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Mood disorders inflammation

Ennio Avolio, Gilda Fazzari, Maria Mele, Raffaella Alò, Merylin Zizza, Wei Jiao, Anna Di Vito, Tullio Barni, Maurizio Mandalà, Marcello Canonaco
The mechanisms by which inflammation affects the different emotional moods are only partially known. Previous works have pointed to stress hormones like glucocorticoids plus the vascular factor endothelin-1 as key factors evoking stressful states especially in relation to endothelial dysfunctions. With this work, it was our intention to establish the role of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine expression variations towards depression-like behaviors and consequently the development of neurodegeneration events caused by endothelial damages in the hamster (Mesocricetus auratus)...
October 11, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
Jin-Hee Park, Yong-Chul Kim
The P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) is a unique subtype among the family of seven purinergic P2X receptors, which are ATP-gated non-selective cation channels. P2X7R has been reported to have pathological roles in various diseases, including autoimmune diseases such as arthritis and inflammatory bowel disease, neurodegenerative diseases, chronic pain, mood disorders and cancers. Therefore, many pharmaceutical companies have endeavored to develop a clinical candidate targeting P2X7R. Areas covered: This review provides a summary of various patents on chemicals and biologics and their clinical use published between 2010 and 2015...
October 10, 2016: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Patents
Anindya Bhattacharya, Wayne C Drevets
Mood disorders are associated with persistently high rates of morbidity and mortality, despite the widespread availability of antidepressant treatments. One limitation to extant therapeutic options has been that nearly all approved antidepressant pharmacotherapies exert a similar primary action of blocking monoamine transporters, and few options exist for transitioning treatment resistant patients to alternatives with distinct mechanisms. An emerging area of science that promises novel pathways to antidepressant and mood-stabilizing therapies has followed from evidence that immunological factors play major roles in the pathophysiology of at least some mood disorder subtypes...
September 28, 2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
H Brochard, C Boudebesse, C Henry, O Godin, M Leboyer, B Étain
OBJECTIVE: To examine the pathophysiologic mechanisms that may link circadian disorder and metabolic syndrome in bipolar disorder (BP). METHOD: A systematic review of the literature was conducted from January 2013 to January 2015, using the Medline and Cochrane databases, using the keywords "metabolic syndrome", "obesity", "leptin" and "circadian disorders", "sleeping disorders" and cross-referencing them with "bipolar disorder". The following types of publications were candidates for review: (i) clinical trials; (ii) studies involving patients diagnosed with bipolar disorder; (iii) studies involving patients with sleeping disorder; or (iv) data about metabolic syndrome...
September 20, 2016: L'Encéphale
Sy-Jye Leu, Yi-Yuan Yang, Hsing-Cheng Liu, Chieh-Yu Cheng, Yu-Chen Wu, Ming-Chyi Huang, Yuen-Lun Lee, Chi-Ching Chen, Winston W Shen, Ko-Jiunn Liu
Valproic acid (VPA), with inhibition activity mainly towards histone deacetylase (HDAC) and Glycogen Synthase Kinase (GSK)-3, and lithium, with inhibition activity mainly toward GSK-3, are both prescribed in clinical as mood-stabilizers and anticonvulsants for the control of bipolar disorder. This study aims to compare the immuno-modulation activities of VPA and lithium, especially on the differentiation and functions of dendritic cells (DC). Our data show that treatment with VPA or lithium effectively alleviated the severity of collagen-induced arthritis triggered by LPS in mice...
September 17, 2016: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Jessay Gopuran Devassy, Shan Leng, Melissa Gabbs, Md Monirujjaman, Harold M Aukema
Alzheimer disease (AD) is becoming one of the most prevalent neurodegenerative conditions worldwide. Although the disease progression is becoming better understood, current medical interventions can only ameliorate some of the symptoms but cannot slow disease progression. Neuroinflammation plays an important role in the advancement of this disorder, and n-3 (ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are involved in both the reduction in and resolution of inflammation. These effects may be mediated by the anti-inflammatory and proresolving effects of bioactive lipid mediators (oxylipins) derived from n-3 PUFAs [eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)] in fish oil...
September 2016: Advances in Nutrition
Ebrahim Haroon, Andrew H Miller, Gerard Sanacora
Increasing data indicate that inflammation and alterations in glutamate neurotransmission are two novel pathways to pathophysiology in mood disorders. The primary goal of this review is to illustrate how these two pathways may converge at the level of the glia to contribute to neuropsychiatric disease. We propose that a combination of failed clearance and exaggerated release of glutamate by glial cells during immune activation leads to glutamate increases and promotes aberrant extrasynaptic signaling through ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptors, ultimately resulting in synaptic dysfunction and loss...
