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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924636/safety-and-tolerability-of-glucagon-like-peptide-1-receptor-agonists-unresolved-and-emerging-issues
#1
Denis Raccah
Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs) are a mainstay of treatment options for Type 2 diabetes. They contribute to lowering blood glucose levels, generally have a favorable tolerability profile, and can be used alone or in combination with other antidiabetic agents. Based on the duration of their effects, GLP-1 RAs can be divided into two classes: short-acting and long-acting. Differences exist between these sub-classes, and between each drug, in terms of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles...
December 7, 2016: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924618/cardiovascular-disease-risk-factors-and-health-outcomes-among-american-indians-in-oklahoma-the-thrive-study
#2
Valarie Blue Bird Jernigan, Marianna Wetherill, Jordan Hearod, Tvli Jacob, Alicia L Salvatore, Tamela Cannady, Mandy Grammar, Joy Standridge, Jill Fox, Jennifer Spiegel, AnDina Wiley, Carolyn Noonan, Dedra Buchwald
INTRODUCTION: Limited available data document higher prevalences of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and health outcomes among American Indians (AIs) compared to other racial/ethnic groups. METHODS: As part of a randomized control trial to improve tribal food and physical activity environments, our tribal-academic partnership surveyed a cross-sectional sample of American Indian adults (n = 513) to assess the prevalence of type 2 diabetes, obesity, hypertension, tobacco use, physical activity, and vegetable and fruit intake...
December 6, 2016: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921419/-metabolic-syndrome-in-patients-with-diabetes-mellitus-type-1-prevalence-impact-on-morbidity-and-mortality
#3
Jitka Brožová, Daniela Čechurová, Silvie Lacigová
: Aim of this retrospective observational study was to determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) in patients with diabetes mellitus type 1 (DM1Z) at baseline (in 2003) and find the parameters that determine the difference between group with (MS+) and without MS (MS-). Did the presence of MS affect morbidity and mortality in the subsequent 10 years? METHODS: 278 patients were enrolled to the study with age average 39 ± 13 years with medical history of diabetes 15...
2016: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920083/nocturnal-antihypertensive-treatment-in-patients-with-type-1-diabetes-with-autonomic-neuropathy-and-non-dipping-a-randomised-placebo-controlled-double-blind-cross-over-trial
#4
Henrik Øder Hjortkjær, Tonny Jensen, Klaus F Kofoed, Ulrik M Mogensen, Per Ejlstrup Sigvardsen, Lars Køber, Karen Lisa Hilsted, Helle Corinth, Simone Theilade, Jannik Hilsted
OBJECTIVES: Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN) and abnormal circadian blood pressure (BP) rhythm are independent cardiovascular risk factors in patients with diabetes and associations between CAN, non-dipping of nocturnal BP and coronary artery disease have been demonstrated. We aimed to test if bedtime dosing (BD) versus morning dosing (MD) of the ACE inhibitor enalapril would affect the 24-hour BP profile in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D), CAN and non-dipping. SETTING: Secondary healthcare unit in Copenhagen, Denmark...
December 5, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919931/low-mt-co1-in-monocytes-and-microvesicles-is-associated-with-outcome-in-patients-with-coronary-artery-disease
#5
Paul Holvoet, Maarten Vanhaverbeke, Katarzyna Bloch, Pieter Baatsen, Peter Sinnaeve, Stefan Janssens
BACKGROUND: Cytochrome oxidase (COX) IV complex regulates energy production in mitochondria. Impaired COX gene expression is related to obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus, but whether it is directly related to the incidence of cardiovascular events is unknown. We investigated whether COX gene expression in monocytes is predictive for cardiovascular events in coronary artery disease patients. To avoid monocyte isolation from fresh blood, we then aimed to validate our findings in monocyte-derived microvesicles isolated from plasma...
