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Neutrophil stroke

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884770/neutrophil-granulocytes-in-cerebral-ischemia-evolution-from-killers-to-key-players
#1
REVIEW
Jan-Kolja Strecker, Antje Schmidt, Wolf-Rüdiger Schäbitz, Jens Minnerup
Neutrophil granulocytes (or polymorphonuclear cells, PMNs) have long been considered as crude killing machines, particularly trained to attack bacterial or fungal pathogens in wounds or infected tissues. That perspective has fundamentally changed over the last decades, as PMNs have been shown to exert a livery exchange between other cells of the innate and adaptive immune system. PMNs do provide major immunomodulatory contribution during acute inflammation and subsequent clearance. Following sterile inflammation like cerebral ischemia, PMNs are among the first hematogenous cells attracted to the ischemic tissue...
November 21, 2016: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879312/association-of-peripheral-differential-leukocyte-counts-with-dyslipidemia-risk-in-chinese-patients-with-hypertension-insight-from-the-csppt
#2
Yanhong Liu, Xiangyi Kong, Wen Wang, Fangfang Fan, Yan Zhang, Min Zhao, Yi Wang, Yupeng Wang, Yu Wang, Xianhui Qin, Genfu Tang, Binyan Wang, Xiping Xu, Fan Fan Hou, Wei Gao, Ningling Sun, Jianping Li, Scott A Venners, Shanqun Jiang, Yong Huo
The aim of the present study was to examine the association between peripheral differential leukocyte counts and dyslipidemia in a Chinese hypertensive population. A total of 10866 patients with hypertension were enrolled for a comprehensive assessment of cardiovascular risk factors using data from the China Stroke Primary Prevention Trial (CSPPT). Plasma lipid levels and total leukocyte, neutrophil and lymphocyte counts were determined according to standard methods. Peripheral differential leukocyte counts were consistently and positively associated with serum TC, LDL-C and TG levels (all P<0...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876538/neutrophil-to-lymphocyte-ratio-and-the-hematoma-volume-and-stroke-severity-in-acute-intracerebral-hemorrhage-patients
#3
Yaming Sun, Shoujiang You, Chongke Zhong, Zhichao Huang, Lifang Hu, Xia Zhang, Jijun Shi, Yongjun Cao, Chun-Feng Liu
BACKGROUND: Neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) serves as a powerful inflammatory marker for predicting cardiovascular events. Here, we investigate whether admission NLR is associated with hematoma volume, stroke severity, and 3-month outcomes in patients with acute intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). METHODS: 352 patients with acute ICH were prospectively identified in this study. Demographic characteristics, lifestyle risk factors, NIHSS score, hematoma volumes, and other clinical features were recorded for all participants...
November 16, 2016: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845194/human-albumin-attenuates-excessive-innate-immunity-via-inhibition-of-microglial-mincle-syk-signaling-in-subarachnoid-hemorrhage
#4
Yi Xie, Hongquan Guo, Liumin Wang, Lili Xu, Xiaohao Zhang, Linjie Yu, Qian Liu, Yunzi Li, Nana Zhao, Nan Zhao, Ruidong Ye, Xinfeng Liu
Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a devastating subtype of stroke. Microglial macrophage-inducible C-type lectin (Mincle) receptor launches microglial innate immunity after SAH, and thereby achieves a key step of early cerebral injury in SAH. We previously revealed albumin could improve long-term neurological outcomes after SAH. In this study, we examined the role of microglia-mediated innate immunity in the salutary effects of albumin. SAH was induced by endovascular perforation in rats. We found that albumin can significantly mitigate early neurovascular dysfunction of SAH rats...
