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Lipidomics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431006/regulation-of-oxidized-platelet-lipidome-implications-for-coronary-artery-disease
#1
Madhumita Chatterjee, Dominik Rath, Jörg Schlotterbeck, Johannes Rheinlaender, Britta Walker-Allgaier, Nada Alnaggar, Monika Zdanyte, Iris Müller, Oliver Borst, Tobias Geisler, Tilman E Schäffer, Michael Lämmerhofer, Meinrad Gawaz
Aims: Hyperlipidaemia enhances susceptibility to thrombosis, while platelet oxidixed LDL (oxLDL) binding in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) correlates with activation status. This study explores the platelet lipidome in symptomatic coronary artery disease (CAD) patients and the functional consequences of the chemokine CXCL12 and its receptors CXCR-4/-7 on lipid uptake in platelets. Methods and results: Platelet-oxLDL detected by flow cytometry was enhanced (P = 0...
April 18, 2017: European Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425847/form-ul-ation-of-adipocytes-by-lipids
#2
Kfir Lapid, Jonathan M Graff
Lipids have the potential to serve as bio-markers, which allow us to analyze and to identify cells under various experimental settings, and to serve as a clinical diagnostic tool. For example, diagnosis according to specific lipids that are associated with diabetes and obesity. The rapid development of mass-spectrometry techniques enables identification and profiling of multiple types of lipid species. Together, lipid profiling and data interpretation forge the new field of lipidomics. Lipidomics can be used to characterize physiologic and pathophysiological processes in adipocytes, since lipid metabolism is at the core of adipocyte physiology and energy homeostasis...
March 1, 2017: Adipocyte
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424674/global-fecal-and-plasma-metabolic-dynamics-related-to-helicobacter-pylori-eradication
#3
Theresa Wan-Chen Yap, Alex Hwong-Ruey Leow, Ahmad Najib Azmi, Damien L Callahan, Guillermo I Perez-Perez, Mun-Fai Loke, Khean-Lee Goh, Jamuna Vadivelu
Background:Helicobacter pylori colonizes the gastric mucosa of more than half of the world's population. There is increasing evidence H. pylori protects against the development of obesity and childhood asthma/allergies in which the development of these diseases coincide with transient dysbiosis. However, the mechanism underlying the association of H. pylori eradication with human metabolic and immunological disorders is not well-established. In this study, we aimed to investigate the local and systemic effects of H...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423018/comprehensive-analysis-of-phospholipids-and-glycolipids-in-the-opportunistic-pathogen-enterococcus-faecalis
#4
Rafi Rashid, Amaury Cazenave-Gassiot, Iris H Gao, Zeus J Nair, Jaspal K Kumar, Liang Gao, Kimberly A Kline, Markus R Wenk
Enterococcus faecalis is a Gram-positive, opportunistic, pathogenic bacterium that causes a significant number of antibiotic-resistant infections in hospitalized patients. The development of antibiotic resistance in hospital-associated pathogens is a formidable public health threat. In E. faecalis and other Gram-positive pathogens, correlations exist between lipid composition and antibiotic resistance. Resistance to the last-resort antibiotic daptomycin is accompanied by a decrease in phosphatidylglycerol (PG) levels, whereas multiple peptide resistance factor (MprF) converts anionic PG into cationic lysyl-PG via a trans-esterification reaction, providing resistance to cationic antimicrobial peptides...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422089/thermogenic-adipocytes-promote-hdl-turnover-and-reverse-cholesterol-transport
#5
Alexander Bartelt, Clara John, Nicola Schaltenberg, Jimmy F P Berbée, Anna Worthmann, M Lisa Cherradi, Christian Schlein, Julia Piepenburg, Mariëtte R Boon, Franz Rinninger, Markus Heine, Klaus Toedter, Andreas Niemeier, Stefan K Nilsson, Markus Fischer, Sander L Wijers, Wouter van Marken Lichtenbelt, Ludger Scheja, Patrick C N Rensen, Joerg Heeren
Brown and beige adipocytes combust nutrients for thermogenesis and through their metabolic activity decrease pro-atherogenic remnant lipoproteins in hyperlipidemic mice. However, whether the activation of thermogenic adipocytes affects the metabolism and anti-atherogenic properties of high-density lipoproteins (HDL) is unknown. Here, we report a reduction in atherosclerosis in response to pharmacological stimulation of thermogenesis linked to increased HDL levels in APOE*3-Leiden.CETP mice. Both cold-induced and pharmacological thermogenic activation enhances HDL remodelling, which is associated with specific lipidomic changes in mouse and human HDL...
