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brain dysfunction sepsis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762396/bad-brains-bad-outcomes-acute-neurologic-dysfunction-and-late-death-after-sepsis
#1
Matthew K Hensley, Hallie C Prescott
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720578/targeting-inflammatory-monocytes-in-sepsis-associated-encephalopathy-and-long-term-cognitive-impairment
#2
Graciela Andonegui, Erin L Zelinski, Courtney L Schubert, Derrice Knight, Laura A Craig, Brent W Winston, Simon C Spanswick, Björn Petri, Craig N Jenne, Janice C Sutherland, Rita Nguyen, Natalie Jayawardena, Margaret M Kelly, Christopher J Doig, Robert J Sutherland, Paul Kubes
Sepsis-associated encephalopathy manifesting as delirium is a common problem in critical care medicine. In this study, patients that had delirium due to sepsis had significant cognitive impairments at 12-18 months after hospital discharge when compared with controls and Cambridge Neuropsychological Automated Test Battery-standardized scores in spatial recognition memory, pattern recognition memory, and delayed-matching-to-sample tests but not other cognitive functions. A mouse model of S. pneumoniae pneumonia-induced sepsis, which modeled numerous aspects of the human sepsis-associated multiorgan dysfunction, including encephalopathy, also revealed similar deficits in spatial memory but not new task learning...
May 3, 2018: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713994/dimethyl-fumarate-limits-neuroinflammation-and-oxidative-stress-and-improves-cognitive-impairment-after-polymicrobial-sepsis
#3
Graciela Freitas Zarbato, Mariana Pereira de Souza Goldim, Amanda Della Giustina, Lucinéia Gainski Danielski, Khiany Mathias, Drielly Florentino, Aloir Neri de Oliveira Junior, Naiana da Rosa, Ana Olivia Laurentino, Taina Trombetta, Maria Luiza Gomes, Amanda Valnier Steckert, Ana Paula Moreira, Patricia Fernanda Schuck, Jucelia Jeremias Fortunato, Tatiana Barichello, Fabricia Petronilho
Sepsis is caused by a dysregulated host response to infection, often associated with acute central nervous system (CNS) dysfunction, which results in long-term cognitive impairment. Dimethyl fumarate (DMF) is an important agent against inflammatory response and reactive species in CNS disorders. Evaluate the effect of DMF on acute and long-term brain dysfunction after experimental sepsis in rats. Male Wistar rats were submitted to the cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) model. The groups were divided into sham (control) + vehicle, sham + NAC, sham + DMF, CLP + vehicle, CLP + NAC, and CLP + DMF...
April 30, 2018: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687346/long-term-cognitive-outcomes-after-sepsis-a-translational-systematic-review
#4
REVIEW
Tatiana Barichello, Pavani Sayana, Vijayasree V Giridharan, Anithachristy S Arumanayagam, Boomadevi Narendran, Amanda Della Giustina, Fabricia Petronilho, João Quevedo, Felipe Dal-Pizzol
Sepsis is systemic inflammatory response syndrome with a life-threatening organ dysfunction that is caused by an unbalanced host immune response in an attempt to eliminate invasive microorganisms. We posed questions, "Does sepsis survivor patients have increased risk of neuropsychiatric manifestations?" and "What is the mechanism by which sepsis induces long-term neurological sequelae, particularly substantial cognitive function decline in survivor patients and in pre-clinical sepsis models?" The studies were identified by searching PubMed/MEDLINE (National Library of Medicine), PsycINFO, EMBASE (Ovid), LILACS (Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature), IBECS (Bibliographical Index in Spanish in Health Sciences), and Web of Science databases for peer-reviewed journals that were published until January 2018...
April 23, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643636/atypical-presentation-of-posterior-reversible-encephalopathy-syndrome-two-cases
#5
Nishant Kumar, Ranju Singh, Neha Sharma, Aruna Jain
Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a clinico-neuroradiological entity, first described in 1996. It is commonly associated with systemic hypertension, intake of immunosuppressant drugs, sepsis and eclampsia and preeclampsia. Headache, alteration in consciousness, visual disturbances and seizures are common manifestations of PRES. Signs of pyramidal tract involvement and motor dysfunction are uncommon clinical findings. However, clinical presentation is not diagnostic. On neuroimaging, lesions are characteristically found in parieto occipital region of the brain due to vasogenic edema...
