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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782199/bacteriolysis-a-mere-laboratory-curiosity
#1
Isaac Ginsburg, Erez Koren
The role of bacteriolysis in the pathophysiology of microbial infections dates back to 1893 when Buchner and Pfeiffer reported for the first time the lysis of bacteria by immune serum and related this phenomenon to the immune response. Later on, basic anti-microbial peptides and certain beta-lactam antibiotics have been shown not only to kill microorganisms but also to induce bacteriolysis and the release of cell-wall components. In 2009, a novel paradigm was offered suggesting that the main cause of death in sepsis is due to the exclusive release from activated human phagocytic neutrophils (PMNs) traps adhering upon endothelial cells of highly toxic nuclear histone...
May 21, 2018: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770423/large-scale-patterning-of-living-colloids-for-dynamic-studies-of-neutrophil-microbe-interactions
#2
Jae Jung Kim, Eduardo Reátegui, Alex Hopke, Fatemeh Jalali, Maedeh Roushan, Patrick S Doyle, Daniel Irimia
Neutrophils are the first white blood cells to respond to microbes and to limit their invasion of the body. However, the growth of the microbes into colonies often challenges the neutrophils ability to contain them. To study the interactions between neutrophils and microbial colonies, we designed an assay for arranging microbes in clusters of controlled size (i.e. living colloids). The patterned microbes in the living colloid are mechanically trapped inside the wells and fully accessible to neutrophils. Using the assay, we studied the interactions between human neutrophils and Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus, two common human pathogens...
May 17, 2018: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765013/a-new-tool-for-detection-of-extracellular-traps
#3
Alizé Proust, Julie-Christine Lévesque, Corinne Barat, Sachiko Sato, Michel J Tremblay
Extracellular traps ejected by various immune cells (neutrophils, macrophages, eosinophils and mast cells) have several immune functions, either protective against pathogens or deleterious in some autoimmune or inflammatory disorders. Since their first description in 2004, the mechanisms of extracellular traps formation have been extensively investigated though still not fully understood. We describe here a new tool for the detection of extracellular traps by fluorescence microscopy in a single-step staining protocol, which does not require any wash...
May 16, 2018: Methods and Applications in Fluorescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758017/the-effects-of-dabigatran-and-rivaroxaban-on-markers-of-polymorphonuclear-leukocyte-activation
#4
Guy A Richards, Annette Theron, Gregory Tintinger, Ronald Anderson
Dabigatran is an oral direct thrombin inhibitor, and rivaroxaban, a factor Xa inhibitor. Dabigatran has been implicated in the etiology of acute coronary syndromes and as these occur following inflammatory changes in the endothelium, we investigated the inflammatory potential of these agents in vitro. In order to do so, polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL) were isolated from heparinized venous blood from non-smoking, healthy adults and exposed to dabigatran or rivaroxaban (0.5⁻10 µM). Generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), elastase release, cytosolic Ca2+ fluxes, neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation and cell viability were measured using chemiluminescence, spectrophotometric and flow cytometric procedures respectively...
May 14, 2018: Pharmaceuticals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751523/annexin-a1-and-autoimmunity-from-basic-science-to-clinical-applications
#5
REVIEW
Maurizio Bruschi, Andrea Petretto, Augusto Vaglio, Laura Santucci, Giovanni Candiano, Gian Marco Ghiggeri
Annexin A1 is a protein with multifunctional roles in innate and adaptive immunity mainly devoted to the regulation of inflammatory cells and the resolution of inflammation. Most of the data regarding Annexin A1 roles in immunity derive from cell studies and from mice models lacking Annexin A1 for genetic manipulation (Annexin A1-/- ); only a few studies sought to define how Annexin A1 is involved in human diseases. High levels of anti-Annexin A1 autoantibodies have been reported in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), suggesting this protein is implicated in auto-immunity...
