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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933736/structural-insight-into-the-anti-prion-compound-inhibition-mechanism-of-native-prion-folding-over-misfolding
#1
Jiwon Choi, Rajiv Gandhi Govindaraj, Jae Wook Hyeon, Kyungro Lee, SongLing Ma, Su Yeon Kim, Jeongmin Lee, Kyoung Tai No
Transition of a physiological folded prion (PrP(C) ) into a pathogenic misfolded prion (PrP(S)(c) ) causes lethal neurodegenerative disorders and prion diseases. Anti-prion compounds have been developed to prevent this conversion; however, their mechanism of action remains unclear. Recently, we reported two anti-prion compounds, BMD29 and 35, identified by in silico and in vitro screening. In this study, we used extensive explicit-solvent molecular dynamics simulations to investigate ligand binding inhibition by anti-prion compounds in prion folding over misfolding behavior at acidic pH...
December 9, 2016: Chemical Biology & Drug Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933712/the-importance-of-mrna-structure-in-determining-the-pathogenicity-of-synonymous-and-non-synonymous-mutations-in-haemophilia
#2
N Hamasaki-Katagiri, B C Lin, J Simon, R C Hunt, T Schiller, E Russek-Cohen, A A Komar, H Bar, C Kimchi-Sarfaty
INTRODUCTION: Mutational analysis is commonly used to support the diagnosis and management of haemophilia. This has allowed for the generation of large mutation databases which provide unparalleled insight into genotype-phenotype relationships. Haemophilia is associated with inversions, deletions, insertions, nonsense and missense mutations. Both synonymous and non-synonymous mutations influence the base pairing of messenger RNA (mRNA), which can alter mRNA structure, cellular half-life and ribosome processivity/elongation...
December 9, 2016: Haemophilia: the Official Journal of the World Federation of Hemophilia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933683/genetics-and-the-conservation-of-natural-populations-allozymes-to-genomes
#3
Fred W Allendorf
I consider how the study of genetic variation has influenced efforts to conserve natural populations over the last 50 years. Studies with allozymes in the 1970s provided the first estimates of the amount of genetic variation within and between natural populations at multiple loci. These early studies played an important role in developing plans to conserve species. The description of genetic variation in mitochondrial DNA in the early 1980s laid the foundation for the field of phylogeography, which provided a deeper look in time of the relationships and connectivity among populations...
December 9, 2016: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933672/single-neuron-activity-and-theta-modulation-in-the-posterior-parietal-cortex-in-a-visuospatial-attention-task
#4
Fang-Chi Yang, T K Jacobson, R D Burwell
The posterior parietal cortex (PPC) is implicated in directing and maintaining visual attention to locations in space. We hypothesized that the PPC also engages other cognitive processes in the transformation of behaviorally relevant visual inputs into appropriate actions, for example, monitoring of multiple locations, selection of responses to locations in space, and monitoring the outcome of response selections. We recorded single cells and local field potentials in the rat PPC during performance on a novel visuospatial attention (VSA) task that requires visually monitoring locations in space in order to make appropriate stimulus-guided locomotor responses...
December 9, 2016: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933668/the-role-of-the-hippocampus-in-generalizing-configural-relationships
#5
Sam C Berens, Chris M Bird
The hippocampus has been implicated in integrating information across separate events in support of mnemonic generalizations. These generalizations may be underpinned by processes at both encoding (linking similar information across events) and retrieval ("on-the-fly" generalization). However, the relative contribution of the hippocampus to encoding- and retrieval-based generalizations is poorly understood. Using fMRI in humans, we investigated the hippocampal role in gradually learning a set of spatial discriminations and subsequently generalizing them in an acquired equivalence task...
