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Neutrophil traps

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926944/targeting-neutrophils-to-prevent-malaria-associated-acute-lung-injury-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-in-mice
#1
Michelle K Sercundes, Luana S Ortolan, Daniela Debone, Paulo V Soeiro-Pereira, Eliane Gomes, Elizabeth H Aitken, Antonio Condino Neto, Momtchilo Russo, Maria R D' Império Lima, José M Alvarez, Silvia Portugal, Claudio R F Marinho, Sabrina Epiphanio
Malaria remains one of the greatest burdens to global health, causing nearly 500,000 deaths in 2014. When manifesting in the lungs, severe malaria causes acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS). We have previously shown that a proportion of DBA/2 mice infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA (PbA) develop ALI/ARDS and that these mice recapitulate various aspects of the human syndrome, such as pulmonary edema, hemorrhaging, pleural effusion and hypoxemia. Herein, we investigated the role of neutrophils in the pathogenesis of malaria-associated ALI/ARDS...
December 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924613/characterization-quantification-and-visualization-of-neutrophil-extracellular-traps
#2
Phillipa C White, Ilaria J Chicca, Martin R Ling, Helen J Wright, Paul R Cooper, Mike R Milward, Iain L C Chapple
Following the discovery of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) in 2004 by Brinkmann and colleagues, there has been extensive research into the role of NETs in a number of inflammatory diseases, including periodontitis. This chapter describes the current methods for the isolation of peripheral blood neutrophils for subsequent NET experiments, including approaches to quantify and visualize NET production, the ability of NETs to entrap and kill bacteria, and the removal of NETs by nuclease-containing plasma.
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923601/understanding-the-molecular-mechanisms-of-nets-and-their-role-in-antiviral-innate-immunity
#3
REVIEW
Juan Manuel Agraz-Cibrian, Diana M Giraldo, Fafutis-Morris Mary, Silvio Urcuqui-Inchima
Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) are the most abundant cells in the context of innate immunity; they are one of the first cells to arrive at the site of viral infection constituting the first line of defense in response to invading pathogens. Indeed, neutrophils are provided with several defense mechanisms including release of cytokines, cytotoxic granules and the last recently described neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). The main components of NETs are DNA, granular antimicrobial peptides, and nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins, that together play an important role in the innate immune response...
December 3, 2016: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920776/immunodetection-of-nets-in-paraffin-embedded-tissue
#4
Volker Brinkmann, Ulrike Abu Abed, Christian Goosmann, Arturo Zychlinsky
The pathogenic potential of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) was recently described, and their detection in tissue could serve as a prognostic marker. NETs are delicate and filigree structures; hence good tissue preservation is essential for their detection. Indeed, analysis of paraffin-embedded tissue has proven superior to the study of cryo sections. Though, under favorable conditions, the presence of NETs can be detected in tissue sections stained with histological dyes, definitive identification of NETs needs the colocalization of immunofluorescent signals for both nuclear and granular (or cytoplasmic) NET components...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919911/in-vitro-activation-of-coagulation-by-human-neutrophil-dna-and-histone-proteins-but-not-neutrophil-extracellular-traps
#5
Denis F Noubouossie, Matthew F Whelihan, Yuan-Bin Yu, Erica Sparkenbaugh, Rafal Pawlinski, Dougald M Monroe, Nigel S Key
NETosis is a physiological process in which neutrophils release their nuclear material in the form of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). NETs have been reported to directly promote thrombosis in animal models. Although the effects of purified NET components including DNA, histone proteins and neutrophil enzymes on coagulation have been characterized, the mechanism by which intact NETs promote thrombosis is largely unknown. In this study, human neutrophils were stimulated to produce NETs in platelet-free plasma (PFP) or in buffer using PMA or calcium ionophore...
