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Elderly and influenza

William D Green, Melinda A Beck
Influenza, a highly contagious respiratory tract infection, affects millions of adults and children each year. Several high-risk populations include children, the elderly, the immunocompromised, and recently the obese. Given the dramatic rise in obesity over the past few decades, this increased risk for influenza infection poses a serious public health threat because nearly 500 million adults and children worldwide are classified as obese. Obesity impairs the immune response to influenza and influenza vaccination through alterations of the cellular immune system...
November 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
Kazuhiro Yatera, Kenji Umeki, Kei Yamasaki, Shingo Noguchi, Chinatsu Nishida, Hiroshi Ishimoto, Noriho Sakamoto, Hiroshi Ishii, Jun-Ichi Kadota, Hiroshi Mukae
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: Respiratory Investigation
Masahide Matsushita, Seisho Takeuchi, Naoko Kumagai, Masaaki Morio, Chise Matsushita, Kazumi Arise, Toshihide Awatani
This study aimed to examine the effects of a booster vaccination in elderly people using 2 doses of trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine during the 2012-2013 influenza epidemic. Seroprotection rates against the A(H1N1)pdm09 strain in younger elderly people (aged 61-75 years) and the A(H3N2) and B strains in both younger elderly people (aged 61-75 years) as well as very elderly people (aged 76-102 years) did not decrease at 22 weeks after vaccination. This approach confers long-lasting antibody responses and may be useful in clinical practice...
November 14, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
Jung Yeon Heo, Joon Young Song, Ji Yun Noh, Min Joo Choi, Jin Gu Yoon, Saem Na Lee, Hee Jin Cheong, Woo Joo Kim
Influenza virus is a common pathogen implicated in respiratory tract infections, annually affecting up to 20% of the general population, and pneumonia is a leading cause of death after influenza infection. Post-influenza pneumonia is especially common in the elderly and chronically ill patients. The risk of post-influenza pneumonia is significantly increased according to the number of concurrent comorbidities. Vaccination is the primary measure used to abate influenza epidemics and associated complications...
November 14, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Sankarasubramanian Rajaram, Witold Wiecek, Richard Lawson, Betina Blak, Yanli Zhao, Judith Hackett, Robert Brody, Tehseen Salimi, Billy Amzal, Vishal Patel
This study set out to evaluate influenza- and respiratory-related illnesses recorded during primary care physician consultations in England following the H1N1 pandemic in 2009 and to enable the development of a dynamic disease model. Data were obtained from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink of primary care records over four influenza seasons (2010-2014). The primary outcome of the study was incidence of influenza- and respiratory-related diagnoses, calculated per practice and by season and age group. Upper respiratory tract infection diagnoses were most frequently recorded (mean seasonal practice level incidence; 3,762 consultations per 100,000 [SD = 1,989]), and influenza-related diagnoses were least frequently recorded across all seasons, except one...
November 14, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Ming-Hsien Chiang, Hau-Hsin Wu, Chia-Jen Shih, Yung-Tai Chen, Shu-Chen Kuo, Te-Li Chen
BACKGROUND: This study was conducted to determine the protective effect of influenza vaccine against primary major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs) in elderly patients, especially those with influenza-like illness (ILI). METHODS: This retrospective, population-based case-control study of an elderly population (age≥65 years) was conducted using Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database (2000-2013). One control was selected for each MACE case (n=80,363 each), matched according to age, year of study entry, and predisposing factors for MACEs...
November 2017: American Heart Journal
Yuwei Yang, Haojie Zhong, Tie Song, Jianfeng He, Lan Guo, Xiaohua Tan, Guofeng Huang, Min Kang
OBJECTIVE: To describe the demographics and clinical characteristics of patients with A (H7N9) infection, to test the differences in the distribution of demographics and clinical characteristics by clinical severity, and to explore potential factors associated with clinical severity. METHODS: This retrospective study was conducted to collect epidemiological and clinical information regarding the confirmed cases in Guangdong through field investigation and review of medical records...
