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temporal discrimination

Simon Krabbe, Inge J Sørensen, Bente Jensen, Jakob M Møller, Lone Balding, Ole R Madsen, Robert G W Lambert, Walter P Maksymowych, Susanne J Pedersen, Mikkel Østergaard
Background: The Canada-Denmark (CANDEN) definitions of spinal MRI lesions allow a detailed anatomy-based evaluation of inflammatory and structural lesions in vertebral bodies and posterior elements of the spine in patients with axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA). The objective was to examine the reliability, responsiveness and discrimination of scores for spinal inflammation, fat, bone erosion and new bone formation based on the CANDEN system and to describe patterns of inflammatory and structural lesions and their temporal development...
2018: RMD Open
Manbir Nagra, Bernard Gilmartin, Nicola S Logan, Stephen J Anderson
SIGNIFICANCE: Poor peripheral visual acuity in myopia may reflect, in part, photoreceptor misalignment with the exit pupil of the eye. We speculate that if such misalignment causes sufficient visual deprivation and/or disrupts retinal feedback processes, it may influence eye growth itself. PURPOSE: It is known that myopic eyes have a reduced peripheral resolution acuity relative to emmetropic eyes, though it remains unclear how mechanical stretching of the retina in myopia impacts on peripheral visual performance...
March 16, 2018: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
Deborah B Crom, Kirsten K Ness, Larry R Martinez, Michelle R Hebl, Leslie L Robison, Melissa M Hudson, Tara M Brinkman
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate workplace experiences and turnover intention (consideration of leaving or changing a job) and to examine factors associated with turnover intention among survivors. METHODS: Adult survivors of childhood cancer with a history of employment (n = 289) completed measures of workplace experiences (n = 50, 18-29 years; n = 183, 30-44 years; n = 56; > 45 years of age at follow-up). Turnover intention was assessed using three items from the Job Satisfaction Scale...
March 17, 2018: Journal of Cancer Survivorship: Research and Practice
Sandeep Choubey
Regulation of transcription is a vital process in cells, but mechanistic details of this regulation still remain elusive. The dominant approach to unravel the dynamics of transcriptional regulation is to first develop mathematical models of transcription and then experimentally test the predictions these models make for the distribution of mRNA and protein molecules at the individual cell level. However, these measurements are affected by a multitude of downstream processes which make it difficult to interpret the measurements...
February 2018: Physical Review. E
Jyoti Singh Kirar, R K Agrawal
This paper presents a novel algorithm (CVSTSCSP) for determining discriminative features from an optimal combination of temporal, spectral and spatial information for motor imagery brain computer interfaces. The proposed method involves four phases. In the first phase, EEG signal is segmented into overlapping time segments and bandpass filtered through frequency filter bank of variable size subbands. In the next phase, features are extracted from the segmented and filtered data using stationary common spatial pattern technique (SCSP) that can handle the non- stationarity and artifacts of EEG signal...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Medical Systems
Yanqi Huang, Lan He, Di Dong, Caiyun Yang, Cuishan Liang, Xin Chen, Zelan Ma, Xiaomei Huang, Su Yao, Changhong Liang, Jie Tian, Zaiyi Liu
Objective: To develop and validate a radiomics prediction model for individualized prediction of perineural invasion (PNI) in colorectal cancer (CRC). Methods: After computed tomography (CT) radiomics features extraction, a radiomics signature was constructed in derivation cohort (346 CRC patients). A prediction model was developed to integrate the radiomics signature and clinical candidate predictors [age, sex, tumor location, and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) level]...
February 2018: Chinese Journal of Cancer Research, Chung-kuo Yen Cheng Yen Chiu
Rihui Wu, Adrian Jarabo, Jinli Suo, Feng Dai, Yongdong Zhang, Qionghai Dai, Diego Gutierrez
Introducing polarization into transient imaging improves depth estimation in participating media, by discriminating reflective from scattered light transport and calculating depth from the former component only. Previous works have leveraged this approach under the assumption of uniform polarization properties. However, the orientation and intensity of polarization inside scattering media is nonuniform, both in the spatial and temporal domains. As a result of this simplifying assumption, the accuracy of the estimated depth worsens significantly as the optical thickness of the medium increases...