December 5, 2016: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917897/blood-borne-phagocytes-internalize-urate-microaggregates-and-prevent-intravascular-netosis-by-urate-crystals
#6
Elmar Pieterse, Ivica Jeremic, Christine Czegley, Daniela Weidner, Mona H C Biermann, Susan Veissi, Christian Maueröder, Christine Schauer, Rostyslav Bilyy, Tetiana Dumych, Markus Hoffmann, Luis E Munoz, Anders A Bengtsson, Georg Schett, Johan van der Vlag, Martin Herrmann
Hyperuricemia is strongly linked to cardiovascular complications including atherosclerosis and thrombosis. In individuals with hyperuricemia, needle-shaped monosodium urate crystals (nsMSU) frequently form within joints or urine, giving rise to gouty arthritis or renal calculi, respectively. These nsMSU are potent instigators of neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation. Little is known on the mechanism(s) that prevent nsMSU formation within hyperuricemic blood, which would potentially cause detrimental consequences for the host...
December 5, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917008/visualization-of-neutrophil-extracellular-traps-and-fibrin-meshwork-in-human-fibrinopurulent-inflammatory-lesions-iii-correlative-light-and-electron-microscopic-study
#7
Takanori Onouchi, Kazuya Shiogama, Yasuyoshi Mizutani, Takashi Takaki, Yutaka Tsutsumi
Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) released from dead neutrophils at the site of inflammation represent webs of neutrophilic DNA stretches dotted with granule-derived antimicrobial proteins, including lactoferrin, and play important roles in innate immunity against microbial infection. We have shown the coexistence of NETs and fibrin meshwork in varied fibrinopurulent inflammatory lesions at both light and electron microscopic levels. In the present study, correlative light and electron microscopy (CLEM) employing confocal laser scanning microscopy and scanning electron microscopy was performed to bridge light and electron microscopic images of NETs and fibrin fibrils in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded, autopsied lung sections of legionnaire's pneumonia...
November 1, 2016: Acta Histochemica et Cytochemica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913645/iga-complexes-in-plasma-and-synovial-fluid-of-patients-with-rheumatoid-arthritis-induce-neutrophil-extracellular-traps-via-fc%C3%AE-ri
#8
Esil Aleyd, Marjon Al, Cornelis W Tuk, Conny J van der Laken, Marjolein van Egmond
Autoantibodies, including rheumatoid factor (RF), are an important characteristic of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Interestingly, several studies reported a correlation between the presence of IgA autoantibodies and worse disease course. We demonstrated previously that triggering the IgA Fc receptor (FcαRI) on neutrophils results in neutrophil recruitment and the release of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). Because this can lead to tissue damage, we investigated whether IgA immune complexes in plasma and synovial fluid of RA patients activate neutrophils...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911367/a-simple-fluorescence-assay-for-quantification-of-canine-neutrophil-extracellular-trap-release
#9
Unity Jeffery, Robert D Gray, Dana N LeVine
Neutrophil extracellular traps are networks of DNA, histones and neutrophil proteins released in response to infectious and inflammatory stimuli. Although a component of the innate immune response, NETs are implicated in a range of disease processes including autoimmunity and thrombosis. This protocol describes a simple method for canine neutrophil isolation and quantification of NETs using a microplate fluorescence assay. Blood is collected using conventional venipuncture techniques. Neutrophils are isolated using dextran sedimentation and a density gradient using conditions optimized for dog blood...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908304/the-role-and-diagnostic-value-of-cell-free-dna-in-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#10
REVIEW
Anna Truszewska, Bartosz Foroncewicz, Leszek Pączek
Cell-free DNA (cfDNA) represents a small fraction of total DNA pool that circulates freely in the blood both in normal and pathological conditions. Data indicate that cfDNA plays an important role in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and hypomethylation may be crucial for its immunogenic properties. Although differences in quantification methodology hinder the comparison of results between the studies, it appears that levels of cfDNA are abnormally elevated in SLE patients and correlate with various antibody titers, but not with disease activity...
