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Ondrej Kuda, Marie Brezinova, Jan Silhavy, Vladimir Landa, Vaclav Zidek, Chandra Dodia, Franziska Kreuchwig, Marek Vrbacky, Laurence Balas, Thierry Durand, Norbert Hübner, Aron B Fisher, Jan Kopecky, Michal Pravenec
Fatty acid esters of hydroxy fatty acids (FAHFAs) are lipid mediators with promising anti-diabetic and anti-inflammatory properties that are formed in white adipose tissue (WAT) via de novo lipogenesis, but their biosynthetic enzymes are unknown. Using a combination of lipidomics in WAT, QTL mapping and correlation analyses in rat BXH/HXB recombinant inbred strains, and response to oxidative stress in murine models, we elucidated the potential pathway of biosynthesis of several FAHFAs.Comprehensive analysis of WAT samples identified ∼160 regioisomers documenting the complexity of this lipid class...
March 16, 2018: Diabetes
Bjoern Titz, Ulrike Kogel, Florian Martin, Walter K Schlage, Yang Xiang, Catherine Nury, Sophie Dijon, Karine Baumer, Dariusz Peric, David Bornand, Remi Dulize, Blaine Phillips, Patrice Leroy, Gregory Vuillaume, Stefan Lebrun, Ashraf Elamin, Emmanuel Guedj, Keyur Trivedi, Nikolai V Ivanov, Patrick Vanscheeuwijck, Manuel C Peitsch, Julia Hoeng
Modified risk tobacco products (MRTPs) have the potential to reduce smoking-related health risks. The Carbon Heated Tobacco Product 1.2 (CHTP1.2) is a potential MRTP that uses a pressed carbon heat source to generate an aerosol by heating tobacco. Here, we report the results from the systems toxicology arm of a 90-day rat inhalation study (OECD test guideline 413) to assess the effects of CHTP1.2 aerosol compared with cigarette smoke (CS). Transcriptomics, proteomics, and lipidomics analyses complemented the standard endpoints...
March 12, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Michal Holcapek, Gerhard Liebisch, Kim Ekroos
The state-of-art in the lipidomic analysis is summarized here to provide the overview of available sample preparation strategies, mass spectrometry (MS) based methods for the qualitative analysis of lipids, and the quantitative MS approaches for high-throughput clinical workflows. Major challenges in terms of widely accepted best practices for lipidomic analysis, nomenclature, and standards for data reporting are discussed as well.
March 15, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Cédric Garcia, Nicolas Montée, Julien Faccini, Jennifer Series, Olivier Meilhac, Anne-Valérie Cantero, Pauline Le Faouder, Meyer Elbaz, Bernard Payrastre, Cécile Vindis
BACKGROUND: While high-density lipoproteins (HDL) have anti-thrombotic effects by reducing platelet activation, the relationship between HDL levels and the risk of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is unclear since HDL particles are heterogeneous in composition and biological properties OBJECTIVE: We characterized the effects of HDL2 and HDL3 subclasses from ACS patients and non-coronary artery disease (CAD) subjects on platelet activation. METHODS: We measured platelet aggregation and ex vivo thrombus formation, analyzed signaling pathways by flow cytometry and performed a targeted lipidomics analysis on HDL subclasses RESULTS: Analysis of human platelet aggregation in suspension, adhesion on von Willebrand factor and thrombus formation on collagen under arterial shear demonstrated that HDL2 subclass from ACS patients had a higher antiplatelet potency compared to ACS HDL3 particles and HDL subclasses from non-CAD subjects...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis: JTH
Woojin Scott Kim, Eve Jary, Russell Pickford, Ying He, Rebekah M Ahmed, Olivier Piguet, John R Hodges, Glenda M Halliday
Behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) is the most prevalent form of FTD syndromes. bvFTD is characterized clinically by changes in behavior and cognition and pathologically by focal brain atrophy and concomitant loss of lipids. bvFTD is further characterized by eating abnormalities that result in dyslipidemia. Although dyslipidemia is apparent in bvFTD, very little is known about global lipid changes in bvFTD and lipid dysregulation underlying bvFTD. Here, we undertook a comprehensive lipidomics analysis of blood plasma from patients with bvFTD, patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and controls, using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, with the aim of understanding lipid dysregulation in bvFTD...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Takashi Baba, J Larry Campbell, J C Yves Le Blanc, Paul R S Baker, Kazutaka Ikeda
We report a method for comprehensive structural characterization of lipids in animal tissues using a combination of differential Ion mobility spectrometry (DMS) with electron-impact excitation of ions from organics (EIEIO) mass spectrometry. Singly charged lipid ions in protonated or sodiated forms were dissociated by an electron beam having a kinetic energy of 10 eV in a branched radio-frequency ion trap. We established a comprehensive set of diagnostics to characterize structures of glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids, and acylglycerols, including glycosylated, plasmalogen, and ester forms...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Lipid Research