November 10, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826338/is-syntax-score-predictive-of-atrial-fibrillation-after-on-pump-coronary-artery-bypass-graft-surgery
#5
Levent Cerit, Hamza Duygu, Kamil Gulsen, Hatice S Kemal, Barcın Ozcem, Ozlem Balcioglu, Aziz Gunsel, Ozgur Tosun, Volkan Emren
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The relationship of synergy between percutaneous coronary intervention with taxus and cardiac surgery (SYNTAX) score and development of atrial fibrillation (AF) after coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG) has not been studied. Therefore, we assessed the relationship between the SYNTAX score and development of AF after CABG (POAF). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The medical records of consecutive patients, who underwent CABG surgery from January 2013 to September 2015, were retrospectively reviewed for the development of AF in the postoperative period...
November 2016: Korean Circulation Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821296/peroxiredoxin-1-mediated-activation-of-tlr4-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway-contributes-to-neuroinflammatory-injury-in-intracerebral-hemorrhage
#6
Dong-Ling Liu, Li-Xue Zhao, Shuang Zhang, Jun-Rong Du
The proinflammatory properties of extracellular peroxiredoxins (Prxs) via induction of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) activation have been gradually revealed under diverse stress conditions, including cerebral ischemia but not hemorrhage. Prx1 is proposed to be a major hemorrhagic stress-inducible isoform of Prxs during acute and subacute phases of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). However, the potential of Prx1 in the neuroinflammatory injury after ICH remains unclear. This study investigated the proinflammatory effect and underlying mechanism of extracellular Prx1 in cultured murine macrophages and a collagenase-induced mouse ICH model...
November 4, 2016: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818230/effect-of-ppar-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-agonist-gw0742-treatment-in-the-acute-phase-response-and-blood-brain-barrier-permeability-following-brain-injury
#7
Khouloud Chehaibi, Laura le Maire, Sarah Bradoni, Joan Carles Escola, Francisco Blanco-Vaca, Mohamed Naceur Slimane
The systemic response to ischemic stroke is associated with the hepatic acute phase response (APR) that modulates leukocytes recruitment to the injured brain. The inappropriate recruitment of leukocytes to the brain parenchyma can result in blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown. Emerging data suggest that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor beta/delta (PPAR-β/δ) activation has a potential neuroprotective role in ischemic stroke. However, mechanisms of PPAR-β/δ mediated protection in ischemic insults remain unclear...
October 18, 2016: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790058/inflammation-after-ischemic-stroke-the-role-of-leukocytes-and-glial-cells
#8
REVIEW
Jong Youl Kim, Joohyun Park, Ji Young Chang, Sa-Hyun Kim, Jong Eun Lee
The immune response after stroke is known to play a major role in ischemic brain pathobiology. The inflammatory signals released by immune mediators activated by brain injury sets off a complex series of biochemical and molecular events which have been increasingly recognized as a key contributor to neuronal cell death. The primary immune mediators involved are glial cells and infiltrating leukocytes, including neutrophils, monocytes and lymphocyte. After ischemic stroke, activation of glial cells and subsequent release of pro- and anti-inflammatory signals are important for modulating both neuronal cell damage and wound healing...
October 2016: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784822/immunity-and-stroke-the-hurdles-of-stroke-research-translation
#9
REVIEW
Heather Pagram, Andrew Bivard, Lisa F Lincz, Christopher Levi
Immunomodulatory therapies after stroke have the potential to provide clinical benefit to a subset of patients, but risk subverting the protective, healing aspects of the innate immune response. Neutrophils clear necrotic cerebral tissue and are important in immunomodulation, but can also contribute to tissue injury. Human trials for immunomodulatory stroke treatments in the sub-acute time frame have attempted to prevent peripheral neutrophil infiltration, but none have been successful and one trial demonstrated harm...
October 26, 2016: International Journal of Stroke: Official Journal of the International Stroke Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27782211/von-willebrand-factor-contributes-to-poor-outcome-in-a-mouse-model-of-intracerebral-haemorrhage
#10
Ximin Zhu, Yongliang Cao, Lixiang Wei, Ping Cai, Haochen Xu, Haiyu Luo, Xiaofei Bai, Lu Lu, Jian-Ren Liu, Wenying Fan, Bing-Qiao Zhao
Spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) is the most devastating stroke subtype and has no proven treatment. von Willebrand factor (VWF) has recently been demonstrated to promote inflammation processes. The present study investigated the pathophysiological role of VWF after experimental ICH. Functional outcomes, brain edema, blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability, cerebral inflammation and levels of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) were measured in a mouse model of ICH induced by autologous blood injection...
