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Haibo Yu, Hongliang Song, Jun Xiao, Haichuan Chen, Xiaodan Jin, Xizhou Lin, Bujian Pan, Wu Ji
OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to evaluate the effects involved with the novel chitosan gemcitabine (Gem) nanoparticles mediating cisplatin (DDP) on epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT), invasion and metastasis of pancreatic cancer (PC) cells. METHODS: A total of 62 healthy purebred BALB/C of specific-pathogen free (SPF) female nude mice were recruited and a SW1990 cell line was subsequently cultured. A heterotopic xenograft tumor model was constructed. After determining the optimal drug concentration, the nude mice were assigned into the control, glycol chitosan (GC)-Gem microsphere, antibody Complex (Abc)-GC-Gem and Abc-GC-Gem microsphere+DDP groups (n=8 in each group)...
October 13, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Hye-Na Kim, Sanaz Vahidinia, Amanda L Holt, Alison M Sweeney, Shu Yang
It will be ideal to deliver equal, optimally efficient "doses" of sunlight to all cells in a photobioreactor system, while simultaneously utilizing the entire solar resource. Backed by the numerical scattering simulation and optimization, here, the design, synthesis, and characterization of the synthetic iridocytes that recapitulated the salient forward-scattering behavior of the Tridacnid clam system are reported, which presents the first geometric solution to allow narrow, precise forward redistribution of flux, utilizing the solar resource at the maximum quantum efficiency possible in living cells...
October 16, 2017: Advanced Materials
Nilam Qureshi, Sudhir Arbuj, Manish Shinde, Sunit Rane, Milind Kulkarni, Dinesh Amalnerkar, Haiwon Lee
Herein, we report the synthesis of metallic molybdenum microspheres and hierarchical MoS2 nanostructures by facile template-free solvothermal and hydrothermal approach, respectively. The morphological transition of the Mo microspheres to hierarchical MoS2 nanoflower architectures is observed to be accomplished with change in solvent from ethylenediamine to water. The resultant marigold flower-like MoS2 nanostructures are few layers thick with poor crystallinity while spherical ball-like molybdenum microspheres exhibit better crystalline nature...
2017: Nano Convergence
Christina E Galuska, Jan A Dambon, Andrea Kühnle, Kim F Bornhöfft, Gerlinde Prem, Kristina Zlatina, Thomas Lütteke, Sebastian P Galuska
Neutrophils are involved in numerous immunological events. One mechanism of neutrophils to combat pathogens is the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). Thereby, neutrophils use DNA fibers to form a meshwork of DNA and histones as well as several antimicrobial components to trap and kill invaders. However, the formation of NETs can lead to pathological conditions triggering among other things (e.g., sepsis or acute lung failure), which is mainly a consequence of the cytotoxic characteristics of accumulated extracellular histones...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
N Venkatanarasimha, A Gogna, K T A Tong, K Damodharan, P K H Chow, R H G Lo, S Chandramohan
Transarterial radioembolisation (TARE) has gained increasing acceptance as an additional/alternative locoregional treatment option for hepatocellular carcinoma, and colorectal hepatic metastases that present beyond potentially curative options. This is a catheter-based transarterial selective internal brachytherapy that involves injection of radioactive microspheres (usually Y-90) that are delivered selectively to the liver tumours. Owing to the combined radioactive and microembolic effect, the findings at follow-up imaging are significantly different from that seen with other transarterial treatment options...
October 9, 2017: Clinical Radiology
Weiluan Chen, Chiara di Carlo, Donal Devery, Donnacha J McGrath, Peter E McHugh, Kathrin Kleinsteinberg, Stefan Jockenhoevel, Wim E Hennink, Robbert J Kok
The purpose of the present study was to develop gefitinib-loaded polymeric foams that can be used as coating of drug-eluting stents for palliative treatment of bronchotracheal cancer. Release of such an anticancer drug from such stent coating can retard tumor regrowth into the bronchial lumen. Gefitinib-loaded polyurethane (PU) foams were prepared by embedding either gefitinib micronized crystals or gefitinib-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) microspheres in water-blown films, with up to 10% w/w loading for gefitinib microcrystals and 15% w/w for gefitinib microspheres (corresponding to 1...
October 12, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Yannan Chen, Gangqiang Zhu, Mirabbos Hojamberdiev, Jianzhi Gao, Runliang Zhu, Chenghui Wang, Xiumei Wei, Peng Liu
Ag2O nanoparticles-loaded Bi5O7I microspheres forming a three dimensional Ag2O/Bi5O7I p-n heterojunction photocatalyst with wide-spectrum response were synthesized in this study. The results of transmission electron microscopy observations revealed that the Ag2O nanoparticles with the diameter of ca. 10-20nm were distributed on the surfaces of Bi5O7I nanosheets. The as-synthesized Ag2O/Bi5O7I exhibited an excellent wide-spectrum response to wavelengths ranging from ultraviolet (UV) to near-infrared (NIR), indicating its potential for effective utilization of solar energy...
