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Stacy Hewson, Ledia Brunga, Matilde Fernandez Ojeda, Elizabeth Imhof, Jaina Patel, Maria Zak, Elizabeth J Donner, Jeff Kobayashi, Gajja S Salomons, Saadet Mercimek-Andrews
Between July of 2012 and December of 2014, 39 patients were enrolled prospectively to investigate the prevalence of glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) deficiency in a ketogenic diet clinic. None of them had GLUT1 deficiency. All patients seen in the same clinic within the same period were reviewed retrospectively. A total of 18 of these 85 patients had a genetic diagnosis, including GLUT1 deficiency, pathogenic copy number variants, congenital disorder of glycosylation, neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis type II, mitochondrial disorders, tuberous sclerosis, lissencephaly, and SCN1A-, SCN8A-, and STXBP1-associated epileptic encephalopathies...
November 16, 2017: Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences. le Journal Canadien des Sciences Neurologiques
Melinda Wuest, Ingrit Hamann, Vincent Bouvet, Darryl Glubrecht, Alison Marshall, Brendan Trayner, Olivier Soueidan, Daniel Krys, Michael Wagner, Chris Cheeseman, Frederick West, Frank Wuest
Use of [18F]FDG-PET in clinical breast cancer (BC) imaging is limited mainly due to insufficient expression levels of GLUT1 in up to 50% of all patients. Fructose-specific facilitative hexose transporter GLUT5 represents an alternative biomarker for PET imaging of hexose metabolism in BC. The goal of the present study was to compare uptake characteristics of selected hexose-based PET radiotracers in murine BC model EMT6. Uptake of 1-deoxy-1-[18F]fluoro-D-fructose (1-[18F]FDF), 6-deoxy-6-[18F]fluoro-D-fructose (6-[18F]FDF), 1-deoxy-1-[18F]fluoro-2,5-anhydro-mannitol (1-[18F]FDAM), 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose (2-[18F]FDG) and 6-deoxy-6-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose (6-[18F]FDG) was studied in EMT6 cells, tumors and muscle and correlated to GLUT1 and GLUT5 expression levels...
November 15, 2017: Molecular Pharmacology
Alexander M Myrka, Kenneth C Welch
Hummingbirds are able to fuel hovering flight entirely with recently ingested glucose or fructose. Among vertebrates, several steps of sugar flux from circulation to skeletal muscle are potentially rate-limiting, including transport into muscle and subsequent phosphorylation. While capacities for glucose flux are substantial, capacities for fructose flux are comparatively low. The mechanisms underlying apparent high rates of glucose and fructose oxidation in hummingbird flight muscle remain unclear. We examined relative expression of facilitative sugar transporters (GLUTs) and enzymes of fructolysis in ruby-throated hummingbird (Archilochus colubris) tissues involved in energy homeostasis and flight, via qPCR and measured hexokinase activity in pectoralis in vitro...
November 7, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
Amanda M Eccardt, Thomas P Bell, Lyn Mattathil, Rohan Prasad, Shannon C Kelly, Jonathan S Fisher
Trans-plasma membrane electron transport (tPMET) and the antioxidant roles of ascorbate reportedly play a role in protection of cells from damage by reactive oxygen species, which have been implicated in causing metabolic dysfunction such as insulin resistance. Skeletal muscle comprises the largest whole-body organ fraction suggesting a potential role of tPMET and ascorbate export as a major source of extracellular antioxidant. We hypothesized that skeletal muscle is capable of tPMET and ascorbate efflux. To measure these processes, we assayed the ability of cultured muscle cells, satellite cells, and isolated extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and soleus (SOL) to reduce two extracellular electron acceptors, water soluble tetrazolium salt 1 (WST-1), and dichlorophenolindophenol (DPIP)...
November 9, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
Tianyi Yu, Min Gao, Peilang Yang, Qing Pei, Dan Liu, Di Wang, Xiong Zhang, Yan Liu
Insulin signaling defects could lead to insulin resistance in insulin target organs: typically, in the muscler, liver, and adipose tissue. We have observed that insulin accelerated diabetic wound healing in our previous works; to further elucidate the mechanism, we investigated the expression and activation of insulin and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 signaling, compared insulin sensitivity in skin tissue with that in liver tissue, and also observed the regulation of insulin on inflammatory response of wounds during the healing process...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
Trevor P Fidler, Robert A Campbell, Trevor Funari, Nicholas Dunne, Enrique Balderas Angeles, Elizabeth A Middleton, Dipayan Chaudhuri, Andrew S Weyrich, E Dale Abel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 7, 2017: Cell Reports
Swapnil Rohidas Shinde, Subbareddy Maddika
The tumor suppressor PTEN executes cellular functions predominantly through its phosphatase activity. Here we identified a phosphatase-independent role for PTEN during vesicular trafficking of the glucose transporter GLUT1. PTEN physically interacts with SNX27, a component of the retromer complex that recycles transmembrane receptors such as GLUT1 from endosomes to the plasma membrane. PTEN binding with SNX27 prevents GLUT1 accumulation at the plasma membrane because of defective recycling and thus reduces cellular glucose uptake...
