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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931178/the-oral-dipeptidyl-peptidase-4-inhibitor-sitagliptin-increases-circulating-levels-of-stromal-derived-factor-1-alpha
#1
Athanasia K Papazafiropoulou, Nikolaos Papanas, Aikaterini Trikkalinou, Evaggelos Fousteris, Andreas Melidonis
Recent studies have demonstrated that stromal derived factor-1α (SDF-1α) is a substrate of dipeptidyl-peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors. It has also been shown that SDF-1α shares anti-apoptotic as well as nephroprotective properties and exerts a beneficial effect in the cardiovascular system. Therefore, the aim of this study was to estimate the effect of treatment with the DDP-4 inhibitor sitagliptin on SDF-1α levels in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). Overall, 32 patients (16 males) with T2D, mean age (±SD) 67...
September 20, 2017: Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930746/early-assessment-of-the-risk-factors-for-diabetic-retinopathy-can-reduce-the-risk-of-peripheral-arterial-and-cardiovascular-diseases-in-type-2-diabetes
#2
Juan Tang, Tao Li, Pinhong Li, Yuefei Ma, Momo Liu, Qiaoyun Shan, Fengqi Guo, Ting Zhou, Qianping Wei
BACKGROUNDS: There is still a lack of consensus about how to assess the risk of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in patients with diabetic retinopathy (DR). AIMS: We investigated the risk factors for DR and their association with PAD and CVD in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). METHODS: A total of 1,421 patients diagnosed with T2D participated in this study. DR stages were classified as non-DR, nonproliferative DR (NPDR), or proliferative DR (PDR)...
September 21, 2017: Ophthalmic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928397/atorvastatin-but-not-pravastatin-impairs-mitochondrial-function-in-human-pancreatic-islets-and-rat-%C3%AE-cells-direct-effect-of-oxidative-stress
#3
Francesca Urbano, Marco Bugliani, Agnese Filippello, Alessandra Scamporrino, Stefania Di Mauro, Antonino Di Pino, Roberto Scicali, Davide Noto, Agata Maria Rabuazzo, Maurizio Averna, Piero Marchetti, Francesco Purrello, Salvatore Piro
Statins are a class of drugs widely prescribed as frontline therapy for lowering plasma LDL-cholesterol in cardiovascular risk prevention. Several clinical reports have recently suggested an increased risk of type 2 diabetes associated with chronic use of these drugs. The pathophysiology of this effect remains to be fully elucidated but impaired β-cell function constitutes a potential mechanism. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of a chronic treatment with lipophilic and hydrophilic statins on β-cell function, using human pancreatic islets and rat insulin-secreting INS-1 cells; we particularly focused on the role of mitochondria and oxidative stress...
September 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927706/cardiovascular-safety-and-efficacy-of-the-pcsk9-inhibitor-evolocumab-in-patients-with-and-without-diabetes-and-the-effect-of-evolocumab-on-glycaemia-and-risk-of-new-onset-diabetes-a-prespecified-analysis-of-the-fourier-randomised-controlled-trial
#4
Marc S Sabatine, Lawrence A Leiter, Stephen D Wiviott, Robert P Giugliano, Prakash Deedwania, Gaetano M De Ferrari, Sabina A Murphy, Julia F Kuder, Ioanna Gouni-Berthold, Basil S Lewis, Yehuda Handelsman, Armando Lira Pineda, Narimon Honarpour, Anthony C Keech, Peter S Sever, Terje R Pedersen
BACKGROUND: The proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitor evolocumab reduced LDL cholesterol and cardiovascular events in the FOURIER trial. In this prespecified analysis of FOURIER, we investigated the efficacy and safety of evolocumab by diabetes status and the effect of evolocumab on glycaemia and risk of developing diabetes. METHODS: FOURIER was a randomised trial of evolocumab (140 mg every 2 weeks or 420 mg once per month) versus placebo in 27 564 patients with atherosclerotic disease who were on statin therapy, followed up for a median of 2·2 years...
September 14, 2017: Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926114/diabetes-mediated-myelopoiesis-and-the-relationship-to-cardiovascular-risk
#5
REVIEW
Tessa J Barrett, Andrew J Murphy, Ira J Goldberg, Edward A Fisher
Diabetes is the greatest risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease, which, in turn, is the most prevalent cause of mortality and morbidity in diabetics. These patients have elevations in inflammatory monocytes, a factor consistently reported to drive the development of atherosclerosis. In preclinical models of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, studies have demonstrated that the increased production and activation of monocytes is driven by enhanced myelopoiesis, promoted by factors, including hyperglycemia, impaired cholesterol efflux, and inflammasome activation, that affect the proliferation of bone marrow precursor cells...
