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brain dysfunction sepsis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606823/alpha-lipoic-acid-attenuates-acute-neuroinflammation-and-long-term-cognitive-impairment-after-polymicrobial-sepsis
#1
Amanda Della Giustina, Mariana Pereira Goldim, Lucinéia Gainski Danielski, Drielly Florentino, Khiany Mathias, Leandro Garbossa, Aloir Neri Oliveira Junior, Maria Eduarda Fileti, Graciela Freitas Zarbato, Naiana da Rosa, Ana Olívia Martins Laurentino, Jucélia Jeremias Fortunato, Francielle Mina, Tatiani Bellettini-Santos, Josiane Budni, Tatiana Barichello, Felipe Dal-Pizzol, Fabricia Petronilho
Sepsis is a complication of an infection which imbalance the normal regulation of several organ systems, including the central nervous system (CNS). Evidence points towards inflammation and oxidative stress as major steps associated with brain dysfunction in sepsis. Thus, we investigated the α-lipoic acid (ALA) effect as an important antioxidant compound on brain dysfunction in rats. Wistar rats were subjected to sepsis by cecal ligation and perforation (CLP) or sham (control) and treated orally with ALA (200 mg/kg after CLP) or vehicle...
June 10, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601977/neuroglobin-protects-rats-from-sepsis-associated-encephalopathy-via-a-pi3k-akt-bax-dependent-mechanism
#2
Songyun Deng, Yuhang Ai, Hua Gong, Caixia Chen, Qianyi Peng, Li Huang, Long Wu, Lemeng Zhang, Lina Zhang
Sepsis-associated encephalopathy (SAE) is a common complication of sepsis, and has no generally accepted treatment due to its complicated pathophysiology. Previously, we demonstrated the protective role of neuroglobin (Ngb) in SAE rats, but the exact mechanism has not been determined. To investigate the potential neuroprotective roles and mechanisms of Ngb, Sprague-Dawley rats were used. Overexpression of Ngb via intracerebroventricular injection with Ngb plasmids attenuated brain damage assessed by hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining and neurological dysfunction assessed by Morris water maze test...
June 10, 2017: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567497/experimental-sepsis-severity-score-associated-to-mortality-and-bacterial-spreading-is-related-to-bacterial-load-and-inflammatory-profile-of-different-tissues
#3
Muryel Carvalho Gonçalves, Verônica Vargas Horewicz, Débora Denardin Lückemeyer, Arthur Silveira Prudente, Jamil Assreuy
Pneumonia-induced sepsis is responsible for about 50% of cases in the world. Patients who develop severe sepsis and septic shock present organ dysfunction and elevated plasma cytokine levels, which may lead to death. Clinical scores are important to evaluate the framework of septic patients and are used to predict the syndrome progress, prognostics, and mortality. The objective of the present study was to verify the applicability of a murine clinical score system to experimental sepsis (pneumonia-induced sepsis in male mice) and to correlate it with mortality and bacterial dissemination in different organs...
May 31, 2017: Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520696/an-ovine-model-of-hyperdynamic-endotoxemia-and-vital-organ-metabolism
#4
Liam Byrne, Nchafatso G Obonyo, Sara Diab, Kimble Dunster, Margaret Passmore, Ai Ching Boon, Louise See Hoe, Karen Hay, Frank Van Haren, John-Paul Tung, Louise Cullen, Kiran Shekar, Kathryn Maitland, John F Fraser
BACKGROUND: Animal models of endotoxemia are frequently used to understand the pathophysiology of sepsis and test new therapies. However, important differences exist between commonly used experimental models of endotoxemia and clinical sepsis. Animal models of endotoxemia frequently produce hypodynamic shock in contrast to clinical hyperdynamic shock. This difference may exaggerate the importance of hypoperfusion as a causative factor in organ dysfunction. This study sought to develop an ovine model of hyperdynamic endotoxemia and assess if there is evidence of impaired oxidative metabolism in the vital organs...
