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Elderly and influenza

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325769/analysis-of-anti-influenza-virus-neuraminidase-antibodies-in-children-adults-and-the-elderly-by-elisa-and-enzyme-inhibition-evidence-for-original-antigenic-sin
#1
Madhusudan Rajendran, Raffael Nachbagauer, Megan E Ermler, Paul Bunduc, Fatima Amanat, Ruvim Izikson, Manon Cox, Peter Palese, Maryna Eichelberger, Florian Krammer
Antibody responses to influenza virus hemagglutinin provide protection against infection and are well studied. Less is known about the human antibody responses to the second surface glycoprotein, neuraminidase. Here, we assessed human antibody reactivity to a panel of N1, N2, and influenza B virus neuraminidases in different age groups, including children, adults, and the elderly. Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), we determined the breadth, magnitude, and isotype distribution of neuraminidase antibody responses to historic, current, and avian strains, as well as to recent isolates to which these individuals have not been exposed...
March 21, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302407/immunogenicity-and-safety-of-an-as03-adjuvanted-h7n1-vaccine-in-adults-65years-of-age-and-older-a-phase-ii-observer-blind-randomized-controlled-trial
#2
Anuradha Madan, Murdo Ferguson, Paul Rheault, David Seiden, Azhar Toma, Damien Friel, Jyoti Soni, Ping Li, Bruce L Innis, Anne Schuind
BACKGROUND: H7 influenza strains can cause severe and often fatal human infections, especially in the elderly. This phase II, observer-blind, randomized trial (www.ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01949090) assessed the immunogenicity and safety of a novel AS03-adjuvanted H7N1 vaccine that may serve as a model H7-subtype vaccine. METHODS: 360 adults ≥65years of age in stable health received either 1 of 4 adjuvanted A/mallard/Netherlands/12/2000 split virion vaccine formulations (3...
March 13, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299371/effect-of-mass-paediatric-influenza-vaccination-on-existing-influenza-vaccination-programmes-in-england-and-wales-a-modelling-and-cost-effectiveness-analysis
#3
David Hodgson, Marc Baguelin, Edwin van Leeuwen, Jasmina Panovska-Griffiths, Mary Ramsay, Richard Pebody, Katherine E Atkins
BACKGROUND: In 2013 England and Wales began to fund a live attenuated influenza vaccine programme for individuals aged 2-16 years. Mathematical modelling predicts substantial beneficial herd effects for the entire population as a result of reduced influenza transmission. With a decreased influenza-associated disease burden, existing immunisation programmes might be less cost-effective. The aim of this study was to assess the epidemiological effect and cost-effectiveness of the existing elderly and risk group vaccination programme under the new policy of mass paediatric vaccination in England...
February 2017: Lancet Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293045/a-narrative-review-of-influenza-a-seasonal-and-pandemic-disease
#4
REVIEW
Mohsen Moghadami
Influenza is an acute respiratory disease caused by the influenza A or B virus. It often occurs in outbreaks and epidemics worldwide, mainly during the winter season. Significant numbers of influenza virus particles are present in the respiratory secretions of infected persons, so infection can be transmitted by sneezing and coughing via large particle droplets. The mean duration of influenza virus shedding in immunocompetent adult patients is around 5 days but may continue for up to 10 days or more-particularly in children, elderly adults, patients with chronic illnesses, and immunocompromised hosts...
January 2017: Iranian Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291646/does-seasonal-vaccination-affect-the-clinical-presentation-of-influenza-among-the-elderly-a-cross-sectional-analysis-in-the-outpatient-setting-in-france-2003-2014
#5
Anne Mosnier, Isabelle Daviaud, Saverio Caini, Hervé Berche, Jean-Michel Mansuy, Sylvie van der Werf, Jean Marie Cohen, Bruno Lina
Vaccine-induced protection against influenza is not optimal, however it has been suggested that the vaccine may reduce the severity of symptoms among those who develop illness despite being vaccinated. We tested this hypothesis within a countrywide, sentinel general practitioners-based surveillance system in France. We included 2277 individuals aged 65years or older (of whom 1293 had been vaccinated against influenza, 56.8%) who consulted a general practitioner because of an acute respiratory infection (ARI) during 2003-2014...