December 9, 2016: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933643/syntaxin-4a-regulates-matrix-vesicle-mediated-bone-matrix-production-by-osteoblasts
#6
Shinji Kawai, Ikumi Michikami, Jirouta Kitagaki, Kenji Hata, Hiroshi Kiyonari, Takaya Abe, Atsuo Amano, Satoshi Wakisaka
Osteoblasts secrete matrix vesicles and proteins to bone surfaces, though the molecular mechanisms of this secretion system remain unclear. The present findings reveal the roles of important genes in osteoblasts involved in regulation of extracellular matrix secretion. We especially focused on SNARE genes and identified notable Syntaxin 4a (Stx4a) expression on the basolateral side of the plasma membrane of osteoblasts. Furthermore, Stx4a overexpression was found to increase mineralization by osteoblastic cells, whereas Stx4a knockdown reduced levels of mineralization...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933641/method-of-b0-mapping-with-magnitude-based-correction-for-bipolar-two-point-dixon-cardiac-mri
#7
Junmin Liu, Dana C Peters, Maria Drangova
PURPOSE: The conventional two-point (2pt) Dixon technique explicitly estimates B0 map by performing phase unwrapping. When signal loss, phase singularity, artifacts, or spatially isolated regions corrupt the measured phase images, this unwrapping-based technique will face difficulty. This work aims to improve the reliability of B0 mapping by performing unwrapping error correction. METHOD: To detect the unwrapping-caused phase errors, we determined a magnitude-based fat/water mask and used it as reference to identify pixels being mismatched by the phase-based mask, which was derived from the B0-corrected phase term of the Hermitian product between echoes...
December 8, 2016: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933583/looking-beyond-the-5-httlpr-polymorphism-genetic-and-epigenetic-layers-of-regulation-affecting-the-serotonin-transporter-gene-expression
#8
REVIEW
Sandra Iurescia, Davide Seripa, Monica Rinaldi
Serotonin (5-HT) is a neurotransmitter that regulates fundamental aspects of brain development, physiology and behaviour. The serotonin transporter (5-HTT) is deputized to the reuptake of 5-HT from the intersynaptic space in the presynaptic neurons. 5-HTT governs duration and magnitude of 5-HT biological actions, acting as a master regulator of the fine-tuning of 5-HT signalling. Genetic variation at SLC6A4 gene locus, encoding 5-HTT, contributes to alteration in 5-HT reuptake. The 5-HTTLPR/rs25531/rs25532 polymorphisms located in the promoter region of SLC6A4 gene have been associated with stress-related psychopathology and functional brain phenotypes...
December 8, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933578/inhibitory-activity-of-beauveria-bassiana-and-trichoderma-spp-on-the-insect-pests-xylotrechus-arvicola-coleoptera-cerambycidae-and-acanthoscelides-obtectus-coleoptera-chrisomelidae-bruchinae
#9
Álvaro Rodríguez-González, Sara Mayo, Óscar González-López, Bonifacio Reinoso, Santiago Gutierrez, Pedro Antonio Casquero
Xylotrechus arvicola is an important pest in vineyards (Vitis vinifera) in the main Iberian wine-producing regions, and Acanthoscelides obtectus causes severe post-harvest losses in the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). Under laboratory conditions with a spray tower, the susceptibility of the immature stages of X. arvicola and A. obtectus against the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana and four strains of Trichoderma spp. was evaluated. Both insect pests T. harzianum and B. bassiana showed a good inhibitory activity, accumulating an inhibition on the eggs of values above 85 and 82%, respectively...
January 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933577/environmental-and-health-impacts-of-effluents-from-textile-industries-in-ethiopia-the-case-of-gelan-and-dukem-oromia-regional-state
#10
Diriba Dadi, Till Stellmacher, Feyera Senbeta, Steven Van Passel, Hossein Azadi
This study focuses on four textile industries (DH-GEDA, NOYA, ALMHADI, and ALSAR) established between 2005 and 2008 in the peri-urban areas of Dukem and Gelan. The objectives of the study were to generate baseline information regarding the concentration levels of selected pollutants and to analyze their effects on biophysical environments. This study also attempts to explore the level of exposure that humans and livestock have to polluted effluents and the effects thereof. The findings of this study are based on data empirically collected from two sources: laboratory analysis of sample effluents from the four selected textile plants and quantitative as well as qualitative socioeconomic data collection...
