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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792505/a-new-test-for-the-assessment-of-working-memory-in-clinical-settings-validation-and-norming-of-a-month-ordering-task
#1
Imke Buekenhout, José Leitão, Ana A Gomes
Month ordering tasks have been used in experimental settings to obtain measures of working memory (WM) capacity in older/clinical groups based solely on their face validity. We sought to assess the appropriateness of using a month ordering task in other contexts, including clinical settings, as a psychometrically sound WM assessment. To this end, we constructed a month ordering task (ucMOT), studied its reliability (internal consistency and temporal stability), and gathered construct-related and criterion-related validity evidence for its use as a WM assessment...
May 24, 2018: Psychological Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791349/polarimetric-learning-a-siamese-approach-to-learning-distance-metrics-of-algal-mueller-matrix-images
#2
Xianpeng Li, Ran Liao, Hui Ma, Priscilla T Y Leung, Meng Yan
Polarimetric measurements are becoming increasingly accurate and fast to perform in modern applications. However, analysis on the polarimetric data usually suffers from its high-dimensional nature spatially, temporally, or spectrally. This paper associates polarimetric techniques with metric learning algorithms, namely, polarimetric learning, by introducing a distance metric learning method called Siamese network that aims to learn good distance metrics of algal Mueller matrix images in low-dimensional feature spaces...
May 10, 2018: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787492/dot-motion-perception-in-young-adult-emmetropes-and-myopes
#3
Hui-Ying Kuo, David A Atchison, Katrina Leanne Schmid
SIGNIFICANCE: Central motion perception, as assessed by minimum displacement detection, was reduced in highly myopic eyes. Peripheral motion detection may be influenced by myopia, particularly in the inferior-nasal retina. PURPOSE: Motion discrimination is a complex visual task processed mainly via the magnocellular pathway. We investigated whether it is affected in myopia. METHODS: Ninety young adults aged 18 to 28 years participated: 30 emmetropes (spherical equivalent refractions +1...
May 21, 2018: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782908/deficits-in-temporal-order-memory-induced-by-interferon-alpha-ifn-%C3%AE-treatment-are-rescued-by-aerobic-exercise
#4
Sally Barlow, Briana Fahey, Kimberley J Smith, Johannes Passecker, Andrea Della-Chiesa, Vincent Hok, Jennifer S Day, Charlotte K Callaghan, Shane M O'Mara
Patients receiving cytokine immunotherapy with IFN-α frequently present with neuropsychiatric consequences and cognitive impairments, including a profound depressive-like symptomatology. While the neurobiological substrates of the dysfunction that leads to adverse events in IFN-α-treated patients remains ill-defined, dysfunctions of the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex (PFC) are strong possibilities. To date, hippocampal deficits have been well-characterised; there does however remain a lack of insight into the nature of prefrontal participation...
May 18, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781666/validation-of-the-shortened-perceived-medical-condition-self-management-scale-in-patients-with-chronic-disease
#5
Marcus G Wild, Remo Ostini, Magdalena Harrington, Kerri L Cavanaugh, Kenneth A Wallston
Self-efficacy, or perceived competence, has been identified as an important factor in self-management behaviors and health outcomes in patients with chronic disease. Measures of self-management self-efficacy are currently available for multiple forms of chronic disease. One established measure is the 8-item Perceived Medical Condition Self-Management Scale (PMCSMS). This study investigated the use of the PMCSMS in samples of patients with a chronic disease to develop an abbreviated version of the scale that could be more readily used in clinical contexts or in large population health cohort studies...
May 21, 2018: Psychological Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778627/impaired-spatial-processing-in-a-mouse-model-of-fragile-x-syndrome
#6
Mohamed Ghilan, Luis Bettio, Athena Noonan, Patricia S Brocardo, Joana Gil-Mohapel, Brian R Christie
Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common form of inherited intellectual impairment. The Fmr1-/y mouse model has been previously shown to have deficits in context discrimination tasks but not in the elevated plus-maze. To further characterize this FXS mouse model and determine whether hippocampal-mediated behaviours are affected in these mice, dentate gyrus (DG)-dependent spatial processing and Cornu Ammonis 1 (CA1)-dependent temporal order discrimination tasks were evaluated. In agreement with previous findings of long-term potentiation deficits in the DG of this transgenic model of FXS, the results reported here demonstrate that Fmr1-/y mice perform poorly in the DG-dependent metric change spatial processing task...
May 17, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774432/cross-modal-decoupling-in-temporal-attention-between-audition-and-touch
#7
Stefanie Mühlberg, Salvador Soto-Faraco
Temporal orienting leads to well-documented behavioural benefits for sensory events occurring at the anticipated moment. However, the consequences of temporal orienting in cross-modal contexts are still unclear. On the one hand, some studies using audio-tactile paradigms suggest that attentional orienting in time and modality are a closely coupled system, in which temporal orienting dominates modality orienting, similar to what happens in cross-modal spatial attention. On the other hand, recent findings using a visuo-tactile paradigm suggest that attentional orienting in time can unfold independently in each modality, leading to cross-modal decoupling...