October 26, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771707/peripheral-immune-cell-counts-and-advanced-imaging-as-biomarkers-of-stroke-outcome
#11
Heather Pagram, Andrew Bivard, Lisa F Lincz, Christopher Levi
INTRODUCTION: Circulating neutrophil and lymphocyte levels may be modifiable outcome predictors of ischemic stroke. We sought to compare these immune cell parameters with advanced imaging assessment and the 90-day clinical outcome. METHODS: We used a retrospectively collected cohort of consecutive ischemic stroke patients presenting within 4.5 h of symptom onset who had acute CT perfusion and routine blood collection before treatment with intravenous thrombolysis and 24-hour MRI scanning at the John Hunter Hospital...
January 22, 2016: Cerebrovascular Diseases Extra
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27769639/platelets-and-infection
#12
Carsten Deppermann, Paul Kubes
The primary function of platelets is to patrol the vasculature and seal vessel breaches to limit blood loss. However, it is becoming increasingly clear that they also contribute to pathophysiological conditions like thrombosis, atherosclerosis, stroke and infection. Severe sepsis is a devastating disease that claims hundreds of thousands of lives every year in North America and is a major burden to the public health system. Platelet surface receptors like GPIb, αIIbβ3, TLR2 and TLR4 are involved in direct platelet-bacteria interactions...
October 18, 2016: Seminars in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733178/fumarate-modulates-the-immune-inflammatory-response-and-rescues-nerve-cells-and-neurological-function-after-stroke-in-rats
#13
Ruihe Lin, Jingli Cai, Eric W Kostuk, Robert Rosenwasser, Lorraine Iacovitti
BACKGROUND: Dimethyl fumarate (DMF), working via its metabolite monomethylfumarate (MMF), acts as a potent antioxidant and immunomodulator in animal models of neurologic disease and in patients with multiple sclerosis. These properties and their translational potential led us to investigate whether DMF/MMF could also protect at-risk and/or dying neurons in models of ischemic stroke in vitro and in vivo. Although the antioxidant effects have been partially addressed, the benefits of DMF immunomodulation after ischemic stroke still need to be explored...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27721862/association-of-neutrophil-lymphocyte-ratio-with-plaque-morphology-in-patients-with-asymptomatic-intermediate-carotid-artery-stenosis
#14
İsa Öner Yüksel, Erkan Köklü, Şakir Arslan, Göksel Çağırcı, Eylem Özaydın Göksu, Pınar Koç, Serkan Çay, Filiz Kızılırmak
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Non-calcified carotid plaques are more unstable than calcified plaques, and they are associated with a higher risk of rupture, thromboembolism, and consequently, stroke. The purpose of the present study is to compare calcified and non-calcified plaques that cause intermediate carotid artery stenosis with respect to neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A total number of 139 asymptomatic patients with 50-70% stenosis of the carotid artery were included in this study...
September 2016: Korean Circulation Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716694/perioperative-utility-of-goal-directed-therapy-in-high-risk-cardiac-patients-undergoing-coronary-artery-bypass-grafting-a-clinical-outcome-and-biomarker-based-study
#15
Poonam Malhotra Kapoor, Rohan Magoon, Rajinder Rawat, Yatin Mehta
Goal-directed therapy (GDT) encompasses guidance of intravenous (IV) fluid and vasopressor/inotropic therapy by cardiac output or similar parameters to help in early recognition and management of high-risk cardiac surgical patients. With the aim of establishing the utility of perioperative GDT using robust clinical and biochemical outcomes, we conducted the present study. This multicenter randomized controlled study included 130 patients of either sex, with European system for cardiac operative risk evaluation ≥3 undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting on cardiopulmonary bypass...
