bartoszko, Isabella F McNamara, Oguz A Z Aras, Danielle A Hylton, Yuan B Zhang, Danya Malhotra, Sarah L Hyett, Rita E Morassut, Paulina Rudziak, Mark Loeb
INTRODUCTION: Vaccination against influenza on an annual basis is widely recommended, yet recent studies suggest consecutive vaccination may reduce vaccine effectiveness (VE). PURPOSE: To assess whether when examining the entirety of existing data consecutive influenza vaccination reduces VE compared to current season influenza vaccination. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) from inception to April 26, 2017; citations of included studies...
April 30, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717693/vaccine-hesitancy-in-the-french-population-in-2016-and-its-association-with-vaccine-uptake-and-perceived-vaccine-risk-benefit-balance
#10
Dominique Rey, Lisa Fressard, Sébastien Cortaredona, Aurélie Bocquier, Arnaud Gautier, Patrick Peretti-Watel, Pierre Verger, On Behalf Of The Baromètre Santé Group
BackgroundVaccine hesitancy (VH) is prominent in France. Objectives: This study aimed to estimate the prevalence and socio-demographic correlates of VH in sub-groups of the French population and to investigate the association of VH with both vaccine uptake and perceived risk-benefit balance (RBB) for four vaccines. Methods : During the 2016 Health Barometer - a national cross-sectional telephone survey in a representative sample of the French population - parents of 1-15 year-old children, parents of 11-15 year-old girls and elderly people aged 65-75 years were asked about VH (using three questions adapted from the World Health Organization definition), vaccine uptake and perceived RBB for measles and hepatitis B (children's parents), human papillomavirus (girls' parents) and seasonal influenza (elderly people) vaccines...
April 2018: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29712866/optimizing-the-impact-of-low-efficacy-influenza-vaccines
#11
Pratha Sah, Jan Medlock, Meagan C Fitzpatrick, Burton H Singer, Alison P Galvani
The efficacy of influenza vaccines varies from one year to the next, with efficacy during the 2017-2018 season anticipated to be lower than usual. However, the impact of low-efficacy vaccines at the population level and their optimal age-specific distribution have yet to be ascertained. Applying an optimization algorithm to a mathematical model of influenza transmission and vaccination in the United States, we determined the optimal age-specific uptake of low-efficacy vaccine that would minimize incidence, hospitalization, mortality, and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), respectively...
April 30, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709447/a-phase-iii-randomised-trial-of-the-immunogenicity-and-safety-of-quadrivalent-versus-trivalent-inactivated-subunit-influenza-vaccine-in-adult-and-elderly-subjects-assessing-both-anti-haemagglutinin-and-virus-neutralisation-antibody-responses
#12
Serge van de Witte, Jos Nauta, Emanuele Montomoli, Jos Weckx
BACKGROUND: Trivalent influenza vaccines (TIVs) offer substantial protection against matching B-strains, however, protection against alternate-lineage B-strains may be enhanced by adding a second B-strain in quadrivalent influenza vaccines (QIVs). In this Phase III, double-blind, multicentre, randomised study, the immunogenicity and safety of subunit inactivated QIV versus TIV was assessed in adult (aged ≥18 to ≤60 years) and elderly (aged ≥61 years) subjects by analysing a combination of haemagglutinin inhibition (HI) and virus neutralisation (VN)...
April 27, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29707658/age-and-risk-related-appropriateness-of-the-use-of-available-influenza-vaccines-in-the-italian-elderly-population-is-advantageous-results-from-a-budget-impact-analysis
#13
M Barbieri, S Capri, C DE Waure, S Boccalini, D Panatto
Introduction: Nowadays, four different types of influenza vaccines are available in Italy: trivalent (TIV), quadrivalent (QIV), MF59-adjuvanted (aTIV) and intradermal TIV (idTIV) inactivated vaccines. Recently, a concept of the appropriateness (i.e. according to the age and risk factors) of the use of different vaccines has been established in Italy. We conducted a budget impact analysis of switching to a policy, in which the Italian elderly (who carry the major disease burden) received the available vaccines according to their age and risk profile...
December 2017: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702623/identification-of-peptides-in-flowers-of-sambucus-nigra-with-antimicrobial-activity-against-aquaculture-pathogens
#14
Claudio Andrés Álvarez, Andrés Barriga, Fernando Albericio, María Soledad Romero, Fanny Guzmán
The elder ( Sambucus spp.) tree has a number of uses in traditional medicine. Previous studies have demonstrated the antimicrobial properties of elderberry liquid extract against human pathogenic bacteria and also influenza viruses. These properties have been mainly attributed to phenolic compounds. However, other plant defense molecules, such as antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), may be present. Here, we studied peptide extracts from flowers of Sambucus nigra L. The mass spectrometry analyses determined peptides of 3 to 3...