April 19, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419726/chemotaxonomic-characterization-of-the-thaumarchaeal-lipidome
#6
Felix J Elling, Martin Könneke, Graeme W Nicol, Michaela Stieglmeier, Barbara Bayer, Eva Spieck, José R de la Torre, Kevin W Becker, Michael Thomm, James I Prosser, Gerhard J Herndl, Christa Schleper, Kai-Uwe Hinrichs
Thaumarchaeota are globally distributed and abundant microorganisms occurring in diverse habitats and thus represent a major source of archaeal lipids. The scope of lipids as taxonomic markers in microbial ecological studies is limited by the scarcity of comparative data on the membrane lipid composition of cultivated representatives, including the phylum Thaumarchaeota. Here, we comprehensively describe the core and intact polar lipid (IPL) inventory of ten ammonia-oxidizing thaumarchaeal cultures representing all four characterized phylogenetic clades...
April 17, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417920/evaluation-of-the-potential-risk-of-drugs-to-induce-hepatotoxicity-in-human-relationships-between-hepatic-steatosis-observed-in-non-clinical-toxicity-study-and-hepatotoxicity-in-humans
#7
Keisuke Goda, Akio Kobayashi, Akemi Takahashi, Tadakazu Takahashi, Kosuke Saito, Keiko Maekawa, Yoshiro Saito, Shoichiro Sugai
In the development of drugs, we sometimes encounter fatty change of the hepatocytes (steatosis) which is not accompanied by degenerative change in the liver in non-clinical toxicity studies. In this study, we investigated the relationships between fatty change of the hepatocytes noted in non-clinical toxicity studies of compound X, a candidate compound in drug development, and mitochondrial dysfunction in order to estimate the potential risk of the compound to induce drug-induced liver injury (DILI) in humans...
April 12, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416579/inflammatory-stimuli-induce-acyl-coa-thioesterase-7-and-remodeling-of-phospholipids-containing-unsaturated-long-%C3%A2-c20-acyl-chains-in-macrophages
#8
Valerie Z Wall, Shelley Barnhart, Farah Kramer, Jenny E Kanter, Anuradha Vivekanandan-Giri, Subramaniam Pennathur, Chiara Bolego, Jessica M Ellis, Miguel A Gijón, Michael J Wolfgang, Karin E Bornfeldt
Acyl-CoA thioesterase 7 (ACOT7) is an intracellular enzyme that converts acyl-CoAs to free fatty acids. ACOT7 is induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), thus we investigated downstream effects of LPS-induced induction of ACOT7 and its role in inflammatory settings in myeloid cells. Enzymatic thioesterase activity assays in wildtype and ACOT7-deficient macrophage lysates indicated that endogenous ACOT7 contributes a significant fraction of total acyl-CoA thioesterase activity towards C20:4-CoA, C20:5-CoA and C22:6-CoA, but contributes little activity towards shorter acyl-CoA species...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416077/blood-brain-barrier-permeability-is-regulated-by-lipid-transport-dependent-suppression-of-caveolae-mediated-transcytosis
#9
Benjamin J Andreone, Brian Wai Chow, Aleksandra Tata, Baptiste Lacoste, Ayal Ben-Zvi, Kevin Bullock, Amy A Deik, David D Ginty, Clary B Clish, Chenghua Gu
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) provides a constant homeostatic brain environment that is essential for proper neural function. An unusually low rate of vesicular transport (transcytosis) has been identified as one of the two unique properties of CNS endothelial cells, relative to peripheral endothelial cells, that maintain the restrictive quality of the BBB. However, it is not known how this low rate of transcytosis is achieved. Here we provide a mechanism whereby the regulation of CNS endothelial cell lipid composition specifically inhibits the caveolae-mediated transcytotic route readily used in the periphery...