May 3, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740848/control-of-the-inflammatory-response-during-pregnancy-potential-role-of-vip-as-a-regulatory-peptide
#6
Rosanna Ramhorst, Guillermina Calo, Daniel Paparini, Daiana Vota, Vanesa Hauk, Lucila Gallino, Fatima Merech, Esteban Grasso, Claudia Pérez Leirós
A network of cell-cell communications through contact and soluble factors supports the maternal-placental interaction and provides a suitable environment for fetal growth. Trophoblast cells take center stage at these loops: they interact with maternal leukocytes to sustain the varying demands of gestation, and they synthesize hormones, cytokines among other factors that contribute to the maintenance of immune homeostasis. Here, we discuss vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and its potential as a regulatory neuropeptide in pregnancy...
May 8, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739865/2-chlorofatty-acids-lipid-mediators-of-neutrophil-extracellular-trap-formation
#7
Elisa N D Palladino, Lalage A Katunga, Grant R Kolar, David A Ford
Neutrophils form neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), which have been implicated in microcirculatory plugging. NET formation (NETosis) involves the fusion of granule and nuclear contents, which are then released in the extracellular space. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) plays a major role in NETosis leading to the dissociation of DNA from histones. During neutrophil activation, MPO is released and activated to convert hydrogen peroxide and chloride to hypochlorous acid (HOCl). HOCl targets plasmalogens leading to the production of the chlorinated lipids, 2-chlorofatty aldehyde (2-ClFALD) and 2-chlorofatty acid (2-ClFA)...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727465/biphasic-zinc-compartmentalisation-in-a-human-fungal-pathogen
#8
Aaron C Crawford, Laura E Lehtovirta-Morley, Omran Alamir, Maria J Niemiec, Bader Alawfi, Mohammad Alsarraf, Volha Skrahina, Anna C B P Costa, Andrew Anderson, Sujan Yellagunda, Elizabeth R Ballou, Bernhard Hube, Constantin F Urban, Duncan Wilson
Nutritional immunity describes the host-driven manipulation of essential micronutrients, including iron, zinc and manganese. To withstand nutritional immunity and proliferate within their hosts, pathogenic microbes must express efficient micronutrient uptake and homeostatic systems. Here we have elucidated the pathway of cellular zinc assimilation in the major human fungal pathogen Candida albicans. Bioinformatics analysis identified nine putative zinc transporters: four cytoplasmic-import Zip proteins (Zrt1, Zrt2, Zrt3 and orf19...
May 4, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720243/fc%C3%AE-receptor-mediated-influx-of-s100a8-a9-producing-neutrophils-as-inducer-of-bone-erosion-during-antigen-induced-arthritis
#9
Irene Di Ceglie, Giuliana Ascone, Niels A J Cremers, Annet W Sloetjes, Birgitte Walgreen, Thomas Vogl, Johannes Roth, J Sjef Verbeek, Fons A J van de Loo, Marije I Koenders, Peter M van der Kraan, Arjen B Blom, Martijn H J van den Bosch, Peter L E M van Lent
BACKGROUND: Osteoclast-mediated bone erosion is a central feature of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Immune complexes, present in a large percentage of patients, bind to Fcγ receptors (FcγRs), thereby modulating the activity of immune cells. In this study, we investigated the contribution of FcγRs, and FcγRIV in particular, during antigen-induced arthritis (AIA). METHODS: AIA was induced in knee joints of wild-type (WT), FcγRI,II,III-/- , and FcγRI,II,III,IV-/- mice...