October 2016: Annals of Cardiac Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27697435/distinct-inflammatory-responses-differentiate-cerebral-infarct-from-transient-ischaemic-attack
#16
Christopher W L Armstrong, Erika Bosio, Claire Neil, Simon G A Brown, Graeme J Hankey, Daniel M Fatovich
We previously reported on a 26-year-old patient who presented early during a large and eventually fatal cerebral infarct. Microarray analysis of blood samples from this patient demonstrated initially up-regulated and subsequently down-regulated Granzyme B (GzmB) expression, along with progressive up-regulation of genes for S100 calcium binding protein A12 (S100A12) and matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9). To confirm these findings, we investigated these parameters in patients with suspected stroke presenting within 6h of symptom onset to a single centre...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27688603/anti-inflammation-of-natural-components-from-medicinal-plants-at-low-concentrations-in-brain-via-inhibiting-neutrophil-infiltration-after-stroke
#17
Jiannan Chen, Xiangjian Zhang, Cong Zhang, Wenhui Wang, Rong Chen, Honglei Jiao, Linlin Li, Lan Zhang, Lili Cui
Inflammation after stroke consists of activation of microglia/astrocytes in situ and infiltration of blood-borne leukocytes, resulting in brain damage and neurological deficits. Mounting data demonstrated that most natural components from medicinal plants had anti-inflammatory effects after ischemic stroke through inhibiting activation of resident microglia/astrocytes within ischemic area. However, it is speculated that this classical activity cannot account for the anti-inflammatory function of these natural components in the cerebral parenchyma, where they are detected at very low concentrations due to their poor membrane permeability and slight leakage of BBB...
2016: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27634961/molecular-and-cellular-responses-to-interleukin-4-treatment-in-a-rat-model-of-transient-ischemia
#18
Starlee Lively, Sarah Hutchings, Lyanne C Schlichter
Within hours after stroke, potentially cytotoxic pro-inflammatory mediators are elevated within the brain; thus, one potential therapeutic strategy is to reduce them and skew the brain toward an anti-inflammatory state. Because interleukin-4 (IL-4) treatment induces an anti-inflammatory, "alternative-activation" state in microglia and macrophages in vitro, we tested the hypothesis that early supplementation of the brain with IL-4 can shift it toward an anti-inflammatory state and reduce damage after transient focal ischemia...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27633389/mkey-a-peptide-inhibitor-of-cxcl4-ccl5-heterodimer-formation-protects-against-stroke-in-mice
#19
Yifang Fan, Xiaoxing Xiong, Yongming Zhang, Dongmei Yan, Zhihong Jian, Baohui Xu, Heng Zhao
BACKGROUND: MKEY, a synthetic cyclic peptide inhibitor of CXCL4-CCL5 heterodimer formation, has been shown to protect against atherosclerosis and aortic aneurysm formation by mediating inflammation, but whether it modulates neuroinflammation and brain injury has not been studied. We therefore studied the role of MKEY in stroke-induced brain injury in mice. METHODS AND RESULTS: MKEY was injected into mice after stroke with 60 minutes of middle cerebral artery occlusion...
September 2016: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27615448/the-volume-of-the-spleen-and-its-correlates-after-acute-stroke
#20
Nina L Chiu, Brian Kaiser, Y Vien Nguyen, Susan Welbourne, Chandana Lall, Steven C Cramer
BACKGROUND: Animal studies describe changes in the spleen following a stroke, with an immediate reduction in volume associated with changes in the counts of specific blood white blood cell (WBCs). This brain-spleen cell cycling after stroke affects systemic inflammation and the brain inflammatory milieu and may be a target for emerging therapeutic studies. This study aimed to evaluate features of this brain-spleen model in human patients admitted for acute stroke. METHODS: Medical and imaging records were retrospectively reviewed for 82 consecutive patients admitted for acute stroke in whom an abdominal computed tomography scan was performed...
September 5, 2016: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
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