December 5, 2016: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917273/involvement-of-microrna-133-and-29-in-cardiac-disturbances-in-diabetic-ovariectomized-rats
#6
Parisa Habibi, Alireza Alihemmati, Mohammadreza Nasirzadeh, Hadi Yousefi, Mohammadrasoul Habibi, Nasser Ahmadiasl
OBJECTIVES: Menopause and diabetes obviously increase the risk of cardiovascular disease in women. The aims of the present study were to evaluate the effects of ovariectomy in type 2 diabetes on the histology and expression of miRNA-29, miRNA-133, IGF-1 and Bcl-2 genes and Bcl-2 protein and caspase 3 activity in the hearts of female rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty Female Wistar rats were divided into four groups: control, sham, ovariectomized (OVX), and ovariectomized with type 2 diabetes (OVX...
November 2016: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916783/reduction-of-visceral-fat-by-liraglutide-is-associated-with-ameliorations-of-hepatic-steatosis-albuminuria-and-micro-inflammation-in-type-2-diabetic-patients-with-insulin-treatment-a-randomized-control-trial
#7
Ryotaro Bouchi, Yujiro Nakano, Tatsuya Fukuda, Takato Takeuchi, Masanori Murakami, Isao Minami, Hajime Izumiyama, Koshi Hashimoto, Takanobu Yoshimoto, Yoshihiro Ogawa
Liraglutide, an analogue of human glucagon-like peptide 1, reduces cardiovascular events in patients with type 2 diabetes; however, it has still been unknown by which mechanisms liraglutide could reduce cardiovascular events. Type 2 diabetic patients with insulin treatment were enrolled in this randomized, open-label, comparative study. Participants were randomly assigned to liraglutide plus insulin (liraglutide group) and insulin treatment (control group) at 1:1 allocation. Primary endpoint was the change in viscera fat are (VFA, cm(2)) at 24 weeks...
December 3, 2016: Endocrine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916514/dipeptidyl-peptidase-4-inhibitors-and-protection-against-stroke-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#8
REVIEW
F Barkas, M Elisaf, V Tsimihodimos, H Milionis
BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with an increased risk of stroke and an unfavourable outcome following stroke. Apart from pioglitazone, glucose-lowering modalities have not been shown to protect against stroke. Nevertheless, there is evidence from experimental studies of potential neuroprotective effects with dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP)-4 inhibitors, especially if treatment starts before stroke. OBJECTIVE: To perform a meta-analysis of available evidence regarding the risk of stroke in individuals taking DPP-4 inhibitors...
December 1, 2016: Diabetes & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915979/nontraditional-cardiovascular-risk-factors-in-pediatric-type-1-diabetes
#9
Robert P Hoffman
If we are to gain a full and complete understanding of mechanisms of cardiovascular risk factors in adolescent type 1 diabetes mechanistic risk markers must be developed that predict risk accurately and which can be used as endpoints for short or intermediate term intervention studies aimed at reducing risk. A variety of biochemical and vascular markers have potential to meet these requirements. Biochemical markers include markers of inflammation, oxidation, and endothelial damage. Vascular markers include static and dynamic measures of arterial function...
December 1, 2016: Current Diabetes Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914526/jiawei-erzhiwan-improves-menopausal-metabolic-syndrome-by-enhancing-insulin-secretion-in-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cells
#10
Xiao-Meng Wan, Mu Zhang, Pei Zhang, Zhi-Shen Xie, Feng-Guo Xu, Ping Zhou, Shi-Ping Ma, Xiao-Jun Xu
Menopausal metabolic syndrome (MMS) is a series of syndrome caused by ovarian function decline and hormone insufficiency, and is a high risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Erzhiwan (EZW), composed of Herba Ecliptae and Fructus Ligustri Lucidi, is a traditional Chinese herbal formula that has been used to treat menopausal syndrome for many years. We added Herba Epimedii, Radix Rehmanniae, and Fructus Corni into EZW, to prepare a new formula, termed Jiawei Erzhiwan (JE)...
