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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634466/abnormal-temporal-coupling-of-tactile-perception-and-motor-action-in-parkinson-s-disease
#1
Antonella Conte, Daniele Belvisi, Matteo Tartaglia, Francesca Natalia Cortese, Viola Baione, Emanuele Battista, Xiao Y Zhu, Giovanni Fabbrini, Alfredo Berardelli
Evidence shows altered somatosensory temporal discrimination threshold (STDT) in Parkinson's disease in comparison to normal subjects. In healthy subjects, movement execution modulates STDT values through mechanisms of sensory gating. We investigated whether STDT modulation during movement execution in patients with Parkinson's disease differs from that in healthy subjects. In 24 patients with Parkinson's disease and 20 healthy subjects, we tested STDT at baseline and during index finger abductions (at movement onset "0", 100, and 200 ms thereafter)...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633972/the-neural-basis-of-form-and-form-motion-integration-from-static-and-dynamic-translational-glass-patterns-a-rtms-investigation
#2
Andrea Pavan, Filippo Ghin, Rita Donato, Gianluca Campana, George Mather
A long-held view of the visual system is that form and motion are independently analysed. However, there is physiological and psychophysical evidence of early interaction in the processing of form and motion. In this study, we used a combination of Glass patterns (GPs) and repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) to investigate in human observers the neural mechanisms underlying form-motion integration. GPs consist of randomly distributed dot pairs (dipoles) that induce the percept of an oriented stimulus...
June 17, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631005/phonological-working-memory-for-words-and-nonwords-in-cerebral-cortex
#3
Tyler K Perrachione, Satrajit S Ghosh, Irina Ostrovskaya, John D E Gabrieli, Ioulia Kovelman
Purpose: The primary purpose of this study was to identify the brain bases of phonological working memory (the short-term maintenance of speech sounds) using behavioral tasks analogous to clinically sensitive assessments of nonword repetition. The secondary purpose of the study was to identify how individual differences in brain activation were related to participants' nonword repetition abilities. Method: We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to measure neurophysiological response during a nonword discrimination task derived from standard clinical assessments of phonological working memory...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629974/the-effects-of-changes-in-object-location-on-object-identity-detection%C3%AF-a-simultaneous-eeg-fmri-study
#4
Ping Yang, Chenggui Fan, Min Wang, Noa Fogelson, Ling Li
Object identity and location are bound together to form a unique integration that is maintained and processed in visual working memory (VWM). Changes in task-irrelevant object location have been shown to impair the retrieval of memorial representations and the detection of object identity changes. However, the neural correlates of this cognitive process remain largely unknown. In the present study, we aim to investigate the underlying brain activation during object color change detection and the modulatory effects of changes in object location and VWM load...
June 16, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629241/a-model-to-predict-risk-of-postpartum-infection-after-caesarean-delivery
#5
Laura J Moulton, J Eric Jelovsek, Mark Lachiewicz, Kevin Chagin, Oluwatosin Goje
PURPOSE: To build and validate a statistical model to predict infection after Caesarean delivery (CD). METHODS: Patient and surgical variables within 30 days of CD were collected on 2419 women. Postpartum infection included surgical site infection, urinary tract infection, endomyometritis and pneumonia. The data were split into model development and internal validation (1 Jan - 31 Aug; N=1641) and temporal validation subsets (1 Sept - 31 Dec; N=778). Logistic regression models were fit to the data with concordance index and calibration curves used to assess accuracy...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628849/kinematic-patterns-underlying-disguised-movements-spatial-and-temporal-dissimilarity-compared-to-genuine-movement-patterns
#6
Fabian Helm, Jörn Munzert, Nikolaus F Troje
This study examined the kinematic characteristics of disguised movements by applying linear discriminant (LDA) and dissimilarity analyses to the motion data from 788 disguised and 792 non-disguised 7-m penalty throws performed by novice and expert handball field players. Results of the LDA showed that discrimination between type of throws (disguised vs. non-disguised) was more error-prone when throws were performed by experts (spatial: 4.6%; temporal: 29.6%) compared to novices (spatial: 1.0%; temporal: 20...
June 16, 2017: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628630/bird-sound-spectrogram-decomposition-through-non-negative-matrix-factorization-for-the-acoustic-classification-of-bird-species
#7
Jimmy Ludeña-Choez, Raisa Quispe-Soncco, Ascensión Gallardo-Antolín
Feature extraction for Acoustic Bird Species Classification (ABSC) tasks has traditionally been based on parametric representations that were specifically developed for speech signals, such as Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficients (MFCC). However, the discrimination capabilities of these features for ABSC could be enhanced by accounting for the vocal production mechanisms of birds, and, in particular, the spectro-temporal structure of bird sounds. In this paper, a new front-end for ABSC is proposed that incorporates this specific information through the non-negative decomposition of bird sound spectrograms...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627117/the-cognitive-features-of-idiopathic-and-dyt1-dystonia
#8
REVIEW
Marjan Jahanshahi, Mariam Torkamani
Dystonia is a common movement disorder. In this paper, we review the literature on cognitive function in idiopathic and DYT1 dystonia. In idiopathic or DYT1 dystonia, cognition is largely intact with only isolated executive dysfunction. Dystonia patients also have increased temporal and spatial discrimination thresholds, considered endophenotypes of the disorder because deficits are also shown by unaffected relatives and nonmanifesting carriers of the DYT1 mutation. Anticholinergic medication in high doses can be associated with memory impairment in dystonia...