May 2, 2018: Arthritis Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29712770/redd1-autophagy-pathway-is-associated-with-neutrophil-driven-il-1%C3%AE-inflammatory-response-in-active-ulcerative-colitis
#10
Iliana Angelidou, Akrivi Chrysanthopoulou, Alexandros Mitsios, Stella Arelaki, Athanasios Arampatzioglou, Konstantinos Kambas, Dimitrios Ritis, Victoria Tsironidou, Ioannis Moschos, Vasiliki Dalla, Dimitrios Stakos, Georgios Kouklakis, Ioannis Mitroulis, Konstantinos Ritis, Panagiotis Skendros
Infiltration of neutrophils into colonic mucosa has been associated with the severity of ulcerative colitis (UC). We investigated the effect of disease microenvironment on the release of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) as well as the involved mechanisms in NETosis and whether certain NET proteins are correlated with disease phenotype. Peripheral blood neutrophils, sera, and colonic tissue were collected from treatment-naive and mesalazine-treated patients with active UC, treatment-naive patients with active Crohn's disease, patients suffering from infectious colitis, or healthy individuals (controls)...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709950/an-autopsy-case-of-myeloperoxidase-anti-neutrophil-cytoplasmic-antibody-mpo-anca-associated-vasculitis-accompanied-by-cryoglobulinemic-vasculitis-affecting-the-kidneys-skin-and-gastrointestinal-tract
#11
Jumpei Hasegawa, Sachiko Wakai, Momoko Kono, Yusuke Imaizumi, Sakiko Masuda, Akihiro Ishizu, Kazuho Honda
Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) -associated vasculitis (AAV) and cryoglobulinemic vasculitis (CV) rarely coexist. An 83-year-old woman was admitted with rapidly progressive renal failure, gastrointestinal hemorrhage and purpura with myeloperoxidase (MPO) -ANCA positivity and cryoglobulinemia. Despite intensive immunosuppressive treatment, she died of aspergillus pneumonia. Autopsy revealed necrotizing crescentic glomerulitis in the majority of the glomeruli, accompanied by partially membranoproliferative-like glomerular changes...
April 27, 2018: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703474/platelets-nets-and-cancer
#12
Jessica Cedervall, Anahita Hamidi, Anna-Karin Olsson
In addition to the central role of platelets in hemostasis, they contribute to pathological conditions such as inflammation and tumor progression. Aberrant expression and/or exposure of pro-coagulant factors in the tumor microenvironment induce platelet activation and subsequent release of growth factors from platelet granules. Cancer patients are commonly affected by thrombotic events, as a result of tumor-induced platelet activation. A novel player potentially contributing to cancer-associated thrombosis is the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs)...
April 2018: Thrombosis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691453/author-correction-particles-of-different-sizes-and-shapes-induce-neutrophil-necroptosis-followed-by-the-release-of-neutrophil-extracellular-trap-like-chromatin
#13
Jyaysi Desai, Orestes Foresto-Neto, Mohsen Honarpisheh, Stefanie Steiger, Daigo Nakazawa, Bastian Popper, Eva Miriam Buhl, Peter Boor, Shrikant R Mulay, Hans-Joachim Anders
A correction to this article has been published and is linked from the HTML and PDF versions of this paper. The error has been fixed in the paper.
April 24, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686052/synthesis-of-human-neutrophil-extracellular-traps-contributes-to-angiopoietin-mediated-in-vitro-proinflammatory-and-proangiogenic-activities
#14
Simon S Lavoie, Elizabeth Dumas, Branka Vulesevic, Paul-Eduard Neagoe, Michel White, Martin G Sirois
Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are composed of nuclear DNA in a web-like structure extruded from neutrophils in response to either bacterial infection or inflammation. We previously reported the expression of angiopoietin Tie2 receptor on human neutrophils and the capacity of both angiopoietins (Ang1 and Ang2) to induce proinflammatory activities, such as synthesis and release of platelet-activating factor, upregulation of β2 integrin complex (CD11/CD18), and neutrophil chemotaxis. In contrast, only Ang1 but not Ang2 is capable of promoting translational and transcriptional activities in neutrophils...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685215/the-major-membrane-nuclease-mnua-degrades-neutrophil-extracellular-traps-induced-by-mycoplasma-bovis
#15
Filimon Mitiku, Carol A Hartley, Fiona M Sansom, Joanne E Coombe, Peter D Mansell, David S Beggs, Glenn F Browning
Mycoplasma bovis has been increasingly recognised worldwide as an economically important pathogen of cattle, causing a range of diseases, including pneumonia, mastitis, polyarthritis and otitis media. It is believed that M. bovis utilises a range of cell surface proteins, including nucleases, to evade the host immune response and survive. However, despite the importance of neutrophils in controlling pathogenic bacteria, the interaction between these cells and M. bovis is not well-characterised. In addition to phagocytosis, neutrophils combat pathogens through the release of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), which are composed of their nuclear and granular components, including DNA...
