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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910803/the-prognostic-and-predictive-value-of-tmprss2-erg-gene-fusion-and-erg-protein-expression-in-prostate-cancer-biopsies
#1
Kasper Drimer Berg
BACKGROUND: The clinical course of prostate carcinoma (PCa) is very heterogeneous. Consequently, a personalised approach for risk stratification and treatment planning is important. Recently, it has become evident that PCa, also at the genomic level, is heterogeneous. An early and common alteration is the gene fusion between the transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2) gene and the v-ets avian erythroblastosis virus E26 oncogene homolog (ERG) gene resulting in expression of the oncoprotein ERG...
December 2016: Danish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909405/classifying-cognitive-profiles-using-machine-learning-with-privileged-information-in-mild-cognitive-impairment
#2
Hanin H Alahmadi, Yuan Shen, Shereen Fouad, Caroline Di B Luft, Peter Bentham, Zoe Kourtzi, Peter Tino
Early diagnosis of dementia is critical for assessing disease progression and potential treatment. State-or-the-art machine learning techniques have been increasingly employed to take on this diagnostic task. In this study, we employed Generalized Matrix Learning Vector Quantization (GMLVQ) classifiers to discriminate patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) from healthy controls based on their cognitive skills. Further, we adopted a "Learning with privileged information" approach to combine cognitive and fMRI data for the classification task...
2016: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908085/age-effects-in-discrimination-of-intervals-within-accented-tone-sequences-differing-in-accent-type-and-sequence-presentation-rate
#3
Peter J Fitzgibbons, Sandra Gordon-Salant
The study measured listener sensitivity to increments in the duration of one or two target silent intervals embedded within unaccented tone sequences and sequences that featured a single accented component. The baseline unaccented sequences consisted of six 1000-Hz 40-ms tone bursts that were separated equally by silent intervals to establish a slower tone sequence rate, with tonal inter-onset intervals (IOIs) set to 200 ms, or a faster rate with tonal IOIs set to 100 ms. Stimulus accent was created by doubling the baseline duration of a single sequence component, either the second tone burst (tonal accent), or the second tonal IOI (interval accent)...
November 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907050/when-is-the-brain-dead-living-like-electrophysiological-responses-and-photon-emissions-from-applications-of-neurotransmitters-in-fixed-post-mortem-human-brains
#4
Michael A Persinger, Nicolas Rouleau, Nirosha J Murugan, Lucas W E Tessaro, Justin N Costa
The structure of the post-mortem human brain can be preserved by immersing the organ within a fixative solution. Once the brain is perfused, cellular and histological features are maintained over extended periods of time. However, functions of the human brain are not assumed to be preserved beyond death and subsequent chemical fixation. Here we present a series of experiments which, together, refute this assumption. Instead, we suggest that chemical preservation of brain structure results in some retained functional capacity...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906301/realization-of-multiplexing-of-heralded-single-photon-sources-using-photon-number-resolving-detectors
#5
Takayuki Kiyohara, Ryo Okamoto, Shigeki Takeuchi
Heralded single-photon sources (HSPS) are widely used in experimental quantum science because they have negligibly small jitter and can therefore achieve high visibility for quantum interference. However, it is necessary to decrease the photon generation rate to suppress multi-photon components. To address this problem, two methods have been proposed and discussed: spatial (or temporal) source multiplexing and photon-pair number discrimination. Here, we report the experimental realization of a HSPS combining these two methods that can suppress the two-photon probability to 44...
November 28, 2016: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903728/context-dependent-accumulation-of-sensory-evidence-in-the-parietal-cortex-underlies-flexible-task-switching
#6
Hironori Kumano, Yuki Suda, Takanori Uka
: Switching behavior based on multiple rules is a fundamental ability of flexible behavior. Although interactions among the frontal, parietal, and sensory cortices are necessary for such flexibility, little is known about the neural computations concerning context-dependent information readouts. Here, we provide evidence that neurons in the lateral intraparietal area (LIP) accumulate relevant information preferentially depending on context. We trained monkeys to switch between direction and depth discrimination tasks and analyzed the buildup activity in the LIP depending on task context...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903638/techniques-to-identify-and-temporally-correlate-calcium-transients-between-multiple-regions-of-interest-in-vertebrate-neural-circuits
#7
Julian Sorrensen, Lukasz Wiklendt, Tim James Hibberd, Marcello C Costa, Nick J Spencer
Calcium imaging is commonly used to record dynamic changes in excitability from axons or cell bodies in the nervous system of vertebrates. These recordings often reveal discrete calcium transients which have variable amplitudes, durations, and rates-of-rise and decay, all of which can arise from an unstable, or "noisy" baseline. This often leads to considerable ambiguity about how to discriminate and quantify calcium transients. We describe an analytical methodology that objectively identifies multiple calcium transients from multiple recording sites and quantifies the degree of temporal synchrony between each event...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903329/prediction-of-free-and-cued-selective-reminding-test-performance-using-volumetric-and-amyloid-based-biomarkers-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#8
Lisa Quenon, Laurence Dricot, John L Woodard, Bernard Hanseeuw, Nathalie Gilis, Renaud Lhommel, Adrian Ivanoiu
OBJECTIVES: Relatively few studies have investigated relationships between performance on clinical memory measures and indexes of underlying neuropathology related to Alzheimer's disease (AD). This study investigated predictive relationships between Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test (FCSRT) cue efficiency (CE) and free-recall (FR) measures and brain amyloid levels, hippocampal volume (HV), and regional cortical thickness. METHODS: Thirty-one older controls without memory complaints and 60 patients presenting memory complaints underwent the FCSRT, amyloid imaging using [F18]-flutemetamol positron emission tomography, and surface-based morphometry (SBM) using brain magnetic resonance imaging...