November 8, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
Juristo Fonollá, Carlos Gracián, Jose A Maldonado-Lobón, Carlos Romero, Alicia Bédmar, Juan C Carrillo, Carmen Martín-Castro, Antonio L Cabrera, Jose M García-Curiel, Carlos Rodríguez, Sara Sanbonmatsu, Mercedes Pérez-Ruiz, Jose M Navarro, Mónica Olivares
PURPOSE: Elderly people are particularly vulnerable to seasonal influenza. Therefore, vaccination is strongly recommended. However, the vaccine efficacy is lower in the elderly, owing to immunosenescence. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the ability of the probiotic strain Lactobacillus coryniformis K8 CECT5711 to enhance the immune response to the influenza vaccine in the elderly and to assess the effects on symptoms related to respiratory infections. METHODS: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted between November 2015 and April 2016...
November 9, 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
Chl Hong, M M Aung, K Kanagasabai, C A Lim, S Liang, K S Tan
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to assess the oral health and the prevalence of pre-existing oral colonization with respiratory pathogens in dependent elderly, and whether these factors influence pneumonia development. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Participants residing in a long-term care facility received bedside oral examinations, and information on their oral health (caries status, calculus index and debris index) was obtained. Samples from the tongue and teeth were collected at baseline and at time of pneumonia development...
November 9, 2017: International Journal of Dental Hygiene
Nathan J Brendish, Tristan W Clark
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Non-influenza respiratory virus infections are a frequent cause of severe acute respiratory infections, especially in infants, the elderly, and the immunocompromised. We review here the current treatment options for non-influenza respiratory viruses and promising candidate antiviral agents currently in development. RECENT FINDINGS: Small molecule antiviral agents active against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), such as ALS-8176 and GS-5806, show considerable promise in challenge studies and are undergoing late-phase clinical trials in hospitalised adults and children...
December 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
Ivette A Nuñez, Michael A Carlock, James D Allen, Simon O Owino, Krissy K Moehling, Patricia Nowalk, Michael Susick, Kensington Diagle, Kristen Sweeney, Sophia Mundle, Thorsten U Vogel, Simon Delagrave, Moti Ramgopal, Richard K Zimmerman, Harry Kleanthous, Ted M Ross
Most humans have pre-existing immunity to influenza viruses. In this study, volunteers (ages of 18-85 years) were vaccinated with split, inactivated Fluzone™ influenza vaccine in four consecutive influenza seasons from 2013 to 2016 seasons. The impact of repeated vaccination on breadth and durability of antibodies was assessed as a result of vaccine strain changes. Total IgG anti-hemagglutinin (HA) binding antibodies and hemagglutination-inhibition (HAI) activity increased in all age groups against both influenza A HA components in the vaccine post-vaccination (day 21)...
2017: PloS One
Andrea Poscia, Agnese Collamati, Angelo Carfì, Eva Topinkova, Tomas Richter, Michael Denkinger, Roberta Pastorino, Francesco Landi, Walter Ricciardi, Roberto Bernabei, Graziano Onder
Background: Influenza and pneumococcal vaccines have been proved to be effective and safe in preventing and controlling infection among elderly, reducing morbidity and mortality. However, some evidences raised health concerns related to these vaccinations. This study aims to identify prevalence and outcomes related to influenza and pneumococcal vaccinations in a large European population of frail old people living in nursing homes (NHs). Methods: We conducted a survival analysis of NH residents participating to the Services and Health for Elderly in Long-TERm project, a prospective cohort study collecting information on residents admitted to 57 NH in eight countries (Czech Republic, England, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, The Netherlands and Israel)...
October 23, 2017: European Journal of Public Health
Francia Fausto, Pandolfi Paolo, Odone Anna, Signorelli Carlo
AIMS: The aims of this study were to explore 2015 mortality data further and to assess excess deaths' determinants. METHODS: We analysed data from a large metropolitan area in the north of Italy, the city of Bologna. We took advantage of a comprehensive local-level database and merged three different data sources to analitically explore reported 2014-2015 excess mortality and its determinants. Effect estimates were derived from multivariable Poisson regression analysis, according to vaccination status and frailty index...