March 15, 2018: Optics Letters
Jingjie Ge, Jianjun Wu, Shichun Peng, Ping Wu, Jian Wang, Huiwei Zhang, Yihui Guan, David Eidelberg, Chuantao Zuo, Yilong Ma
Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is a rare movement disorder and often difficult to distinguish clinically from Parkinson's disease (PD) and multiple system atrophy (MSA) in early phases. In this study, we report reproducible disease-related topographies of brain network and regional glucose metabolism associated with PSP in clinically-confirmed independent cohorts of PSP, MSA, and PD patients and healthy controls in the USA and China. Using18 F-FDG PET images from PSP and healthy subjects, we applied spatial covariance analysis with bootstrapping to identify a PSP-related pattern (PSPRP) and estimate its reliability, and evaluated the ability of network scores for differential diagnosis...
March 13, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Liselotte C R Hensen, Kathleen Goossens, Tomaz Podlesnikar, Joris I Rotmans, J Wouter Jukema, Victoria Delgado, Jeroen J Bax
BACKGROUND: Patients with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) have high risk for sudden cardiac death (SCD) and may benefit from implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs). However, the risk for ICD-related complications is also high in this population. Therefore, there is an unmet need for accurate risk stratification tools to identify patients with CKD at risk for ventricular arrhythmias (VAs), who may benefit from ICD implantation. The aim of this hypothesis-generating study was to investigate the association between left ventricular (LV) mechanical dispersion and LV global longitudinal strain (GLS) measured using two-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography and VA and SCD in patients with CKD...
March 10, 2018: Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography
Ning Zhuang, Ying Zeng, Kai Yang, Chi Zhang, Li Tong, Bin Yan
Most current approaches to emotion recognition are based on neural signals elicited by affective materials such as images, sounds and videos. However, the application of neural patterns in the recognition of self-induced emotions remains uninvestigated. In this study we inferred the patterns and neural signatures of self-induced emotions from electroencephalogram (EEG) signals. The EEG signals of 30 participants were recorded while they watched 18 Chinese movie clips which were intended to elicit six discrete emotions, including joy, neutrality, sadness, disgust, anger and fear...
March 12, 2018: Sensors
Christophe Gardella, Olivier Marre, Thierry Mora
The brain has no direct access to physical stimuli but only to the spiking activity evoked in sensory organs. It is unclear how the brain can learn representations of the stimuli based on those noisy, correlated responses alone. Here we show how to build an accurate distance map of responses solely from the structure of the population activity of retinal ganglion cells. We introduce the Temporal Restricted Boltzmann Machine to learn the spatiotemporal structure of the population activity and use this model to define a distance between spike trains...
March 12, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Scinob Kuroki, Shin'ya Nishida
When we touch an object, the skin copies its surface shape/texture, and this deformation pattern shifts according to the objects movement. This shift pattern directly encodes spatio-temporal "motion" information of the event, and has been detected in other modalities (e.g., inter-aural time differences for audition and first-order motion for vision). Since previous studies suggested that mechanoreceptor-afferent channels with small receptive field and slow temporal characteristics contribute to tactile motion perception, we tried to tap the spatio-temporal processor using low-frequency sine-waves as primitive probes in our previous study...
March 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jingcong Li, Zhu Liang Yu, Zhenghui Gu, Wei Wu, Yuanqing Li, Lianwen Jin
Detecting and Please provide the correct one analyzing the event-related potential (ERP) remains an important problem in neuroscience. Due to the low signal-to-noise ratio and complex spatio-temporal patterns of ERP signals, conventional methods usually rely on ensemble averaging technique for reliable detection, which may obliterate subtle but important information in each trial of ERP signals. Inspired by deep learning methods, we propose a novel hybrid network termed ERP-NET. With hybrid deep structure, the proposed network is able to learn complex spatial and temporal patterns from single-trial ERP signals...
March 2018: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
Mehdi Mirsaeidi, Ruxana T Sadikot
Recurrent tuberculosis (TB) continues to be a significant problem and is an important indicator of the effectiveness of TB control. Recurrence can occur by relapse or exogenous reinfection. Recurrence of TB is still a major problem in high-burden countries, where there is lack of resources and no special attention is being given to this issue. The rate of recurrence is highly variable and has been estimated to range from 4.9% to 47%. This variability is related to differences in regional epidemiology of recurrence and differences in the definitions used by the TB control programs...
