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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073046/olanzapine-and-aripiprazole-differentially-affect-glucose-uptake-and-energy-metabolism-in-human-mononuclear-blood-cells
#1
Britta Stapel, Alexandra Kotsiari, Michaela Scherr, Denise Hilfiker-Kleiner, Stefan Bleich, Helge Frieling, Kai G Kahl
The use of antipsychotics carries the risk of metabolic side effects, such as weight gain and new onset type-2 diabetes mellitus. The mechanisms of the observed metabolic alterations are not fully understood. We compared the effects of two atypical antipsychotics, one known to favor weight gain (olanzapine), the other not (aripiprazole), on glucose metabolism. Primary human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were isolated and stimulated with olanzapine or aripiprazole for 72 h. Cellular glucose uptake was analyzed in vitro by 18F-FDG uptake...
December 22, 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070808/combined-positive-effect-of-oocyte-extracts-and-brilliant-cresyl-blue-stained-recipient-cytoplasts-on-epigenetic-reprogramming-and-gene-expression-in-buffalo-nuclear-transfer-embryos
#2
E M Sadeesh, Shah Fozia, Kataria Meena
This study examined the effects of buffalo oocyte extracts (BOE) on donor cells reprogramming and molecular characterisation of oocytes screened via brilliant cresyl blue (BCB) staining and comparison of gene expression profiles of developmentally important genes in blastocysts from IVF and cloned derived from BOE treated donor cells with BCB selected recipient cytoplasts. Relative abundance (RA) of OCT4 and NANOG was increased (P < 0.05) and HDAC-1, DNMT-1, and DNMT-3A decreased (P < 0.05) in extract treated cells (ETCs)...
January 9, 2017: Cytotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069827/melatonin-mediated-upregulation-of-glut1-blocks-exit-from-pluripotency-by-increasing-the-uptake-of-oxidized-vitamin-c-in-mouse-embryonic-stem-cells
#3
Haibo Wu, Chao Song, Jingcheng Zhang, Jiamin Zhao, Beibei Fu, Tingchao Mao, Yong Zhang
Melatonin and vitamin C are powerful antioxidants that improve the reprogramming efficiency of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). However, the effects of the combined treatment of vitamin C and melatonin on the differentiation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) have not yet been examined. In this study, we showed that melatonin synergizes with vitamin C to derail exit from pluripotency of mouse ESCs. This effect is related to the increased uptake of dehydroascorbate, the oxidized form of vitamin C, through glucose transporter 1 (Glut1) transporter, which in turn, is upregulated by melatonin treatment...
January 9, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069585/expression-of-hmgb2-indicates-worse-survival-of-patients-and-is-required-for-the-maintenance-of-warburg-effect-in-pancreatic-cancer
#4
Xin Cai, Hongjian Ding, Yanxia Liu, Gaofeng Pan, Qingguo Li, Zhen Yang, Weiyan Liu
High mobility group proteins (HMGs) are the second most abundant chromatin proteins and exert global genomic functions in the establishment of active or inactive chromatin domains. Through interaction with nucleosomes, transcription factors, nucleosome-remodeling machines and histones, the HMGs family proteins contribute to the fine tuning of transcription in response to rapid environmental changes. Mammalian high mobility group Bs (HMGBs) are characterized by two tandem HMG box domains followed by a long acidic tail...
January 9, 2017: Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069424/different-regulation-of-insulin-on-glucose-and-lipid-metabolism-in-2-strains-of-gibel-carp
#5
Junyan Jin, Xiaoming Zhu, Dong Han, Yunxia Yang, Haokun Liu, Shouqi Xie
To test the hypothesis that response to insulin by regulating glucose and lipid metabolism in gibel carp A strain may be different from that in DT strain, bovine insulin was injected into both strains of gibel carp after previous fasting for 48 h. The results showed that insulin induced hypoglycemia at 3 h in 2 strains, and that this was coupled with increased expression of glucose transporters (GLUT2 in the liver and GLUT1, GLUT4 in the muscle) and glycolytic enzyme (HK2 in the muscle) in both strains. Insulin induced increased glycolysis (GK) and fatty acid oxidation (ACO3 in the liver and CPT1a, ACO3 in the muscle) in the DT strain...