June 19, 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622759/catching-audiovisual-interactions-with-a-first-person-fisherman-video-game
#9
Yile Sun, Timothy J Hickey, Barbara Shinn-Cunningham, Robert Sekuler
The human brain is excellent at integrating information from different sources across multiple sensory modalities. To examine one particularly important form of multisensory interaction, we manipulated the temporal correlation between visual and auditory stimuli in a first-person fisherman video game. Subjects saw rapidly swimming fish whose size oscillated, either at 6 or 8 Hz. Subjects categorized each fish according to its rate of size oscillation, while trying to ignore a concurrent broadband sound seemingly emitted by the fish...
July 2017: Perception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620378/nature-and-consequences-of-biological-reductionism-for-the-immunological-study-of-infectious-diseases
#10
REVIEW
Ariel L Rivas, Gabriel Leitner, Mark D Jankowski, Almira L Hoogesteijn, Michelle J Iandiorio, Stylianos Chatzipanagiotou, Anastasios Ioannidis, Shlomo E Blum, Renata Piccinini, Athos Antoniades, Jane C Fazio, Yiorgos Apidianakis, Jeanne M Fair, Marc H V Van Regenmortel
Evolution has conserved "economic" systems that perform many functions, faster or better, with less. For example, three to five leukocyte types protect from thousands of pathogens. To achieve so much with so little, biological systems combine their limited elements, creating complex structures. Yet, the prevalent research paradigm is reductionist. Focusing on infectious diseases, reductionist and non-reductionist views are here described. The literature indicates that reductionism is associated with information loss and errors, while non-reductionist operations can extract more information from the same data...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620331/vida1-the-development-and-validation-of-a-new-questionnaire-for-measuring-health-related-quality-of-life-in-patients-with-type-1-diabetes
#11
Dácil Alvarado-Martel, M Angeles Ruiz Fernández, Maribel Cuadrado Vigaray, Armando Carrillo, Mauro Boronat, Ana Expósito Montesdeoca, Lía Nattero Chávez, Maite Pozuelo Sánchez, Pino López Quevedo, Ana D Santana Suárez, Natalia Hillman, David Subias, Pilar Martin Vaquero, Lourdes Sáez de Ibarra, Didac Mauricio, Pedro de Pablos-Velasco, Francisco J Nóvoa, Ana M Wägner
This study describes the development of a new questionnaire to measure health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with type 1 diabetes (the ViDa1 questionnaire) and provides information on its psychometric properties. For its development, open interviews with patients took place and topics relevant to patients' HRQoL were identified and items were generated. Qualitative analysis of items, expert review, and refinement of the questionnaire followed. A pilot study (N = 150) was conducted to explore the underlying structure of the 40-item ViDa1 questionnaire...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620292/dynamic-responses-in-brain-networks-to-social-feedback-a-dual-eeg-acquisition-study-in-adolescent-couples
#12
Ching-Chang Kuo, Thao Ha, Ashley M Ebbert, Don M Tucker, Thomas J Dishion
Adolescence is a sensitive period for the development of romantic relationships. During this period the maturation of frontolimbic networks is particularly important for the capacity to regulate emotional experiences. In previous research, both functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and dense array electroencephalography (dEEG) measures have suggested that responses in limbic regions are enhanced in adolescents experiencing social rejection. In the present research, we examined social acceptance and rejection from romantic partners as they engaged in a Chatroom Interact Task...
2017: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615721/spatio-temporal-variability-of-trace-elements-fingerprints-in-cockle-cerastoderma-edule-shells-and-its-relevance-for-tracing-geographic-origin
#13
Fernando Ricardo, Tânia Pimentel, Luciana Génio, Ricardo Calado
Understanding spatio-temporal variability of trace elements fingerprints (TEF) in bivalve shells is paramount to determine the discrimination power of this analytical approach and secure traceability along supply chains. Spatio-temporal variability of TEF was assessed in cockle (Cerastoderma edule) shells using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Four elemental ratios (Mg/Ca, Mn/Ca, Sr/Ca and Ba/Ca) were measured from the shells of specimens originating from eight different ecosystems along the Portuguese coast, as well as from four different areas, within one of them, over two consecutive years (2013 and 2014)...