March 10, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279563/a-small-molecule-irf3-agonist-functions-as-an-influenza-vaccine-adjuvant-by-modulating-the-antiviral-immune-response
#6
Peter Probst, John B Grigg, Myra Wang, Ernesto Muñoz, Yueh-Ming Loo, Renee C Ireton, Michael Gale, Shawn P Iadonato, Kristin M Bedard
Vaccine adjuvants are essential to drive a protective immune response in cases where vaccine antigens are weakly immunogenic, where vaccine antigen is limited, or where an increase in potency is needed for a specific population, such as the elderly. To discover novel vaccine adjuvants, we used a high-throughput screen (HTS) designed to identify small-molecule agonists of the RIG-I-like receptor (RLR) pathway leading to interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) activation. RLRs are a group of cytosolic pattern-recognition receptors that are essential for the recognition of viral nucleic acids during infection...
March 6, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253901/the-intranasal-adjuvant-endocine%C3%A2-enhances-both-systemic-and-mucosal-immune-responses-in-aged-mice-immunized-with-influenza-antigen
#7
Tina Falkeborn, Jorma Hinkula, Marie Olliver, Alf Lindberg, Anna-Karin Maltais
Despite availability of annual influenza vaccines, influenza causes significant morbidity and mortality in the elderly. This is at least in part a result of immunosenescence; the age-dependent decrease in immunological competence that results in greater susceptibility to infections and reduced responses to vaccination. To improve protective immune responses in this age group, new vaccines strategies, such as the use of adjuvants, are needed. Here, we evaluated the mucosal vaccine adjuvant Endocine™, formulated with split influenza antigen and administered intranasally in aged (20-month old) mice...
March 3, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28252630/-pharmacoepidemiological-study-of-the-course-of-influenza-and-other-acute-respiratory-viral-infections-in-risk-groups
#8
V A Bulgakova, A A Poromov, A I Grekova, N Yu Pshenichnaya, E P Selkova, N I Lvov, I A Leneva, I V Shestakova, V V Maleev
AIM: To identify risk factors (RFs) for the development of bacterial complications and the prolonged course of influenza and other acute respiratory viral infections (ARVIs) among inpatients treated in Russian healthcare facilities in the post-pandemic period; to determine the clinical presentation of the disease (flu-like syndrome) in risk-group people and to evaluate the efficacy of antiviral therapy with arbidol (umifenovir). MATERIAL AND METHODS: The investigators retrospectively analyzed randomly selected medical records of inpatients with influenza and other ARVI in 88 hospitals from 50 regions of the Russian Federation: those of 3532 and 1755 patients in the 2010-2011 and 2014-2015 seasons, respectively, by applying parametric and nonparametric statistical methods...
2017: Terapevticheskiĭ Arkhiv
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251891/mid-season-real-time-estimates-of-seasonal-influenza-vaccine-effectiveness-in-persons-65-years-and-older-in-register-based-surveillance-stockholm-county-sweden-and-finland-january-2017
#9
Maria-Pia Hergens, Ulrike Baum, Mia Brytting, Niina Ikonen, Anu Haveri, Åsa Wiman, Hanna Nohynek, Åke Örtqvist
Systems for register-based monitoring of vaccine effectiveness (VE) against laboratory-confirmed influenza (LCI) in real time were set up in Stockholm County, Sweden, and Finland, before start of the 2016/17 influenza season, using population-based cohort studies. Both in Stockholm and Finland, an early epidemic of influenza A(H3N2) peaked in week 52, 2016. Already during weeks 48 to 50, analyses of influenza VE in persons 65 years and above showed moderately good estimates of around 50%, then rapidly declined by week 2, 2017 to 28% and 32% in Stockholm and Finland, respectively...
February 23, 2017: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251179/fluorocycline-tp-271-is-potent-against-complicated-community-acquired-bacterial-pneumonia-pathogens
#10
Trudy H Grossman, Corey Fyfe, William O'Brien, Meredith Hackel, Mary Beth Minyard, Ken B Waites, Jacques Dubois, Timothy M Murphy, Andrew M Slee, William J Weiss, Joyce A Sutcliffe
TP-271 is a novel, fully synthetic fluorocycline antibiotic in clinical development for the treatment of respiratory infections caused by susceptible and multidrug-resistant pathogens. TP-271 was active in MIC assays against key community respiratory Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens, including Streptococcus pneumoniae (MIC90 = 0.03 µg/ml), methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA; MIC90 = 0.25 µg/ml), methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA; MIC90 = 0.12 µg/ml), Streptococcus pyogenes (MIC90 = 0...
