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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212524/role-of-nrf2-and-protective-effects-of-metformin-against-tobacco-smoke-induced-cerebrovascular-toxicity
#1
Shikha Prasad, Ravi K Sajja, Mohammad Abul Kaisar, Jee Hyun Park, Heidi Villalba, Taylor Liles, Thomas Abbruscato, Luca Cucullo
Cigarette smoking (CS) is associated with vascular endothelial dysfunction in a causative way primarily related to the TS content of reactive oxygen species (ROS), nicotine, and inflammation. TS promotes glucose intolerance and increases the risk of developing type-2 diabetes mellitus (2DM) with which it shares other pathogenic traits including the high risk of cerebrovascular and neurological disorders like stroke via ROS generation, inflammation, and blood-brain barrier (BBB) impairment. Herein we provide evidence of the role played by nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2) in CS-induced cerebrobvascular/BBB impairments and how these cerebrovascular harmful effects can be circumvented by the use of metformin (MF; a widely prescribed, firstline anti-diabetic drug) treatment...
February 12, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211261/early-microvascular-retinal-changes-in-optical-coherence-tomography-angiography-in-patients-with-type-1-diabetes-mellitus
#2
Joseph M Simonett, Fabio Scarinci, Fabiana Picconi, Paola Giorno, Daniele De Geronimo, Antonio Di Renzo, Monica Varano, Simona Frontoni, Mariacristina Parravano
PURPOSE: Diabetic retinopathy (DR) can lead to significant vision loss and blindness and has a particularly high prevalence in patients with type 1 diabetes (DM1). In this study, we investigate quantitative differences in optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) data between DM1 patients with no or mild signs of retinopathy and non-diabetic subjects. METHODS: Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) imaging was performed on DM1 patients with no or mild nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy and healthy, age-matched controls...
February 16, 2017: Acta Ophthalmologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211084/endothelial-cells-biophysical-biochemical-and-chromosomal-aberrancies-in-high-glucose-condition-within-the-diabetic-range
#3
Aysa Rezabakhsh, Elahe Nabat, Mina Yousefi, Soheila Montazersaheb, Omid Cheraghi, Amir Mehdizadeh, Farzaneh Fathi, Ali Akbar Movassaghpour, Nasrin Maleki-Dizaji, Reza Rahbarghazi, Alireza Garjani
To date, many studies have been conducted to find out the underlying mechanisms of hyperglycemia-induced complications in diabetes mellitus, attributed to the cellular pathologies of different cells-especially endothelial cells. However, there are still many ambiguities and unresolved issues to be clarified. Here, we investigated the alteration in biophysical and biochemical properties in human umbilical vein endothelial cells exposed to a high-glucose concentration (30mM), comparable to glucose content in type 2 diabetes mellitus, over a course of 120 hours...
February 17, 2017: Cell Biochemistry and Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208170/optical-coherence-tomographic-angiography-in-type-2-diabetes-and-diabetic-retinopathy
#4
Daniel Shu Wei Ting, Gavin Siew Wei Tan, Rupesh Agrawal, Yasuo Yanagi, Nicole Ming Sie, Chee Wai Wong, Ian Yew San Yeo, Shu Yen Lee, Chui Ming Gemmy Cheung, Tien Yin Wong
Importance: Optical coherence tomographic angiography (OCT-A) is able to visualize retinal microvasculature without the need for injection of fluorescein contrast dye. Nevertheless, it is only able to capture a limited view of macula and does not show leakage. Objectives: To evaluate the retinal microvasculature using OCT-A in patients with type 2 diabetes as well as the association of OCT-A characteristics with diabetic retinopathy (DR) and systemic risk factors...
February 16, 2017: JAMA Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202017/association-between-metformin-use-and-below-the-knee-arterial-calcification-score-in-type-2-diabetic-patients
#5
Aurélien Mary, Agnes Hartemann, Sophie Liabeuf, Carole Elodie Aubert, Salim Kemel, Joe Elie Salem, Philippe Cluzel, Aurélie Lenglet, Ziad A Massy, Jean-Daniel Lalau, Romuald Mentaverri, Olivier Bourron, Saïd Kamel
BACKGROUND: Vascular calcification (VC) is common in type 2 diabetes, and is associated with cardiovascular complications. Recent preclinical data suggest that metformin inhibits VC both in vitro and in animal models. However, metformin's effects in patients with diabetic VC have not previously been characterized. The present study investigated the association between metformin use and lower-limb arterial calcification in patients with type 2 diabetes and high cardiovascular risk. METHODS: The DIACART cross-sectional cohort study included 198 patients with type 2 diabetes but without severe chronic kidney disease...
