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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427061/emerging-insights-into-pathogenesis
#1
Edoardo Midena, Elisabetta Pilotto
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a frequent complication of diabetes mellitus (DM). Persistent hyperglycemia leads to the activation of multiple cellular pathways involved in the pathogenesis of DR, resulting in increased inflammation, oxidative stress, and vascular dysfunction. DR has been considered a "chronic, low-grade inflammatory disease of the retina". However, an increasing body of evidence suggests that inflammation and neurodegeneration both occur in human diabetes even before the development of clinical signs of DR...
2017: Developments in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426788/association-between-hemoglobin-glycation-index-with-insulin-resistance-and-carotid-atherosclerosis-in-non-diabetic-individuals
#2
Maria Adelaide Marini, Teresa Vanessa Fiorentino, Elena Succurro, Elisabetta Pedace, Francesco Andreozzi, Angela Sciacqua, Francesco Perticone, Giorgio Sesti
Hemoglobin glycation index (HGI), defined as the difference between the observed HbA1c value and the value of HbA1c predicted from plasma glucose levels, represents a measure of the degree of non-enzymatic glycation of hemoglobin and it has been found to be positively associated with micro- and macro-vascular complications in subjects with type 2 diabetes. To investigate the pathophysiological abnormalities responsible for the increased cardiovascular risk of patients with higher HGI, we evaluated the association of HGI with cardio-metabolic characteristics in nondiabetic offspring of type 2 diabetic individuals...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424377/sex-differences-in-micro-and-macro-vascular-complications-of-diabetes-mellitus
#3
REVIEW
Christine Maric-Bilkan
Vascular complications are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in both men and women with type 1 (T1DM) or type 2 (T2DM) diabetes mellitus, however the prevalence, progression and pathophysiology of both microvascular (nephropathy, neuropathy and retinopathy) and macrovascular [coronary heart disease (CHD), myocardial infarction, peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and stroke] disease are different in the two sexes. In general, men appear to be at a higher risk for diabetic microvascular complications, while the consequences of macrovascular complications may be greater in women...
May 1, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424290/skin-derived-precursors-from-human-subjects-with-type-2-diabetes-yield-dysfunctional-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells
#4
Sarah Katherina Steinbach, Terrence M Yau, Maral Ouzounian, Husam Abdel-Qadir, Mark Chandy, Thomas Waddell, Mansoor Husain
Objective: Few methods enable molecular and cellular studies of vascular aging or type-2 diabetes (T2D). Here we report a new approach to studying human vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) pathophysiology by examining VSMCs differentiated from progenitors found in skin. Approach and Results: Skin-derived precursors (SKPs) were cultured from biopsies (N=164, ~1 cm(2)) taken from the edges of surgical incisions of older adults (N=158; males 72%; mean age 62.7±13 years) undergoing cardiothoracic surgery, and differentiated into VSMCs at high efficiency (>80% yield)...
April 19, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421206/the-increased-circulating-plasma-levels-of-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-in-patients-with-type-1-diabetes-do-not-correlate-to-metabolic-control
#5
Kailash Singh, Stellan Sandler, Daniel Espes
Aim. To characterize the plasma levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) and its relation to both present and historical metabolic control and microvascular complications. Methods. Plasma levels of VEGF and routine clinical parameters were analyzed in 115 patients with long-standing T1D and 45 healthy controls (HC). All patients were under clinical routine diabetes treatment at Uppsala University Hospital. Results. The plasma levels of VEGF were increased by 37% in patients with T1D when compared to HC (18...
2017: Journal of Diabetes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416369/plasma-levels-of-apolipoprotein-a1-and-lecithin-cholesterol-acyltransferase-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-correlations-with-haptoglobin-phenotypes
#6
Samir Awadallah, Mohammed Madkour, Reem Al Hamidi, Esraa Abo Alwafa, Maram Hattab, Buhour Zakkour, Amna Al-Matroushi, Eslah Ahmed, Mariam Al-Kitbi
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have demonstrated that hemoglobin-haptoglobin (Hb-Hp) complex plays a role in developing vascular complications in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The complexes bind with Apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA1) of high-density lipoprotein (HDL), affecting the function of Lecithin:Cholesterol Acyltransferase (LCAT), and impairing the reverse cholesterol transport mechanism (RCT). This study investigated the influence of Hp phenotypes on serum levels of ApoA1 and LCAT in patients with T2DM...