October 1, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health
Kaoru Toyama, Hidetoshi Furuie, Hitoshi Ishizuka
A single inhaled dose of laninamivir octanoate (LO) using a dry powder inhaler (DPI) is effective for the treatment and prophylaxis of influenza. Nebulizers are an option for pediatric and elderly patients who may have difficulty in using a DPI. A single-center, open-label study was conducted to evaluate the plasma and intrapulmonary pharmacokinetics (PK) of laninamivir after a single nebulized administration of LO in healthy male Japanese subjects for identifying a safe and effective dosage regimen for a nebulizer...
October 23, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Paolo Bonanni, Sara Boccalini, Patrizio Zanobini, Nawal Dakka, Chiara Lorini, Francesca Santomauro, Angela Bechini
Influenza is one of the major infectious causes of excess mortality, hospitalization, and an increase in healthcare expenditure in all countries. In an increasingly ageing population, many members are exposed to flu-related complications. Vaccination coverage rates for the elderly in most European countries, such as Italy, are not satisfactory, and have been decreasing with time due to a sense of skepticism toward vaccination. Nowadays, many types of vaccines are available on the Italian market to prevent influenza illness...
October 23, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Susanne M Huijts, Frank E J Coenjaerts, Marieke Bolkenbaas, Cornelis H van Werkhoven, Diederick E Grobbee, Marc J M Bonten
OBJECTIVES: Our objective was to evaluate whether vaccination with the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) prevents the incidence of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) caused by influenza (Influenza-Associated CAP, IA-CAP) or other respiratory viruses in elderly. METHODS: This analysis was part of the Community-Acquired Pneumonia immunization Trial in Adults (CAPiTA); a double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial in 84,496 immunocompetent individuals aged ≥65 years...
October 16, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Danuta M Skowronski, Catharine Chambers, Gaston De Serres
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 13, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Marc Rondy, Alin Gherasim, Itziar Casado, Odile Launay, Caterina Rizzo, Daniela Pitigoi, Aukse Mickiene, Sierk D Marbus, Ausenda Machado, Ritva K Syrjänen, Iva Pem-Novose, Judith Krisztina Horváth, Amparo Larrauri, Jesús Castilla, Philippe Vanhems, Valeria Alfonsi, Alina E Ivanciuc, Monika Kuliese, Rianne van Gageldonk-Lafeber, Veronica Gomez, Niina Ikonen, Zvjezdana Lovric, Annamária Ferenczi, I-Move Hospital Working Group, Alain Moren
In a multicentre European hospital study we measured influenza vaccine effectiveness (IVE) against A(H3N2) in 2016/17. Adjusted IVE was 17% (95% confidence interval (CI): 1 to 31) overall; 25% (95% CI: 2 to 43) among 65-79-year-olds and 13% (95% CI: -15 to 30) among those ≥ 80 years. As the A(H3N2) vaccine component has not changed for 2017/18, physicians and public health experts should be aware that IVE could be low where A(H3N2) viruses predominate.
October 2017: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
Alice P Y Chiu, Jonathan Dushoff, Duo Yu, Daihai He
BACKGROUND: Globally, influenza is a major cause of morbidity, hospitalization and mortality. Influenza vaccination has shown substantial protective effectiveness in the United States. METHODS: We investigated state-level patterns of coverage rates of seasonal and pandemic influenza vaccination, among the overall population (six months or older) in the U.S. and specifically among children (aged between 6 months and 17 years) and the elderly (aged 65 years or older), from 2009/10 to 2014/15, and associations with ecological factors...
October 16, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
Thomas Ebensen, Jennifer Debarry, Gabriel K Pedersen, Paulina Blazejewska, Sebastian Weissmann, Kai Schulze, Kenneth C McCullough, Rebecca J Cox, Carlos A Guzmán
The need for more effective influenza vaccines is highlighted by the emergence of novel influenza strains, which can lead to new pandemics. There is a growing population of susceptible subjects at risk for severe complications of influenza, such as the elderly who are only in part protected by current licensed seasonal vaccines. One strategy for improving seasonal and pandemic vaccines takes advantage of adjuvants to boost and modulate evoked immune responses. In this study, we examined the capacity of the recently described adjuvant cyclic di-adenosine monophosphate (c-di-AMP) to serve as an adjuvant for improved mucosal influenza vaccines, and induce effective protection against influenza H5N1...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
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