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Somatosensory temporal discrimination

Kassondra L Collins, Danielle L McKean, Katherine Huff, Mark Tommerdahl, Oleg Vyacheslavovich Favorov, Robert S Waters, Jack W Tsao
Unilateral major limb amputation causes changes in sensory perception. Changes may occur within not only the residual limb but also the intact limb as well as the brain. We tested the hypothesis that limb amputation may result in the detection of hand sensation during stimulation of a non-limb-related body region. We further investigated the responses of unilateral upper limb amputees and individuals with all limbs intact to temporally based sensory tactile testing of the fingertips to test the hypothesis that changes in sensory perception also have an effect on the intact limb...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
Jiwon Yeon, Junsuk Kim, Jaekyun Ryu, Jang-Yeon Park, Soon-Cheol Chung, Sung-Phil Kim
While the perception of stickiness serves as one of the fundamental dimensions for tactile sensation, little has been elucidated about the stickiness sensation and its neural correlates. The present study investigated how the human brain responds to perceived tactile sticky stimuli using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). To evoke tactile perception of stickiness with multiple intensities, we generated silicone stimuli with varying catalyst ratios. Also, an acrylic sham stimulus was prepared to present a condition with no sticky sensation...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
James Kolasinski, Tamar R Makin, John P Logan, Saad Jbabdi, Stuart Clare, Charlotte J Stagg, Heidi Johansen-Berg
Experience-dependent reorganisation of functional maps in the cerebral cortex is well described in the primary sensory cortices. However, there is relatively little evidence for such cortical reorganisation over the short-term. Using human somatosensory cortex as a model, we investigated the effects of a 24 hr gluing manipulation in which the right index and right middle fingers (digits 2 and 3) were adjoined with surgical glue. Somatotopic representations, assessed with two 7 tesla fMRI protocols, revealed rapid off-target reorganisation in the non-manipulated fingers following gluing, with the representation of the ring finger (digit 4) shifted towards the little finger (digit 5) and away from the middle finger (digit 3)...
December 30, 2016: ELife
Mariana P Branco, Zachary V Freudenburg, Erik J Aarnoutse, Martin G Bleichner, Mariska J Vansteensel, Nick F Ramsey
Electrocorticography (ECoG) based Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCIs) have been proposed as a way to restore and replace motor function or communication in severely paralyzed people. To date, most motor-based BCIs have either focused on the sensorimotor cortex as a whole or on the primary motor cortex (M1) as a source of signals for this purpose. Still, target areas for BCI are not confined to M1, and more brain regions may provide suitable BCI control signals. A logical candidate is the primary somatosensory cortex (S1), which not only shares similar somatotopic organization to M1, but also has been suggested to have a role beyond sensory feedback during movement execution...
February 15, 2017: NeuroImage
Román Rossi-Pool, Emilio Salinas, Antonio Zainos, Manuel Alvarez, José Vergara, Néstor Parga, Ranulfo Romo
The problem of neural coding in perceptual decision making revolves around two fundamental questions: (i) How are the neural representations of sensory stimuli related to perception, and (ii) what attributes of these neural responses are relevant for downstream networks, and how do they influence decision making? We studied these two questions by recording neurons in primary somatosensory (S1) and dorsal premotor (DPC) cortex while trained monkeys reported whether the temporal pattern structure of two sequential vibrotactile stimuli (of equal mean frequency) was the same or different...
December 6, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Doga Vuralli, H Evren Boran, Bulent Cengiz, Ozlem Coskun, Hayrunnisa Bolay
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Somatosensory temporal discrimination was recently reported as prolonged during migraine attacks, which is consistent with disrupted sensorial perception in migraine. However, knowledge about central sensory processing in tension-type headache is still lacking. This prospective, controlled study aimed to investigate somatosensory temporal discrimination thresholds in tension-type headache. METHODS: The study included 10 tension-type headache patients, 10 migraine patients and 10 healthy volunteers without headache...
November 4, 2016: Cephalalgia: An International Journal of Headache
Yiwen Li Hegner, Axel Lindner, Christoph Braun
The processes underlying perceptual decision making are diverse and typically engage a distributed network of brain areas. It is a particular challenge to establish a sensory-to-motor functional hierarchy in such networks. This is because single-cell recordings mainly study the nodes of decision networks in isolation but seldom simultaneously. Moreover, imaging methods, which allow simultaneously accessing information from overall networks, typically suffer from either the temporal or the spatial resolution necessary to establish a detailed functional hierarchy in terms of a sequential recruitment of areas during a decision process...