November 2016: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901026/perceptual-training-yields-rapid-improvements-in-visually-impaired-youth
#9
Jeffrey B Nyquist, Joseph S Lappin, Ruyuan Zhang, Duje Tadin
Visual function demands coordinated responses to information over a wide field of view, involving both central and peripheral vision. Visually impaired individuals often seem to underutilize peripheral vision, even in absence of obvious peripheral deficits. Motivated by perceptual training studies with typically sighted adults, we examined the effectiveness of perceptual training in improving peripheral perception of visually impaired youth. Here, we evaluated the effectiveness of three training regimens: (1) an action video game, (2) a psychophysical task that combined attentional tracking with a spatially and temporally unpredictable motion discrimination task, and (3) a control video game...
November 30, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897971/transformation-of-temporal-sequences-in-the-zebra-finch-auditory-system
#10
Yoonseob Lim, Ryan Lagoy, Barbara G Shinn-Cunningham, Timothy J Gardner
This study examines how temporally patterned stimuli are transformed as they propagate from primary to secondary zones in the thalamo-recipient auditory pallium in zebra finches. Using a new class of synthetic click stimuli, we find a robust mapping from temporal sequences in the primary zone to distinct population vectors in secondary auditory areas. We tested whether songbirds could discriminate synthetic click sequences in an operant setup and found that a robust behavioral discrimination is present for click sequences composed of intervals ranging from 11-40ms, but breaks down for stimuli composed of longer inter-click intervals...
November 29, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894197/temporal-validation-of-a-simplified-blastocyst-grading-system
#11
Alison Richardson, Sophie Brearley, Saran Ahitan, Sarah Chamberlain, Tracey Davey, Lyndsey Zujovic, James Hopkisson, Bruce Campbell, Nick Raine-Fenning
We have recently established the clinical effectiveness and credibility of a simplified blastocyst grading system by demonstrating its prognostic potential and the inter- and intra-observer variability associated with it. To be considered clinically useful, however, the grading system also needs to be accurate (i.e. well calibrated with good discriminative ability). This study prospectively evaluates the performance of the grading system on subsequent patients from the same IVF unit in an attempt to temporally validate the model...
November 28, 2016: Human Fertility: Journal of the British Fertility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893840/impact-of-prolonged-temporal-discrimination-threshold-on-finger-movements-of-parkinson-s-disease
#12
M J Lee, J S Son, J H Lee, S J Kim, C H Lyoo, M S Lee
INTRODUCTION: Sensory information is essential for the precise control of movement. Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) have higher-order sensory dysfunctions including prolonged temporal discrimination threshold (TDT). However, the impact of prolonged TDT on parkinsonian motor deficits is uncertain. METHODS: This study includes 33 PD patients and 24 healthy controls. TDT values were measured in the index finger. Using coin rotation task (CRT), dexterous finger movement was assessed...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893761/high-accuracy-human-activity-recognition-based-on-sparse-locality-preserving-projections
#13
Xiangbin Zhu, Huiling Qiu
Human activity recognition(HAR) from the temporal streams of sensory data has been applied to many fields, such as healthcare services, intelligent environments and cyber security. However, the classification accuracy of most existed methods is not enough in some applications, especially for healthcare services. In order to improving accuracy, it is necessary to develop a novel method which will take full account of the intrinsic sequential characteristics for time-series sensory data. Moreover, each human activity may has correlated feature relationship at different levels...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890810/interaction-of-language-auditory-and-memory-brain-networks-in-auditory-verbal-hallucinations
#14
REVIEW
Branislava Ćurčić-Blake, Judith Ford, Daniela Hubl, Natasza D Orlov, Iris E Sommer, Flavie Waters, Paul Allen, Renaud Jardri, Peter W Woodruff, David Olivier, Christoph Mulert, Todd S Woodward, André Aleman
Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) occur in psychotic disorders, but also as a symptom of other conditions and even in healthy people. Several current theories on the origin of AVH converge, with neuroimaging studies suggesting that the language, auditory and memory/limbic networks are of particular relevance. However, reconciliation of these theories with experimental evidence is missing. We review 50 studies investigating functional (EEG and fMRI) and anatomic (diffusion tensor imaging) connectivity in these networks, and explore the evidence supporting abnormal connectivity in these networks associated with AVH...
