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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324892/genetic-factors-have-a-major-effect-on-growth-number-of-vertebrae-and-otolith-shape-in-atlantic-herring-clupea-harengus
#1
Florian Berg, Oda W Almeland, Julie Skadal, Aril Slotte, Leif Andersson, Arild Folkvord
Atlantic herring, Clupea harengus, have complex population structures. Mixing of populations is known, but the extent of connectivity is still unclear. Phenotypic plasticity results in divergent phenotypes in response to environmental factors. A marked salinity gradient occurs from Atlantic Ocean (salinity 35) into the Baltic Sea (salinity range 2-12). Herring from both habitats display phenotypic and genetic variability. To explore how genetic factors and salinity influence phenotypic traits like growth, number of vertebrae and otolith shape an experimental population consisting of Atlantic purebreds and Atlantic/Baltic F1 hybrids were incubated and co-reared at two different salinities, 16 and 35, for three years...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324292/use-of-sperm-dna-integrity-as-a-marker-for-exposure-to-contamination-in-palaemon-serratus-pennant-1777-intrinsic-variability-baseline-level-and-in-situ-deployment
#2
Alexandre Erraud, Marc Bonnard, Arnaud Chaumot, Olivier Geffard, Aurélie Duflot, Joëlle Forget-Leray, Frank Le Foll, Alain Geffard, Benoit Xuereb
In a previous study, the Comet assay was optimized for Palaemon serratus prawns in order to propose a biomarker for sperm quality in this species. However, better knowledge of its basal level and its natural variability, related to intrinsic biotic and environmental abiotic factors, is required before any relevant use of this biomarker in the field. To fulfill this goal, the present study proceeded in three steps: (i) the temporal variability of DNA integrity was followed monthly in a reference population over a 2-year period, (ii) the correlation between the main intrinsic biotic (i...
December 27, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323685/coarsening-dynamics-of-ferromagnetic-granular-networks-experimental-results-and-simulations
#3
Armin Kögel, Pedro A Sánchez, Robin Maretzki, Tom Dumont, Elena S Pyanzina, Sofia S Kantorovich, Reinhard Richter
We investigate the phase separation of a shaken mixture of glass and magnetised steel spheres after a sudden quench of the shaker amplitude. After quenching, transient networks of steel spheres emerge in the experiment. For the developing network clusters we estimate the number of spheres in them, and the characteristic path lengths. We find that both quantities follow a log-normal distribution function. Moreover, we study the temporal evolution of the networks. In the sequence of snapshots we observe an initial regime, where the network incubates, followed by a temporal regime where network structures are elongated and broken, and finally a regime where the structures have relaxed to compact clusters of rounded shapes...
January 11, 2018: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317758/speech-prosodies-of-different-emotional-categories-activate-different-brain-regions-in-adult-cortex-an-fnirs-study
#4
Dandan Zhang, Yu Zhou, Jiajin Yuan
Emotional expressions of others embedded in speech prosodies are important for social interactions. This study used functional near-infrared spectroscopy to investigate how speech prosodies of different emotional categories are processed in the cortex. The results demonstrated several cerebral areas critical for emotional prosody processing. We confirmed that the superior temporal cortex, especially the right middle and posterior parts of superior temporal gyrus (BA 22/42), primarily works to discriminate between emotional and neutral prosodies...
January 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315951/four-way-multimodal-fusion-of-7%C3%A2-t-imaging-data-using-an-mcca-jica-model-in-first-episode-schizophrenia
#5
Kristin K Lottman, David M White, Nina V Kraguljac, Meredith A Reid, Vince D Calhoun, Fabio Catao, Adrienne C Lahti
Acquisition of multimodal brain imaging data for the same subject has become more common leading to a growing interest in determining the intermodal relationships between imaging modalities to further elucidate the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Multimodal data have previously been individually analyzed and subsequently integrated; however, these analysis techniques lack the ability to examine true modality inter-relationships. The utilization of a multiset canonical correlation and joint independent component analysis (mCCA + jICA) model for data fusion allows shared or distinct abnormalities between modalities to be examined...