August 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923829/estrogen-deprivation-aggravates-cardiac-hypertrophy-in-non-obese-type-2-diabetic-goto-kakizaki-gk-rats
#6
Nattayaporn Apaijai, Narattaphol Charoenphandhu, Jitjiroj Ittichaichareon, Panan Suntornsaratoon, Nateetip Krishnamra, Ratchaneevan Aeimlapa, Siriporn C Chattipakorn, Nipon Chattipakorn
Both type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and estrogen deprivation have been shown to be associated with the development of cardiovascular disease and adverse cardiac remodeling.  However, the role of estrogen deprivation on adverse cardiac remodeling in non-obese T2DM rats has not been clearly elucidated.  We hypothesized that estrogen-deprivation aggravates adverse cardiac remodeling in Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats.  Wild-type (WT) and GK rats at the age of 9 months old were divided into 2 subgroups to have either a sham operation (WTS, GKS) or a bilateral ovariectomy (WTO, GKO) (n=6/subgroup)...
September 18, 2017: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923309/altered-penile-caveolin-expression-in-diabetes-potential-role-in-erectile-dysfunction
#7
Jay Parikh, Alice Zemljic-Harpf, Johnny Fu, Dimosthenis Giamouridis, Tung-Chin Hsieh, Adam Kassan, Karnam S Murthy, Valmik Bhargava, Hemal H Patel, M Raj Rajasekaran
BACKGROUND: The pathophysiology of increased severity of erectile dysfunction in men with diabetes and their poor response to oral pharmacotherapy are unclear. Defective vascular endothelium and consequent impairment in the formation and action of nitric oxide (NO) are implicated as potential mechanisms. Endothelial NO synthase, critical for NO generation, is localized to caveolae, plasma membrane lipid rafts enriched in structural proteins, and caveolins. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM)-induced changes in caveolin expression are recognized to play a role in cardiovascular dysfunction...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Sexual Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922438/endocan-serum-levels-in-patients-with-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-with-or-without-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-a-pilot-study
#8
Marcello Dallio, Mario Masarone, Giuseppe Gerardo Caprio, Rosa Di Sarno, Concetta Tuccillo, Ferdinando Carlo Sasso, Marcello Persico, Carmela Loguercio, Alessandro Federico
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is emerging as an independent cardiovascular risk factor. Recently, Endocan has been studied as an early marker of endothelial dysfunction. Our aim was to evaluate Endocan serum levels in patients with NAFLD with or without type 2 diabetes mellitus. METHOD: We enrolled 56 patients: 19 with NAFLD and 37 with type 2 diabetes mellitus with or without NAFLD, and compared them to 25 healthy controls. Endocan serum level was measured by using the ELISA EndoMark assay...
September 2017: Journal of Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases: JGLD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921837/coronary-artery-bypass-grafting-versus-percutaneous-coronary-intervention-in-patients-with-non-insulin-treated-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-a-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#9
Yushu Wang, Meiqin Wen, Junteng Zhou, Yucheng Chen, Qing Zhang
INTRODUCTION: The outcomes and prognosis of revascularization by either coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery or percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in patients with non-insulin treated type 2 diabetes mellitus (NITDM) have not yet been well established. METHODS: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were identified by searching Pubmed, EMBASE and Cochrane library from inception until May 2016. Heterogeneity was evaluated and the pooled hazard ratio (HR) was calculated using a fixed-effect model...
September 15, 2017: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920085/baseline-prescription-and-one-year-persistence-of-secondary-prevention-drugs-after-an-index-stroke-in-central-ghana
#10
Fred Stephen Sarfo, Bruce Ovbiagele, John Akassi, Gloria Kyem
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: There is a paucity of data on persistence of secondary prevention medications among stroke survivors in resource-limited settings where stroke is on a rapid upward trajectory and its management severely challenged. To avert new cardiovascular events after stroke, preventive medications should be promptly instituted and used continuously. We report 1-year rates and determinants of persistent utilization of secondary prevention therapies after stroke in Ghana. METHODS: A retrospective observational study involving 418 stroke survivors enrolled into a Neurology clinic in a tertiary institution in central Ghana between January 2011 and December 2013...