September 15, 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Maria Elizabeth de Sousa Rodrigues, Mandakh Bekhbat, Madelyn C Houser, Jianjun Chang, Douglas I Walker, Dean P Jones, Claudia M P Oller do Nascimento, Christopher J Barnum, Malú G Tansey
The mechanisms underlying the association between chronic psychological stress, development of metabolic syndrome (MetS), and behavioral impairment in obesity are poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of mild chronic psychological stress on metabolic, inflammatory, and behavioral profiles in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity. We hypothesized that (1) high-fat high-fructose diet (HFHF) and psychological stress would synergize to mediate the impact of inflammation on the central nervous system in the presence of behavioral dysfunction, and that (2) HFHF and stress interactions would impact insulin and lipid metabolism...
September 1, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Antonietta Gentile, Diego Fresegna, Alessandra Musella, Helena Sepman, Silvia Bullitta, Francesca De Vito, Roberta Fantozzi, Alessandro Usiello, Mauro Maccarrone, Nicola B Mercuri, Beat Lutz, Georgia Mandolesi, Diego Centonze
BACKGROUND: Mood disorders, including anxiety and depression, are frequently diagnosed in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients, even independently of the disabling symptoms associated with the disease. Anatomical, biochemical, and pharmacological evidence indicates that type-1 cannabinoid receptor (CB1R) is implicated in the control of emotional behavior and is modulated during inflammatory neurodegenerative diseases such as MS and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). METHODS: We investigated whether CB1R could exert a role in anxiety-like behavior in mice with EAE...
2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Neil A Harrison
Neuroimaging techniques are increasingly used to characterize the neural circuitry mediating actions of inflammation on mood, motivation, and cognition and its relationship to common mental illnesses, particularly major depressive disorder (MDD). In addition, imaging techniques such as single photon emission tomography (SPECT), positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) can index effects of inflammation on specific neurotransmitters, monoamine transporters, metabolites and even activation of discrete cells such as microglia...
November 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Eerika Flinkkilä, Anna Keski-Rahkonen, Mauri Marttunen, Anu Raevuori
BACKGROUND: The objective of this descriptive review is to summarize the current scientific evidence on the effect of prenatal exposure to maternal infection and immune response on the offspring's risk for mental disorders (schizophrenia spectrum disorders, autism spectrum disorders, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, anorexia nervosa, and mood disorders). SAMPLING AND METHODS: Studies were searched from PubMed and Ovid MEDLINE (R) databases with the following keywords: 'prenatal exposure delayed effects' and 'infection', and 'inflammation' and 'mental disorders'...
August 17, 2016: Psychopathology
Philippe Leff-Gelman, Ismael Mancilla-Herrera, Mónica Flores-Ramos, Carlos Cruz-Fuentes, Juan Pablo Reyes-Grajeda, María Del Pilar García-Cuétara, Marielle Danitza Bugnot-Pérez, David Ellioth Pulido-Ascencio
Major depression during pregnancy is a common psychiatric disorder that arises from a complex and multifactorial etiology. Psychosocial stress, sex, hormones, and genetic vulnerability increase the risk for triggering mood disorders. Microglia and toll-like receptor 4 play a crucial role in triggering wide and varied stress-induced responses mediated through activation of the inflammasome; this leads to the secretion of inflammatory cytokines, increased serotonin metabolism, and reduction of neurotransmitter availability along with hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis hyperactivity...
August 2016: Neuroscience Bulletin
Sonya M Balukova, Bartholomeus C M Haarman, Rixt F Riemersma-van der Lek, Robert A Schoevers
BACKGROUND: The association between inflammation and the course of mood disorders is receiving increased attention. This study aims to investigate whether a sub-group of patients with BD can be identified for which a higher CRP (C-reactive protein) level at baseline is associated with an unfavorable prognosis. METHODS: This is a historic cohort study using CRP at baseline, with 15-month follow-up of mood status and medication. Cross-sectional analyses include boxplots, one-way ANOVA, receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve and Chi square test, and the longitudinal analysis using multivariate Cox-regression...