April 7, 2017: Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410927/younger-onset-versus-older-onset-type-2-diabetes-clinical-profile-and-complications
#7
Ranjit Unnikrishnan, Ranjit Mohan Anjana, Anandakumar Amutha, Harish Ranjani, Saravanan Jebarani, Mohammed K Ali, K M Venkat Narayan, Viswanathan Mohan
AIMS: To compare the clinical profile and complications between younger and older onset type 2 diabetes (T2DM) patients at a tertiary care diabetes center in south India. METHODS: We compared individuals with T2DM detected at age ≤25years (n=267) and at age≥50years (n=267), matched for gender and duration of diabetes. We reviewed electronic patient charts and extracted data on biochemical parameters (plasma glucose, serum lipids and glycated hemoglobin). We estimated prevalence of complications (retinopathy, nephropathy, neuropathy, and peripheral vascular disease)...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Diabetes and its Complications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410617/treatment-with-high-dose-n-3-pufas-has-no-effect-on-platelet-function-coagulation-metabolic-status-or-inflammation-in-patients-with-atherosclerosis-and-type-2-diabetes
#8
Malgorzata Poreba, Magdalena Mostowik, Aleksander Siniarski, Renata Golebiowska-Wiatrak, Krzysztof Piotr Malinowski, Maciej Haberka, Ewa Konduracka, Jadwiga Nessler, Anetta Undas, Grzegorz Gajos
BACKGROUND: Despite numerous studies on cardioprotective effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs), there is limited evidence for n-3 PUFA-mediated effects, especially at its higher dose, on cardiovascular risk in patients with type 2 diabetes (DM2) and established atherosclerosis. PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of daily treatment with a higher dose (2 g) of n-3 PUFAs on platelet function, coagulation parameters, fibrin clot properties, markers of systemic inflammation and metabolic status, in patients with atherosclerotic vascular disease and DM2 who receive optimal medical therapy...
April 14, 2017: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408434/renal-and-vascular-effects-of-uric-acid-lowering-in-normouricemic-patients-with-uncomplicated-type-1-diabetes
#9
Yuliya Lytvyn, Ronnie Har, Amy Locke, Vesta Lai, Derek Fong, Andrew Advani, Bruce A Perkins, David Z I Cherney
Higher plasma uric acid (PUA) levels are associated with lower GFR and higher blood pressure (BP) in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D). Our aim was to determine the impact of PUA lowering on renal and vascular function in patients with uncomplicated T1D.T1D patients (n=49) were studied under eu- and hyperglycemic conditions at baseline and after PUA lowering with febuxostat (FBX) for 8 weeks. Healthy controls (HC) were studied under normoglycemic conditions (n=24). PUA, GFR (inulin), effective renal plasma flow (ERPF, paraaminohippurate), BP and hemodynamic responses to an infusion of angiotensin II (assessment of intrarenal RAAS) were measured pre- and post-FBX...
April 13, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403850/rationale-and-design-of-a-multicenter-placebo-controlled-double-blind-randomized-trial-to-evaluate-the-effect-of-empagliflozin-on-endothelial-function-the-emblem-trial
#10
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Atsushi Tanaka, Michio Shimabukuro, Yosuke Okada, Isao Taguchi, Minako Yamaoka-Tojo, Hirofumi Tomiyama, Hiroki Teragawa, Seigo Sugiyama, Hisako Yoshida, Yasunori Sato, Atsushi Kawaguchi, Yumi Ikehara, Noritaka Machii, Tatsuya Maruhashi, Kosuke R Shima, Toshinari Takamura, Yasushi Matsuzawa, Kazuo Kimura, Masashi Sakuma, Jun-Ichi Oyama, Teruo Inoue, Yukihito Higashi, Shinichiro Ueda, Koichi Node
BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is characterized by systemic metabolic abnormalities and the development of micro- and macrovascular complications, resulting in a shortened life expectancy. A recent cardiovascular (CV) safety trial, the EMPA-REG OUTCOME trial, showed that empagliflozin, a sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor, markedly reduced CV death and all-cause mortality and hospitalization for heart failure in patients with T2DM and established CV disease (CVD)...