February 15, 2017: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194484/perturbations-of-the-anti-ageing-hormone-klotho-in-patients-with-type-1-diabetes-and-microalbuminuria
#6
Giuseppe Maltese, Nikolaos Fountoulakis, Richard C Siow, Luigi Gnudi, Janaka Karalliedde
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Patients with type 1 diabetes and microalbuminuria are at high risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and end-stage renal disease. Soluble Klotho is an anti-ageing circulating hormone involved in phosphate metabolism and vascular homeostasis through protective effects on the endothelium and antioxidant actions. The role of soluble Klotho in patients with type 1 diabetes and microalbuminuria is unknown. METHODS: In a cross-sectional single-centre study we evaluated the levels of circulating serum soluble Klotho in 33 participants with type 1 diabetes and a history of microalbuminuria (receiving renin-angiotensin system [RAS] inhibitors) and 45 participants with type 1 diabetes without a history of microalbuminuria (not receiving RAS or other antihypertensive drugs)...
February 13, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193577/tissue-plasminogen-activator-t-pa-and-plasminogen-activator-inhibitor-type-1-pai-1-in-diabetic-foot-syndrome
#7
Arleta Kulwas, Beata Lisewska, Wiesław Jundziłł, Barbara Ruszkowska, Wanda Drewniak, Zofia Ruprecht, Grażyna Gadomska, Danuta Rość
PURPOSE: The aim was to evaluate tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) concentration using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay method (ELISA) in diabetic foot syndrome (DFS) as compared to a group of healthy people and patients with diabetes mellitus without symptomatic vascular complications (DM2T). MATERIAL/METHODS: Venous blood samples were collected from 90 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (30 - DM2T; 60 - DFS)...
February 10, 2017: Advances in Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191906/intracardiac-echocardiography-for-verification-for-left-atrial-appendage-thrombus-presence-detected-by-transesophageal-echocardiography-the-actionice-ii-study
#8
Jakub Baran, Beata Zaborska, Roman Piotrowski, Malgorzata Sikora-Frąc, Ewa Pilichowska-Paszkiet, Piotr Kułakowski
BACKGROUND: Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) remains the gold standard for exclusion of left atrial appendage (LAA) thrombus in patients scheduled for direct electrical cardioversion (DEC) or atrial fibrillation (AF) ablation. Recently, intracardiac echocardiography (ICE) of the pulmonary artery (PA) has been shown to provide excellent LAA images and to be useful in verification of equivocal TEE findings. HYPOTHESIS: ICE of the PA may have a role in detecting false-positive TEE results...
February 13, 2017: Clinical Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28189115/n-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-alleviate-high-glucose-mediated-dysfunction-of-endothelial-progenitor-cells-and-prevent-ischemic-injuries-both-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#9
Shao-Chih Chiu, Che-Yi Chao, En-Pei Isabel Chiang, Jia-Ning Syu, Raymond L Rodriguez, Feng-Yao Tang
Hyperglycemia is associated with a reduced number of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) that impairs vascular function. Circulating EPCs play important roles in postnatal neovasculogenesis and the prevention of ischemic injury. Frequent consumption of fish oil (FO) that is abundant with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)/docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is reportedly associated with an alleviation of diabetic complications and a lowered incidence of cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to examine whether N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids such as EPA and DHA would reverse the high glucose-mediated dysfunction of EPCs in vitro and thereby prevent the ischemic injury that occurs under the hyperglycemic conditions in Type 2 diabetes (T2D) db(-/-) mice...
January 28, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183205/inhibition-of-rho-kinase-protects-from-ischaemia-reperfusion-injury-via-regulation-of-arginase-activity-and-nitric-oxide-synthase-in-type-1-diabetes
#10
Yahor Tratsiakovich, Attila Kiss, Adrian T Gonon, Jiangning Yang, Per-Ove Sjöquist, John Pernow
AIM: RhoA/Rho-associated kinase and arginase are implicated in vascular complications in diabetes. This study investigated whether RhoA/Rho-associated kinase and arginase inhibition protect from myocardial ischaemia-reperfusion injury in type 1 diabetes and the mechanisms behind these effects. METHODS: Rats with streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetes and non-diabetic rats were subjected to 30 min myocardial ischaemia and 2 h reperfusion after being randomized to treatment with (1) saline, (2) RhoA/Rho-associated kinase inhibitor hydroxyfasudil, (3) nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N(G)-monomethyl-l-arginine monoacetate followed by hydroxyfasudil, (4) arginase inhibitor N-omega-hydroxy-nor-l-arginine, (5) N(G)-monomethyl-l-arginine monoacetate followed by N-omega-hydroxy-nor-l-arginine or (6) N(G)-monomethyl-l-arginine monoacetate given intravenous before ischaemia...