January 6, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061880/phospho-akt-overexpression-is-prognostic-and-can-be-used-to-tailor-the-synergistic-interaction-of-akt-inhibitors-with-gemcitabine-in-pancreatic-cancer
#6
Daniela Massihnia, Amir Avan, Niccola Funel, Mina Maftouh, Anne van Krieken, Carlotta Granchi, Rajiv Raktoe, Ugo Boggi, Babette Aicher, Filippo Minutolo, Antonio Russo, Leticia G Leon, Godefridus J Peters, Elisa Giovannetti
BACKGROUND: There is increasing evidence of a constitutive activation of Akt in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), associated with poor prognosis and chemoresistance. Therefore, we evaluated the expression of phospho-Akt in PDAC tissues and cells, and investigated molecular mechanisms influencing the therapeutic potential of Akt inhibition in combination with gemcitabine. METHODS: Phospho-Akt expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in tissue microarrays (TMAs) with specimens tissue from radically-resected patients (n = 100)...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Hematology & Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058711/hyperglycemia-is-associated-with-poor-survival-in-primary-central-nervous-system-lymphoma-patients
#7
Ayumi Debata, Koichi Yoshida, Kenta Ujifuku, Haruna Yasui, Kensaku Kamada, Daisuke Niino, Takayuki Matsuo
PURPOSE: Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is a type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), and it has been postulated that metabolic disorder may contribute to NHL etiology. We retrospectively investigated the prognostic significance of hyperglycemia in patients with PCNSL. We evaluated glucose transporter type 1 (GLUT1) expression by immunohistochemistry and analyzed its association with hyperglycemia and survival. METHODS: The medical and neuroradiologic records of 50 patients with PCNSL at our institution over the past 15 years were analyzed...
December 29, 2016: Tumori
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049953/cobalt-chloride-induces-expression-and-function-of-breast-cancer-resistance-protein-bcrp-abcg2-in-human-renal-proximal-tubular-epithelial-cell-line-hk-2
#8
Katsuki Nishihashi, Kei Kawashima, Takami Nomura, Yumiko Urakami-Takebayashi, Makoto Miyazaki, Mikihisa Takano, Junya Nagai
The human breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP/ABCG2), a member of the ATP-binding cassette transporter family, is a drug transporter restricting absorption and enhancing excretion of many compounds including anticancer drugs. The cis-regulatory elements in the BCRP promoter include a hypoxia response element, i.e., the DNA binding site for hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1). In this study, we investigated the effect of cobalt chloride, a chemical inducer of HIF-1α, on the expression and function of BCRP in human renal proximal tubular cell line HK-2...
2017: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042592/paroxysmal-nonepileptic-events-in-glut1-deficiency
#9
Joerg Klepper, Baerbel Leiendecker, Christin Eltze, Nicole Heussinger
View Supplementary Video Movement disorders are a major feature of Glut1 deficiency. As recently identified in adults with paroxysmal exercise-induced dystonia, similar events were reported in pediatric Glut1 deficiency. In a case series, parent videos of regular motor state and paroxysmal events were requested from children with Glut1 deficiency on clinical follow-up. A questionnaire was sent out to 60 families. Videos of nonparoxysmal/paroxysmal states in 3 children illustrated the ataxic-dystonic, choreatiform, and dyskinetic-dystonic nature of paroxysmal events...
November 2016: Movement Disorders Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035704/extra-acral-cutaneous-sclerosing-perineurioma-with-cd34-fingerprint-pattern
#10
Ricardo S Macarenco, Jade Cury-Martins
Sclerosing perineuroma is a variant of extraneural perineurioma that, as a rule, occurs in acral sites. However, it has also been occasionally reported in non-acral regions. Recently, CD34 expression in a pattern reminiscent of the human fingerprint has been observed in a subset of perineuriomas, but this immunohistochemical finding has not been documented in non-acral sclerosing perineuriomas. We report a case of sclerosing perineurioma presenting CD34 expression in a fingerprint-like pattern on the skin of the neck (a previously unreported site for this neoplasm) of a 56-year-old man...
December 30, 2016: Journal of Cutaneous Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034463/glucose-transporters-in-healthy-heart-and-in-cardiac-disease
#11
REVIEW
Leszek Szablewski
Heart consumes more energy than any other organ. It can utilize various metabolic substrates as a source of energy. The primary substrates are free fatty acids, especially long-chain fatty acids and glucose. The lipid bilayer of plasmalemma is impermeable for glucose. Therefore, glucose transport across the plasma membrane is mediated via glucose transporters. In human, cardiac cells are expressed as 2 families of glucose transporters: GLUTs and SGLTs. These transport proteins are GLUT1, GLUT3, GLUT8, GLUT10, GLUT11, GLUT12 and SGLT1...
