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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898524/uromodulin-in-kidney-health-and-disease
#1
Pranav S Garimella, Mark J Sarnak
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Although uromodulin or Tamm-Horsfall protein was discovered over 60 years ago, its functional role in humans remains unclear. This review highlights new studies elucidating the clinical correlates of uromodulin, its association with kidney function decline, nephrolithiasis and urinary host defense. RECENT FINDINGS: Uromodulin is evolutionarily conserved and has multiple functional roles. In large population studies, higher levels of uromodulin are associated with higher estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and kidney size, possibly indicating greater kidney functional reserve...
November 24, 2016: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888411/to-screen-or-not-to-screen-for-vesicoureteral-reflux-in-children-with-ureteropelvic-junction-obstruction-a-systematic-review
#2
REVIEW
Marcus Weitz, Maria Schmidt
: Ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UPJO) and vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) are the most common uropathies. The co-occurrence of both anomalies has led to the practice of screening for VUR in children with UPJO to prevent deterioration of kidney function due to renal scarring following urinary tract infections (UTIs). We determined the prevalence of VUR in children with UPJO for a critical assessment of VUR screening by voiding cystourethrography (VCUG). A systematic search strategy in MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CENTRAL was carried out for all articles that included VCUG, and renal scintigraphy or any other appropriate imaging technique for the diagnosis of UPJO...
November 25, 2016: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884474/ckd-and-risk-for-hospitalization-with-infection-the-atherosclerosis-risk-in-communities-aric-study
#3
Junichi Ishigami, Morgan E Grams, Alexander R Chang, Juan J Carrero, Josef Coresh, Kunihiro Matsushita
BACKGROUND: Individuals on dialysis therapy have a high risk for infection, but risk for infection in earlier stages of chronic kidney disease has not been comprehensively described. STUDY DESIGN: Observational cohort study. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: 9,697 participants (aged 53-75 years) in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study. Participants were followed up from 1996 to 1998 through 2011. PREDICTORS: Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and urinary albumin-creatinine ratio (ACR)...
November 21, 2016: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882009/functional-and-structural-abnormalities-of-the-kidney-and-urinary-tract-in-severely-malnourished-children-a-hospital-based-study
#4
Misbah Anjum, Khemchand N Moorani, Ifra Sameen, Muhammad Ayaz Mustufa, Shazia Kulsoom
OBJECTIVES: The association of malnutrition and systemic diseases like chronic kidney disease (CKD) is well known. Various urinary tract abnormalities may be associated with malnutrition. So objective of current study was to determine the frequency of functional and structural urinary tract abnormalities in severely malnourished children admitted in Nutritional Rehabilitation Unit (NRU) of a tertiary care facility, Karachi. METHODS: This descriptive cases series of 78 children was conducted in NRU from October 2014 - March 2015...
September 2016: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876076/bladder-outlet-obstruction-a-rare-complication-of-the-neglected-schistosome-schistosoma-haematobium-two-case-reports-and-public-health-challenges
#5
Valirie Ndip Agbor, Tsi Njim, Franklin Ngu Mbolingong
BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis is a severe parasitic infestation with debilitating complications and is the third most devastating tropical disease in the world. It is one of the neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) with a high disease-burden. We present two rare cases of bladder outlet obstruction: one which led to a chronic kidney disease and ultimately death and a second which recovered after treatment with praziquantel. CASE PRESENTATIONS: A 72 year old male presented with lower urinary tract symptoms which culminated in an episode of acute urinary retention...
November 22, 2016: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868099/endourologic-and-open-ureterolithotomy-and-common-sheath-reimplant-for-large-bladder-and-distal-ureteral-calculi
#6
Madeline Cancian, Joseph Brito, Joseph Renzulli, Gyan Pareek
A twenty-eight-year-old female with a history of suprapubic pain and recurrent urinary tract infections presents for urology referral with a kidney, ureter, and bladder radiograph showing a 4.4 cm bladder calculus and 6.5 cm distal left ureteral stone. She underwent effective cystolitholapaxy of the bladder stone. Endourologic attempt (left ureteroscopy) was unsuccessful because of ureteral stone burden. Findings at ureteroscopy revealed a duplicated system on the left with the lower pole moiety joining just proximal to the ureteral orifice...
2016: Journal of Endourology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867961/cardio-renal-protection-with-empagliflozin
#7
Richard J MacIsaac, George Jerums, Elif I Ekinci
Cardiovascular (CV) and kidney disease are common and significant complications in people with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). CV disease is the leading cause of death, morbidly and hospitalisations for people with T2DM. Furthermore, diabetic kidney disease is a major risk factor for CV disease and is the main reason why patients need renal replacement therapy. In this perspective, we highlight the results of the recent landmark EMPA-REG OUTCOME trial which has shown that empagliflozin, a member of the sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT-2) inhibitor class of glucose lowering medications, reduces death from CV causes, hospitalisation for heart failure and progression to end stage kidney disease in patients with T2DM and established CV disease...