April 27, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696176/factors-associated-with-willingness-to-participate-in-a-vaccine-clinical-trial-among-elderly-hispanic-patients
#15
Sharon Rikin, Steven Shea, Philip LaRussa, Melissa Stockwell
A population specific understanding of barriers and facilitators to participation in clinical trials could improve recruitment of elderly and minority populations. We investigated how prior exposure to clinical trials and incentives were associated with likelihood of participation in a vaccine clinical trial through a questionnaire administered to 200 elderly patients in an academic general internal medicine clinic. Wilcoxon signed rank sum test compared likelihood of participation with and without monetary incentives...
September 2017: Contemporary Clinical Trials Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692315/impact-of-infectious-diseases-on-population-health-using-incidence-based-disability-adjusted-life-years-dalys-results-from-the-burden-of-communicable-diseases-in-europe-study-european-union-and-european-economic-area-countries-2009-to-2013
#16
Alessandro Cassini, Edoardo Colzani, Alessandro Pini, Marie-Josee J Mangen, Dietrich Plass, Scott A McDonald, Guido Maringhini, Alies van Lier, Juanita A Haagsma, Arie H Havelaar, Piotr Kramarz, Mirjam E Kretzschmar, On Behalf Of The BCoDE Consortium
Background and aimsThe Burden of Communicable Diseases in Europe (BCoDE) study aimed to calculate disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) for 31 selected diseases in the European Union (EU) and European Economic Area (EEA). Methods: DALYs were estimated using an incidence-based and pathogen-based approach. Incidence was estimated through assessment of data availability and quality, and a correction was applied for under-estimation. Calculation of DALYs was performed with the BCoDE software toolkit without applying time discounting and age-weighting...
April 2018: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691101/influenza-vaccination-in-the-elderly-is-a-trial-on-mortality-ethically-acceptable
#17
Ruud Andreas Fritz Verhees, Wybo Dondorp, Carel Thijs, Geert Jan Dinant, Johannes Andreas Knottnerus
The effectiveness of influenza vaccination in the elderly has long been a topic of debate, fueled by the absence of direct evidence from randomized trials on its effect on mortality and the methodological limitations of observational studies pointing this direction. It is argued that new placebo-controlled trials should be undertaken to resolve this uncertainty. However, such trials may be ethically questionable. To bring this discussion forward, we provide a comprehensive overview of the ethical challenges of an influenza vaccine efficacy trial designed to evaluate mortality in the elderly...
April 21, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677646/adjuvant-strategies-to-improve-vaccination-of-the-elderly-population
#18
REVIEW
Birgit Weinberger
Immunosenescence contributes to increased incidence and severity of many infections in old age and is responsible for impaired immunogenicity and efficacy of vaccines. Adjuvants are one strategy to enhance immunogenicity of vaccines. The oil-in-water emulsions MF59TM and AS03, as well as a virosomal vaccine have been licensed in seasonal or pandemic influenza vaccines and are/were used successfully in the elderly. AS01, a liposome-based adjuvant comprising two immunostimulants has recently been approved in a recombinant protein vaccine for older adults, which showed very high efficacy against herpes zoster in clinical trials...
April 17, 2018: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661135/the-relative-burden-of-community-acquired-pneumonia-hospitalizations-in-older-adults-a-retrospective-observational-study-in-the-united-states
#19
Joshua D Brown, James Harnett, Richard Chambers, Reiko Sato
BACKGROUND: The risk of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) increases with age and significantly impacts morbidity and mortality in the elderly population. The burden of illness and cost of preventing CAP has not been compared to other serious diseases. METHODS: This retrospective analysis used claims data from 2014 to 2015 and compared hospitalizations for CAP, myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, and osteoporotic fractures (OF) in adults aged ≥65 years enrolled in a Medicare Advantage insurance plan...
April 16, 2018: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649134/-gnothi-seauton-leveraging-the-host-response-to-improve-influenza-virus-vaccine-efficacy
#20
REVIEW
Hannah D Stacey, Neda Barjesteh, Jonathan P Mapletoft, Matthew S Miller
Vaccination against the seasonal influenza virus is the best way to prevent infection. Nevertheless, vaccine efficacy remains far from optimal especially in high-risk populations such as the elderly. Recent technological advancements have facilitated rapid and precise identification of the B and T cell epitopes that are targets for protective responses. While these discoveries have undoubtedly brought the field closer to "universal" influenza virus vaccines, choosing the correct antigen is only one piece of the equation...
April 12, 2018: Vaccines
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