April 11, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415015/lipidomics-by-ultrahigh-performance-liquid-chromatography-high-resolution-mass-spectrometry-and-its-application-to-complex-biological-samples
#10
Alexander Triebl, Martin Trötzmüller, Jürgen Hartler, Tatjana Stojakovic, Harald C Köfeler
An improved approach for selective and sensitive identification and quantitation of lipid molecular species using reversed phase chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry was developed. The method is applicable to a wide variety of biological matrices using a simple liquid-liquid extraction procedure. Together, this approach combines multiple selectivity criteria: Reversed phase chromatography separates lipids according to their acyl chain length and degree of unsaturation and is capable of resolving positional isomers of lysophospholipids, as well as structural isomers of diacyl phospholipids and glycerolipids...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412651/time-dependent-effect-of-rutin-on-skin-fibroblasts-membrane-disruption-following-uv-radiation
#11
Agnieszka Gęgotek, Katarzyna Bielawska, Michał Biernacki, Izabela Dobrzyńska, Elżbieta Skrzydlewska
Chronic exposure of the skin to solar UV radiation induces a number of biological alterations, including a redox imbalance; therefore, there is an urgent need for skin cells protective compounds. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of natural, previously extensively examined, polyphenol with antioxidant properties - rutin, on UV-induced skin fibroblasts membrane disruption. Accordingly, fibroblasts exposed to UVA and UVB irradiation were incubated with rutin (12h before and/or up to 24h after irradiation), and the structural and metabolic changes were examined...
April 9, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411183/membrane-permeation-of-arginine-rich-cell-penetrating-peptides-independent-of-transmembrane-potential-as-a-function-of-lipid-composition-and-membrane-fluidity
#12
Rike Wallbrecher, Tobias Ackels, R Alis Olea, Marco J Klein, Lucie Caillon, Jürgen Schiller, Petra H Bovée-Geurts, Toin H van Kuppevelt, Anne S Ulrich, Marc Spehr, Merel J W Adjobo-Hermans, Roland Brock
Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) are prominent delivery vehicles to confer cellular entry of (bio-) macromolecules. Internalization efficiency and uptake mechanism depend, next to the type of CPP and cargo, also on cell type. Direct penetration of the plasma membrane is the preferred route of entry as this circumvents endolysosomal sequestration. However, the molecular parameters underlying this import mechanism are still poorly defined. Here, we make use of the frequently used HeLa and HEK cell lines to address the role of lipid composition and membrane potential...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410198/specific-changes-in-mitochondrial-lipidome-alter-mitochondrial-proteome-and-increase-the-geroprotective-efficiency-of-lithocholic-acid-in-chronologically-aging-yeast
#13
Anna Leonov, Anthony Arlia-Ciommo, Simon D Bourque, Olivia Koupaki, Pavlo Kyryakov, Paméla Dakik, Mélissa McAuley, Younes Medkour, Karamat Mohammad, Tamara Di Maulo, Vladimir I Titorenko
We have previously found that exogenously added lithocholic acid delays yeast chronological aging. We demonstrated that lithocholic acid enters the yeast cell, is sorted to mitochondria, resides in both mitochondrial membranes, changes the relative concentrations of different membrane phospholipids, triggers changes in the concentrations of many mitochondrial proteins, and alters some key aspects of mitochondrial functionality. We hypothesized that the lithocholic acid-driven changes in mitochondrial lipidome may have a causal role in the remodeling of mitochondrial proteome, which may in turn alter the functional state of mitochondria to create a mitochondrial pattern that delays yeast chronological aging...
March 31, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408341/lipidomics-in-biomedical-research-practical-considerations
#14
Tuulia Hyötyläinen, Linda Ahonen, Päivi Pöhö, Matej Orešič
Lipids have many central physiological roles including as structural components of cell membranes, energy storage sources and intermediates in signaling pathways. Lipid-related disturbances are known to underlie many diseases and their co-morbidities. The emergence of lipidomics has empowered researchers to study lipid metabolism at the cellular as well as physiological levels at a greater depth than was previously possible. The key challenges ahead in the field of lipidomics in medical research lie in the development of experimental protocols and in silico techniques needed to study lipidomes at the systems level...
April 10, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405621/lipidfinder-a-computational-workflow-for-discovery-of-lipids-identifies-eicosanoid-phosphoinositides-in-platelets
#15
Anne O'Connor, Christopher J Brasher, David A Slatter, Sven W Meckelmann, Jade I Hawksworth, Stuart M Allen, Valerie B O'Donnell
Accurate and high-quality curation of lipidomic datasets generated from plasma, cells, or tissues is becoming essential for cell biology investigations and biomarker discovery for personalized medicine. However, a major challenge lies in removing artifacts otherwise mistakenly interpreted as real lipids from large mass spectrometry files (>60 K features), while retaining genuine ions in the dataset. This requires powerful informatics tools; however, available workflows have not been tailored specifically for lipidomics, particularly discovery research...