November 7, 2017: Cell Reports
Dongmei Zhao, Qinglan Qu, Huangguan Dai, Yueyang Liu, Lei Jiang, Xin Huang, Cuifang Hao
Embryo implantation is associated with an hypoxic endometrial microenvironment. Hypoxia‑inducible factor‑1α (HIF‑1α) is activated under hypoxic conditions. In the present study, the expression pattern of HIF‑1α in endometrial tissue was investigated and its effects on endometrial receptivity in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) were examined. A total of 81 patients were enrolled for in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer. They were divided into PCOS (n=40) and Control groups (n=41); both groups were further divided based on body weight (overweight and normal weight subgroups)...
October 26, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
James Ya Zhang, Jinhwan Lee, Xiaohuan Gu, Zheng Wei, Mallory Jessica Harris, Shan Ping P Yu, Ling Wei
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a prevalent disorder, but no effective therapies currently exist. An underlying pathophysiology of TBI includes the pathologic elevation of autophagy. β-Catenin, a downstream mediator of the canonical Wnt pathway, is a repressor of autophagy. The Wnt/β-catenin pathway plays a crucial role in cell proliferation and neuronal plasticity/repair in the adult brain. We hypothesized that activation of this pathway could promote neuroprotection and neural regeneration following TBI...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
Rosemarie Krupar, Matthias G Hautmann, Ravi R Pathak, Indu Varier, Cassandra McLaren, Doris Gaag, Claus Hellerbrand, Matthias Evert, Simon Laban, Christian Idel, Vlad Sandulache, Sven Perner, Anja K Bosserhoff, Andrew G Sikora
Tumor immune microenvironment and tumor metabolism are major determinants of chemoradiotherapy response. The interdependency and prognostic significance of specific immune and metabolic phenotypes in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) were assessed and changes in reactive oxygen species were evaluated as a mechanism of treatment response in tumor spheroid/immunocyte co-cultures. Pretreatment tumor biopsies were immunohistochemically characterized in 73 HNSCC patients treated by definitive chemoradiotherapy and correlated with survival...
October 27, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
Hengjun Xiao, Jun Wang, Weixin Yan, Yubin Cui, Zheng Chen, Xin Gao, Xingqiao Wen, Jun Chen
BACKGROUND: Glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) plays a critical role in tumorigenesis and tumor progression in multiple cancer types. However, the specific function and clinical significance of GLUT1 in prostate cancer (PCa) are still unclear. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the role of GLUT1 in PCa. METHODS: GLUT1 protein levels in prostate cancer tissue and tumor-adjacent normal tissues were measured and compared. Furthermore, real-time PCR and Western blot analysis were both used to detect GLUT1 expression levels in different PCa cell lines...
November 6, 2017: Prostate
Petra Vogelsang, Lasse Melvaer Giil, Anders Lund, Christian A Vedeler, Anagha P Parkar, Jan Erik Nordrehaug, Einar K Kristoffersen
Patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) have blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction. Methods to study cells of the BBB in vivo would facilitate analyses of neurovascular damage in early AD. Thus, we conducted a pilot study to investigate if brain-derived endothelial cells (BDCECs) could be identified from a cell population of circulating endothelial cells (CECs). Peripheral blood was sampled from early AD patients (n = 9), patients with vascular diseases (myocardial infarction (n = 8) and ischemic stroke (n = 8)), and healthy controls (n = 8)...
November 1, 2017: Brain Research
O Ozdemir, M Tuzcu, N Sahin, C Orhan, Z Tuzcu, K Sahin
In this study, the effect of the supplemental organic chromium (Cr) forms on the expression of ovarian orexin(hypocretin), glucose transporters (GLUTs), heat shock proteins (HSPs) andnuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB)were investigated in laying hens (HS). Laying hens (n=1800; 16-wk-old; Lohmann LSL-Lite) were allocated to 6 random groups according to a 2 × 3 factorial trial scheme with two different environmental temperatures [Thermoneutral (TN groups; at either 22±2 °C 24 h/d)  and heat stress (HS groups; at 34±2 °C for 8 h/d, 08:00 to 17:00 h, followed by 22°C for 16 h for a period of 12 wks)], andhens reared under both environmental conditions were fed either a basal diet or the basal diet supplemented with 1...
October 31, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Biology
Ying-Ying Li, Chunjing Wu, Sumedh S Shah, Shu-Mei Chen, Medhi Wangpaichitr, Macus T Kuo, Lynn G Feun, Xiaoqing Han, Miguel Suarez, Jeffrey Prince, Niramol Savaraj
Melanomas harboring BRAF mutation (V600E) are known to recur frequently following treatment with BRAF inhibitors (BRAFi) despite a high initial response rate. Our previous study has uncovered that BRAFi-resistant melanoma (BR) cells are vulnerable to arginine deprivation. It has been reported that naïve melanoma cells undergo autophagy and re-express argininosuccinate synthetase 1 (ASS1) to enable them to synthesize arginine for survival when encountering arginine deprivation. Abolishing these two factors in BR cells confers sensitivity to arginine deprivation...