October 21, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
Matteo Bologna, Anna Latorre, Francesca Di Biasio, Antonella Conte, Daniele Belvisi, Nicola Modugno, Antonio Suppa, Alfredo Berardelli, Giovanni Fabbrini
BACKGROUND: By providing a stable and smooth L-dopa plasmatic level, L-dopa/carbidopa intestinal gel reproduces the physiological continuous dopaminergic receptor stimulation in patients with Parkinson disease (PD), and it therefore represents a suitable tool to investigate the role of the altered dopaminergic neurotransmission in the pathophysiology of motor and sensory abnormalities in this condition. METHODS: We studied 11 patients with advanced PD being treated with L-Dopa/carbidopa intestinal gel (LCIG) and 11 age-matched healthy subjects...
November 2016: Clinical Neuropharmacology
Elena Antelmi, Roberto Erro, Lorenzo Rocchi, Rocco Liguori, Michele Tinazzi, Flavio Di Stasio, Alfredo Berardelli, John C Rothwell, Kailash P Bhatia
BACKGROUND: Somatosensory temporal discrimination threshold is often prolonged in patients with dystonia. Previous evidence suggested that this might be caused by impaired somatosensory processing in the time domain. Here, we tested if other markers of reduced inhibition in the somatosensory system might also contribute to abnormal somatosensory temporal discrimination in dystonia. METHODS: Somatosensory temporal discrimination threshold was measured in 19 patients with isolated cervical dystonia and 19 age-matched healthy controls...
September 27, 2016: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
Antonella Conte, Daniele Belvisi, Nicoletta Manzo, Matteo Bologna, Francesca Barone, Matteo Tartaglia, Neeraj Upadhyay, Alfredo Berardelli
The somatosensory temporal discrimination threshold (STDT) is the shortest interval at which an individual recognizes paired stimuli as separate in time. We investigated whether and how voluntary movement modulates STDT in healthy subjects. In 17 healthy participants, we tested STDT during voluntary index-finger abductions at several time-points after movement onset and during motor preparation. We then tested whether voluntary movement-induced STDT changes were specific for the body segment moved, depended on movement kinematics, on the type of movement or on the intensity for delivering paired electrical stimuli for STDT To understand the mechanisms underlying STDT modulation, we also tested STDT during motor imagery and after delivering repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation to elicit excitability changes in the primary somatosensory cortex (S1)...
September 2016: Physiological Reports
Lotta Fornander, Tom Brismar, Thomas Hansson, Heidi Wikström
We have previously shown age- and time-dependent effects on brain activity in the primary somatosensory cortex (SI), in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study of patients with median nerve injury. Whereas fMRI measures the hemodynamic changes in response to increased neural activity, magnetoencephalography (MEG) offers a more concise way of examining the evoked response, with superior temporal resolution. We therefore wanted to combine these imaging techniques to gain additional knowledge of the plasticity processes in response to median nerve injury...
September 2016: Somatosensory & Motor Research
Doga Vuralli, H Evren Boran, Bulent Cengiz, Ozlem Coskun, Hayrunnisa Bolay
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Migraine headache attacks have been shown to be accompanied by significant prolongation of somatosensory temporal discrimination threshold values, supporting signs of disrupted sensorial processing in migraine. Chronic migraine is one of the most debilitating and challenging headache disorders with no available biomarker. We aimed to test the diagnostic value of somatosensory temporal discrimination for chronic migraine in this prospective, controlled study. METHODS: Fifteen chronic migraine patients and 15 healthy controls completed the study...
October 2016: Headache
Leah M McGuire, Gregory Telian, Keven J Laboy-Juárez, Toshio Miyashita, Daniel J Lee, Katherine A Smith, Daniel E Feldman
Rodent whisker input consists of dense microvibration sequences that are often temporally integrated for perceptual discrimination. Whether primary somatosensory cortex (S1) participates in temporal integration is unknown. We trained rats to discriminate whisker impulse sequences that varied in single-impulse kinematics (5-20-ms time scale) and mean speed (150-ms time scale). Rats appeared to use the integrated feature, mean speed, to guide discrimination in this task, consistent with similar prior studies...