November 14, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903742/p2y6-receptor-antagonist-mrs2578-inhibits-neutrophil-activation-and-aggregated-neutrophil-extracellular-trap-formation-induced-by-gout-associated-monosodium-urate-crystals
#11
Payel Sil, Craig P Hayes, Barbara J Reaves, Patrick Breen, Shannon Quinn, Jeremy Sokolove, Balázs Rada
Human neutrophils (polymorphonuclear leukocytes [PMNs]) generate inflammatory responses within the joints of gout patients upon encountering monosodium urate (MSU) crystals. Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are found abundantly in the synovial fluid of gout patients. The detailed mechanism of MSU crystal-induced NET formation remains unknown. Our goal was to shed light on possible roles of purinergic signaling and neutrophil migration in mediating NET formation induced by MSU crystals. Interaction of human neutrophils with MSU crystals was evaluated by high-throughput live imaging using confocal microscopy...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895639/netosis-as-source-of-autoantigens-in-rheumatoid-arthritis
#12
REVIEW
Elisa Corsiero, Federico Pratesi, Edoardo Prediletto, Michele Bombardieri, Paola Migliorini
In neutrophils (but also in eosinophils and in mast cells), different inflammatory stimuli induce histone deimination, chromatin decondensation, and NET formation. These web-like structures that trap and kill microbes contain DNA, cationic granule proteins, and antimicrobial peptides, but the most abundant proteins are core histones. Histones contained in NETs have been deiminated, and arginines are converted in citrullines. While deimination is a physiological process amplified in inflammatory conditions, only individuals carrying genetic predisposition to develop rheumatoid arthritis (RA) make antibodies to deiminated proteins...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895638/intercellular-interactions-as-regulators-of-netosis
#13
REVIEW
Nayef M Kazzaz, Gautam Sule, Jason S Knight
Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are chromatin-derived webs extruded from neutrophils in response to either infection or sterile stimulation with chemicals, cytokines, or microbial products. The vast majority of studies have characterized NET release (also called NETosis) in pure neutrophil cultures in vitro. The situation is surely more complex in vivo as neutrophils constantly sample not only pathogens and soluble mediators but also signals from cellular partners, including platelets and endothelial cells...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894934/mir-142-is-required-for-staphylococcus-aureus-clearance-at-skin-wound-sites-via-small-gtpase-mediated-regulation-of-the-neutrophil-actin-cytoskeleton
#14
Katsuya Tanaka, Sang Eun Kim, Hiroki Yano, Gaku Matsumoto, Ryoma Ohuchida, Yuhoko Ishikura, Masatake Araki, Kimi Araki, Seongjoon Park, Toshimitsu Komatsu, Hiroko Hayashi, Kazuya Ikematsu, Katsumi Tanaka, Akiyoshi Hirano, Paul Martin, Isao Shimokawa, Ryoichi Mori
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that regulate protein translation by binding to complementary target mRNAs. We previously identified two mature members of the miR-142 family, miR-142-5p and miR-142-3p, as inflammation-related miRNAs with potential roles in wound healing. Here, we demonstrated that these two miRNAs are prominently expressed in wound-infiltrated neutrophils and macrophages and play central roles in wound healing. We generated miR-142(-/-) mice using the exchangeable gene-trap method and showed that healing of Staphylococcus aureus-infected skin wounds was significantly delayed in miR-142(-/-) mice compared with that in wild-type mice...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885378/netosis-provides-the-link-between-activation-of-neutrophils-on-hemodialysis-membrane-and-comorbidities-in-dialyzed-patients
#15
REVIEW
Marie Korabecna, Vladimir Tesar
INTRODUCTION: Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are formed by activated neutrophils during the process of NETosis in which the nuclear material is released into extracellular space, including DNA molecules, citrullinated histones, and neutrophil granule enzymes, such as elastase. This material forms networks that are able not only to physically entrap bacteria but also to provide elevated concentration of bactericidal components. Over the last years, it has become clear that NETs can also be formed under numerous sterile inflammatory conditions, i...