December 21, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028936/hypoxia-inducible-factor-1-promotes-chemoresistance-of-lung-cancer-by-inducing-carbonic-anhydrase-ix-expression
#12
Terumasa Sowa, Toshi Menju, Toyofumi F Chen-Yoshikawa, Koji Takahashi, Shigeto Nishikawa, Takao Nakanishi, Kei Shikuma, Hideki Motoyama, Kyoko Hijiya, Akihiro Aoyama, Toshihiko Sato, Makoto Sonobe, Hiroshi Harada, Hiroshi Date
Lung cancer treatment is difficult owing to chemoresistance. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) and HIF-1-induced glycolysis are correlated with chemoresistance; however, this is not evident in lung cancer. We investigated the effect of HIF-1α and carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX), a transmembrane protein neutralizing intracellular acidosis, on chemoresistance and prognosis of lung cancer patients after induction chemoradiotherapy. Associations of HIF-1α, glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1), and CAIX with chemoresistance of lung cancer were investigated using A549 lung cancer cells under normoxia or hypoxia in vitro...
December 28, 2016: Cancer Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028797/glut1-mct1-4-and-cd147-overexpression-supports-the-metabolic-reprogramming-in-papillary-renal-cell-carcinoma
#13
L M C A Almeida, R Silva, B Cavadas, J Lima, L Pereira, P Soares, M Sobrinho-Simões, J M Lopes, V Máximo
Papillary Renal Cell carcinoma (pRCC) is the second most common type of RCC, accounting for about 15% of all RCCs. Surgical excision is the main treatment option. Still, 10 - 15 % of clinically localized tumours will recur and/or develop metastasis early after surgery, and no reliable prognostic biomarkers are available to identify them. It is known that pRCC cells rely on high rates of aerobic glycolysis, characterized by the up-regulation of many proteins and enzymes related with the glycolytic pathway. However, a metabolic signature enabling the identification of advanced pRCC tumours remains to be discovered...
December 28, 2016: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009298/adenovirus-protein-e4-orf1-activation-of-pi3-kinase-reveals-differential-regulation-of-downstream-effector-pathways-in-adipocytes
#14
Natasha Chaudhary, Eva Gonzalez, Sung-Hee Chang, Fuqiang Geng, Shahin Rafii, Nasser K Altorki, Timothy E McGraw
Insulin activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) regulates metabolism, including the translocation of the Glut4 glucose transporter to the plasma membrane and inactivation of the FoxO1 transcription factor. Adenoviral protein E4-ORF1 stimulates cellular glucose metabolism by mimicking growth-factor activation of PI3K. We have used E4-ORF1 as a tool to dissect PI3K-mediated signaling in adipocytes. E4-ORF1 activation of PI3K in adipocytes recapitulates insulin regulation of FoxO1 but not regulation of Glut4...
December 20, 2016: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000962/hypoxia-causes-il-8-secretion-charcot-leyden-crystal-formation-and-suppression-of-corticosteroid-induced-apoptosis-in-human-eosinophils
#15
Linsey M Porter, Andrew S Cowburn, Neda Farahi, John Deighton, Stuart N Farrow, Christine A Fiddler, Jatinder K Juss, Alison M Condliffe, Edwin R Chilvers
BACKGROUND: Inflamed environments are typically hypercellular, rich in pro-inflammatory cytokines, and profoundly hypoxic. While the effects of hypoxia on neutrophil longevity and function have been widely studied, little is known about the consequences of this stimulus on eosinophils. OBJECTIVE: We sought to investigate the effects of hypoxia on several key aspects of eosinophil biology; namely secretion, survival, and their sensitivity to glucocorticosteroids (GCS), agents which normally induce eosinophil apoptosis...