January 2018: Journal of Anaesthesiology, Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621117/cerebral-multimodal-monitoring-in-sepsis-an-experimental-study
#6
Pedro Kurtz, Joana C d'Avila, Darwin Prado, Caroline Madeira, Charles Vargas-Lopes, Rogerio Panizzutti, Luciano Cesar Pontes Azevedo, Fernando A Bozza
Acute brain dysfunction is a complication of sepsis and its pathophysiology remains poorly understood. We studied the brain metabolism in a resuscitated animal model of sepsis. Twelve anesthetized, mechanically ventilated and invasively monitored pigs were allocated to a sham procedure (N = 5) or sepsis (N = 7). Sepsis was induced through fecal inoculation in the peritoneum. Fluid resuscitation was maintained during the entire study period. Animals were observed until spontaneous death or for a maximum of 24 hours...
April 4, 2018: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620245/hippocampal-%C3%AE-2%C3%A2-microglobulin-mediates-sepsis%C3%A2-induced-cognitive-impairment
#7
Rong Gao, Guomin Li, Runhua Yang, Hongmei Yuan, Shaogang Zhang
Acute brain dysfunction is a frequent complication in sepsis patients and is associated with long‑term neurocognitive consequences and increased mortality, yet the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Emerging evidence has suggested that β2‑microglobulin [a component of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules] is involved in cognitive dysfunction in various neurological diseases. Therefore, the present study tested the hypothesis that β2‑microglobulin in the brain also mediates sepsis‑induced cognitive impairment...
April 5, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29595686/risk-factors-and-outcomes-of-sepsis-induced-myocardial-dysfunction-and-stress-induced-cardiomyopathy-in-sepsis-or-septic-shock-a-comparative-retrospective-study
#8
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Han Saem Jeong, Tae Hyub Lee, Cho Hee Bang, Jong-Ho Kim, Soon Jun Hong
While both sepsis-induced myocardial dysfunction (SIMD) and stress-induced cardiomyopathy (SICMP) are common in patients with sepsis, the pathogenesis of the 2 diseases is different, and they require different treatment strategies. Thus, we aimed to investigate risk factors and outcomes between the 2 diseases.This retrospective study enrolled patients diagnosed with sepsis or septic shock, admitted to intensive care unit via emergency department in Korea University Anam Hospital, and who underwent transthoracic echocardiography within the first 24 hours of admission...
March 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29563178/s100a8-a9-drives-neuroinflammatory-priming-and-protects-against-anxiety-like-behavior-after-sepsis
#9
Scott J Denstaedt, Joanna L Spencer-Segal, Michael W Newstead, Klaudia Laborc, Anne P Zhao, Alexander Hjelmaas, Xianying Zeng, Huda Akil, Theodore J Standiford, Benjamin H Singer
Sepsis commonly results in acute and chronic brain dysfunction, which dramatically increases the morbidity associated with this common disease. Chronic brain dysfunction in animal models of sepsis survival is linked to persistent neuroinflammation and expression of multiple cytokines. However, we have found previously that microglia predominantly upregulate the damage associated molecule S100A8/A9 after sepsis. In this article, we show that S100A8/A9 is increased in the brains of patients who died of sepsis and that S100A8 is expressed in astrocytes and myeloid cells...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29508705/clinical-phenotypes-of-delirium-during-critical-illness-and-severity-of-subsequent-long-term-cognitive-impairment-a-prospective-cohort-study
#10
Timothy D Girard, Jennifer L Thompson, Pratik P Pandharipande, Nathan E Brummel, James C Jackson, Mayur B Patel, Christopher G Hughes, Rameela Chandrasekhar, Brenda T Pun, Leanne M Boehm, Mark R Elstad, Richard B Goodman, Gordon R Bernard, Robert S Dittus, E W Ely
BACKGROUND: Delirium during critical illness results from numerous insults, which might be interconnected and yet individually contribute to long-term cognitive impairment. We sought to describe the prevalence and duration of clinical phenotypes of delirium (ie, phenotypes defined by clinical risk factors) and to understand associations between these clinical phenotypes and severity of subsequent long-term cognitive impairment. METHODS: In this multicentre, prospective cohort study, we included adult (≥18 years) medical or surgical ICU patients with respiratory failure, shock, or both as part of two parallel studies: the Bringing to Light the Risk Factors and Incidence of Neuropsychological Dysfunction in ICU Survivors (BRAIN-ICU) study, and the Delirium and Dementia in Veterans Surviving ICU Care (MIND-ICU) study...