May 17, 2018: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774139/line-drawn-scenes-provide-sufficient-information-for-discrimination-of-threat-and-mere-negativity
#8
Jasmine Boshyan, Lisa Feldman Barrett, Nicole Betz, Reginald B Adams, Kestutis Kveraga
Previous work using color photographic scenes has shown that human observers are keenly sensitive to different types of threatening and negative stimuli and reliably classify them by the presence, and spatial and temporal directions of threat. To test whether such distinctions can be extracted from impoverished visual information, we used 500 line drawings made by hand-tracing the original set of photographic scenes. Sixty participants rated the scenes on spatial and temporal dimensions of threat. Based on these ratings, trend analysis revealed five scene categories that were comparable to those identified for the matching color photographic scenes...
January 2018: I-Perception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772725/attention-based-recurrent-temporal-restricted-boltzmann-machine-for-radar-high-resolution-range-profile-sequence-recognition
#9
Yifan Zhang, Xunzhang Gao, Xuan Peng, Jiaqi Ye, Xiang Li
The High Resolution Range Profile (HRRP) recognition has attracted great concern in the field of Radar Automatic Target Recognition (RATR). However, traditional HRRP recognition methods failed to model high dimensional sequential data efficiently and have a poor anti-noise ability. To deal with these problems, a novel stochastic neural network model named Attention-based Recurrent Temporal Restricted Boltzmann Machine (ARTRBM) is proposed in this paper. RTRBM is utilized to extract discriminative features and the attention mechanism is adopted to select major features...
May 16, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772199/it-s-about-time-temporal-dynamics-of-dentate-gyrus-pattern-separation
#10
Xiaojing Chen, James J Knierim
The dentate gyrus (DG) is hypothesized to be a pattern separator crucial for distinguishing similar memories. In this issue of Neuron, a new study by van Dijk and Fenton (2018) revealed that transient changes of firing patterns of DG ensembles, but not the remapping of session-averaged place fields, contributed to a place discrimination task.
May 16, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767353/influences-of-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-and-temporal-lobe-resection-on-olfaction
#11
Richard L Doty, Isabelle Tourbier, Jessica K Neff, Jonathan Silas, Bruce Turetsky, Paul Moberg, Taehoon Kim, John Pluta, Jaqueline French, Ashwini D Sharan, Michael J Sperling, Natasha Mirza, Anthony Risser, Gordon Baltuch, John A Detre
Although temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and resection (TLR) impact olfactory eloquent brain structures, their influences on olfaction remain enigmatic. We sought to more definitively assess the influences of TLE and TLR on olfaction using three well-validated olfactory tests and measuring  the tests' associations with the volume of numerous temporal lobe brain structures. The University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test and an odor detection threshold test were administered to 71 TLE patients and 71 age- and sex-matched controls; 69 TLE patients and controls received an odor discrimination/memory test...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759684/how-aging-impacts-the-encoding-of-binaural-cues-and-the-perception-of-auditory-space
#12
REVIEW
Ann Clock Eddins, Erol J Ozmeral, David A Eddins
Over the years, the effect of aging on auditory function has been investigated in animal models and humans in an effort to characterize age-related changes in both perception and physiology. Here, we review how aging may impact neural encoding and processing of binaural and spatial cues in human listeners with a focus on recent work by the authors as well as others. Age-related declines in monaural temporal processing, as estimated from measures of gap detection and temporal fine structure discrimination, have been associated with poorer performance on binaural tasks that require precise temporal processing...
May 5, 2018: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753019/psychophysical-and-neuroimaging-responses-to-moving-stimuli-in-a-patient-with-the-riddoch-phenomenon-due-to-bilateral-visual-cortex-lesions
#13
Michael J Arcaro, Lore Thaler, Derek J Quinlan, Simona Monaco, Sarah Khan, Kenneth F Valyear, Rainer Goebel, Gordon N Dutton, Melvyn A Goodale, Sabine Kastner, Jody C Culham
Patients with injury to early visual cortex or its inputs can display the Riddoch phenomenon: preserved awareness for moving but not stationary stimuli. We provide a detailed case report of a patient with the Riddoch phenomenon, MC. MC has extensive bilateral lesions to occipitotemporal cortex that include most early visual cortex and complete blindness in visual field perimetry testing with static targets. Nevertheless, she shows a remarkably robust preserved ability to perceive motion, enabling her to navigate through cluttered environments and perform actions like catching moving balls...
May 9, 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746463/nonlinear-decoding-of-a-complex-movie-from-the-mammalian-retina
#14
Vicente Botella-Soler, Stéphane Deny, Georg Martius, Olivier Marre, Gašper Tkačik
Retina is a paradigmatic system for studying sensory encoding: the transformation of light into spiking activity of ganglion cells. The inverse problem, where stimulus is reconstructed from spikes, has received less attention, especially for complex stimuli that should be reconstructed "pixel-by-pixel". We recorded around a hundred neurons from a dense patch in a rat retina and decoded movies of multiple small randomly-moving discs. We constructed nonlinear (kernelized and neural network) decoders that improved significantly over linear results...