December 2016: International Journal of Bipolar Disorders
Monika Fleshner, Matthew Frank, Steven F Maier
Major depressive disorder (MDD) and other mood disorders remain difficult to effectively treat, and innovative interventions and therapeutic targets are needed. Psychological stressors and inappropriate inflammation increase the risk and severity of mood disorders; however, only recently have the importance of sterile inflammatory processes in this effect been revealed. This review will introduce the reader to pathogen vs sterile inflammation, inflammatory receptor-ligand interactions, microbial-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs), pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), and the more recent discovery of the role of the inflammasome in peripheral and central nervous system cytokine/chemokine inflammatory responses...
August 10, 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Valerio Chiurchiù, Mauro Maccarrone
Lipids are not only constituents of cellular membranes but also key signaling mediators, thus acting as 'bioactive lipids'. Among the prominent roles exerted by bioactive lipids are immune regulation, inflammation and maintenance of homeostasis. Accumulated evidence indicates the existence of a bidirectional relationship between immune and nervous systems, whereby inflammatory mediators can directly modulate emotions that, in turn, can strongly influence immune responses, thus affecting health. This review summarizes current knowledge on the ability of several families of bioactive lipids to regulate immunity and inflammation (through pro-inflammatory or anti-inflammatory effects), as well as to control emotions and mood-related manifestations, advocating these substances as an attractive interface between 'mind' and 'body', and as a potential target to treat inflammatory/immune-mediated mood disorders...
August 2016: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
Neil A Harrison
Systemic inflammation rapidly impairs mood, motivation, and cognition inducing a stereotyped cluster of symptoms collectively known as "sickness behaviors." When inflammation is severe or chronic, these behavioral changes can appear indistinguishable from major depressive disorder (MDD). Human and rodent neuroimaging combined with experimental inflammatory challenges has clarified the neural circuitry associated with many of the key features of inflammation-induced-sickness behavior, and in so doing revealed often-remarkable commonalities with circuit abnormalities observed in MDD...
June 7, 2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
Rodrigo B Mansur, Graccielle R Cunha, Elson Asevedo, André Zugman, Lucas B Rizzo, Rodrigo Grassi-Oliveira, Mateus L Levandowski, Ary Gadelha, Pedro M Pan, Antônio L Teixeira, Roger S McIntyre, Jair J Mari, Luís A Rohde, Eurípedes C Miguel, Rodrigo A Bressan, Elisa Brietzke
There is consistent evidence that inflammation is involved in mental disorders pathogenesis. Herein, using data from the High Risk Cohort Study for Psychiatric Disorders, we investigated the relationship between parental mood disorders (PMD), environmental factors, serum interleukin-6 (IL6) and mental health problems in children aged 6-12. We measured the serum levels of IL6 in 567 children. Information related to socio-demographic characteristics, mental health problems and multiple risk factors, as well as parent's psychiatric diagnosis, was captured...
September 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
David J Miklowitz, Larissa C Portnoff, Casey C Armstrong, Danielle Keenan-Miller, Elizabeth C Breen, Keely A Muscatell, Naomi I Eisenberger, Michael R Irwin
UNLABELLED: Adults with bipolar disorder (BD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) have higher circulating levels of proinflammatory cytokines than healthy controls. However, it is not known whether pediatric-onset patients with BD or MDD show increases in levels of inflammation or activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), a key transcription factor in inflammatory signaling. Circulating levels of inflammatory cytokines, as well as spontaneous and stimulated levels of activated NF-κB in total peripheral blood mononuclear cells, monocytes and lymphocytes were measured in adolescents with BD (n=18), MDD (n=13), or no psychiatric history (n=20)...
July 30, 2016: Psychiatry Research
Jonathan Savitz
A proportion of depressed individuals show evidence of inflammation. Both animal, quasi-experimental, and longitudinal studies indicate that inflammatory processes may play a causal role in the developmental of depressive illness. While there may be multiple causal pathways through which inflammatory processes affect mood, activation of the kynurenine pathway is essential for the development of depression-like behavior in rodents. Studies of hepatitis C or cancer patients receiving treatment with inflammation-inducing medications show increased activation of the kynurenine pathway and decreased levels of tryptophan that correlate with inflammation-induced depression...
May 25, 2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
E J Meyer, M A Nenke, W Rankin, J G Lewis, D J Torpy
Corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG, transcortin) is the primary cortisol binding protein. It is a non-inhibitory serine protease inhibitor, capable of conformational change from a high cortisol-binding affinity form to a low affinity form upon cleavage of its reactive centre loop by various proteases, such as neutrophil elastase. The burgeoning inflammatory role of CBG applies to acute, severe inflammation where depletion is associated with mortality, and to chronic inflammation where defects in cortisol delivery may perpetuate inflammation...
June 2016: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
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