November 2016: Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913575/lowest-glucose-variability-and-hypoglycemia-are-observed-with-the-combination-of-a-glp-1-receptor-agonist-and-basal-insulin-variation-study
#11
Harpreet S Bajaj, Karri Venn, Chenglin Ye, Avril Patrick, Shivani Kalra, Hasnain Khandwala, Nadeem Aslam, David Twum-Barima, Ronnie Aronson
OBJECTIVE: There is a dearth of published literature comparing glucose variability (GV) between different insulin regimens in type 2 diabetes. This cohort study compares GV using continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) in patients with well-controlled type 2 diabetes using four common insulin regimens: basal insulin + oral drugs (BO), basal insulin + glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonist (GLP-1 RA) (BGLP), premixed insulin (PM), and basal-bolus insulin (BB). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Consecutive patients from three endocrinology clinics who met study criteria-type 2 diabetes, age 18 to 80 years, BMI ≤ 45 kg/m(2), stable insulin regimen for a minimum of 6 months, and stable A1C value ≤7...
December 2, 2016: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912784/liraglutide-improves-metabolic-parameters-and-carotid-intima-media-thickness-in-diabetic-patients-with-the-metabolic-syndrome-an-18-month-prospective-study
#12
Manfredi Rizzo, Ali A Rizvi, Angelo Maria Patti, Dragana Nikolic, Rosaria Vincenza Giglio, Giuseppa Castellino, Giovanni Li Volti, Massimiliano Caprio, Giuseppe Montalto, Vincenzo Provenzano, Stefano Genovese, Antonio Ceriello
BACKGROUND: Liraglutide, a GLP-1 analogue, exerts several beneficial non-glycemic effects in patients with type-2 diabetes (T2DM), such as those on body weight, blood pressure, plasma lipids and inflammation markers. However, the effects of liraglutide on cardiovascular (CV) risk markers in subjects with the metabolic syndrome (MetS) are still largely unknown. We herein explored its effects on various cardio-metabolic risk markers of the MetS in subjects with T2DM. METHODS: We performed an 18-month prospective, real-world study...
December 3, 2016: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912211/prognostic-importance-of-c-reactive-protein-in-high-cardiovascular-risk-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-the-rio-de-janeiro-type-2-diabetes-cohort-study
#13
Claudia R L Cardoso, Nathalie C Leite, Gil F Salles
BACKGROUND: The prognostic value of C-reactive protein (CRP) is controversial in type 2 diabetes mellitus. We aimed to assess it in a cohort of high cardiovascular risk diabetic patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: CRP was measured at baseline and during the second year of follow-up in 616 patients. The primary end points were a composite of total fatal and nonfatal cardiovascular events (CVEs), major CVEs, and all-cause and cardiovascular mortalities. Association between baseline and second-year CRP with end points were evaluated by multivariable Cox survival analyses...
October 26, 2016: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910864/renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-system-gene-polymorphisms-in-gestational-hypertension-and-preeclampsia-a-case-control-gene-association-study
#14
Xun Li, Hongzhuan Tan, Shujin Zhou, Shimin Hu, Tianyi Zhang, Yangfen Li, Qianru Dou, Zhiwei Lai, Fenglei Chen
Pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH, including preeclampsia [PE] and gestational hypertension [GH]) and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) have some metabolic changes and risk factors in common. Many studies have reported associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) genes and CVDs (particularly hypertension), and their findings have provided candidate SNPs for research on genetic correlates of PIH. We explored the association between hypertension-related RAAS SNPs and PIH in a Chinese population...
December 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908890/pathology-of-human-coronary-and-carotid-artery-atherosclerosis-and-vascular-calcification-in-diabetes-mellitus
#15
Kazuyuki Yahagi, Frank D Kolodgie, Christoph Lutter, Hiroyoshi Mori, Maria E Romero, Aloke V Finn, Renu Virmani
The continuing increase in the prevalence of diabetes mellitus in the general population is predicted to result in a higher incidence of cardiovascular disease. Although the mechanisms of diabetes mellitus-associated progression of atherosclerosis are not fully understood, at clinical and pathological levels, there is an appreciation of increased disease burden and higher levels of arterial calcification in these subjects. Plaques within the coronary arteries of patients with diabetes mellitus generally exhibit larger necrotic cores and significantly greater inflammation consisting mainly of macrophages and T lymphocytes relative to patients without diabetes mellitus...