January 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933566/fracture-incidence-rates-in-norwegian-children-the-troms%C3%A3-study-fit-futures
#11
Tore Christoffersen, Luai A Ahmed, Anne Winther, Ole Andreas Nilsen, Anne-Sofie Furberg, Guri Grimnes, Elaine Dennison, Jacqueline R Center, John A Eisman, Nina Emaus
: This study describes childhood fracture rates in Norway, a country known for high fracture rates in the adult population. Fracture rates correspond with other reports from Scandinavia, although with a slightly higher proportion in girls. Indications of increased vulnerability during stages of puberty require further exploration. INTRODUCTION: Fractures are common injuries during childhood. Incidence rates and patterns vary, but population-based data are scarce...
December 2016: Archives of Osteoporosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933548/metabolic-characterization-of-acutely-isolated-hippocampal-and-cerebral-cortical-slices-using-u-13-c-glucose-and-1-2-13-c-acetate-as-substrates
#12
Laura F McNair, Rasmus Kornfelt, Anne B Walls, Jens V Andersen, Blanca I Aldana, Jakob D Nissen, Arne Schousboe, Helle S Waagepetersen
Brain slice preparations from rats, mice and guinea pigs have served as important tools for studies of neurotransmission and metabolism. While hippocampal slices routinely have been used for electrophysiology studies, metabolic processes have mostly been studied in cerebral cortical slices. Few comparative characterization studies exist for acute hippocampal and cerebral cortical slices, hence, the aim of the current study was to characterize and compare glucose and acetate metabolism in these slice preparations in a newly established incubation design...
December 8, 2016: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933538/systems-genetics-of-liver-fibrosis
#13
Rabea A Hall, Frank Lammert
This systems genetics analysis comprises quantitative measurements of hepatic fibrogenesis in mouse models and mapping of quantitative traits in mouse genetic reference populations. It is part of a large mapping project of fibrogenic genes including the analyses of experimental crosses from different inbred mouse strains. Extensive quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping of fibrosis phenotypes and liver expression profiling in combination with in silico mapping facilitated the identification of QTL regions and underlying candidate genes that confer fibrosis susceptibility also in humans...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933519/heterogeneous-stock-populations-for-analysis-of-complex-traits
#14
Leah C Solberg Woods, Richard Mott
Heterogeneous Stock (HS) populations allow for fine-resolution genetic mapping of a variety of complex traits. HS mice and rats were created from breeding together eight inbred strains, followed by maintaining the colony in a manner that minimizes inbreeding. After 50 or more generations of breeding, the resulting animals' chromosomes represent a genetic mosaic of the founders' haplotypes, with the average distance between recombination events in the centiMorgan range. This allows for genetic mapping to only a few Mb, a much smaller region than what can be identified using traditional F2 intercross or backcross mapping strategies...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933517/a-novel-mutation-in-the-fibrinogen-a%C3%AE-chain-gly13arg-fibrinogen-nanning-causes-congenital-dysfibrinogenemia-associated-with-defective-peptide-a-release
#15
Jie Yan, Meiling Luo, Peng Cheng, Lin Liao, Xuelian Deng, Donghong Deng, Faquan Lin
Dysfibrinogenemia is characterized by blood coagulation dysfunction induced by an abnormal molecular structure of fibrinogen. Here, we describe a new case. A 32-year-old female was suspected of having dysfibrinogenemia during routine laboratory screening, based on her decreased functional fibrinogen level, normal fibrinogen antigen level, and prolonged thrombin time. We extracted DNA and performed polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing to identify genetic mutation. Fibrin polymerization, the kinetics of the fibrinopeptide release, scanning electron microscopy, mass spectrometric analysis, fibrin cross-linking, sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and western blot were conducted...