November 2, 2017: Molecular Oncology
Jiwon Esther Han, Pyung Won Lim, Chul Min Na, You Sik Choi, Joo Young Lee, Yona Kim, Hyung Woo Park, Hyo Eun Moon, Man Seung Heo, Hye Ran Park, Dong Gyu Kim, Sun Ha Paek
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and aggressive form of brain tumors. GBMs, like other tumors, rely relatively less on mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) and utilize more aerobic glycolysis, and this metabolic shift becomes augmented under hypoxia. In the present study, we investigated the physiological significance of altered glucose metabolism and hypoxic adaptation in the GBM cell line U251 and two newly established primary GBMs (GBM28 and GBM37). We found that these three GBMs exhibited differential growth rates under hypoxia compared to those under normoxia...
October 2017: Experimental Neurobiology
Andrew K Edwards, Kyle Glithero, Peter Grzesik, Alison A Kitajewski, Naikhoba Co Munabi, Krista Hardy, Qian Kun Tan, Michael Schonning, Thaned Kangsamaksin, Jan K Kitajewski, Carrie J Shawber, June K Wu
Infantile hemangioma (IH) is a vascular tumor that begins with rapid vascular proliferation shortly after birth, followed by vascular involution in early childhood. We have found that NOTCH3, a critical regulator of mural cell differentiation and maturation, is expressed in hemangioma stem cells (HemSCs), suggesting that NOTCH3 may function in HemSC-to-mural cell differentiation and pathological vessel stabilization. Here, we demonstrate that NOTCH3 is expressed in NG2+PDGFRβ+ perivascular HemSCs and CD31+GLUT1+ hemangioma endothelial cells (HemECs) in proliferating IHs and becomes mostly restricted to the αSMA+NG2loPDGFRβlo mural cells in involuting IHs...
November 2, 2017: JCI Insight
Yu Li, Xin-Xin Luo, Feng-Dong Yan, Zhang-Bin Wei, Jun Tu
To observe the anti-hyperglycemic effect of Puerariae Lobatae Radix in hepatocyte insulin resistance(IR) models, and investigate its preliminary molecular mechanism. IR-HepG2 cell model was stably established with 1×10-9 mol•L⁻¹ insulin plus 3.75×10-6 mol•L-1 dexamethasone treatment for 48 h according to optimized protocol in our research group. After IR-HepG2 cells were treated with different concentrations(5%,10% and 15%) of Puerariae Lobatae Radix-containing serum, cell viability was detected by CCK-8 assay; the glucose consumptions in IR-HepG2 cells were separately detected at different time points (12, 15, 18, 21, 24, 30, 36 h) by using glucose oxidase method; intracellular glycogen content was detected by anthrone method; and the protein expression levels of leptin receptor (Ob-R), insulin receptor substrate-2 (IRS2), glucose transporter 1(GLUT1) and GLUT2 were detected by Western blot assay...
May 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Sijia Na, Jie Zhang, Xiongming Zhou, Anqun Tang, Deqiang Huang, Qichao Xu, Danfeng Xue, Jiaxuan Qiu
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to investigate the clinical and histopathological characteristics of GLUT1 in human tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC) and the role of Plumbagin (PLB) mediating GLUT1 in the growth of TSCC. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: 45 cases of TSCC samples were collected and the expression and location of GLUT1 was analyzed. The role and mechanism of PLB meditating GLUT1 in the inhibitory growth of human TSCC cell line CAL27 was investigated in vitro and vivo...
October 28, 2017: Oral Diseases
Xue-Feng Shi, Fan-Xuan Kong, Hua Wang, Qin-Qin Xu, Feng-Jun Xiao, Yue-Feng Yang, Ri-Li Ge, Li-Sheng Wang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect and mechanism of miR-486 on glycometabolism of hematopoietic cells. METHODS: qRT-PCR was applied to detect the expression of miR-486 or Sirt1 on TF-1 cells under hypoxia. Lentivirus was used to mediate the overexpression or inhibition of miR-486 on TF-1 cells and qRT-PCR was used to detect the expressions of Sirt1, glucose transporter 1(Glut1) and glucose transporter 4(Glut4). Lentivirus-mediated Sirt1-shRNA transduction was used to knockdown Sirt1 expression which was detected by qRT-PCR and Western blot...
October 2017: Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue za Zhi
Jin Hyun Kim, Myeong Hee Jung, Jin Pyeong Kim, Hyun-Jung Kim, Jung Hwa Jung, Jong Ryeal Hahm, Ki Mun Kang, Bae-Kwon Jeong, Seung Hoon Woo
PURPOSE: Radiotherapy is currently one of the main treatment modalities for head and neck cancer; however, it also results in severe toxicity to the normal tissue, to the detriment of patients. This study aimed to investigate whether alpha lipoic acid (ALA) could protect against radiation-induced oral mucositis in a rat model. RESULTS: On post-irradiation days 4 and 7, the epithelial layer on oral mucosa showed pronounced injury (shortening of the layer) and it is diminished by ALA pretreatment before radiation...
September 22, 2017: Oncotarget
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