May 17, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520632/disruption-of-brain-heart-coupling-in-sepsis
#5
Marjolein M Admiraal, Emily J Gilmore, Michel J A M Van Putten, Hitten P Zaveri, Lawrence J Hirsch, Nicolas Gaspard
PURPOSE: To investigate heart rate and EEG variability and their coupling in patients with sepsis and determine their relationship to sepsis severity and severity of sepsis-associated brain dysfunction. METHODS: Fifty-two patients with sepsis were prospectively identified, categorized as comatose (N = 30) and noncomatose (N = 22), and compared with 11 control subjects. In a 30-minute EEG and electrocardiogram recording, heart rate variability and EEG variability (measured by the variability of relative power in a modified alpha band = RAP) and their coupled oscillations were quantified using linear (least-square periodogram and magnitude square coherence) and nonlinear (Shannon entropy and mutual information) measures...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459729/trends-and-outcomes-of-early-versus-late-percutaneous-endoscopic-gastrostomy-placement-in-patients-with-traumatic-brain-injury-nationwide-population-based-study
#6
Rabail Chaudhry, Naveen Kukreja, Alex Tse, Greesha Pednekar, Anas Mouchli, Linda Young, Oksana Didyuk, Robert C Wegner, Navneet Grewal, George W Williams
BACKGROUND: Oral intake for traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients is often not an option because of facial trauma, swallowing dysfunctions, altered consciousness, etc. These patients often require percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) placement for nutrition support. To date, there is lack of studies examining the relationship between the timing of PEG placement and patient outcome in the TBI group. METHODS: We conducted a population-based study in a retrospective cohort of TBI patients undergoing PEG, using the national inpatient sample for years 2011 to 2013...
April 28, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286656/are-you-ernest-shackleton-the-polar-explorer-refining-the-criteria-for-delirium-and-brain-dysfunction-in-sepsis
#7
EDITORIAL
Frank Anthony Rasulo, Giuseppe Bellelli, Eugene Wesley Ely, Alessandro Morandi, Pratik Pandharipande, Nicola Latronico
The Third International Consensus Definitions for Sepsis and Septic Shock has recently defined sepsis as a life-threatening organ dysfunction caused by a dysregulated host response to infection. Organ dysfunctions in this consensus definition were identified as an organ-specific Sequential [Sepsis-related] Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score ≥ 2 points. The quick SOFA (qSOFA) considers altered mentation indicating brain dysfunction when the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score is ≤13 or ≤14. However, concern has been expressed that the revised criteria may lead to a failure in recognizing the signs of potentially lethal organ dysfunction and thus sepsis...
2017: Journal of Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284339/inhibition-of-indoleamine-2-3-dioxygenase-1-2-prevented-cognitive-impairment-and-energetic-metabolism-changes-in-the-hippocampus-of-adult-rats-subjected-to-polymicrobial-sepsis
#8
Clarissa M Comim, Viviane Freiberger, Letícia Ventura, Francielle Mina, Gabriela K Ferreira, Monique Michels, Jaqueline S Generoso, Emílio L Streck, João Quevedo, Tatiana Barichello, Felipe Dal-Pizzol
Sepsis is a life-threatening organ dysfunction caused by a dysregulated host response to infection that may affect the brain. We investigated the role of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO-1/2) inhibition on long-term memory and energetic metabolism after experimental sepsis by caecal ligation and perforation (CLP). Experimental sepsis increased the activity of complexes I, II-III and IV at 24h after CLP, and IDO-1/2 inhibition normalized the activity of these complexes in the hippocampus. Wistar rats presented impairment of habituation and aversive memories 10days after CLP...
April 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28252537/daily-lowest-hemoglobin-and-risk-of-organ-dysfunctions-in-critically-ill-patients
#9
Sarah J Hemauer, Adam J Kingeter, Xue Han, Matthew S Shotwell, Pratik P Pandharipande, Liza M Weavind
OBJECTIVES: To determine the association between hemoglobin levels and the daily risk of individual organ dysfunctions in critically ill patients. DESIGN: Post hoc analysis of prospectively collected data. SETTING: Vanderbilt University Medical Center and Saint Thomas Hospital Medical and Surgical ICUs. PATIENTS: Medical and surgical ICU patients admitted with respiratory failure or shock. INTERVENTIONS: Baseline demographic data, and detailed in-ICU and hospital data, including daily lowest hemoglobin, were collected up to hospital day 30...