November 24, 2016: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881719/neuronal-pattern-separation-of-motion-relevant-input-in-lip-activity
#15
Nareg Berberian, Amanda MacPherson, Eloise Giraud, Lydia Richardson, Jean-Philippe Thivierge
In various regions of the brain, neurons discriminate sensory stimuli by decreasing the similarity between ambiguous input patterns. Here we examine whether this process of pattern separation may drive the rapid discrimination of visual motion stimuli in the lateral intraparietal area (LIP). Starting with a simple mean-rate population model that captures neuronal activity in LIP, we show that overlapping input patterns can be reformatted dynamically to give rise to separated patterns of neuronal activity. The population model predicts that a key ingredient of pattern separation is the presence of heterogeneity in the response of individual units...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880787/seasonal-and-spatial-environmental-influence-on-opisthorchis-viverrini-intermediate-hosts-abundance-and-distribution-insights-on-transmission-dynamics-and-sustainable-control
#16
Christina Sunyoung Kim, Pierre Echaubard, Apiporn Suwannatrai, Sasithorn Kaewkes, Bruce A Wilcox, Banchob Sripa
BACKGROUND: Opisthorchis viverrini (Ov) is a complex-life-cycle trematode affecting 10 million people in SEA (Southeast Asia). Human infection occurs when infected cyprinid fish are consumed raw or undercooked. Ov requires three hosts and presents two free-living parasitic stages. As a consequence Ov transmission and infection in intermediate and human hosts are strongly mediated by environmental factors and understanding how environmental variability influences intermediate host abundance is critical...
November 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880734/the-role-of-necrosis-acute-hypoxia-and-chronic-hypoxia-in-18-f-fmiso-pet-image-contrast-a-computational-modelling-study
#17
Daniel R Warren, Mike Partridge
Positron emission tomography (PET) using (18)F-fluoromisonidazole (FMISO) is a promising technique for imaging tumour hypoxia, and a potential target for radiotherapy dose-painting. However, the relationship between FMISO uptake and oxygen partial pressure ([Formula: see text]) is yet to be quantified fully. Tissue oxygenation varies over distances much smaller than clinical PET resolution (<100 μm versus  ∼4 mm), and cyclic variations in tumour perfusion have been observed on timescales shorter than typical FMISO PET studies (∼20 min versus a few hours)...
December 21, 2016: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878544/spatial-and-temporal-assessment-of-surface-water-quality-in-the-arka-river-akkar-lebanon
#18
Claude Daou, Rony Nabbout, Amine Kassouf
Surface water quality monitoring constitutes a crucial and important step in any water quality management system. Twenty-three physicochemical and microbiological parameters were assessed in surface water samples collected from the Arka River located in the Akkar District, north of Lebanon. Eight sampling locations were considered along the river and seven sampling campaigns were performed in order to evaluate spatial and temporal influences. The extraction of relevant information from this relatively large data set was done using principal component analysis (PCA), being a very well established chemometric tool in this field...
December 0: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876020/the-brief-negative-symptom-scale-validation-of-the-german-translation-and-convergent-validity-with-self-rated-anhedonia-and-observer-rated-apathy
#19
Martin Bischof, Caitriona Obermann, Matthias N Hartmann, Oliver M Hager, Matthias Kirschner, Agne Kluge, Gregory P Strauss, Stefan Kaiser
BACKGROUND: Negative symptoms are considered core symptoms of schizophrenia. The Brief Negative Symptom Scale (BNSS) was developed to measure this symptomatic dimension according to a current consensus definition. The present study examined the psychometric properties of the German version of the BNSS. To expand former findings on convergent validity, we employed the Temporal Experience Pleasure Scale (TEPS), a hedonic self-report that distinguishes between consummatory and anticipatory pleasure...
November 22, 2016: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872293/emergence-of-an-abstract-categorical-code-enabling-the-discrimination-of-temporally-structured-tactile-stimuli
#20
Román Rossi-Pool, Emilio Salinas, Antonio Zainos, Manuel Alvarez, José Vergara, Néstor Parga, Ranulfo Romo
The problem of neural coding in perceptual decision making revolves around two fundamental questions: (i) How are the neural representations of sensory stimuli related to perception, and (ii) what attributes of these neural responses are relevant for downstream networks, and how do they influence decision making? We studied these two questions by recording neurons in primary somatosensory (S1) and dorsal premotor (DPC) cortex while trained monkeys reported whether the temporal pattern structure of two sequential vibrotactile stimuli (of equal mean frequency) was the same or different...
November 21, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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