May 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745545/-tract-based-spatial-statistics-analysis-on-the-white-matter-of-patients-with-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-and-automatic-recognition
#15
Di Zhao, Shengwen Guo, Congling Wu, Chunren Lai, Lina Cheng, Wensheng Wang
This study aims to determine the salient brain regions with abnormal changes in white matter structures from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) images of the patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), and to discriminate the patients with TLE from normal controls (NCs). Firstly, the DTI images from 50 subjects (28 NCs and 22 TLE) were acquired. Secondly, the four measures including the fractional anisotropy (FA), the mean diffusivity (MD), the axial diffusivity (AD) and the radial diffusivity (RD) were calculated...
August 1, 2017: Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue za Zhi, Journal of Biomedical Engineering, Shengwu Yixue Gongchengxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742751/slowly-repeated-evoked-pain-srep-as-a-marker-of-central-sensitization-in-fibromyalgia-diagnostic-accuracy-and-reliability-in-comparison-with-temporal-summation-of-pain
#16
Pablo de la Coba, Stephen Bruehl, Carmen María Gálvez-Sánchez, Gustavo A Reyes Del Paso
OBJECTIVE: This study examined the diagnostic accuracy and test-retest reliability of a novel dynamic evoked pain protocol (slowly repeated evoked pain; SREP) compared to temporal summation of pain (TSP), a standard index of central sensitization. METHODS: Thirty-five fibromyalgia (FM) and 30 rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients completed, in pseudorandomized order, a standard mechanical TSP protocol (10 stimuli of 1s duration at the thenar eminence using a 300g monofilament with 1s interstimulus interval) and the SREP protocol (9 suprathreshold pressure stimuli of 5s duration applied to the fingernail with a 30s interstimulus interval)...
May 1, 2018: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742542/dynamic-current-focusing-a-novel-approach-to-loudness-coding-in-cochlear-implants
#17
Monique A M de Jong, Jeroen J Briaire, Johan H M Frijns
OBJECTIVES: In an attempt to improve spectral resolution and speech intelligibility, several current focusing methods have been proposed to increase spatial selectivity by decreasing intracochlear current spread. For example, tripolar stimulation administers current to a central electrode and uses the two flanking electrodes as the return pathway, creating a narrower intracochlear electrical field and hence increases spectral resolution when compared with monopolar (MP) stimulation. However, more current is required, and in some patients, specifically the ones with high electrode impedances, full loudness growth cannot be supported because of compliance limits...
May 8, 2018: Ear and Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742133/visual-perceptual-training-reconfigures-post-task-resting-state-functional-connectivity-with-a-feature-representation-region
#18
Mitra Taghizadeh Sarabi, Ryuta Aoki, Kaho Tsumura, Ruedeerat Keerativittayayut, Koji Jimura, Kiyoshi Nakahara
The neural mechanisms underlying visual perceptual learning (VPL) have typically been studied by examining changes in task-related brain activation after training. However, the relationship between post-task "offline" processes and VPL remains unclear. The present study examined this question by obtaining resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scans of human brains before and after a task-fMRI session involving visual perceptual training. During the task-fMRI session, participants performed a motion coherence discrimination task in which they judged the direction of moving dots with a coherence level that varied between trials (20, 40, and 80%)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740753/facial-expression-enhances-emotion-perception-compared-to-vocal-prosody-behavioral-and-fmri-studies
#19
Heming Zhang, Xuhai Chen, Shengdong Chen, Yansong Li, Changming Chen, Quanshan Long, Jiajin Yuan
Facial and vocal expressions are essential modalities mediating the perception of emotion and social communication. Nonetheless, currently little is known about how emotion perception and its neural substrates differ across facial expression and vocal prosody. To clarify this issue, functional MRI scans were acquired in Study 1, in which participants were asked to discriminate the valence of emotional expression (angry, happy or neutral) from facial, vocal, or bimodal stimuli. In Study 2, we used an affective priming task (unimodal materials as primers and bimodal materials as target) and participants were asked to rate the intensity, valence, and arousal of the targets...
May 9, 2018: Neuroscience Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740594/tracking-temporal-hazard-in-the-human-electroencephalogram-using-a-forward-encoding-model
#20
Sophie K Herbst, Lorenz Fiedler, Jonas Obleser
Human observers automatically extract temporal contingencies from the environment and predict the onset of future events. Temporal predictions are modeled by the hazard function, which describes the instantaneous probability for an event to occur given it has not occurred yet. Here, we tackle the question of whether and how the human brain tracks continuous temporal hazard on a moment-to-moment basis, and how flexibly it adjusts to strictly implicit variations in the hazard function. We applied an encoding-model approach to human electroencephalographic data recorded during a pitch-discrimination task, in which we implicitly manipulated temporal predictability of the target tones by varying the interval between cue and target tone (i...
March 2018: ENeuro
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