January 9, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311009/cortical-inhibitory-function-in-cervical-dystonia
#6
Christos Ganos, Elisa R Ferrè, Angela Marotta, Panagiotis Kassavetis, John Rothwell, Kailash P Bhatia, Patrick Haggard
OBJECTIVE: To assess the specificity of cortical inhibitory deficits in cervical dystonia patients. METHODS: A systematic test battery was developed to assess spatial and temporal aspects of cortical inhibition, in motor and somatosensory systems of the hand. We tested 17 cervical dystonia (CD) patients and 19 controls assessing somatosensory spatial inhibition (grating orientation test, interdigital feedforward subliminal inhibition), somatosensory temporal inhibition (temporal discrimination threshold, feedforward subliminal inhibition), motor spatial inhibition (surround inhibition), and motor temporal inhibition (short interval intracortical inhibition)...
December 1, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305294/cortical-folding-abnormalities-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-who-have-persistent-auditory-verbal-hallucinations
#7
Katharina M Kubera, Philipp A Thomann, Dusan Hirjak, Anja Barth, Fabio Sambataro, Nenad Vasic, Nadine D Wolf, Karel Frasch, R Christian Wolf
In schizophrenia temporal cortical volume loss differs between patients presenting with persistent auditory verbal hallucinations (pAVH) in contrast to those without hallucinatory symptoms (nAVH). However, it is unknown whether this deficit reflects a neural signature of neurodevelopmental origin or if abnormal temporal cortical volume is reflective of factors which may be relevant at later stages of the disorder. Here, we tested the hypothesis that local gyrification index (LGI) in regions of the temporal cortex differs between patients with pAVH (n=10) and healthy controls (n=14), and that abnormal temporal LGI discriminates between pAVH and nAVH (n=10)...
January 2, 2018: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304419/abnormal-somatosensory-temporal-discrimination-in-parkinson-s-disease-pathophysiological-correlates-and-role-in-motor-control-deficits
#8
Myung Sik Lee, Myung Jun Lee, Antonella Conte, Alfredo Berardelli
OBJECTIVE: The somatosensory temporal discrimination threshold (STDT), defined as the shortest time interval required for two tactile stimuli to be perceived as separate, is longer in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). In this review, we discuss STDT findings in healthy subjects and in PD patients and the relationship between altered STDT and motor disturbances. METHODS: A search was conducted on PubMed for papers dealing with PD and temporal discrimination published from January 1990 to July 2017...
December 13, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304418/cortical-sources-of-resting-state-electroencephalographic-rhythms-probe-brain-function-in-na%C3%A3-ve-hiv-individuals
#9
Claudio Babiloni, Giuseppe Noce, Alfredo Pennica, Paolo Onorati, Paolo Capotosto, Claudio Del Percio, Paolo Roma, Valentina Correr, Elisa Piccinni, Ginevra Toma, Andrea Soricelli, Francesco Di Campli, Laura Gianserra, Lorenzo Ciullini, Antonio Aceti, Elisabetta Teti, Loredana Sarmati, Gloria Crocetti, Raffaele Ferri, Valentina Catania, Maria Teresa Pascarelli, Massimo Andreoni, Stefano Ferracuti
OBJECTIVE: Here we evaluated the hypothesis that resting state electroencephalographic (EEG) cortical sources correlated with cognitive functions and discriminated asymptomatic treatment-naïve HIV subjects (no AIDS). METHODS: EEG, clinical, and neuropsychological data were collected in 103 treatment-naïve HIV subjects (88 males; mean age 39.8 years ± 1.1 standard error of the mean, SE). An age-matched group of 70 cognitively normal and HIV-negative (Healthy; 56 males; 39...