April 12, 2017: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403222/comorbidity-and-dementia-a-nationwide-survey-in-taiwan
#11
Ting-Bin Chen, Szu-Yu Yiao, Yu Sun, Huey-Jane Lee, Shu-Chien Yang, Ming-Jang Chiu, Ta-Fu Chen, Ker-Neng Lin, Li-Yu Tang, Chung-Chih Lin, Pei-Ning Wang
BACKGROUND: Comorbid medical diseases are highly prevalent in the geriatric population, imposing hardship on healthcare services for demented individuals. Dementia also complicates clinical care for other co-existing medical conditions. This study investigated the comorbidities associated with dementia in the elderly population aged 65 years and over in Taiwan. METHODS: We conducted a nationwide, population-based, cross-sectional survey; participants were selected by computerized random sampling from all 19 Taiwan counties between December 2011 and March 2013...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400700/serum-retinol-binding-protein-induced-endothelial-inflammation-is-mediated-through-the-activation-of-toll-like-receptor-4
#12
Mei Du, Ashley Martin, Franklin Hays, Jennifer Johnson, Rafal A Farjo, Krysten M Farjo
PURPOSE: Elevation of serum retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) induces inflammation in primary human retinal microvascular endothelial cells (HRECs) via a retinol-independent mechanism; thus, it may play a causative role in the development and progression of vascular lesions in diabetic retinopathy (DR). Since HRECs do not express the classical RBP4 receptor, stimulated by retinoic acid gene 6 (STRA6), this study focuses on identifying the endothelial cell receptor and signaling that mediate RBP4-induced inflammation...
2017: Molecular Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400505/no-effect-of-ascorbate-on-cutaneous-vasodilation-and-sweating-in-older-men-and-those-with-type-2-diabetes-exercising-in-the-heat
#13
Naoto Fujii, Robert D Meade, Pegah Akbari, Jeffrey C Louie, Lacy M Alexander, Pierre Boulay, Ronald J Sigal, Glen P Kenny
Aging and chronic disease such as type 2 diabetes (T2D) are associated with impairments in the body's ability to dissipate heat. To reduce the risk of heat-related injuries in these heat vulnerable individuals, it is necessary to identify interventions that can attenuate this impairment. We evaluated the hypothesis that intradermal administration of ascorbate improves cutaneous vasodilation and sweating in older adults via nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-dependent mechanisms during exercise in the heat and whether these improvements, if any, are greater in individuals with T2D...
April 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400392/identification-of-runx1-as-a-mediator-of-aberrant-retinal-angiogenesis
#14
Jonathan D Lam, Daniel J Oh, Lindsay L Wong, Dhanesh Amarnani, Cindy Park-Windhol, Angie V Sanchez, Jonathan Cardona-Velez, Declan McGuone, Anat O Stemmer-Rachamimov, Dean Eliott, Diane R Bielenberg, Tave van Zyl, Lishuang Shen, Xiaowu Gai, Patricia A D'Amore, Leo A Kim, Joseph F Arboleda-Velasquez
Proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) is a common cause of blindness in the developed world's working adult population, and affects those with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. We identified Runt-related transcription factor 1 (RUNX1) as a gene upregulated in CD31+ vascular endothelial cells obtained from human PDR fibrovascular membranes (FVM) via transcriptomic analysis. In vitro studies using human retinal microvascular endothelial cells (HRMECs) showed increased RUNX1 RNA and protein expression in response to high glucose whereas RUNX1 inhibition reduced HRMEC migration, proliferation, and tube formation...
April 11, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395214/the-impact-of-level-of-education-on-vascular-events-and-mortality-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-results-from-the-advance-study
#15
J I Blomster, S Zoungas, M Woodward, B Neal, S Harrap, N Poulter, M Marre, B Williams, J Chalmers, G S Hillis
AIMS: The relationship between educational level and the risk of all-cause mortality is well established, whereas the association with vascular events in individuals with type 2 diabetes is not well described. Any association may reflect a link with common cardiovascular or lifestyle-based risk factors. METHODS: The relationships between the highest level of educational attainment and major cardiovascular events, microvascular complications and all-cause mortality were explored in a cohort of 11,140 individuals with type 2 diabetes...