April 6, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399627/relative-quantification-of-phospholipids-based-on-isotope-labeled-methylation-by-nanoflow-ultrahigh-performance-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry-enhancement-in-cardiolipin-profiling
#16
Jong Cheol Lee, Seul Kee Byeon, Myeong Hee Moon
In this study, lipid analysis based on isotope-labeled methlylation (ILM) was performed by nanoflow liquid chromatog-raphy-eletrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (nLC-ESI-MS/MS) for enhanced detection and quantification of targeted phospholipids. ILM depends on methylation of phosphate groups by (trimethylsilyl)diazomethane and the ILM based quantitation with reversed phase nLC-ESI-MS/MS provides advantages in PL profiling such as enhanced detectabil-ity of methylated PLs owing to increased hydrophobicity and substantial increase in resolution due to the increase of reten-tion...
April 11, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398243/neonatal-citrulline-supplementation-and-later-exposure-to-a-high-fructose-diet-in-rats-born-with-a-low-birth-weight-a-preliminary-report
#17
Nhat-Thang Tran, Marie-Cécile Alexandre-Gouabau, Anthony Pagniez, Khadija Ouguerram, Clair-Yves Boquien, Norbert Winer, Dominique Darmaun
A low birth weight (LBW) leads to a higher risk of metabolic syndrome in adulthood. Literature suggests that citrulline supplementation in adulthood prevents the effect of a high fructose diet on energy metabolism. Whether neonatal citrulline supplementation would alter early growth or energy metabolism in the long-term in rats with LBW is unknown. LBW pups born from dams fed a low (4%) protein diet, were nursed by normally-fed dams and received isonitrogenous supplements of either l-citrulline or l-alanine by gavage from the sixth day of life until weaning, and were subsequently exposed to 10%-fructose in drinking water from weaning to 90 days of age...
April 11, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392013/characterizing-the-lipid-and-metabolite-changes-associated-with-placental-function-and-pregnancy-complications-using-ion-mobility-spectrometry-mass-spectrometry-and-mass-spectrometry-imaging
#18
Kristin E Burnum-Johnson, Erin S Baker, Thomas O Metz
Successful pregnancy is dependent upon discrete biological events, which include embryo implantation, decidualization, and placentation. Problems associated with each of these events can cause infertility or conditions such as preeclampsia. A greater understanding of the molecular changes associated with these complex processes is necessary to aid in identifying treatments for each condition. Previous nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and mass spectrometry studies have been used to identify metabolites and lipids associated with pregnancy-related complications...
March 29, 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391860/lipidomic-analysis-for-carbonyl-species-derived-from-fish-oil-using-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#19
Joon Hyuk Suh, Yue S Niu, Wei-Lun Hung, Chi-Tang Ho, Yu Wang
Lipid peroxidation gives rise to carbonyl species, some of which are reactive and play a role in the pathogenesis of numerous human diseases. Oils are ubiquitous sources that can be easily oxidized to generate these compounds under oxidative stress. In this present work, we developed a targeted lipidomic method for the simultaneous determination of thirty-five aldehydes and ketones derived from fish oil, the omega-3 fatty acid-rich source, by using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The analytes include highly toxic reactive carbonyl species (RCS) such as acrolein, crotonaldehyde, trans-4-hydroxy-2-hexenal (HHE), trans-4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE), trans-4-oxo-2-nonenal (ONE), glyoxal and methylglyoxal, all of which are promising biomarkers of lipid peroxidation...
June 1, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377401/cyp8b1-ablation-prevents-western-diet-induced-weight-gain-and-hepatic-steatosis-due-to-impaired-fat-absorption
#20
Enrico Bertaggia, Kristian K Jensen, Jose Castro-Perez, Yimeng Xu, Gilbert Di Paolo, Robin B Chan, Liangsu Wang, Rebecca A Haeusler
Bile acids (BAs) are cholesterol derivatives that regulate lipid metabolism, through their dual abilities to promote lipid absorption and activate BA receptors. However, different BA species have varying abilities to perform these functions. Eliminating 12α-hydroxy BAs in mice via Cyp8b1 knockout causes low body weight and improved glucose tolerance. The goal of this study was to determine mechanisms of low body weight in Cyp8b1(-/-) mice. We challenged Cyp8b1(-/-) mice with western type diet and assessed body weight and composition...
April 4, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
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