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Somatosensory temporal discrimination

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315951/four-way-multimodal-fusion-of-7%C3%A2-t-imaging-data-using-an-mcca-jica-model-in-first-episode-schizophrenia
#1
Kristin K Lottman, David M White, Nina V Kraguljac, Meredith A Reid, Vince D Calhoun, Fabio Catao, Adrienne C Lahti
Acquisition of multimodal brain imaging data for the same subject has become more common leading to a growing interest in determining the intermodal relationships between imaging modalities to further elucidate the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Multimodal data have previously been individually analyzed and subsequently integrated; however, these analysis techniques lack the ability to examine true modality inter-relationships. The utilization of a multiset canonical correlation and joint independent component analysis (mCCA + jICA) model for data fusion allows shared or distinct abnormalities between modalities to be examined...
January 9, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311009/cortical-inhibitory-function-in-cervical-dystonia
#2
Christos Ganos, Elisa R Ferrè, Angela Marotta, Panagiotis Kassavetis, John Rothwell, Kailash P Bhatia, Patrick Haggard
OBJECTIVE: To assess the specificity of cortical inhibitory deficits in cervical dystonia patients. METHODS: A systematic test battery was developed to assess spatial and temporal aspects of cortical inhibition, in motor and somatosensory systems of the hand. We tested 17 cervical dystonia (CD) patients and 19 controls assessing somatosensory spatial inhibition (grating orientation test, interdigital feedforward subliminal inhibition), somatosensory temporal inhibition (temporal discrimination threshold, feedforward subliminal inhibition), motor spatial inhibition (surround inhibition), and motor temporal inhibition (short interval intracortical inhibition)...
December 1, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304419/abnormal-somatosensory-temporal-discrimination-in-parkinson-s-disease-pathophysiological-correlates-and-role-in-motor-control-deficits
#3
Myung Sik Lee, Myung Jun Lee, Antonella Conte, Alfredo Berardelli
OBJECTIVE: The somatosensory temporal discrimination threshold (STDT), defined as the shortest time interval required for two tactile stimuli to be perceived as separate, is longer in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). In this review, we discuss STDT findings in healthy subjects and in PD patients and the relationship between altered STDT and motor disturbances. METHODS: A search was conducted on PubMed for papers dealing with PD and temporal discrimination published from January 1990 to July 2017...
December 13, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244637/u-shaped-relation-between-prestimulus-alpha-and-poststimulus-gamma-band-power-in-temporal-tactile-perception-in-the-human-somatosensory-cortex
#4
Marc André Wittenberg, Thomas J Baumgarten, Alfons Schnitzler, Joachim Lange
Neuronal oscillations are a ubiquitous phenomenon in the human nervous system. Alpha-band oscillations (8-12 Hz) have been shown to correlate negatively with attention and performance, whereas gamma-band oscillations (40-150 Hz) correlate positively. Here, we studied the relation between prestimulus alpha-band power and poststimulus gamma-band power in a suprathreshold tactile discrimination task. Participants received two electrical stimuli to their left index finger with different SOAs (0 msec, 100 msec, intermediate SOA, intermediate SOA ± 10 msec)...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234300/temporal-discrimination-mechanisms-and-relevance-to-adult-onset-dystonia
#5
REVIEW
Antonella Conte, Eavan M McGovern, Shruti Narasimham, Rebecca Beck, Owen Killian, Sean O'Riordan, Richard B Reilly, Michael Hutchinson
Temporal discrimination is the ability to determine that two sequential sensory stimuli are separated in time. For any individual, the temporal discrimination threshold (TDT) is the minimum interval at which paired sequential stimuli are perceived as being asynchronous; this can be assessed, with high test-retest and inter-rater reliability, using a simple psychophysical test. Temporal discrimination is disordered in a number of basal ganglia diseases including adult-onset dystonia, of which the two most common phenotypes are cervical dystonia and blepharospasm...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108882/brain-mechanisms-for-processing-discriminative-and-affective-touch-in-7-month-old-infants
#6
Helga O Miguel, Isabel C Lisboa, Óscar F Gonçalves, Adriana Sampaio
Affective touch has been associated with affiliative behavior during early stages of infant development; however, its underlying brain mechanisms are still poorly understood. This study used fNIRS (functional near-infrared spectroscopy) to examine both affective and discriminative touch in 7- month-old infants (n=35). Infants were provided affective stimuli on the forearm for 10 sec followed by a 20 sec rest period. The protocol was repeated for discriminative touch, and both affective and discriminative stimuli were given in a counterbalanced order...
October 31, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082270/increased-blinking-may-be-a-precursor-of-blepharospasm-a-longitudinal-study
#7
Antonella Conte, Gina Ferrazzano, Giovanni Defazio, Giovanni Fabbrini, Mark Hallett, Alfredo Berardelli
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this five-year longitudinal study was to investigate whether patients with increased blinking develop orbicularis oculi muscle spasms. METHODS: Eleven patients who initially manifested increased blinking alone were clinically and neurophysiologically re-evaluated five years later. RESULTS: By the five-year follow-up assessment, nine of the 11 patients had developed orbicularis oculi muscle spasms. The blink reflex recovery cycle became abnormal whereas somatosensory temporal discrimination, already abnormal at the first evaluation, did not significantly change...