May 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682731/neutrophils-as-effectors-of-vascular-inflammation
#16
REVIEW
Diego Gómez-Moreno, José María Adrover, Andrés Hidalgo
Vascular inflammation underlies most forms of cardiovascular disease, which remains a prevalent cause of death among the global population. Advances in the biology of neutrophils, as well as insights into their dynamics in tissues, have revealed that these cells are prominent drivers of vascular inflammation though derailed activation within blood vessels. The development of powerful imaging techniques, as well as identification of cells and molecules that regulate their activation within vessels, including platelets and catecholamines, have been instrumental to better understand the mechanisms through which neutrophils protect or damage the organism...
April 23, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673593/augmented-neutrophil-extracellular-traps-formation-promotes-atherosclerosis-development-in-socially-defeated-apoe-mice
#17
Keita Yamamoto, Hiroyuki Yamada, Noriyuki Wakana, Masakazu Kikai, Kensuke Terada, Naotoshi Wada, Shinichiro Motoyama, Makoto Saburi, Takeshi Sugimoto, Daisuke Kami, Takehiro Ogata, Masakazu Ibi, Chihiro Yabe-Nishimura, Satoaki Matoba
Depression is an independent risk factor of cardiovascular disease (CVD); however, the causal association remains undefined. We exposed mice to repeated social defeat (RSD) to precipitate depressive-like behaviors, and investigated the effects on atherosclerosis. Eight-week-old male apoE-/- mice were exposed to RSD by housing with a larger CD-1 mouse in a shared home cage. They were subjected to vigorous physical contact daily for 10 consecutive days and fed a high-cholesterol diet (HCD) for 6 weeks. The social interaction ratio and immobility time showed dramatic social avoidance before and after HCD feeding...
June 2, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672788/neutrophil-extracellular-traps-participate-in-all-different-types-of-thrombotic-and-haemorrhagic-complications-of-coronary-atherosclerosis
#18
Kartika R Pertiwi, Allard C van der Wal, Dara R Pabittei, Claire Mackaaij, Marinus B van Leeuwen, Xiaofei Li, Onno J de Boer
Acute coronary syndromes can be initiated by either atherosclerotic fibrous cap ruptures, superficial plaque erosions or intraplaque haemorrhages (IPHs). Since neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) display pro-inflammatory and pro-thrombotic properties, we investigated the presence, extent and distribution of neutrophils and NETs in different types of plaque complications in relation to the age of overlying thrombus mass or haemorrhage. Sixty-four paraffin-embedded coronary plaque segments of 30 acute myocardial infarction patients were retrieved from the autopsy archives, which contained 44 complicated plaques (17 IPHs, 9 erosions and 18 ruptures) and 20 intact plaques...
April 19, 2018: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672589/neutrophil-killing-of-mycobacterium-abscessus-by-intra-and-extracellular-mechanisms
#19
Kenneth C Malcolm, Silvia M Caceres, Kerstin Pohl, Katie R Poch, Audrey Bernut, Laurent Kremer, Donna L Bratton, Jean-Louis Herrmann, Jerry A Nick
Mycobacterium abscessus, a rapidly growing nontuberculous mycobacterium, are increasingly present in soft tissue infections and chronic lung diseases, including cystic fibrosis, and infections are characterized by growth in neutrophil-rich environments. M. abscessus is observed as two distinct smooth and rough morphotypes. The environmental smooth morphotype initiates infection and has a relatively limited ability to activate neutrophils. The rough morphotype has increased virulence and immunogenicity. However, the neutrophil response to the rough morphotype has not been explored...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670633/extracellular-sphingomyelinase-rv0888-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-contributes-to-pathological-lung-injury-of-mycobacterium-smegmatis-in-mice-via-inducing-formation-of-neutrophil-extracellular-traps
#20
Guanghui Dang, Yingying Cui, Lei Wang, Tiantian Li, Ziyin Cui, Ningning Song, Liping Chen, Hai Pang, Siguo Liu
Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the causative agent of tuberculosis (TB), which mainly causes pulmonary injury and tubercles. Although macrophages are generally considered to harbor the main cells of M. tuberculosis , new evidence suggests that neutrophils are rapidly recruited to the infected lung. M. tuberculosis itself, or its early secreted antigenic target protein 6 (ESAT-6), can induce formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). However, NETs trap mycobacteria but are unable to kill them. The role of NETs' formation in the pathogenesis of mycobacteria remains unclear...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
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