January 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242220/heat-effects-of-ambient-apparent-temperature-on-all-cause-mortality-in-cape-town-durban-and-johannesburg-south-africa-2006-2010
#11
Janine Wichmann
Due to climate change, an increase of 3-4°C in ambient temperature is projected along the South African coast and 6-7°C inland during the next 80years. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between daily ambient apparent temperature (Tapp) and daily all-cause non-accidental mortality (hereafter mortality) in Cape Town, Durban and Johannesburg during a 5-year study period (2006-2010). Susceptibility by sex and age groups (<15years, 15-64years and ≥65years) was also investigated...
February 24, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198157/a-review-of-the-antiviral-properties-of-black-elder-sambucus-nigra-l-products
#12
REVIEW
Randall S Porter, Robert F Bode
Black elder (Sambucus nigra L.) has a long ethnobotanical history across many disparate cultures as a treatment for viral infection and is currently one of the most-used medicinal plants worldwide. Until recently, however, substantial scientific research concerning its antiviral properties has been lacking. Here, we evaluate the state of current scientific research concerning the use of elderberry extract and related products as antivirals, particularly in the treatment of influenza, as well as their safety and health impacts as dietary supplements...
February 15, 2017: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187750/study-on-age-dependent-pre-existing-2009-pandemic-influenza-virus-t-and-b-cell-responses-from-chinese-population
#13
Jin Lv, Zhen-Yong Ren, Ying-Ying Zhang, Yun-E Liu, Jun Gao, Kun Yao, Dan Feng, Zhen-Yuan Li, Xin Feng, Yun-Xi Liu, Na Jia
BACKGROUND: The outbreak of the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic (H1N1pdm) affected thousands of people in Mexico and the United States, and spread rapidly throughout the world from April 2009 to July 2010. To explore the age-specific prevalence of seroprotection against H1N1pdm infection, we estimated pre-existing humoral and cellular immunities of residents in Northern China against H1N1pdm and seasonal H1N1 virus in an age-dependent manner. METHODS: Anonymous serum samples were collected from 1425 to 1434 adult healthy individuals before and after the pandemic outbreak, and then grouped by birth year 1913-1990...
February 10, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185822/barriers-and-strategies-to-improve-influenza-vaccination-in-pakistan
#14
Muhammad Junaid Farrukh, Long Chiau Ming, Syed Tabish Razi Zaidi, Tahir Mehmood Khan
Influenza vaccination is strongly recommended by World Health Organisation on a yearly basis. The rate of immunization in Pakistan is suboptimal. High cost, traditional norms, customs and low levels of education in Pakistan are preventing people from getting vaccinated. It is timely to include influenza vaccination in the expanded programme on immunization (EPI), which is a disease prevention programme aiming to eradicate preventable diseases through subsidized or free immunization. The Ministry of National Health Services, Regulation and Coordination, Government of Pakistan should launch a national influenza vaccine policy in view of this current situation and oversee its implementation...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168172/comparison-of-immunogenicity-and-safety-of-an-influenza-vaccine-administered-concomitantly-with-a-13-valent-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-or-23-valent-polysaccharide-pneumococcal-vaccine-in-the-elderly
#15
Yu Bin Seo, Won Suk Choi, Jacob Lee, Joon Young Song, Hee Jin Cheong, Woo Joo Kim
PURPOSE: Previous studies have demonstrated the immunogenicity and safety of the co-administration of the trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV3) with the polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccine (PPV) or pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV). However, there is no direct comparison study that evaluates the immunogenicity and safety of IIV3 given concomitantly with PCV13 or PPV23 in the elderly. MATERIALS AND METHODS: During the 2012-2013 influenza vaccination period, 224 healthy elderly volunteers aged 65 years and older randomly received IIV3 given concomitantly with either PCV13 (PCV13+IIV3) or PPV23 (PPV23+IIV3) in a 1:1 ratio...