February 1, 2017: Diabetes & Vascular Disease Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178127/robotic-pancreas-transplantation-in-a-type-1-diabetic-patient-with-morbid-obesity-a-case-report
#11
Chun Chieh Yeh, Mario Spaggiari, Ivo Tzvetanov, José Oberholzer
RATIONALE: Obesity is considered a relative contraindication to pancreas transplantation due to increased risks of wound-related complications. Robotic surgeries have never been applied for pancreas transplantation in obese recipients though robotic kidney transplantation did and already proved its value in reducing wound-related complications in obese recipients. PATIENT CONCERNS & DIAGNOSES: We performed the first robotic pancreas after kidney transplantation for a 34-year-old Hispanic type 1 diabetic male with class III obesity (BMI = 41 kg/m)...
February 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174291/local-sphingosine-kinase-1-activity-improves-islet-transplantation
#12
Darling Rojas-Canales, Daniella Penko, Kay K Myo Min, Kate A Parham, Heshan Peiris, Rainer V Haberberger, Stuart M Pitson, Chris Drogemuller, Damien J Keating, Shane T Grey, Patrick T Coates, Claudine S Bonder, Claire F Jessup
Pancreatic islet transplantation is a promising clinical treatment for type I diabetes (T1D), but success is limited by extensive beta cell death in the immediate post-transplant period, and impaired islet function in the longer term. Following transplantation, appropriate vascular remodelling is crucial to ensure the survival and function of engrafted islets. The sphingosine kinase pathway is an important regulator of vascular beds, but its role in the survival and function of transplanted islets is unknown...
February 7, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168812/optical-coherence-tomography-angiography-of-macular-telangiectasia-type-1-comparison-with-mild-diabetic-macular-edema
#13
Lei Mao, Si-Si Weng, Yuan-Yuan Gong, Su-Qin Yu
OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to investigate the characteristics of macular telangiectasia type 1 (Mac tel type 1) using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) and compare them with the characteristics of mild diabetic macular edema (DME), to provide a new objective method for quick clinical diagnosis and treatment. METHODS: A retrospective comparative analysis of 9 Mac tel type 1, 15 DME, and 15 normal eyes was performed using fluorescein angiography, spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, and OCTA...
February 7, 2017: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164494/the-blood-bank-for-diabetes-screening-a-feasible-alternative
#14
Mauren I Anghebem-Oliveira, Claudia D Costa, Giorgio R Baldanzi, Juliane C Schmitt-Mansur, Geraldo Picheth, Fabiane G M Rego
BACKGROUND: Vascular complications of diabetes mellitus (DM) are associated with 5% of deaths globally every year. Early diagnosis and treatment could reduce this figure. The aim of this project was to investigate the frequency of undiagnosed DM among blood donors and the possibility of blood banks participating in DM screening. METHODS: Of the approximate 5,600 candidates for blood donation who were evaluated, 4,601 were considered suitable. Candidates with any type of DM, hypertension, thyroid disease, and/or continuous use of any drugs were excluded, resulting in the participation of 635 donors aged 18 - 69 years...
January 1, 2017: Clinical Laboratory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162229/the-increased-transforming-growth-factor-%C3%AE-signaling-induced-by-diabetes-protects-retinal-vessels
#15
Zeina Dagher, Chiara Gerhardinger, Joseph Vaz, Michael Goodridge, Francesco Tecilazich, Mara Lorenzi
The roles of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β in extracellular matrix production and vascular remodeling, coupled with increased TGF-β expression and signaling in diabetes, suggest TGF-β as an important contributor to the microangiopathy of diabetic retinopathy and nephropathy. To investigate whether increased TGF-β signaling could be a therapeutic target for preventing retinopathy, we used a pharmacologic approach (SM16, a selective inhibitor of the type 1 TGF-β receptor activin receptor-like kinase 5, orally active) to inhibit the increased, but not the basal, Tgf-β signaling in retinal vessels of diabetic rats...