October 2016: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864665/risk-factors-for-bacteremia-in-urinary-tract-infections-attended-in-the-emergency-department
#8
Antonio Lalueza, Leticia Sanz-Trepiana, Noé Bermejo, Beatriz Yaiza, Alejandra Morales-Cartagena, María Espinosa, Rita García-Jiménez, Olga Jiménez-Rodríguez, Beatriz Ponce, David Lora, María Ángeles Orellana, Mario Fernández-Ruiz, Santiago Bermejo, José María Aguado
Urinary tract infections (UTI) are common in emergency departments (ED), and at least 15% of them are bacteremic. However, there are few data on how to predict which patients are at high risk of developing bacteremic UTI (b-UTI). We performed a retrospective observational cohort study including patients diagnosed with UTI who were admitted to the ED of a tertiary-care hospital in Spain. We included only those patients in whom blood cultures were performed. A nomogram for b-UTI was developed as visualizations of a logistic regression model...
November 18, 2016: Internal and Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856088/tolvaptan-and-kidney-pain-in-patients-with-autosomal-dominant%C3%A2-polycystic-kidney-disease-secondary-analysis-from%C3%A2-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#9
Niek F Casteleijn, Jaime D Blais, Arlene B Chapman, Frank S Czerwiec, Olivier Devuyst, Eiji Higashihara, Anna M Leliveld, John Ouyang, Ronald D Perrone, Vicente E Torres, Ron T Gansevoort
BACKGROUND: Kidney pain is a common complication in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), and data from the TEMPO 3:4 trial suggested that tolvaptan, a vasopressin V2 receptor antagonist, may have a positive effect on kidney pain in this patient group. Because pain is difficult to measure, the incidence of kidney pain leading to objective medical interventions was used in the present study to assess pain. STUDY DESIGN: Secondary analysis from a randomized controlled trial...
November 14, 2016: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836442/intravesical-ureteric-reimplantation-for-primary-obstructed-megaureter-in-infants-under-1-year-of-age
#10
Emily Jude, Aniruddh Deshpande, Andrew Barker, Japinder Khosa, Naeem Samnakay
PURPOSE: This study aimed to assess the outcome of intravesical ureteric reimplantation for primary obstructed megaureter (POM) performed in infants under 1 year of age. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was carried out of all infants undergoing intravesical ureteric reimplantation surgery for POM at two pediatric centers in the 12 years between 2003 and 2014. Outcomes were compared with those of children aged over 1 year undergoing intravesical reimplantation for POM during this period...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27828991/loss-of-mecp2-causes-urological-dysfunction-and-contributes-to-death-by-kidney-failure-in-mouse-models-of-rett-syndrome
#11
Christopher S Ward, Teng-Wei Huang, José A Herrera, Rodney C Samaco, Meagan R Pitcher, Alan Herron, Steven A Skinner, Walter E Kaufmann, Daniel G Glaze, Alan K Percy, Jeffrey L Neul
Rett Syndrome (RTT) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by loss of acquired skills during development, autonomic dysfunction, and an increased risk for premature lethality. Clinical experience identified a subset of individuals with RTT that present with urological dysfunction including individuals with frequent urinary tract infections, kidney stones, and urine retention requiring frequent catheterization for bladder voiding. To determine if urologic dysfunction is a feature of RTT, we queried the Rett Syndrome Natural History Study, a repository of clinical data from over 1000 individuals with RTT and found multiple instances of urological dysfunction...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824318/concurrent-diffuse-pyelonephritis-and-prostatitis-discordant-findings-on-sequential-fdg-pet-ct-and-67ga-spect-ct-imaging
#12
Robert Lucaj, Dwight M Achong
A 45-year-old man underwent FDG PET/CT for initial imaging evaluation of recurrent Escherichia coli urinary tract infections, which demonstrated no significant FDG uptake in either kidney and subtle FDG uptake in the right prostate lobe. Subsequent Ga SPECT/CT demonstrated abnormal intense gallium uptake throughout the right kidney and entire prostate gland, clearly discordant with PET/CT findings and consistent with unexpected concurrent pyelonephritis and prostatitis. Although FDG has effectively replaced Ga in everyday clinical practice, the current case serves as a reminder that there is still a role for Ga in the evaluation of genitourinary infections...
October 12, 2016: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819162/evaluation-of-abnormal-radiological-findings-in-children-aged-2-to-36-months-followed-by-recurrent-urinary-tract-infection-a-retrospective-study
#13
Cinar Ozen, Pelin Ertan, Feray Aras, Gul Gumuser, Mine Ozkol, Gonul Horasan Dinc
Our aim is to determine the rational usage of imaging techniques in order to prevent or minimize permanent renal damage in recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs). This study was enrolled children aged between 2 and 36 months, following-up with the diagnosis of recurrent UTI. All children had ultrasonography (USG) and dimercaptosuccinic acid scanning, 39 of them had underwent on voiding cystourethrography. There were 133 children (87 girls, 46 boys) with the mean age of 32.82 ± 38.10 months included into the study...