January 2018: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
Thibo Billiet, Iris Elens, Charlotte Sleurs, Anne Uyttebroeck, Rudi D'Hooge, Jurgen Lemiere, Sabine Deprez
Background: This study aimed to assess functional and structural brain connectivity in adult childhood leukemia survivors and the link with cognitive functioning and previously identified risk factors such as intrathecal methotrexate dose and age at start of therapy. Methods: Thirty-one nonirradiated adult childhood leukemia survivors and 35 controls underwent cognitive testing and multimodal magnetic resonance imaging (resting state functional MRI, T1-weighted, diffusion-weighted, and myelin water imaging [MWI])...
March 5, 2018: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
Simon Jonas Enkirch, Andreas Traschütz, Andreas Müller, Catherine N Widmann, Gerrit H Gielen, Michael T Heneka, Alina Jurcoane, Hans H Schild, Elke Hattingen
Purpose To establish and evaluate a visual score focused on entorhinal cortex atrophy (ERICA), as the entorhinal cortex is one of the first brain structures affected in Alzheimer disease (AD). Materials and Methods In this retrospective study, ERICA was visually evaluated with magnetic resonance imaging (2009-2016). First, a four-point ERICA score was developed by using data in 48 consecutive subjects (20 patients with AD and 28 control subjects). Then, in the main analysis, ERICA and the standard medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA) scores were determined in an independent cohort of 60 patients suspected of having AD (mean age, 69...
March 7, 2018: Radiology
Maitreyee Wairagkar, Yoshikatsu Hayashi, Slawomir J Nasuto
Brain computer interfaces (BCIs) provide a direct communication channel by using brain signals, enabling patients with motor impairments to interact with external devices. Motion intention detection is useful for intuitive movement-based BCI as movement is the fundamental mode of interaction with the environment. The aim of this paper is to investigate the temporal dynamics of brain processes using electroencephalography (EEG) to explore novel neural correlates of motion intention. We investigate the changes in temporal dependencies of the EEG by characterising the decay of autocorrelation during asynchronous voluntary finger tapping movement...
2018: PloS One
Zhibin Yin, Le Hang, Rong Liu, Wei Hang, Benli Huang
A newly constructed laser desorption (532 nm, 5 ns) and laser postionization (266 nm, 5 ns) time-of-flight mass spectrometer (LD-LPI-TOFMS) has been applied for improving the detection sensitivity of elements in solid samples. This method affords to acquire the information of the elemental impurities in solid standards as well as limit of detection (LOD) down to 10-8 g/g for some elements. Neutral atoms of solids are generated by low-irradiance laser desorption (< 108 W/cm2 ), followed by high-irradiance laser postionization (~ 109 W/cm2 ) of the desorbed atoms, facilitating to decoupling the desorption and ionization processes in spatial and temporal domain...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Mass Spectrometry: JMS
Mark Chiew, Nadine N Graedel, Karla L Miller
Recent developments in highly accelerated fMRI data acquisition have employed low-rank and/or sparsity constraints for image reconstruction, as an alternative to conventional, time-independent parallel imaging. When under-sampling factors are high or the signals of interest are low-variance, however, functional data recovery can be poor or incomplete. We introduce a method for improving reconstruction fidelity using external constraints, like an experimental design matrix, to partially orient the estimated fMRI temporal subspace...
March 1, 2018: NeuroImage
María Nieves-Moreno, José M Martínez-de-la-Casa, María P Bambo, Laura Morales-Fernández, Karel Van Keer, Evelien Vandewalle, Ingeborg Stalmans, Julián García-Feijoó
Purpose: This study examines the capacity to detect glaucoma of inner macular layer thickness measured by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) using a new normative database as the reference standard. Methods: Participants ( N = 148) were recruited from Leuven (Belgium) and Zaragoza (Spain): 74 patients with early/moderate glaucoma and 74 age-matched healthy controls. One eye was randomly selected for a macular scan using the Spectralis SD-OCT. The variables measured with the instrument's segmentation software were: macular nerve fiber layer (mRNFL), ganglion cell layer (GCL), and inner plexiform layer (IPL) volume and thickness along with circumpapillary RNFL thickness (cpRNFL)...
February 2018: Translational Vision Science & Technology
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