March 2018: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29502203/amantadine-attenuates-sepsis-induced-cognitive-dysfunction-possibly-not-through-inhibiting-toll-like-receptor-2
#11
Wei Xing, Pinjie Huang, Yang Lu, Weian Zeng, Zhiyi Zuo
Amantadine has been shown to reduce anesthesia and surgery-induced neuroinflammation and cognitive dysfunction. It is known that sepsis can impair brain function. We determined whether amantadine-attenuated sepsis-induced neuroinflammation and dysfunction of learning and memory and whether toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a role in the effects. Six- to eight-week-old mice were subjected to cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). Amantadine at 30 mg/kg/day was injected intraperitoneally for 3 days. CU-CPT22, a TLR1/TLR2 inhibitor, at 3 mg/kg/day was injected intraperitoneally for 2 days...
May 2018: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29500815/role-of-g-protein-coupled-receptor-kinase-2-in-oxidative-and-nitrosative-stress-related-neurohistopathological-changes-in-a-mouse-model-of-sepsis-associated-encephalopathy
#12
Masaaki Kawakami, Mizuki Hattori, Wakana Ohashi, Toshio Fujimori, Kohshi Hattori, Mariko Takebe, Kengo Tomita, Hiroki Yokoo, Naoyuki Matsuda, Mitsuaki Yamazaki, Yuichi Hattori
Sepsis-associated encephalopathy (SAE), characterized as diffuse brain dysfunction and neurological manifestations secondary to sepsis, is a common complication in critically ill patients and can give rise to poor outcome, but understanding the molecular basis of this disorder remains a major challenge. Given the emerging role of G protein-coupled receptor 2 (GRK2), first identified as a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) regulator, in the regulation of non-G protein-coupled receptor-related molecules contributing to diverse cellular functions and pathology, including inflammation, we tested the hypothesis that GRK2 may be linked to the neuropathogenesis of SAE...
March 3, 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449936/function-of-aquaporins-in-sepsis-a-systematic-review
#13
REVIEW
Katharina Rump, Michael Adamzik
Background: Sepsis is a common cause of death in intensive care units worldwide. Due to the high complexity of this immunological syndrome development of novel therapeutic strategies is urgent. Promising drug targets or biomarkers may depict aquaporins (AQPs) as they regulate crucial key mechanisms of sepsis. Main body: Here we report on base of the current literature that several AQPs are involved in different physiological processes of sepsis. In immune system mainly AQPs 3, 5 and 9 seem to be important, as they regulate the migration of different immune cells...
2018: Cell & Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428597/possible-involvement-of-tetrahydrobiopterin-in-the-disturbance-of-redox-homeostasis-in-sepsis-induced-brain-dysfunction
#14
Maha Gamal, Jackline Moawad, Laila Rashed, Mary Attia Morcos, Nivin Sharawy
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4 ) is an essential co-factor that regulates nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by nitric oxide synthases (NOS). In this study, we evaluated the effects of sepsis on BH4 level and redox status in the brain by using the rat model of sepsis-induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) and examined whether BH4 and/or acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC) could prevent the neuronal apoptosis and neurological changes induced by sepsis...
April 15, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417380/assessing-long-term-neuroinflammatory-responses-to-encephalopathy-using-mri-approaches-in-a-rat-endotoxemia-model
#15
Rheal A Towner, D Saunders, N Smith, W Towler, M Cruz, S Do, J E Maher, K Whitaker, M Lerner, K A Morton
Sepsis-associated encephalopathy (SAE) induces neuroinflammation, which is associated with cognitive impairment (CI). CI is also correlated with aging. We used contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), perfusion MRI, and MR spectroscopy to assess long-term alterations in BBB permeability, microvascularity, and metabolism, respectively, in a rat lipopolysaccharide-induced SAE model. Free radical-targeted molecular MRI was used to detect brain radical levels at 24 h and 1 week post-LPS injection. CE-MRI showed increased Gd-DTPA uptake in LPS rat brains at 24 h in cerebral cortex, hippocampus, thalamus, and perirhinal cortex regions...