Yicheng Yu, Aimin Wang, Xiang Li, Meng Kou, Wenjun Wang, Xianyang Chen, Tao Xu, Mingku Zhu, Daifu Ma, Zongyun Li, Jian Sun
Melatonin (MT) is a multifunctional molecule in animals and plants and is involved in defense against salinity stress in various plant species. In this study, MT pretreatment was simultaneously applied to the roots and leaves of sweet potato seedlings [ Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.], which is an important food and industry crop worldwide, followed by treatment of 150 mM NaCl. The roles of MT in mediating K+ /Na+ homeostasis and lipid metabolism in salinized sweet potato were investigated. Exogenous MT enhanced the resistance to NaCl and improved K+ /Na+ homeostasis in sweet potato seedlings as indicated by the low reduced K+ content in tissues and low accumulation of Na+ content in the shoot...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Hyeon-Cheol Lee, Takehiko Yokomizo
Recent advances in mass spectrometry have expanded our knowledge of lipids and lipid metabolic pathways involved in many (patho)physiological events. Targeted and non-targeted lipidomics are powerful analytical strategies with distinct features, and a combination of these two approaches is often employed to maximize the coverage of lipid species detected and quantified in complex biological matrices. This review briefly summarizes the applications of targeted and non-targeted lipidomics, mainly focusing on electrospray ionization-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-LC-MS/MS), along with recent technical advances in the field...
March 10, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Dajana Vuckovic
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 1, 2018: Bioanalysis
Xueheng Zhao, Marion G Brusadelli, Sharon L Sauter, Melinda Butsch Kovacic, Wujuan Zhang, Lindsey E Romick-Rosendale, Paul F Lambert, Kenneth D Setchell, Susanne I Wells
PURPOSE: Mutations in Fanconi anemia (FA) genes are common in sporadic squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (HNSCC) and we have previously demonstrated that FA pathway depletion in HNSCC cell lines stimulates invasion. The goal of our studies was to use a systems approach in order to define FA pathway-dependent lipid metabolism, and to extract lipid-based signatures and effectors of invasion in FA-deficient cells. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We subjected FA-isogenic HNSCC keratinocyte cell lines to untargeted and targeted lipidomics analyses to discover novel biomarkers and candidate therapeutic targets in FA-deficient cells...
March 12, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Hui Ran, Yemin Zhu, Ruyuan Deng, Qi Zhang, Xisheng Liu, Ming Feng, Jie Zhong, Shuhai Lin, Xuemei Tong, Qing Su
BACKGROUND: Diabetic patients have a higher risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC) metastasis. Stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1), the main enzyme responsible for producing monounsaturated fatty acids(MUFA) from saturated fatty acids, is frequently deregulated in both diabetes and CRC. The function and mechanism of SCD1 in metastasis of CRC and its relevance to glucose remains largely unknown. METHODS: SCD1 expression levels were analyzed in human CRC tissues and the Cancer Browser database ( https://genome-cancer...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research: CR
Daniela Mendes, Maria Manuel Oliveira, Paula I Moreira, João Coutinho, Fernando M Nunes, David M Pereira, Patrícia Valentão, Paula B Andrade, Romeu A Videira
The development of effective medicines to break or delay the progressive brain degeneration underlying cognitive decline and dementia that characterize Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the greatest challenges of our time. In the present work, a selective pool of polyphenols, obtained from the white wine by adsorption to polyvinylpyrrolidone polymer (PVPP), was used to prepare a polyphenols-enriched diet, supplementing the drinking water with 100 mg/L (expressed as gallic acid equivalent) of wine polyphenolic extract...
February 10, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Célia Fernandes, Etelvina Figueira, Romà Tauler, Carmen Bedia
Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is a worldwide used pesticide that raises concerns from the environmental and human health perspectives. The presence of pesticides such as CPF in edible vegetables has been already reported, but little is known about the effects induced by this pesticide stress on the morphology, oxidative response and lipid composition of treated plants. In this work, green bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris) were exposed to increasing concentrations of CPF and the different plant parts (roots, stem bases, stem, leaves, pods and beans) were subjected to different analyses...