January 2017: Clinical and Experimental Vaccine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148221/motivations-for-non-participation-in-population-based-health-studies-among-the-elderly-comparison-of-participants-and-nonparticipants-of-a-prospective-study-on-influenza-vaccination
#16
Manas K Akmatov, Leonhard Jentsch, Peggy Riese, Marcus May, Malik W Ahmed, Damaris Werner, Anja Rösel, Jana Prokein, Inga Bernemann, Norman Klopp, Blair Prochnow, Thomas Illig, Christoph Schindler, Carlos A Guzman, Frank Pessler
BACKGROUND: Participation in epidemiological studies has strongly declined in recent years. We examined the reasons for (non)participation in population-based health studies among participants and nonparticipants of a prospective study on influenza vaccination among the elderly. METHODS: Males and females between 65 and 80 years of age (N = 5582) were randomly selected from the residents' registration office in Hannover, Germany, and were invited to participate in a study featuring vaccination with a seasonal adjuvanted influenza vaccine (Fluad™, Novartis) including five follow-up visits (day 0, 1/3, 7, 21, 70 with respect to vaccination)...
February 2, 2017: BMC Medical Research Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134768/unexpectedly-higher-morbidity-and-mortality-of-hospitalized-elderly-patients-associated-with-rhinovirus-compared-with-influenza-virus-respiratory-tract-infection
#17
Ivan F N Hung, Anna Jinxia Zhang, Kelvin K W To, Jasper F W Chan, Shawn H S Zhu, Ricky Zhang, Tuen-Ching Chan, Kwok-Hung Chan, Kwok-Yung Yuen
Rhinovirus is a common cause of upper and lower respiratory tract infections in adults, especially among the elderly and immunocompromised. Nevertheless, its clinical characteristics and mortality risks have not been well described. A retrospective analysis on a prospective cohort was conducted in a single teaching hospital center over a one-year period. We compared adult patients hospitalized for pneumonia caused by rhinovirus infection with those hospitalized for influenza infection during the same period...
January 26, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118319/no-more-winter-crisis-forecasting-daily-bed-requirements-for-emergency-department-admissions-to-hospital
#18
Mathias Wargon, Dominique Brun-Ney, Laure Beaujouan, Enrique Casalino
STUDY HYPOTHESIS: We hypothesized that age, calendar variables, and clinical influenza epidemics may have an impact on the number of daily through-emergency department (ED) hospitalizations. The aim of our study was to elaborate a pragmatic tool to predict the daily number of through-ED hospitalizations. METHODS: We carried out a prospective-observational study including data from 18 ED located in the Paris metropolitan area. Daily through-ED hospitalizations numbers from 2007 to 2010 were modelized to forecast the year 2011 using a general linear model by age groups (<75-years; ≥75-years) using calendar variables and influenza epidemics as explanatory variables...
January 25, 2017: European Journal of Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the European Society for Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118092/public-health-impact-and-economic-benefits-of-quadrivalent-influenza-vaccine-in-latin-america
#19
Aurélien Jamotte, Emilie Clay, Bérengère Macabeo, Andrès Caicedo, Juan Guillermo Lopez, Lucia Bricks, Martín Romero Prada, Rubén Marrugo, Pamela Alfonso, Brechla Moreno Arévalo, Danilo Franco, Lourdes Garcia Diaz, Yadira Isaza de Molto
Annual trivalent influenza vaccines (TIV) containing 2 A strains and one B lineage have been recommended for the prevention of influenza in most of Latin American countries. However, the circulation of 2 B lineages (Victoria and Yamagata) and difficulties in predicting the predominating lineage have led to the development of quadrivalent influenza vaccines (QIV), including both B lineages. Thus, the objective was to estimate the public health impact and influenza-related costs if QIV would have been used instead of TIV in 3 Latin American countries...
January 24, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096374/phylogenetic-analysis-of-the-human-antibody-repertoire-reveals-quantitative-signatures-of-immune-senescence-and-aging
#20
Charles F A de Bourcy, Cesar J Lopez Angel, Christopher Vollmers, Cornelia L Dekker, Mark M Davis, Stephen R Quake
The elderly have reduced humoral immunity, as manifested by increased susceptibility to infections and impaired vaccine responses. To investigate the effects of aging on B-cell receptor (BCR) repertoire evolution during an immunological challenge, we used a phylogenetic distance metric to analyze Ig heavy-chain transcript sequences in both young and elderly individuals before and after influenza vaccination. We determined that BCR repertoires become increasingly specialized over a span of decades, but less plastic...
January 31, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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