December 20, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304152/combination-of-near-infrared-and-thermal-imaging-techniques-for-the-remote-and-simultaneous-measurements-of-breathing-and-heart-rates-under-sleep-situation
#10
Menghan Hu, Guangtao Zhai, Duo Li, Yezhao Fan, Huiyu Duan, Wenhan Zhu, Xiaokang Yang
To achieve the simultaneous and unobtrusive breathing rate (BR) and heart rate (HR) measurements during nighttime, we leverage a far-infrared imager and an infrared camera equipped with IR-Cut lens and an infrared lighting array to develop a dual-camera imaging system. A custom-built cascade face classifier, containing the conventional Adaboost model and fully convolutional network trained by 32K images, was used to detect the face region in registered infrared images. The region of interest (ROI) inclusive of mouth and nose regions was afterwards confirmed by the discriminative regression and coordinate conversions of three selected landmarks...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302822/robust-neuronal-discrimination-in-primary-auditory-cortex-despite-degradations-of-spectro-temporal-acoustic-details-comparison-between-guinea-pigs-with-normal-hearing-and-mild-age-related-hearing-loss
#11
Yonane Aushana, Samira Souffi, Jean-Marc Edeline, Christian Lorenzi, Chloé Huetz
This study investigated to which extent the primary auditory cortex of young normal-hearing and mild hearing-impaired aged animals is able to maintain invariant representation of critical temporal-modulation features when sounds are submitted to degradations of fine spectro-temporal acoustic details. This was achieved by recording ensemble of cortical responses to conspecific vocalizations in guinea pigs with either normal hearing or mild age-related sensorineural hearing loss. The vocalizations were degraded using a tone vocoder...
January 4, 2018: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300837/pv-cells-enhance-temporal-population-codes-but-not-stimulus-related-timing-in-auditory-cortex
#12
Bryan M Krause, Caitlin A Murphy, Daniel J Uhlrich, Matthew I Banks
Spatio-temporal cortical activity patterns relative to both peripheral input and local network activity carry information about stimulus identity and context. GABAergic interneurons are reported to regulate spiking at millisecond precision in response to sensory stimulation and during gamma oscillations; their role in regulating spike timing during induced network bursts is unclear. We investigated this issue in murine auditory thalamo-cortical (TC) brain slices, in which TC afferents induced network bursts similar to previous reports in vivo...
December 28, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298873/multicentre-prospective-evaluation-of-real-time-optical-diagnosis-of-t1-colorectal-cancer-in-large-non-pedunculated-colorectal-polyps-using-narrow-band-imaging-the-optical-study
#13
Yara Backes, Matthijs P Schwartz, Frank Ter Borg, Frank H J Wolfhagen, John N Groen, Wouter H de Vos Tot Nederveen Cappel, Jeroen van Bergeijk, Joost M J Geesing, Bernhard W M Spanier, Paul Didden, Frank P Vleggaar, Miangela M Lacle, Sjoerd G Elias, Leon M G Moons
OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the preresection accuracy of optical diagnosis of T1 colorectal cancer (CRC) in large non-pedunculated colorectal polyps (LNPCPs). DESIGN: In this multicentre prospective study, endoscopists predicted the histology during colonoscopy in consecutive patients with LNPCPs using a standardised procedure for optical assessment. The presence of morphological features assessed with white light, and vascular and surface pattern with narrow-band imaging (NBI) were recorded, together with the optical diagnosis, the confidence level of prediction and the recommended treatment...
January 3, 2018: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289578/developing-a-novel-preparation-to-analyze-the-onset-of-derived-stimulus-relations
#14
Adam H Doughty, Casey M Irwin
The experimental analysis of derived stimulus relations is a critical research area. A training-then-testing preparation nearly always is used to study derived relations. In the training phase, participants learn the relevant baseline discriminations via differential consequences (e.g., AB and AC relations). In the testing phase, they are presented with probe trials in the absence of differential consequences (e.g., BA and CA symmetry trials and BC and CB equivalence trials). High accuracy levels sometimes are observed from the start of testing such that it is unclear whether the participants learned these relations before testing...