March 2017: ENeurologicalSci
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918389/glucagon-like-peptide-1-receptor-agonists-for-the-management-of-obesity-and-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-a-novel-therapeutic-option
#11
REVIEW
Gauri Dhir, Kenneth Cusi
Obesity is a major risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and is associated with a cluster of metabolic factors that lead to poor cardiovascular outcomes. In non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), liver fat (triglyceride) accumulation closely mirrors adipose tissue dysfunction and insulin resistance in obesity and T2DM. It is now recognized as the most common chronic liver disease in Westernized societies, often progressing to more severe forms of the disease such as nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), or cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Investigative Medicine: the Official Publication of the American Federation for Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918342/the-potential-effect-of-ultra-long-insulin-degludec-on-glycemic-variability
#12
REVIEW
M Rodacki, R M Carvalho, L Zajdenverg
Despite the therapeutic advances in the treatment of diabetes, metabolic control instability due to glycemic variability (GV) is frequently observed in patients with diabetes on intensive insulin therapy and is associated with hyperglycemic peaks and hypoglycemic episodes. Hyperglycemia associated with GV has been implicated in the development of chronic complications due to its pro-oxidative consequences. On the other hand, hypoglycemia can be associated with increased cardiovascular risk secondarily to adrenergic activation...
June 30, 2017: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918307/an-application-of-bandura-s-four-sources-of-self-efficacy-to-the-self-management-of-type-2-diabetes-in-people-with-intellectual-disability-an-inductive-and-deductive-thematic-analysis
#13
Andrew Maine, Adele Dickson, Maria Truesdale, Michael Brown
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the successful experiences and positive perceptions of people with intellectual disabilities (ID) self-managing Type 2 Diabetes (T2D). This study sought to address this gap using Bandura's (1977) 'Four Sources of Self-Efficacy' as a framework of enquiry. METHOD: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 10 adults with ID. Interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using inductive and deductive thematic analysis RESULTS: Nine sub-themes were identified following analysis of the data: 1) Mastery through knowledge; 2) Mastery through tools and strategies; 3) Mastery through autonomy; 4) Influence of social setting; 5) Positive social comparisons; 6) Positive and negative self-statements; 7) Feedback from caregivers; 8) Adjustment experiences; 9) Symptom awareness...
September 14, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917545/effects-of-acarbose-on-cardiovascular-and-diabetes-outcomes-in-patients-with-coronary-heart-disease-and-impaired-glucose-tolerance-ace-a-randomised-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial
#14
Rury R Holman, Ruth L Coleman, Juliana C N Chan, Jean-Louis Chiasson, Huimei Feng, Junbo Ge, Hertzel C Gerstein, Richard Gray, Yong Huo, Zhihui Lang, John J McMurray, Lars Rydén, Stefan Schröder, Yihong Sun, Michael J Theodorakis, Michal Tendera, Lynne Tucker, Jaakko Tuomilehto, Yidong Wei, Wenying Yang, Duolao Wang, Dayi Hu, Changyu Pan
BACKGROUND: The effect of the α-glucosidase inhibitor acarbose on cardiovascular outcomes in patients with coronary heart disease and impaired glucose tolerance is unknown. We aimed to assess whether acarbose could reduce the frequency of cardiovascular events in Chinese patients with established coronary heart disease and impaired glucose tolerance, and whether the incidence of type 2 diabetes could be reduced. METHODS: The Acarbose Cardiovascular Evaluation (ACE) trial was a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 4 trial, with patients recruited from 176 hospital outpatient clinics in China...
September 12, 2017: Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917544/effects-on-the-incidence-of-cardiovascular-events-of-the-addition-of-pioglitazone-versus-sulfonylureas-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-inadequately-controlled-with-metformin-tosca-it-a-randomised-multicentre-trial
#15
Olga Vaccaro, Maria Masulli, Antonio Nicolucci, Enzo Bonora, Stefano Del Prato, Aldo P Maggioni, Angela A Rivellese, Sebastiano Squatrito, Carlo B Giorda, Giorgio Sesti, Paolo Mocarelli, Giuseppe Lucisano, Michele Sacco, Stefano Signorini, Fabrizio Cappellini, Gabriele Perriello, Anna Carla Babini, Annunziata Lapolla, Giovanna Gregori, Carla Giordano, Laura Corsi, Raffaella Buzzetti, Gennaro Clemente, Graziano Di Cianni, Rossella Iannarelli, Renzo Cordera, Olga La Macchia, Chiara Zamboni, Cristiana Scaranna, Massimo Boemi, Ciro Iovine, Davide Lauro, Sergio Leotta, Elisabetta Dall'Aglio, Emanuela Cannarsa, Laura Tonutti, Giuseppe Pugliese, Antonio C Bossi, Roberto Anichini, Francesco Dotta, Antonino Di Benedetto, Giuseppe Citro, Daniela Antenucci, Lucia Ricci, Francesco Giorgino, Costanza Santini, Agostino Gnasso, Salvatore De Cosmo, Donatella Zavaroni, Monica Vedovato, Agostino Consoli, Maria Calabrese, Paolo di Bartolo, Paolo Fornengo, Gabriele Riccardi
BACKGROUND: The best treatment option for patients with type 2 diabetes in whom treatment with metformin alone fails to achieve adequate glycaemic control is debated. We aimed to compare the long-term effects of pioglitazone versus sulfonylureas, given in addition to metformin, on cardiovascular events in patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: TOSCA.IT was a multicentre, randomised, pragmatic clinical trial, in which patients aged 50-75 years with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled with metformin monotherapy (2-3 g per day) were recruited from 57 diabetes clinics in Italy...