February 2018: GeroScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29399541/cholinergic-anti-inflammatory-pathway-and-the-liver
#16
REVIEW
Khalil Hajiasgharzadeh, Behzad Baradaran
The hepatic vagus branches innervate the liver and serve an important role in liver-brain connection. It appears that brain modulates inflammatory responses by activation of vagal efferent fibers. This activation and subsequent acetylcholine releases from vagus nerve terminals leads to inhibition of inflammatory cytokines through α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α7nAChRs) which located on the surface of different cell types such as liver Kupffer cells. This protective role of vagus-α7nAChR axis in liver diseases has been shown in several experimental studies...
December 2017: Advanced Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327516/cardiac-biomarkers-and-myocardial-dysfunction-in-septicemia
#17
Deep Chandh Raja, Sanjay Mehrotra, Avinash Agrawal, Abhishek Singh, Kamlesh Kumar Sawlani
Objectives: Cardiac biomarkers have been studied in sepsis in the past and various mechanisms for their rise have been elucidated. However their association with severity of sepsis, mortality and myocardial dysfunction warrants further studies. We have studied three different cardiac biomarkers- troponin T (trop T), creatine phosphokinase MB isoform (CPK MB) and NT pro brain natriuretic peptide (NT Pro BNP) in patients with septicemia. We have attempted to observe the levels of these biomarkers in sepsis, their individual abilities to predict the severity of sepsis, mortality and association with myocardial dysfunction noted in echocardiography...
December 2017: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318345/accidental-hypothermia-as-an-independent-risk-factor-of-poor-neurological-outcome-in-older-multiply-injured-patients-with-severe-traumatic-brain-injury-a-matched-pair-analysis
#18
M Winkelmann, W Soechtig, C Macke, C Schroeter, J D Clausen, C Zeckey, C Krettek, P Mommsen
PURPOSE: Patients with multiple injuries are particularly susceptible to accidental hypothermia which is correlated with an increased risk of post-traumatic complications and mortality; however, its impact on neurological outcome in cases where there is concomitant traumatic brain injury is underexplored. METHODS: We analyzed severely injured patients (ISS ≥ 16) including a moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury (AISHead  ≥ 3). The primary endpoint was objective neurological recovery, expressed as Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) score at time of discharge...
January 9, 2018: European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery: Official Publication of the European Trauma Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232196/mechanisms-of-action-of-intravenous-immunoglobulin-in-septic-encephalopathy
#19
Figen Esen, Perihan Ergin Ozcan, Erdem Tuzun, M Dustin Boone
Acute brain dysfunction associated with sepsis is a serious complication that results in morbidity and mortality. Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) treatment is known to alleviate behavioral deficits in the experimentally induced model of sepsis. To delineate the mechanisms by which IVIg treatment prevents neuronal dysfunction, an array of immunological and apoptosis markers was investigated. Our results suggest that IVIgG and IgGAM administration ameliorates neuronal dysfunction and behavioral deficits by reducing apoptotic cell death and glial cell proliferation...
December 12, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232157/bacterial-dissemination-to-the-brain-in-sepsis
#20
Benjamin H Singer, Robert P Dickson, Scott J Denstaedt, Michael W Newstead, Kwi Kim, Nicole R Falkowski, John R Erb-Downward, Thomas M Schmidt, Gary B Huffnagle, Theodore J Standiford
RATIONALE: Sepsis causes brain dysfunction and neuroinflammation. It is unknown whether neuroinflammation in sepsis is initiated by dissemination of bacteria to the brain and sustained by persistent infection, or whether neuroinflammation is a sterile process resulting solely from circulating inflammatory mediators. OBJECTIVES: To determine if gut bacteria translocate to the brain during sepsis, and are associated with neuroinflammation. METHODS: Murine sepsis was induced using cecal ligation and puncture, and sepsis survivor mice were compared with sham and unoperated control animals...
March 15, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
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