February 1, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161386/podocyturia-parallels-proximal-tubule-dysfunction-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-patients-independently-of-albuminuria-and-renal-function-decline-a-cross-sectional-study
#16
Ligia Petrica, Mihaela Vlad, Adrian Vlad, Gheorghe Gluhovschi, Florica Gadalean, Victor Dumitrascu, Roxana Popescu, Cristina Gluhovschi, Petru Matusz, Silvia Velciov, Flaviu Bob, Sorin Ursoniu, Daliborca Vlad
AIMS: Detection of podocytes in the urine of patients with type 2 diabetes may indicate severe injury to the podocytes. In the course of type 2 diabetes the proximal tubule is involved in urinary albumin processing. We studied the significance of podocyturia in relation with proximal tubule dysfunction in type 2 diabetes. METHODS: A total of 86 patients with type 2 diabetes (34-normoalbuminuria; 30-microalbuminuria; 22-macroalbuminuria) and 28 healthy subjects were enrolled in the study and assessed concerning urinary podocytes, podocyte-associated molecules, and biomarkers of proximal tubule dysfunction...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Diabetes and its Complications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149790/evaluation-of-vegf-gene-polymorphisms-and-proliferative-diabetic-retinopathy-in-mexican-population
#17
Roberto Gonzalez-Salinas, Maria C Garcia-Gutierrez, Gerardo Garcia-Aguirre, Virgilio Morales-Canton, Raul Velez-Montoya, Vidal R Soberon-Ventura, Victoria Gonzalez, Rodrigo Lechuga, Pablo Garcia-Solis, David G Garcia-Gutierrez, Marco Vinicio Garcia-Solis, Manuel Saenz de Viteri, Juan C Solis-S
AIM: To assess if the included vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) polymorphisms rs3025035, rs3025021 and rs2010963 are associated to proliferative retinopathy in a Mexican population with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). METHODS: A case-control study was conducted in adult individuals with T2DM associated to proliferative retinopathy or non-proliferative retinopathy from Oct. 2014 to Jun. 2015 from the Retina Department of the Asociation to Prevent Blindness in Mexico...
2017: International Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145158/impact-of-dpp-4-inhibition-on-acute-and-chronic-endothelial-function-in-humans-with-type-2-diabetes-on-background-metformin-therapy
#18
Michael E Widlansky, Venkata K Puppala, Tisha M Suboc, Mobin Malik, Amberly Branum, Kara Signorelli, Jingli Wang, Rong Ying, Michael J Tanner, Sudhi Tyagi
: Cell culture and animal work indicate that dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibition may exert cardiovascular benefits through favorable effects on the vascular endothelium. Prior human studies evaluating DPP-4 inhibition have shown conflicting results that may in part be related to heterogeneity of background anti-diabetes therapies. No study has evaluated the acute response of the vasculature to DPP-4 inhibition in humans. We recruited 38 patients with type 2 diabetes on stable background metformin therapy for a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial of DPP-4 inhibition with sitagliptin (100 mg/day)...
January 1, 2017: Vascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143897/glomerular-hyperfiltration-in-diabetes-mechanisms-clinical-significance-and-treatment
#19
Lennart Tonneijck, Marcel H A Muskiet, Mark M Smits, Erik J van Bommel, Hiddo J L Heerspink, Daniël H van Raalte, Jaap A Joles
An absolute, supraphysiologic elevation in GFR is observed early in the natural history in 10%-67% and 6%-73% of patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes, respectively. Moreover, at the single-nephron level, diabetes-related renal hemodynamic alterations-as an adaptation to reduction in functional nephron mass and/or in response to prevailing metabolic and (neuro)hormonal stimuli-increase glomerular hydraulic pressure and transcapillary convective flux of ultrafiltrate and macromolecules. This phenomenon, known as glomerular hyperfiltration, classically has been hypothesized to predispose to irreversible nephron damage, thereby contributing to initiation and progression of kidney disease in diabetes...
January 31, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141808/skin-autofluorescence-and-subclinical-atherosclerosis-in-mild-to-moderate-chronic-kidney-disease-a-case-control-study
#20
Enric Sánchez, Àngels Betriu, David Arroyo, Carolina López, Marta Hernández, Ferran Rius, Elvira Fernández, Albert Lecube
Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) are increased and predict mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) who are undergoing hemodialysis, irrespective of the presence of type 2 diabetes. However, little information exits about the relationship between AGEs and subclinical atherosclerosis at the early stages of CKD. A case-control study was performed including 87 patients with mild-to-moderate stages of CKD (glomerular filtration rate from 89 to 30 ml/min/per 1.73m2) and 87 non-diabetic non-CKD subjects matched by age, gender, body mass index, and waist circumference...
2017: PloS One
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