December 28, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284675/test-retest-reproducibility-for-the-tau-pet-imaging-agent-flortaucipir-f-18
#15
Michael D Devous, Abhinay D Joshi, Michael Navitsky, Sudeepti Southekal, Michael J Pontecorvo, Haiqing Shen, Ming Lu, William R Shankle, John P Seibyl, Ken Marek, Mark A Mintun
Background: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by beta-amyloid plaques (Aβ) and tau neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs). There are several PET imaging biomarkers for Aβ including 11C-PiB and 18F florbetapir. Recently, PET tracers for tau NFTs have become available and have shown utility in detection and monitoring of neurofibrillary pathology over time. Flortaucipir F 18 is one such tracer. Initial clinical studies indicated greater tau binding in AD and MCI patients compared to controls in a pattern consistent with tau pathology observed at autopsy...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283592/development-and-validation-of-a-measure-of-maladaptive-social-evaluative-beliefs-characteristic-of-social-anxiety-disorder-in-youth-the-report-of-youth-social-cognitions-rysc
#16
Quincy J J Wong, Sarah P Certoma, Lauren F McLellan, Brynjar Halldorsson, Natasha Reyes, Kelsie Boulton, Jennifer L Hudson, Ronald M Rapee
Recent research has started to examine the applicability of influential adult models of the maintenance of social anxiety disorder (SAD) to youth. This research is limited by the lack of psychometrically validated measures of underlying constructs that are developmentally appropriate for youth. One key construct in adult models of SAD is maladaptive social-evaluative beliefs. The current study aimed to develop and validate a measure of these beliefs in youth, known as the Report of Youth Social Cognitions (RYSC)...
December 28, 2017: Psychological Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282652/task-irrelevant-sounds-influence-both-temporal-order-and-apparent-motion-judgments-about-tactile-stimuli-applied-to-crossed-and-uncrossed-hands
#17
Stephanie Badde, Brigitte Röder, Patrick Bruns
It has been suggested that judgments about the temporal-spatial order of successive tactile stimuli depend on the perceived direction of apparent motion between them. Here we manipulated tactile apparent-motion percepts by presenting a brief, task-irrelevant auditory stimulus temporally in-between pairs of tactile stimuli. The tactile stimuli were applied one to each hand, with varying stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs). Participants reported the location of the first stimulus (temporal order judgments: TOJs) while adopting both crossed and uncrossed hand postures, so we could scrutinize skin-based, anatomical, and external reference frames...
December 27, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278382/selecting-feature-subsets-based-on-svm-rfe-and-the-overlapping-ratio-with-applications-in-bioinformatics
#18
Xiaohui Lin, Chao Li, Yanhui Zhang, Benzhe Su, Meng Fan, Hai Wei
Feature selection is an important topic in bioinformatics. Defining informative features from complex high dimensional biological data is critical in disease study, drug development, etc. Support vector machine-recursive feature elimination (SVM-RFE) is an efficient feature selection technique that has shown its power in many applications. It ranks the features according to the recursive feature deletion sequence based on SVM. In this study, we propose a method, SVM-RFE-OA, which combines the classification accuracy rate and the average overlapping ratio of the samples to determine the number of features to be selected from the feature rank of SVM-RFE...
December 26, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277646/convergence-of-spoken-and-written-language-processing-in-the-superior-temporal-sulcus
#19
Stephen M Wilson, Alexa Bautista, Angelica McCarron
Spoken and written language processing streams converge in the superior temporal sulcus (STS), but the functional and anatomical nature of this convergence is not clear. We used functional MRI to quantify neural responses to spoken and written language, along with unintelligible stimuli in each modality, and employed several strategies to segregate activations on the dorsal and ventral banks of the STS. We found that intelligible and unintelligible inputs in both modalities activated the dorsal bank of the STS...
December 22, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259275/comparing-stroop-like-and-simon-effects-on-perceptual-features
#20
Elisa Scerrati, Luisa Lugli, Roberto Nicoletti, Carlo Umiltà
Stroop-like and Simon tasks produce two sources of interference in human information processing. Despite being logically similar, it is still debated whether the conflicts ensuing from the two tasks are resolved by the same or different mechanisms. In the present study, we compare two accounts of the Stroop-like effect. According to the Perceptual Account, the Stroop-like effect is due to Stimulus-Stimulus congruence. According to the Decisional Account, the Stroop-like effect results from the same mechanisms that produce the Simon effect, that is, Stimulus-Response compatibility...
December 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
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