October 7, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Gesmi Milcovich, Paolo Contessotto, Grazia Marsico, Siti Ismail, Abhay Pandit
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are key pathological signals expressed in inflammatory diseases such as cancer, ischemic conditions and atherosclerosis. An ideal drug delivery system should not only be responsive to these signals but also should not elicit an unfavourable host response. This study presents an innovative platform for drug delivery where a natural/synthetic composite system composed of collagen type I and a synthesized polythioether, ensures a dual stimuli-responsive behaviour. Collagen type I is an extracellular matrix constituent protein, responsive to matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) cleavage per se...
October 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
Fernanda Ana-Sosa-Batiz, Angus P R Johnston, P Mark Hogarth, Bruce D Wines, Ian Barr, Adam K Wheatley, Stephen J Kent
Globally the most commonly utilised immunisation against influenza is the trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV) derived from an A/H1N1, an A/H3N2 and aB type influenza virus. Vaccine effectiveness of TIV varies year to year, depending on how well antigenically matched the strains in the vaccine are compared to circulating strains [1,2]. Moreover, vaccine effectiveness can vary within certain subpopulations such as HIV-positive, young children and the elderly. Decreased vaccine effectiveness in the elderly is associated with impaired Ab production, as measured by standard hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) assays...
October 10, 2017: Vaccine
J L Bilbao, R Iezzi, S N Goldberg, A Sami, O Akhan, F Giuliante, M Pompili, L Crocetti, K Malagari, V Valentini, A Gasbarrini, C Colosimo, R Manfredi
Microsphere and particle technology represent the next-generation agents that have formed the basis of interventional oncology, an evolving subspecialty of interventional radiology. One of these platforms, yttrium-90 microspheres, is increasingly being used as a treatment modality for primary and secondary liver tumors. Due to the widespread use of radioembolization, a comprehensive review of the methodologic and technical considerations seems to be mandatory. This article summarizes the expert discussion and report from Mediterranean Interventional Oncology Live Congress (MIOLive 2017) that was held in Rome, Italy, integrating evidence-reported literature and experience-based perceptions, to assist not only residents and fellows who are training in interventional radiologists but also practicing colleagues who are approaching to this intra-arterial treatment...
September 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Lekha Sharma, Rita Kakkar
In this study, hierarchical porous magnesium oxide (Hr-MgO) microspheres have been fabricated from hydromagnesite precursor via a facile precipitation method followed by calcination. The Hr-MgO microspheres consist of several nanosheet building blocks to generate a flower-like architecture. Chlorpyrifos (CPF), a persistent organic pollutant, has been chosen as a model organophosphate pesticide to determine the adsorptive capacities of the fabricated Hr-MgO. The equilibrium adsorption data fits well with the Langmuir isotherm model, having a maximum adsorption capacity of 3974 mg g-1, which is the highest value till date...
October 13, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Virginia B Kraus, Philip G Conaghan, Hessam A Aazami, Purvi Mehra, Alan J Kivitz, Joelle Lufkin, Jessica Hauben, James R Johnson, Neil Bodick
OBJECTIVE: Intra-articular (IA) corticosteroids relieve osteoarthritis (OA) pain, but rapid absorption into systemic circulation may limit efficacy and produce untoward effects. We compared the pharmacokinetics of IA triamcinolone acetonide (TA) delivered as an extended-release, microsphere-based formulation (FX006) vs a crystalline suspension (TAcs) in knee OA patients. METHOD: This Phase 2 open-label study sequentially enrolled 81 patients who received a single IA injection of FX006 (5 mL, 32mg delivered dose, N=63) or TAcs (1 mL, 40mg, N=18)...
October 9, 2017: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
Loïc Berthod, Olga Shavdina, Isabelle Verrier, Thomas Kämpfe, Olivier Dellea, Francis Vocanson, Maxime Bichotte, Damien Jamon, Yves Jourlin
This paper presents substantial improvements of the colloidal photolithography technique (also called microsphere lithography) with the goal of better controlling the geometry of the fabricated nano-scale structures-in this case, hexagonally arranged nanopillars-printed in a layer of directly photopatternable sol-gel TiO₂. Firstly, to increase the achievable structure height the photosensitive layer underneath the microspheres is deposited on a reflective layer instead of the usual transparent substrate. Secondly, an increased width of the pillars is achieved by tilting the incident wave and using multiple exposures or substrate rotation, additionally allowing to better control the shape of the pillar's cross section...
October 12, 2017: Nanomaterials
Xianpeng Shi, Yan Yan, Pengchong Wang, Ying Sun, Di Zhang, Yamin Zou, Sasa Hu, Lu Zhang, Jianfeng Xing, Yalin Dong
Hydrocortisone sodium succinate (HSS) is an anti-inflammatory drug, but its application on ulcerative colitis (UC) treatment is limited by its associated side-effects. To solve this problem, a kind of pH-sensitive P(LE-IA-MEG) hydrogel microspheres (HMSs) were prepared as the drug carrier of hydrocortisone sodium succinate (HSS) for the treatment of UC. The P(LE-IA-MEG) HMSs were spherical in shape with good dispersion and the mean particle size was 34.87 ± 0.90 µm. HSS was successfully loaded into the P(LE-IA-MEG) HMSs...