September 2017: Movement Disorders Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070782/temporal-patterns-of-individual-neuronal-firing-in-rat-dorsal-column-nuclei-provide-information-required-for-somatosensory-discrimination
#8
Shin-Ichiro Shishido, Takashi Toda
A wealth of mechanical information from the body generates various forms of sensory experience during touch or kinesthesia. Dorsal column nuclei (DCN) in the medulla are the first relay station for somatosensory inputs from peripheral receptors. These nuclei integrate somatosensory information and send the output to higher-order centers; therefore, investigating the firing patterns of DCN neurons should elucidate coding principles within the somatosensory system. In this study, we quantified the firing patterns of DCN neurons and examined whether the firing patterns of particular neurons are altered when moving tactile stimuli are applied in different directions...
October 2017: Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062576/does-the-somatosensory-temporal-discrimination-threshold-change-over-time-in-focal-dystonia
#9
Antonella Conte, Gina Ferrazzano, Daniele Belvisi, Nicoletta Manzo, Antonio Suppa, Giovanni Fabbrini, Alfredo Berardelli
BACKGROUND: The somatosensory temporal discrimination threshold (STDT) is defined as the shortest interval at which an individual recognizes two stimuli as asynchronous. Some evidence suggests that STDT depends on cortical inhibitory interneurons in the basal ganglia and in primary somatosensory cortex. Several studies have reported that the STDT in patients with dystonia is abnormal. No longitudinal studies have yet investigated whether STDT values in different forms of focal dystonia change during the course of the disease...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045579/auditory-frequency-representations-in-human-somatosensory-cortex
#10
Alexis Pérez-Bellido, Kelly Anne Barnes, Lexi E Crommett, Jeffrey M Yau
Recent studies have challenged the traditional notion of modality-dedicated cortical systems by showing that audition and touch evoke responses in the same sensory brain regions. While much of this work has focused on somatosensory responses in auditory regions, fewer studies have investigated sound responses and representations in somatosensory regions. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we measured BOLD signal changes in participants performing an auditory frequency discrimination task and characterized activation patterns related to stimulus frequency using both univariate and multivariate analysis approaches...
October 13, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861843/brain-motor-functional-changes-after-somatosensory-discrimination-training
#11
Elisabetta Sarasso, Federica Agosta, Federico Temporiti, Paola Adamo, Fabio Piccolo, Massimiliano Copetti, Roberto Gatti, Massimo Filippi
Somatosensory discrimination training may modulate cognitive processes, such as movement planning and monitoring, which can be useful during active movements. The aim of the study was to assess the effect of somatosensory discrimination training on brain functional activity using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during motor and sensory tasks in healthy subjects. Thirty-nine healthy young subjects were randomized into two groups: the experimental group underwent somatosensory discrimination training consisting of shape, surface and two-point distance discrimination; and the control group performed a simple object manipulation...
August 31, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842385/effects-of-spatial-fmri-resolution-on-the-classification-of-naturalistic-movies
#12
H Mandelkow, J A de Zwart, J H Duyn
Studies involving multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA) of BOLD fMRI data generally attribute the success of the information-theoretic approach to BOLD signal contrast on the fine spatial scale of millimeters facilitating the classification or decoding of perceptual stimuli. However, to date MVPA studies that have actually explored fMRI resolutions at less than 2 mm voxel size are rare and limited to small sets of unnatural stimuli (like visual gratings) as well as specific sub-regions of the brain, notably the primary somatosensory cortices...