September 12, 2017: Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915971/genotrophic-effect-of-neurotrophins-restart-of-%C3%AE-cell-regeneration-in-diabetes-mellitus
#16
Mariyana G Hristova
Type 2 diabetes mellitus is an epidemic worldwide and a proved risk factor for cardiovascular complications. In 89% of the cases, it deals, in fact, with metabolic syndrome of multifactorial etiopathogenesis. This paradigm has been generalized by the neurotrophic theory emphasizing the role of hyponeurotrophinemia of key factor. Both type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome are characterized by insulin resistance and pancreatic β-cell damage. Cyclic keeping the fast enhances plasma neurotrophin levels...
September 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915960/pleiotropic-effects-of-metformin-to-rescue-statin-induced-muscle-injury-and-insulin-resistance-a-proposed-mechanism-and-potential-clinical-implications
#17
Nicholas W Carris, Srinivas M Tipparaju, David J Magness, Kalyan C Chapalamadugu, Ronald R Magness
The 2013 American Heart Association Blood Cholesterol Guidelines increased the number of patients recommended for statin therapy in the United States to 56million. Two common statin side effects are muscle pain, referred to as "statin-associated muscle symptoms", and increased risk for new onset type-2-diabetes mellitus. Up to 25% of statin users report muscle symptoms resulting in many patients being switched to lower dose or lower potency statins, or refusing statins altogether. The most likely signaling mechanisms for statin-associated muscle symptoms overlaps with the proposed mechanism of statin-induced insulin resistance...
September 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915881/high-density-lipoprotein-modulates-osteocalcin-expression-in-circulating-monocytes-a-potential-protective-mechanism-for-cardiovascular-disease-in-type-1-diabetes
#18
Ernesto Maddaloni, Yu Xia, Kyoungmin Park, Stephanie D'Eon, Liane J Tinsley, Ronald St-Louis, Mogher Khamaisi, Qian Li, George L King, Hillary A Keenan
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major cause of mortality in type 1 diabetes (T1D). A pro-calcific drift of circulating monocytes has been linked to vascular calcification and is marked by the surface expression of osteocalcin (OCN). We studied OCN+ monocytes in a unique population with ≥50 years of T1D, the 50-Year Joslin Medalists (J50M). METHODS: CD45 bright/CD14+/OCN+ cells in the circulating mononuclear blood cell fraction were quantified by flow cytometry and reported as percentage of CD45 bright cells...
September 16, 2017: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914987/diabetes-news
#19
Ann M Carracher, Payal H Marathe, Kelly L Close
More than 31,000 attendeesfrom around the world gathered in Barcelona, Spain for the 2017 European Society of Cardiology conference. In presentinga post-hoc analysis of the Liraglutide and Cardiovascular Outcomes in Type 2 Diabetes(LEADER)(1) trial, Dr Neil Poulter (Imperial College London, UK) showedthat results are still positive, indicating cardioprotection, after adjusting for baseline history of stroke or myocardial infarction (MI), which had no mediating effect on the significant association between Novo Nordisk's (Copenhagen, Denmark) glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) agonist Victoza (liraglutide) and cardiovascular risk reduction...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913575/day-to-day-fasting-glycaemic-variability-in-devote-associations-with-severe-hypoglycaemia-and-cardiovascular-outcomes-devote-2
#20
Bernard Zinman, Steven P Marso, Neil R Poulter, Scott S Emerson, Thomas R Pieber, Richard E Pratley, Martin Lange, Kirstine Brown-Frandsen, Alan Moses, Ann Marie Ocampo Francisco, Jesper Barner Lekdorf, Kajsa Kvist, John B Buse
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The Trial Comparing Cardiovascular Safety of Insulin Degludec vs Insulin Glargine in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes at High Risk of Cardiovascular Events (DEVOTE) was a double-blind, randomised, event-driven, treat-to-target prospective trial comparing the cardiovascular safety of insulin degludec with that of insulin glargine U100 (100 units/ml) in patients with type 2 diabetes at high risk of cardiovascular events. This paper reports a secondary analysis investigating associations of day-to-day fasting glycaemic variability (pre-breakfast self-measured blood glucose [SMBG]) with severe hypoglycaemia and cardiovascular outcomes...
September 15, 2017: Diabetologia
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