December 8, 2016: International Journal of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933466/microrna-145-modulates-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-and-suppresses-proliferation-migration-and-invasion-by-targeting-sip1-in-human-cervical-cancer-cells
#16
Anusha Sathyanarayanan, Karthik Subramanian Chandrasekaran, Devarajan Karunagaran
PURPOSE: Previously, it has been reported that microRNA-145 (miR-145) is lowly expressed in human cervical cancers and that its putative tumour suppressive role may be attributed to epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) regulation. Here, we aimed to assess whether miR-145 may affect EMT-associated markers/genes and suppress cervical cancer growth and motility, and to provide a mechanistic basis for these phenomena. METHODS: The identification of the SMAD-interacting protein 1 (SIP1) mRNA as putative miR-145 target was investigated using a 3' untranslated region (3'UTR) luciferase assay and Western blotting, respectively...
December 8, 2016: Cellular Oncology (Dordrecht)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933452/responses-of-tropical-legumes-from-the-brazilian-atlantic-rainforest-to-simulated-acid-rain
#17
Guilherme C Andrade, Luzimar C Silva
We investigated the morphological and anatomical effects of simulated acid rain on leaves of two species native to the Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest: Paubrasilia echinata and Libidibia ferrea var. leiostachya. Saplings were subjected to acid rain in a simulation chamber during 10 days for 15 min daily, using H2SO4 solution pH 3.0 and, in the control, deionized water. At the end of the experiment, fragments from young and expanding leaves were anatomically analyzed. Although L. ferrea var. leiostachya leaves are more hydrophobic, rain droplets remained in contact with them for a longer time, as in the hydrophilic P...
December 8, 2016: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933447/indian-summer-heat-wave-of-2015-a-biometeorological-analysis-using-half-hourly-automatic-weather-station-data-with-special-reference-to-andhra-pradesh
#18
M A Sarath Chandran, A V M Subba Rao, V M Sandeep, V P Pramod, P Pani, V U M Rao, V Visha Kumari, Ch Srinivasa Rao
Heat wave is a hazardous weather-related extreme event that affects living beings. The 2015 summer heat wave affected many regions in India and caused the death of 2248 people across the country. An attempt has been made to quantify the intensity and duration of heat wave that resulted in high mortality across the country. Half hourly Physiologically Equivalent Temperature (PET), based on a complete heat budget of human body, was estimated using automatic weather station (AWS) data of four locations in Andhra Pradesh state, where the maximum number of deaths was reported...
December 8, 2016: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933430/structural-dynamics-of-nucleosome-mediated-by-acetylations-at-h3k56-and-h3k115-122
#19
Muthukumaran Rajagopalan, Sangeetha Balasubramanian, Ilya Ioshikhes, Amutha Ramaswamy
Post translational modifications have a profound role in the regulation of several biological processes such as transcription, replication, and DNA repair. Acetylation and phosphorylation form a major class of post translational modifications involved in nucleosomal regulation by modifying its structure. The effect of post translational modifications on nucleosome structure could be better explored when the molecular trajectories explaining the time dependent structural evolution over a period of time is examined at the atomic level...
December 8, 2016: European Biophysics Journal: EBJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933410/magnetic-resonance-imaging-patterns-of-treatment-related-toxicity-in-the-pediatric-brain-an-update-and-review-of-the-literature
#20
REVIEW
Maria Camilla Rossi Espagnet, Luca Pasquini, Antonio Napolitano, Antonella Cacchione, Angela Mastronuzzi, Roberta Caruso, Paolo Tomà, Daniela Longo
Treatment-related neurotoxicity is a potentially life-threatening clinical condition that can represent a diagnostic challenge. Differentiating diagnoses between therapy-associated brain injury and recurrent disease can be difficult, and the immediate recognition of neurotoxicity is crucial to providing correct therapeutic management, ensuring damage reversibility. For these purposes, the knowledge of clinical timing and specific treatment protocols is extremely important for interpreting MRI patterns. Neuroradiologic findings are heterogeneous and sometimes overlapping, representing the compounding effect of the different treatments...
December 9, 2016: Pediatric Radiology
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