October 7, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
Xueyan Liu, Mingyang Liu, Lei Zhang
Functionalized magnetic microsphere NiFe2O4 (MS-NiFe2O4) with a 3D hierarchical porous hollow structure was fabricated using urea as the modifier and soft templates by a simple one-pot solvothermal method. The constructed MS-NiFe2O4 shows excellent dual functions which can not only undergo simultaneous rapid removal of the co-existence metal ions (Cu(2+), Cd(2+), Cr(3+) and Zn(2+) ions), but also availably adsorb fluoroquinolone (FQs) (ciprofloxacin (CIP), enrofloxacin (ENR) and norfloxacin (NOR)), and is easily recycled using an external magnetic field...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Haibo Rong, Zhongqing Jiang, Xiaoning Tian, Yanmin Qin, Si Cheng, Fu Wang, Zhong-Jie Jiang
A facile template-free Ostwald ripening method is developed for the preparation of the reduced graphene oxide supported splode-like NiCo2O4 hollow microsphere (SNHM/rGO). The graphene oxide used in the reaction mixture is found to play a crucial role in the formation of the SNHM/rGO. It promotes the formation of the NiCo-glycerol microspheres suitable for the Ostwald ripening to form the reduced graphene oxide supported hollow NiCo-glycerol microspheres, which is important for the subsequent calcination to form the SNHM/rGO...
September 30, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Melissa D Conrad, Daniel Mota, Alex Musiime, Maxwell Kilama, John Rek, Moses Kamya, Grant Dorsey, Philip J Rosenthal
Controlling malaria in high transmission areas, such as much of sub-Saharan Africa, will require concerted efforts to slow the spread of drug resistance and to impede malaria transmission. Understanding the fitness costs associated with the development of drug resistance, particularly within the context of transmission, can help guide policy decisions to accomplish these goals, as fitness constraints might lead to decreased transmission of drug-resistant strains. To determine if Plasmodium falciparum resistance-mediating polymorphisms impact on development at different parasite stages, we compared the genotypes of parasites infecting humans and mosquitoes from households in Uganda...
September 25, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Qin Yue, Jialuo Li, Yu Zhang, Xiaowei Cheng, Xiao Chen, Panpan Pan, Jiacan Su, Ahmed A Elzatahry, Abdulaziz Alghamdi, Yonghui Deng, Dongyuan Zhao
Yolk-shell nanomaterials with a rattle-like structure have been considered ideal carriers and nanoreactors. Traditional methods to constructing yolk-shell nanostructures mainly rely on multi-step sacrificial template strategy. In this study, a facile and effective plasmolysis-inspired nanoengineering strategy is developed to controllably fabricate yolk-shell magnetic mesoporous silica microspheres via the swelling-shrinkage of resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) upon soaking in or removal of n-hexane. Using Fe3O4@RF microspheres as seeds, surfactant-silica mesostructured composite is deposited on the swelled seeds through the multicomponent interface co-assembly, followed by solvent extraction to remove surfactant and simultaneously induce shrinkage of RF shell...
October 10, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Takuma Kureha, Daichi Aoki, Seina Hiroshige, Keisuke Iijima, Daisuke Aoki, Toshikazu Takata, Daisuke Suzuki
Rotaxane cross-linked (RC) microgels that exhibit a decoupled thermo- and pH-responsive volume transition were developed. The pH-induced changes of the aggregation/disaggregation states of cyclodextrin in the RC networks were used to control the swelling capacity of the entire microgels. Different from conventional thermo- and pH-responsive microgels, which are usually obtained from copolymerizations involving charged monomers, the RC microgels respond to temperature as intended, even in the presence of charged functional molecules such as dyes in the microgel dispersion...
October 10, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
Kyung Jin Lee, Dong Yun Shin, Ayeong Byeon, Ahyoun Lim, Young Suk Jo, Alina Begley, Dong-Hee Lim, Yung-Eun Sung, Hyun S Park, Keun Hwa Chae, Suk Woo Nam, Kwan-Young Lee, Jin Young Kim
Here we report the preparation of hollow microspheres with a thin shell composed of mixed cobalt nitride (Co-N) and cobalt oxide (Co-O) nanofragments encapsulated in thin layers of nitrogen-doped carbon (N-C) nanostructure (Co-N/Co-O@N-C) arrays with enhanced bifunctional oxygen electrochemical performance. The hybrid structures are synthesized via heat treatment of N-doped hollow carbon microspheres with cobalt nitrate, and both the specific ratio of these precursors and the selected annealing temperature are found to be the key factors for the formation of the unique hybrid structure...
October 10, 2017: Nanoscale
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