March 7, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Maria Fuller, Anthony H Futerman
Cholesterol, sphingolipids and glycerophospholipids are critical constituents of the brain, subserving neuronal membrane architecture and providing a platform for biochemical processes essential for proper neurodevelopment and function. When lysosomal defects arise in a lipid metabolic pathway, it is therefore easy to imagine that neurological decline will transpire, however for deficits in non-lipid pathways, this becomes harder to envisage. Here we suggest the working hypothesis that neurodegenerative lysosomal storage disorders might manifest as primary and/or secondary disorders of lipid metabolism...
March 7, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
R J T Mocking, J Assies, H G Ruhé, A H Schene
Continuous research into the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders, such as major depressive disorder (MDD), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and schizophrenia, suggests an important role for metabolism. This narrative review will provide an up-to-date summary of how metabolism is thought to be involved in the pathophysiology of these psychiatric disorders. We will focus on (I) the important role of fatty acids in these metabolic alterations, (II) whether fatty acid alterations represent epiphenomena or risk factors, and (III) similarities and dissociations in fatty acid alterations between different psychiatric disorders...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
Amr S Ali, Ravali Raju, Somak Ray, Rashmi Kshirsagar, Alan Gilbert, Li Zang, Barry L Karger
As the demand for biological therapeutic proteins rises, there is an increasing need for robust and highly efficient bioprocesses, specifically, maximizing protein production by controlling the cellular nutritional and metabolic needs. A comprehensive lipidomics analysis has been performed, for the first time, over the time course of CHO cells producing an IgG1 monoclonal antibody (mAb) with fed batch 5 L bioreactors. The dynamic nature and importance of the CHO lipidome, especially on cellular growth and specific productivity, is demonstrated...
March 9, 2018: Biotechnology Journal
Xuan-Mei Piao, Young Joon Byun, Wun-Jae Kim, Jayoung Kim
Precision medicine is designed to tailor treatments for individual patients by factoring in each person's specific biology and mechanism of disease. This paradigm shifted from a "one size fits all" approach to "personalized and precision care" requires multiple layers of molecular profiling of biomarkers for accurate diagnosis and prediction of treatment responses. Intensive studies are also being performed to understand the complex and dynamic molecular profiles of bladder cancer. These efforts involve looking bladder cancer mechanism at the multiple levels of the genome, epigenome, transcriptome, proteome, lipidome, metabolome etc...
March 2018: Investigative and Clinical Urology
Lígia Pimentel, Ana Luiza Fontes, Sofia Salsinha, Manuela Machado, Inês Correia, Ana Maria Gomes, Manuela Pintado, Luís Miguel Rodríguez-Alcalá
Lipids are gaining relevance over the last 20 years, as our knowledge about their role has changed from merely energy/structural molecules to compounds also involved in several biological processes. This led to the creation in 2003 of a new emerging research field: lipidomics. In particular the phospholipids have pharmacological/food applications, participate in cell signalling/homeostatic pathways while their analysis faces some challenges. Their fractionation/purification is, in fact, especially difficult, as they are amphiphilic compounds...
March 8, 2018: Electrophoresis
Diego A Miranda, William C Krause, Amaury Cazenave-Gassiot, Miyuki Suzawa, Hazel Escusa, Juat Chin Foo, Diyala S Shihadih, Andreas Stahl, Mark Fitch, Edna Nyangau, Marc Hellerstein, Markus R Wenk, David L Silver, Holly A Ingraham
Excess lipid accumulation is an early signature of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Although liver receptor homolog 1 (LRH-1) (encoded by NR5A2) is suppressed in human NAFLD, evidence linking this phospholipid-bound nuclear receptor to hepatic lipid metabolism is lacking. Here, we report an essential role for LRH-1 in hepatic lipid storage and phospholipid composition based on an acute hepatic KO of LRH-1 in adult mice (LRH-1AAV8-Cre mice). Indeed, LRH-1-deficient hepatocytes exhibited large cytosolic lipid droplets and increased triglycerides (TGs)...
March 8, 2018: JCI Insight
Adam C Lehnig, Kristin I Stanford
The beneficial effects of exercise on skeletal muscle and the cardiovascular system have long been known. Recent studies have focused on investigating the effects of exercise on adipose tissue and the effects that these exercise-induced adaptations have on overall metabolic health. Examination of exercise-induced adaptations in both white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT) has revealed marked differences in each tissue with exercise. In WAT, there are changes to both subcutaneous WAT (scWAT) and visceral WAT (vWAT), including decreased adipocyte size and lipid content, increased expression of metabolic genes, altered secretion of adipokines and increased mitochondrial activity...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
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