December 21, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000878/elevated-expression-of-trpc5-and-glut1-is-associated-with-chemoresistance-in-colorectal-cancer
#16
Teng Wang, Kuan Ning, Ting-Xun Lu, Dong Hua
Reprogramming of energy metabolism (aerobic glycolysis) is thought to play an essential role in cancer. Compared to oxidative phosphorylation, aerobic glycolysis consumes more glucose through the upregulation of glucose transporters, notably glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1). Elevated glycolysis occurs in chemoresistant cancer cells, but the detailed mechanism is not well understood. The upregulation of the Ca2+-permeable transient receptor potential channel 5 (TrpC5) activates the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in 5-fluorouracil (5-Fu)-resistant human colorectal cancer (CRC) HCT-8 (HCT-8/5-Fu) cells...
December 15, 2016: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999896/correlation-of-pretreatment-18-f-fdg-pet-tumor-textural-features-with-gene-expression-in-pharyngeal-cancer-and-implications-for-radiotherapy-based-treatment-outcomes
#17
Shang-Wen Chen, Wei-Chih Shen, Ying-Chun Lin, Rui-Yun Chen, Te-Chun Hsieh, Kuo-Yang Yen, Chia-Hung Kao
PURPOSE: This study investigated the correlation of the matrix heterogeneity of tumors on (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) with gene-expression profiling in patients with pharyngeal cancer and determined the prognostic factors for radiotherapy-based treatment outcomes. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the records of 57 patients with stage III-IV oropharyngeal or hypopharyngeal cancer who had completed definitive therapy...
December 20, 2016: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999108/insulin-regulates-astrocytic-glucose-handling-through-cooperation-with-igf-i
#18
Ana M Fernandez, Edwin Hernandez-Garzón, Paloma Perez-Domper, Alberto Perez-Alvarez, Sara Mederos, Takashi Matsui, Andrea Santi, Angel Trueba-Saiz, Lucía García-Guerra, Julia Pose-Utrilla, Jens Fielitz, Eric N Olson, Ruben Fernandez de la Rosa, Luis Garcia Garcia, Miguel Angel Pozo, Teresa Iglesias, Alfonso Araque, Hideaki Soya, Gertrudis Perea, Eduardo D Martin, Ignacio Torres Aleman
Brain activity requires a flux of glucose to active regions to sustain increased metabolic demands. Insulin, the main regulator of glucose handling in the body, has been traditionally considered not to intervene in this process. However, we now report that insulin modulates brain glucose metabolism by acting on astrocytes in concert with IGF-I. The cooperation of insulin and IGF-I is needed to recover neuronal activity after hypoglycemia. Analysis of underlying mechanisms show that the combined action of IGF-I and insulin synergistically stimulates a mitogen-activated protein kinase/protein kinase D pathway resulting in translocation of GLUT1 to the cell membrane through multiple protein-protein interactions involving the scaffolding protein GAIP-interacting protein C terminus and the GTPase RAC1...
January 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998284/the-glucose-transporter-glut1-is-required-for-erbb2-induced-mammary-tumorigenesis
#19
Elizabeth A Wellberg, Stevi Johnson, Jessica Finlay-Schultz, Andrew S Lewis, Kristina L Terrell, Carol A Sartorius, E Dale Abel, William J Muller, Steven M Anderson
BACKGROUND: Altered tumor cell metabolism is an emerging hallmark of cancer; however, the precise role for glucose in tumor initiation is not known. GLUT1 (SLC2A1) is expressed in breast cancer cells and is likely responsible for avid glucose uptake observed in established tumors. We have shown that GLUT1 was necessary for xenograft tumor formation from primary mammary cells transformed with the polyomavirus middle-T antigen but that it was not necessary for growth after tumors had formed in vivo, suggesting a differential requirement for glucose depending on the stage of tumorigenesis...
December 20, 2016: Breast Cancer Research: BCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997810/glut-1-dependent-glycolysis-is-increased-during-aging-related-lung-fibrosis-and-phloretin-inhibits-lung-fibrosis
#20
Soo Jung Cho, Jong-Seok Moon, Chang-Min Lee, Augustine M K Choi, Heather W Stout-Delgado
RATIONAL: Aging is associated with metabolic diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, cancer and neurodegeneration. Aging contributes to common processes including metabolic dysfunction, DNA damage and reactive oxygen species generation. While glycolysis has been linked to cell growth and proliferation, the mechanisms by which the activation of glycolysis by aging regulates fibrogenesis in lung remain unclear. OBJECTIVES: To determine if glucose transport 1 (GLUT1)-induced glycolysis regulates age-dependent fibrogenesis of the lung...
December 20, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
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