December 1, 2016: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906837/different-impacts-of-hypertension-and-diabetes-mellitus-on-all-cause-and-cardiovascular-mortality-in-community-dwelling-older-adults-the-rancho-bernardo-study
#16
Jee-Young Oh, Matthew A Allison, Elizabeth Barrett-Connor
OBJECTIVES: Although the prevalence rates of hypertension (HTN) and diabetes mellitus are slowing in some high-income countries, HTN and diabetes mellitus remain as the two major risk factors for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD), the leading cause of death in the United States and worldwide. We aimed to observe the association of HTN and diabetes mellitus with all-cause and CVD mortality in older white adults. METHODS: All community-dwelling Rancho Bernardo Study participants who were at least 55 years old and had carefully measured blood pressure and plasma glucose from 75-g oral glucose tolerance test at the baseline visit (1984-1987, n = 2186) were followed up until death or the last clinic visit in 2013 (median 14...
January 2017: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906553/short-adult-stature-predicts-impaired-beta-cell-function-insulin-resistance-glycemia-and-type-2-diabetes-in-finnish-men
#17
Jagadish Vangipurapu, Alena Stančáková, Raimo Jauhiainen, Johanna Kuusisto, Markku Laakso
CONTEXT: Recent studies have highlighted the role of height in complex diseases but conflicting information has been reported on height as a predictor of changes in glycemia and risk of type 2 diabetes. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to investigate the association of height with insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion, glycemia, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in a large prospective population-based study. DESIGN: The study included 8,746 Finnish men (mean±SD, age 57...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899768/effects-of-dietary-restriction-on-adipose-mass-and-biomarkers-of-healthy-aging-in-human
#18
Daniele Lettieri-Barbato, Esmeralda Giovannetti, Katia Aquilano
In developing countries the rise of obesity and obesity-related metabolic disorders, such as cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes, reflects the changes in lifestyle habits and wrong dietary choices. Dietary restriction (DR) regimens have been shown to extend health span and lifespan in many animal models including primates. Identifying biomarkers predictive of clinical benefits of treatment is one of the primary goals of precision medicine. To monitor the clinical outcomes of DR interventions in humans, several biomarkers are commonly adopted...
November 29, 2016: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899498/association-of-visit-to-visit-variability-of-systolic-blood-pressure-with-cardiovascular-disease-and-mortality-in-primary-care-chinese-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-a-retrospective-population-based-cohort-study
#19
Eric Yuk Fai Wan, Colman Siu Cheung Fung, Esther Yee Tak Yu, Daniel Yee Tak Fong, Julie Yun Chen, Cindy Lo Kuen Lam
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the impact of visit-to-visit variability (VVV) of systolic blood pressure (SBP) on cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality among primary care Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted in 124,105 Chinese adult primary care patients with T2DM and without prior diagnosed CVD from August 2008 to December 2009. The VVV of SBP was evaluated using SDs of SBP over 24 months...
November 29, 2016: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899146/impact-of-visceral-fat-on-gene-expression-profile-in-peripheral-blood-cells-in-obese-japanese-subjects
#20
Yoshinari Obata, Norikazu Maeda, Yuya Yamada, Koji Yamamoto, Seiji Nakamura, Masaya Yamaoka, Yoshimitsu Tanaka, Shigeki Masuda, Hirofumi Nagao, Shiro Fukuda, Yuya Fujishima, Shunbun Kita, Hitoshi Nishizawa, Tohru Funahashi, Ken-Ichi Matsubara, Yuji Matsuzawa, Iichiro Shimomura
BACKGROUND: Visceral fat plays a central role in the development of metabolic syndrome and atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases. The association of visceral fat accumulation with cardio-metabolic diseases has been reported, but the impact of visceral fat on the gene expression profile in peripheral blood cells remains to be determined. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of visceral fat area (VFA) and subcutaneous fat area (SFA) on the gene expression profile in peripheral blood cells of obese subjects...
November 29, 2016: Cardiovascular Diabetology
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