November 24, 2016: Inflammation Research: Official Journal of the European Histamine Research Society ... [et Al.]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884950/neutrophil-extracellular-traps-in-the-amniotic-cavity-of-women-with-intra-amniotic-infection-a-new-mechanism-of-host-defense
#16
Nardhy Gomez-Lopez, Roberto Romero, Yi Xu, Derek Miller, Ronald Unkel, Majid Shaman, Suzanne M Jacques, Bogdan Panaitescu, Valeria Garcia-Flores, Sonia S Hassan
OBJECTIVE: Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) control microbial infections through their antimicrobial activities attributed to DNA, histones, granules, and cytoplasmic proteins (eg, elastase). Intra-amniotic infection is characterized by the influx of neutrophils into the amniotic cavity; therefore, the aim of this study was to determine whether amniotic fluid neutrophils form NETs in this inflammatory process. METHODS: Amniotic fluid samples from women with intra-amniotic infection (n = 15) were stained for bacteria detection using fluorescent dyes...
November 23, 2016: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884010/less-neutrophil-extracellular-trap-formation-in-term-newborns-than-in-adults
#17
Patrick Lipp, Johanna Ruhnau, Anja Lange, Antje Vogelgesang, Alexander Dressel, Matthias Heckmann
BACKGROUND: Newborns are prone to infections, which are independent predictors of neonatal mortality and morbidity. Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are structures composed of chromatin and antimicrobial molecules that capture and kill pathogens. NETs may play an important role in the innate immune system and, thus, might be associated with impaired neonatal immune function. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to compare NET formation between term neonates and healthy adults...
November 25, 2016: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883241/neutrophil-autophagy-and-extracellular-dna-traps-contribute-to-airway-inflammation-in-severe-asthma
#18
Duy Le Pham, Ga-Young Ban, Seung-Hyun Kim, Yoo Seob Shin, Young-Min Ye, Yong-Joon Chwae, Hae-Sim Park
BACKGROUND: Autophagy and neutrophil extracellular DNA traps (NETs) are implicated in asthma; however, their roles in asthma pathogenesis have not been elucidated. OBJECTIVES: We compared autophagy and NET production levels from peripheral blood neutrophils (PBNs) of patients with severe asthma (SA) and non-severe asthma (NSA). Additionally, we investigated the inflammatory effects of NETs on human airway epithelial cells (AECs) and peripheral blood eosinophils (PBEs)...
November 24, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882047/perioperative-elevation-in-cell-free-dna-levels-in-patients-undergoing-cardiac-surgery-possible-contribution-of-neutrophil-extracellular-traps-to-perioperative-renal-dysfunction
#19
Yu Qi, Tokujiro Uchida, Mamoru Yamamoto, Yudai Yamamoto, Koji Kido, Hiroyuki Ito, Nagara Ohno, Miho Asahara, Yoshitsugu Yamada, Osamu Yamaguchi, Chieko Mitaka, Makoto Tomita, Koshi Makita
Background. This study aimed to determine the perioperative change in serum double-strand DNA (dsDNA) as a marker potentially reflecting neutrophil extracellular trap concentration in samples from patients undergoing cardiac surgery and to analyze a relationship between serum dsDNA concentrations and perioperative renal dysfunction. Methods. Serum dsDNA concentrations in samples that were collected during a previously conducted, prospective, multicenter, observational study were measured. Eighty patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery were studied...
2016: Anesthesiology Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876233/role-of-platelets-in-neutrophil-extracellular-trap-net-production-and-tissue-injury
#20
REVIEW
Seok-Joo Kim, Craig N Jenne
In addition to their well-known role as the cellular mediator of thrombosis, numerous studies have identified key roles for platelets during various disease processes. Importantly, platelets play a critical role in the host immune response, directly interacting with, and eliminating pathogens, from the blood stream. In addition to pathogen clearance, platelets also contribute to leukocyte recruitment at sites of infection and inflammation, and modulate leukocyte activity. Platelet interaction with activated neutrophils is a potent inducer of neutrophil extracellular trap (NET)...
November 18, 2016: Seminars in Immunology
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