August 2016: PLoS Biology
Antonella Conte, Giorgio Leodori, Gina Ferrazzano, Maria I De Bartolo, Nicoletta Manzo, Giovanni Fabbrini, Alfredo Berardelli
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the somatosensory temporal discrimination threshold (STDT) is already altered at the clinical onset of Parkinson's disease (PD) and whether STDT abnormalities correlate with disease progression we tested STDT values in patients with different severity of disease. METHODS: We prospectively and consecutively enrolled 63 PD patients: 26 drug-naive PD patients with symptom onset no longer than two years prior to inclusion in the study (early-phase), 37 PD patients with varying degrees of disease severity and 51 age-matched healthy subjects...
September 2016: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Natalie K Trzcinski, Manuel Gomez-Ramirez, Steven S Hsiao
Continuous training enhances perceptual discrimination and promotes neural changes in areas encoding the experienced stimuli. This type of experience-dependent plasticity has been demonstrated in several sensory and motor systems. Particularly, non-human primates trained to detect consecutive tactile bar indentations across multiple digits showed expanded excitatory receptive fields (RFs) in somatosensory cortex. However, the perceptual implications of these anatomical changes remain undetermined. Here, we trained human participants for 9 days on a tactile task that promoted expansion of multi-digit RFs...
September 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
Juan M J Ramos
Recent studies have suggested that the perirhinal cortex (Prh) supports representations of feature conjunctions in the visual modality during the acquisition/encoding of complex discriminations. To extend this idea to other sensory modalities and to another stage of the discrimination process, we studied the effect of Prh lesions on the expression of a series of tactual discrimination tasks learned preoperatively. These tasks differed from one another in the degree of feature overlap of the stimuli and in the difficulty of the task...
May 2016: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Lorenzo Rocchi, Elias Casula, Pierluigi Tocco, Alfredo Berardelli, John Rothwell
UNLABELLED: Somatosensory temporal discrimination threshold (STDT) is defined as the shortest time interval necessary for a pair of tactile stimuli to be perceived as separate. Although STDT is altered in several neurological disorders, its neural bases are not entirely clear. We used continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS) to condition the excitability of the primary somatosensory cortex in healthy humans to examine its possible contribution to STDT. Excitability was assessed using the recovery cycle of the N20 component of somatosensory evoked potentials (SEP) and the area of high-frequency oscillations (HFO)...
January 13, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Pichet Termsarasab, Ritesh A Ramdhani, Giovanni Battistella, Estee Rubien-Thomas, Melissa Choy, Ian M Farwell, Miodrag Velickovic, Andrew Blitzer, Steven J Frucht, Richard B Reilly, Michael Hutchinson, Laurie J Ozelius, Kristina Simonyan
Aberrant sensory processing plays a fundamental role in the pathophysiology of dystonia; however, its underpinning neural mechanisms in relation to dystonia phenotype and genotype remain unclear. We examined temporal and spatial discrimination thresholds in patients with isolated laryngeal form of dystonia (LD), who exhibited different clinical phenotypes (adductor vs. abductor forms) and potentially different genotypes (sporadic vs. familial forms). We correlated our behavioral findings with the brain gray matter volume and functional activity during resting and symptomatic speech production...
2016: NeuroImage: Clinical
H Evren Boran, Bülent Cengiz, Hayrunnisa Bolay
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Symptoms and signs of sensorial disturbances are characteristic features of a migraine headache. Somatosensory temporal discrimination measures the temporal threshold to perceive two separate somaesthetic stimuli as clearly distinct. This study aimed to evaluate somaesthetic perception in migraine patients by measuring the somatosensory temporal discrimination thresholds. METHODS: The study included 12 migraine patients without aura and 12 volunteers without headache...
January 2016: Headache
Michael Barnett-Cowan, Jacqueline C Snow, Jody C Culham
Sensory information provided by the vestibular system is crucial in cognitive processes such as the ability to recognize objects. The orientation at which objects are most easily recognized--the perceptual upright (PU)--is influenced by body orientation with respect to gravity as detected from the somatosensory and vestibular systems. To date, the influence of these sensory cues on the PU has been measured using a letter recognition task. Here we assessed whether gravitational influences on letter recognition also extend to human face recognition...
2015: Multisensory Research
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