November 6, 2016: Renal Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816709/urolithiasis-in-pregnancy
#14
REVIEW
Renato N Pedro, Krishanu Das, Noor Buchholz
Urolithiasis in pregnancy is a major health concern and can potentially affect the well-being of both mother and foetus. Management of this condition often entails simultaneous multidisciplinary involvement of obstetrician, radiologist and urologist. Additionally, adverse effects with usage of anaesthesia, radiation, medications and surgery on mother and foetus, limit utilisation of the full armamentarium of diagnostic and therapeutic modalities that are commonly used in non-pregnant women. This review was conducted using an electronic literature search of peer reviewed journal articles...
November 2, 2016: International Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798510/infections-in-de-novo-kidney-transplant-recipients-treated-with-the-rankl-inhibitor-denosumab
#15
Marco Bonani, Diana Frey, Olivier de Rougemont, Nicolas J Mueller, Thomas F Mueller, Nicole Graf, Rudolf P Wüthrich
BACKGROUND: Infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in kidney allograft recipients. In this posthoc analysis of a randomized clinical trial which tested the effect of denosumab on bone mineral density we assessed the impact of this drug on the incidence and severity of infections in the first year after kidney transplantation. METHODS: In this clinical trial we randomized 90 de novo kidney transplant recipients shortly after transplantation to either denosumab on top of standard treatment (calcium and vitamin D) (n=46), or to standard treatment alone (n=44)...
October 28, 2016: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789299/profile-of-the-ammonium-acid-urate-stone-former-based-on-a-large-contemporary-cohort
#16
Derek J Lomas, Christopher D Jaeger, Amy E Krambeck
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate and profile ammonium acid urate (AAU) stone formers utilizing a large contemporary cohort. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective review of all patients with documented AAU urolithiasis on stone analysis was performed from 1995 to 2013. A stone was considered AAU if it contained at least 10% of the total composition on stone analysis. RESULTS: Of 12,421 stones, a total of 111 AAU stones were identified in 89 patients...
October 24, 2016: Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788801/ureteral-complications-in-kidney-transplantation-analysis-and-management-of-853-consecutive-laparoscopic-living-donor-nephrectomies-in-a-single-center
#17
Y S Choi, K S Kim, S W Choi, W J Bae, S H Hong, J Y Lee, J C Kim, S W Kim, B H Chung, C W Yang, J I Kim, I S Moon, H J Cho
BACKGROUND: We report the incidence and nature of ureteral and surgical complications in our series of 853 consecutive living-donor renal transplants after laparoscopic living-donor nephrectomy. The aim of this study was to analyze the therapeutic approaches to ureteral complications in kidney transplantations and their relationship with recipient outcome. METHODS: The medical records of patients who underwent kidney transplantation from 2000 to 2014 were reviewed retrospectively...
October 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785626/neutrophil-gelatinase-associated-lipocalin-utility-in-urologic-conditions
#18
EDITORIAL
Catherine S Forster, Prasad Devarajan
Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) is best known as a non-invasive early marker of acute kidney injury (AKI). However, recent published reports have described additional utility of both plasma NGAL (pNGAL) and urine NGAL (uNGAL) in various pathologic conditions within the pediatric urinary tract, including urinary tract infection, vesicoureteral reflux (VUR), renal scarring, and obstructive uropathy. These two forms of NGAL have different applications related to their mechanisms of upregulation: pNGAL can serve as a marker of systemic inflammatory conditions, whereas uNGAL is specific for insults to the renal epithelium...
October 26, 2016: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785437/are-antibiotics-necessary-during-routine-cystoscopic-stent-removal
#19
Joel E Abbott, Allison Han, Michelle McDonald, Charlie Lakin, Roger L Sur
BACKGROUND: The 2008 American Urological Association (AUA) Best Practice Statement on antimicrobial prophylaxis states that prophylaxis is not warranted for subjects with normal risk profile undergoing cystourethroscopy unless manipulation such as ureteral stent removal is performed. To date no studies have specifically assessed the need for antimicrobial prophylaxis during cystoscopic ureteral stent removal. We sought to determine the risk of infectious complications following cystoscopic stent removal with and without antimicrobial prophylaxis...
October 2016: Translational Andrology and Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781020/stem-cells-in-functional-bladder-engineering
#20
REVIEW
Jakub Smolar, Souzan Salemi, Maya Horst, Tullio Sulser, Daniel Eberli
Conditions impairing bladder function in children and adults, such as myelomeningocele, posterior urethral valves, bladder exstrophy or spinal cord injury, often need urinary diversion or augmentation cystoplasty as when untreated they may cause severe bladder dysfunction and kidney failure. Currently, the gold standard therapy of end-stage bladder disease refractory to conservative management is enterocystoplasty, a surgical enlargement of the bladder with intestinal tissue. Despite providing functional improvement, enterocystoplasty is associated with significant long-term complications, such as recurrent urinary tract infections, metabolic abnormalities, stone formation, and malignancies...
September 2016: Transfusion Medicine and Hemotherapy
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