May 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28246487/harmful-effects-of-hyperoxia-in-postcardiac-arrest-sepsis-traumatic-brain-injury-or-stroke-the-importance-of-individualized-oxygen-therapy-in-critically-ill-patients
#10
REVIEW
Jean-Louis Vincent, Fabio Silvio Taccone, Xinrong He
The beneficial effects of oxygen are widely known, but the potentially harmful effects of high oxygenation concentrations in blood and tissues have been less widely discussed. Providing supplementary oxygen can increase oxygen delivery in hypoxaemic patients, thus supporting cell function and metabolism and limiting organ dysfunction, but, in patients who are not hypoxaemic, supplemental oxygen will increase oxygen concentrations into nonphysiological hyperoxaemic ranges and may be associated with harmful effects...
2017: Canadian Respiratory Journal: Journal of the Canadian Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173746/neurodegenerative-changes-and-neuroapoptosis-induced-by-systemic-lipopolysaccharide-administration-are-reversed-by-dexmedetomidine-treatment-in-mice
#11
Qiaoqing Ning, Zhaoguo Liu, Xiuhua Wang, Ruyi Zhang, Jing Zhang, Meizi Yang, Hongliu Sun, Fang Han, Wenxiang Zhao, Xiuli Zhang
BACKGROUND: Sepsis-associated encephalopathy (SAE) is a frequent and nasty complication of sepsis, associated with patients increased risk of death and long-term brain dysfunctions. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to explore the effect of dexmedetomidine (Dex), an anesthetic adjuvant, on the development of SAE. METHODS: Lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 10 mg/kg) was intraperitoneally injected to male BALB/c mice to induce sepsis. Dex (25 μg/kg) was given intraperitoneally immediately after LPS injection...
April 2017: Neurological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158885/breaking-bad-delirium-methamphetamine-and-boric-acid-toxicity-with-hallucinations-and-pseudosepsis
#12
Kayla Johnson, Joanna L Stollings, E Wesley Ely
OBJECTIVES: A 30-year-old patient presented with hallucinations and profound shock. He was initially misdiagnosed as having severe sepsis; once ingestions were considered, he was diagnosed as potentially having arsenic toxicity. SUMMARY: The clinical story reveals many instructional lessons that could aid in the evaluation and management of future patients. This man presented with large amounts of blue crystals around his nose and lips from inhaling and eating boric acid (an ant poison) so he could, as he put it, kill the ants "pouring into my mouth and nose and up into my brain...
February 2017: Southern Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28156052/melatonin-alleviates-lipopolysaccharide-compromised-integrity-of-blood-brain-barrier-through-activating-amp-activated-protein-kinase-in-old-mice
#13
Xiaona Wang, Gai-Xiu Xue, Wen-Cao Liu, Hui Shu, Mengwei Wang, Yanyun Sun, Xiaojing Liu, Yi Eve Sun, Chun-Feng Liu, Jie Liu, Wenlan Liu, Xinchun Jin
Blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction is considered to be an early event in the pathogenesis of a variety of neurological diseases in old patients, and this could occur in old people even when facing common stress. However, the mechanism remains to be defined. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that decreased melatonin levels may account for the BBB disruption in old mice challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which mimicked the common stress of sepsis. Mice (24-28 months of age) received melatonin (10 mg kg(-1)  day(-1) , intraperitoneally, i...
April 2017: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126368/circulating-bacterial-lipopolysaccharide-induced-inflammation-reduces-flow-in-brain-irrigating-arteries-independently-from-cerebrovascular-prostaglandin-production
#14
Frédéric Villéga, Jean-Christophe Delpech, Marion Griton, Caroline André, Jean-Michel Franconi, Sylvain Miraux, Jan Pieter Konsman
Brain dysfunction is a frequent complication of the systemic inflammatory response to bacterial infection or sepsis. In the present work, the effects of intravenous bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration on cerebral arterial blood flow were assessed with time-of-flight (TOF)-based magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) in mice. Cerebral expression of the transcription factors nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) and c-Fos and that of enzymes synthesizing vasoactive mediators, such as prostaglandins and nitric oxide, known to be increased under inflammatory conditions, were studied in the same animals...
January 23, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087076/polarization-of-microglia-and-its-role-in-bacterial-sepsis
#15
REVIEW
Monique Michels, Beatriz Sonai, Felipe Dal-Pizzol
Microglial polarization in response to brain inflammatory conditions is a crescent field in neuroscience. However, the effect of systemic inflammation, and specifically sepsis, is a relatively unexplored field that has great interest and relevance. Sepsis has been associated with both early and late harmful events of the central nervous system, suggesting that there is a close link between sepsis and neuroinflammation. During sepsis evolution it is supposed that microglial could exert both neurotoxic and repairing effects depending on the specific microglial phenotype assumed...