June 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614367/pre-saccadic-perception-separate-time-courses-for-enhancement-and-spatial-pooling-at-the-saccade-target
#14
Antimo Buonocore, Alessio Fracasso, David Melcher
We interact with complex scenes using eye movements to select targets of interest. Studies have shown that the future target of a saccadic eye movement is processed differently by the visual system. A number of effects have been reported, including a benefit for perceptual performance at the target ("enhancement"), reduced influences of backward masking ("un-masking"), reduced crowding ("un-crowding") and spatial compression towards the saccade target. We investigated the time course of these effects by measuring orientation discrimination for targets that were spatially crowded or temporally masked...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612898/sex-estimation-by-femur-in-modern-thai-population
#15
T Monum, S Prasitwattanseree, S Das, P Siriphimolwat, P Mahakkanukrauh
Sex estimation is an important step of postmortem investigation and the femur is a useful bone for sex estimation by using metric analysis method. Even though there have been a reported sex estimation method by using femur in Thais, the temporal change related to time and anthropological data need to be renewed. Thus the aim of this study is to re-evaluate sex estimation by femur in Thais. 97 adult male and 103 female femora were random chosen from Forensic osteology research center and 6 measurements were applied tend to...
May 2017: La Clinica Terapeutica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607389/visual-adaptation-reveals-an-objective-electrophysiological-measure-of-high-level-individual-face-discrimination
#16
Talia L Retter, Bruno Rossion
The ability to individualize faces is a fundamental human brain function. Following visual adaptation to one individual face, the suppressed neural response to this identity becomes discriminable from an unadapted facial identity at a neural population level. Here, we investigate a simple and objective measure of individual face discrimination with electroencephalographic (EEG) frequency tagging following adaptation. In a first condition, (1) two facial identities are presented in alternation at a rate of six images per second (6 Hz; 3 Hz identity repetition rate) for a 20 s testing sequence, following 10-s adaptation to one of the facial identities; this results in a significant identity discrimination response at 3 Hz in the frequency domain of the EEG over right occipito-temporal channels, replicating our previous findings...
June 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605017/the-manual-orienting-response-habituation-to-repeated-tactile-stimuli-in-preterm-neonates-discrimination-of-stimulus-locations-and-interstimulus-intervals
#17
Victoria Dumont, Jan Bulla, Nicolas Bessot, Julie Gonidec, Marc Zabalia, Bernard Guillois, Nadège Roche-Labarbe
Preterm infants frequently develop atypical sensory profiles, the tactile modality being particularly affected. However, there is a lack of recent investigation of neonatal tactile perception in a passive context, especially in preterms who are particularly exposed to this tactile stimuli. Our aims were to provide evidence of orienting responses (behavioral modifications directing subject's attention towards stimuli) and habituation to passive tactile stimuli in preterm neonates, to explore their ability to perceive spatial and temporal aspects of the stimulus, and to evaluate the effect of clinical factors on these abilities...
July 2017: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603919/dynamic-brain-connectivity-is-a-better-predictor-of-ptsd-than-static-connectivity
#18
Changfeng Jin, Hao Jia, Pradyumna Lanka, D Rangaprakash, Lingjiang Li, Tianming Liu, Xiaoping Hu, Gopikrishna Deshpande
Using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging, we test the hypothesis that subjects with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are characterized by reduced temporal variability of brain connectivity compared to matched healthy controls. Specifically, we test whether PTSD is characterized by elevated static connectivity, coupled with decreased temporal variability of those connections, with the latter providing greater sensitivity toward the pathology than the former. Static functional connectivity (FC; nondirectional zero-lag correlation) and static effective connectivity (EC; directional time-lagged relationships) were obtained over the entire brain using conventional models...
June 12, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601530/spectro-temporal-cues-enhance-modulation-sensitivity-in-cochlear-implant-users
#19
Yi Zheng, Monty Escabí, Ruth Y Litovsky
Although speech understanding is highly variable amongst cochlear implants (CIs) subjects, the remarkably high speech recognition performance of many CI users is unexpected and not well understood. Numerous factors, including neural health and degradation of the spectral information in the speech signal of CIs, likely contribute to speech understanding. We studied the ability to use spectro-temporal modulations, which may be critical for speech understanding and discrimination, and hypothesize that CI users adopt a different perceptual strategy than normal-hearing (NH) individuals, whereby they rely more heavily on joint spectro-temporal cues to enhance detection of auditory cues...
May 26, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598196/derivation-and-validation-of-a-prognostic-model-to-predict-six-month-mortality-in-an-intensive-care-unit-population
#20
Sarah Hadique, Stacey Culp, Rahul G Sangani, Kyle D Chapman, Saad Khan, John E Parker, Alvin H Moss
RATIONALE: Identification of terminally ill patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) would facilitate decision making and timely palliative care. OBJECTIVE: To develop and validate a patient-specific integrated prognostic model to predict six-month mortality in medical ICU patients. METHODS: A longitudinal prospective cohort study of temporally split samples of 1049 consecutive Medical ICU patients in a tertiary care hospital was performed...
June 9, 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
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