August 24, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747470/the-third-stimulus-temporal-discrimination-threshold-focusing-on-the-temporal-processing-of-sensory-input-within-primary-somatosensory-cortex
#13
Giorgio Leodori, Alessandra Formica, Xiaoying Zhu, Antonella Conte, Daniele Belvisi, Giorgio Cruccu, Mark Hallett, Alfredo Berardelli
The somatosensory temporal discrimination threshold (STDT) has been used in recent years to investigate time processing of sensory information, but little is known about the physiological correlates of somatosensory temporal discrimination. The objective of this study was to investigate whether the time interval required to discriminate between two stimuli varies according to the number of stimuli in the task. We used the third-stimulus temporal discrimination threshold (ThirdDT), defined as the shortest time interval at which an individual distinguishes a third stimulus following a pair of stimuli delivered at the STDT...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724780/a-reduced-somatosensory-gating-response-in-individuals-with-multiple-sclerosis-is-related-to-walking-impairment
#14
David J Arpin, James E Gehringer, Tony W Wilson, Max J Kurz
When identical stimuli are presented in rapid temporal succession, neural responses to the second stimulation are often weaker than those observed for the first. This phenomenon is termed sensory gating and is believed to be an adaptive feature that helps prevent higher-order cortical centers from being flooded with unnecessary information. Recently, sensory gating in the somatosensory system has been linked to deficits in tactile discrimination. Additionally, studies have linked poor tactile discrimination with impaired walking and balance in individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS)...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634466/abnormal-temporal-coupling-of-tactile-perception-and-motor-action-in-parkinson-s-disease
#15
Antonella Conte, Daniele Belvisi, Matteo Tartaglia, Francesca Natalia Cortese, Viola Baione, Emanuele Battista, Xiao Y Zhu, Giovanni Fabbrini, Alfredo Berardelli
Evidence shows altered somatosensory temporal discrimination threshold (STDT) in Parkinson's disease in comparison to normal subjects. In healthy subjects, movement execution modulates STDT values through mechanisms of sensory gating. We investigated whether STDT modulation during movement execution in patients with Parkinson's disease differs from that in healthy subjects. In 24 patients with Parkinson's disease and 20 healthy subjects, we tested STDT at baseline and during index finger abductions (at movement onset "0", 100, and 200 ms thereafter)...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591219/mechanisms-underlying-a-thalamocortical-transformation-during-active-tactile-sensation
#16
Diego Adrian Gutnisky, Jianing Yu, Samuel Andrew Hires, Minh-Son To, Michael Ross Bale, Karel Svoboda, David Golomb
During active somatosensation, neural signals expected from movement of the sensors are suppressed in the cortex, whereas information related to touch is enhanced. This tactile suppression underlies low-noise encoding of relevant tactile features and the brain's ability to make fine tactile discriminations. Layer (L) 4 excitatory neurons in the barrel cortex, the major target of the somatosensory thalamus (VPM), respond to touch, but have low spike rates and low sensitivity to the movement of whiskers. Most neurons in VPM respond to touch and also show an increase in spike rate with whisker movement...
June 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479322/spike-timing-matters-in-novel-neuronal-code-involved-in-vibrotactile-frequency-perception
#17
Ingvars Birznieks, Richard M Vickery
Skin vibrations sensed by tactile receptors contribute significantly to the perception of object properties during tactile exploration [1-4] and to sensorimotor control during object manipulation [5]. Sustained low-frequency skin vibration (<60 Hz) evokes a distinct tactile sensation referred to as flutter whose frequency can be clearly perceived [6]. How afferent spiking activity translates into the perception of frequency is still unknown. Measures based on mean spike rates of neurons in the primary somatosensory cortex are sufficient to explain performance in some frequency discrimination tasks [7-11]; however, there is emerging evidence that stimuli can be distinguished based also on temporal features of neural activity [12, 13]...
May 22, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463818/high-frequency-somatosensory-stimulation-increases-sensori-motor-inhibition-and-leads-to-perceptual-improvement-in-healthy-subjects
#18
Lorenzo Rocchi, Roberto Erro, Elena Antelmi, Alfredo Berardelli, Michele Tinazzi, Rocco Liguori, Kailash Bhatia, John Rothwell
OBJECTIVE: High frequency repetitive somatosensory stimulation (HF-RSS), which is a patterned electric stimulation applied to the skin through surface electrodes, improves two-point discrimination, somatosensory temporal discrimination threshold (STDT) and motor performance in humans. However, the mechanisms which underlie these changes are still unknown. In particular, we hypothesize that refinement of inhibition might be responsible for the improvement in spatial and temporal perception...
June 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398578/social-anxiety-disorder-exhibit-impaired-networks-involved-in-self-and-theory-of-mind-processing
#19
Qian Cui, Eric J Vanman, Zhiliang Long, Yajing Pang, Yuyan Chen, Yifeng Wang, Xujun Duan, Heng Chen, Qiyong Gong, Wei Zhang, Huafu Chen
Most previous studies regarding social anxiety disorder (SAD) have focused on the role of emotional dysfunction, while impairments in self- and theory of mind (ToM)-processing have relatively been neglected. This study utilised functional connectivity density (FCD), resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) and discriminant analyses to investigate impairments in self- and ToM-related networks in patients with SAD. Patients with SAD exhibited decreased long-range FCD in the right rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC) and decreased short-range FCD in the right superior temporal gyrus (STG)-key nodes involved in self- and ToM-processing, respectively...
August 1, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382013/beyond-the-peak-tactile-temporal-discrimination-does-not-correlate-with-individual-peak-frequencies-in-somatosensory-cortex
#20
Thomas J Baumgarten, Alfons Schnitzler, Joachim Lange
The human sensory systems constantly receive input from different stimuli. Whether these stimuli are integrated into a coherent percept or segregated and perceived as separate events, is critically determined by the temporal distance of the stimuli. This temporal distance has prompted the concept of temporal integration windows or perceptual cycles. Although this concept has gained considerable support, the neuronal correlates are still discussed. Studies suggested that neuronal oscillations might provide a neuronal basis for such perceptual cycles, i...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
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