January 3, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064018/alterations-in-nitric-oxide-homeostasis-during-traumatic-brain-injury
#16
REVIEW
Andrey V Kozlov, Soheyl Bahrami, Heinz Redl, Csaba Szabo
Changes in nitric oxide (NO) levels have been often associated with various forms of trauma, including secondary damage after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Several studies demonstrate the upregulation of NO synthase (NOS) enzymes, and concomitant increases in brain NO levels, which contribute to the TBI-associated glutamate cytotoxicity, including the pathogenesis of mitochondrial dysfunction. TBI is also associated with elevated NO levels in remote organs, indicating that TBI can induce systemic changes in NO regulation, which can be either beneficial or detrimental...
January 4, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060200/early-fever-as-a-predictor-of-paroxysmal-sympathetic-hyperactivity-in-traumatic-brain-injury
#17
Holly E Hinson, Martin A Schreiber, Amber L Laurie, Ian J Baguley, Dennis Bourdette, Geoffrey S F Ling
OBJECTIVE: Paroxysmal sympathetic hyperactivity (PSH) is characterized by episodic, hyperadrenergic alterations in vital signs after traumatic brain injury (TBI). We sought to apply an objective scale to the vital sign alterations of PSH in order to determine whether 1 element might be predictive of developing PSH. SETTING/PARTICIPANTS/DESIGN: We conducted an observational study of consecutive TBI patients (Glasgow Coma Scale score ≤12) and monitored the cohort for clinical evidence of PSH...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058672/neuroprotective-effects-of-intravenous-immunoglobulin-are-mediated-through-inhibition-of-complement-activation-and-apoptosis-in-a-rat-model-of-sepsis
#18
Figen Esen, Gunseli Orhun, Perihan Ergin Ozcan, Evren Senturk, Melike Kucukerden, Murat Giris, Ugur Akcan, Canan Ugur Yilmaz, Nurcan Orhan, Nadir Arican, Mehmet Kaya, Sema Bilgic Gazioglu, Erdem Tuzun
BACKGROUND: Intravenous (IV) immunoglobulin (Ig) treatment is known to alleviate behavioral deficits and increase survival in the experimentally induced model of sepsis. To delineate the mechanisms by which IVIg treatment prevents neuronal dysfunction, an array of immunological and apoptosis markers was investigated. METHODS: Sepsis was induced by cecal ligation perforation (CLP) in rats. The animals were divided into five groups: sham, control, CLP + saline, CLP + immunoglobulin G (IgG) (250 mg/kg, iv), and CLP + immunoglobulins enriched with immunoglobulin M (IgGAM) (250 mg/kg, iv)...
December 2017: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888550/concise-review-mesenchymal-stem-stromal-cells-biology-and-preclinical-evidence-for-therapeutic-potential-for-organ-dysfunction-following-trauma-or-sepsis
#19
Michael A Matthay, Shibani Pati, Jae-Woo Lee
Several experimental studies have provided evidence that bone-marrow derived mesenchymal stem (stromal) cells (MSC) may be effective in treating critically ill surgical patients who develop traumatic brain injury, acute renal failure, or the acute respiratory distress syndrome. There is also preclinical evidence that MSC may be effective in treating sepsis-induced organ failure, including evidence that MSC have antimicrobial properties. This review considers preclinical studies with direct relevance to organ failure following trauma, sepsis or major infections that apply to critically ill patients...
February 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885885/septic-encephalopathy-and-septic-encephalitis%C3%A2-%C3%A2
#20
Simone C Tauber, Helmut Eiffert, Wolfgang Brück, Roland Nau
During the last two decades, septic encephalopathy (SE) was recognized as a clinically relevant problem with a high prevalence in patients at admission and during their hospital stay. SE is a condition associated with increased mortality and morbidity such as long-term cognitive impairment. Areas covered: This review illustrates the pathophysiology of sepsis-associated encephalopathy and encephalitis involving blood-brain-barrier dysfunction and neuroinflammation caused by endothelial and microglial activation by endogenous or pathogen-derived compounds, hypoxia by impaired microvascular regulation and septic shock as well as imbalance of neurotransmitters...
February 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
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