March 21, 2017: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393441/intestinal-alkaline-phosphatase-at-the-crossroad-of-intestinal-health-and-disease-a-putative-role-in-type-1-diabetes
#16
M I Lassenius, C L Fogarty, M Blaut, K Haimila, L Riittinen, A Paju, J Kirveskari, J Järvelä, A J Ahola, D Gordin, M-A Härma, A Kumar, S R Hamarneh, R A Hodin, T Sorsa, T Tervahartiala, S Hörkkö, P J Pussinen, C Forsblom, M Jauhiainen, M-R Taskinen, P-H Groop, M Lehto
BACKGROUND: Patients with type 1 diabetes have shown an increase in circulating cytokines, altered lipoprotein metabolism and signs of vascular dysfunction in response to high-fat meals. Intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) regulates lipid transport and inflammatory responses in the gastrointestinal tract. We therefore hypothesized that changes in IAP activity could have profound effects on gut metabolic homeostasis in patients with type 1 diabetes. METHODS: Faecal samples of 41 nondiabetic controls and 46 patients with type 1 diabetes were analysed for IAP activity, calprotectin, immunoglobulins and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs)...
April 10, 2017: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393419/synthesis-and-evaluation-of-novel-1-2-4-triazolo-5-1-c-1-2-4-triazines-and-pyrazolo-5-1-c-1-2-4-triazines-as-potential-antidiabetic-agents
#17
Vladimir L Rusinov, Irina M Sapozhnikova, Anastasiya M Bliznik, Oleg N Chupakhin, Valery N Charushin, Alexander A Spasov, Pavel M Vassiliev, Valentina A Kuznetsova, Andrey I Rashchenko, Denis A Babkov
Inhibition of the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4) enzyme activity and prevention of advanced glycation end (AGE) products formation represents a reliable approach to achieve control over hyperglycemia and the associated pathogenesis of diabetic vascular complications. In the frames of this research study, several triazolo- and pyrazolotriazines were synthesized and evaluated as inhibitors of AGE products formation, DPP4, glycogen phosphorylase and α-glucosidase activities, as well as AGE cross-link breakers...
April 10, 2017: Archiv der Pharmazie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392041/arterial-stiffness-is-an-independent-predictor-for-albuminuria-progression-among-asians-with-type-2-diabetes-a-prospective-cohort-study
#18
Xiao Zhang, Serena Low, Chee Fang Sum, Subramaniam Tavintharan, Yeoh Lee Ying, Jianjun Liu, Na Li, Keven Anga, Simon Bm Lee, Wern Ee Tang, Su Chi Lim
AIM: Albuminuria progression has been associated with renal deterioration in type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Central arterial stiffness can aggravate systemic vasculopathy by propagating elevated systolic and pulse pressures forward, thereby accentuating global vascular injury. We aim to investigate whether central arterial stiffness is an independent predictor for albuminuria progression in a multi-ethnic T2DM Asian cohort in Singapore. METHODS: In a prospective cohort, 1012 T2DM patients were assessed at baseline and after a median follow-up of 3...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Diabetes and its Complications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390852/cardiovascular-comorbidity-in-patients-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-in-the-canary-islands-ccecan-study
#19
Juan Marco Figueira Gonc Alves, Rafael Dorta Sánchez, María Del Cristo Rodri Guez Pérez, Pedro Viña Manrique, David Díaz Pérez, Cristina Guzmán Saenz, Juan Manuel Palmero Tejera, Alicia Pérez Rodríguez, Lorenzo Pérez Negrín
INTRODUCTION: Numerous studies have shown a high prevalence of cardiovascular disease in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The aim of this study was to analyse the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and comorbidity in a Canary Islands population diagnosed with COPD, and compared it with data from the general population. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out in 300 patients with COPD and 524 subjects without respiratory disease (control group)...
April 5, 2017: Clínica e Investigación en Arteriosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389252/the-impact-of-patient-demographics-anatomy-comorbidities-and-peri-operative-planning-on-the-primary-functional-maturation-of-autogenous-radiocephalic-arteriovenous-fistula
#20
A Kordzadeh, A Askari, M Hoff, V Smith, Y Panayiotopoulos
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the collective and/or independent impact of patient demographics, comorbidities, anatomical factors, and peri-operative parameters on the primary functional maturation of RCAVFs. This study also aimed to identify the range and best cut off value for each variable and evaluate the likelihood, significance and percentage of primary functional maturation of RCAVFs. METHODS: This was a prospective consecutive single centre cohort study over a 4 year period; it was conducted on patients with the intention-to-treat using a radiocephalic arteriovenous fistula (RCAVF) (Brescia-Cimino)...
April 4, 2017: European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery
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