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Ibd and probiotics

Mei Shang, Jun Sun
Vitamin D is an important factor in regulating inflammation, immune responses, and carcinoma inhibition via action of its receptor, vitamin D receptor (VDR). Recent studies have demonstrated the role of vitamin D/VDR in regulating host-bacterial interactions. Probiotics are beneficial bacteria with the power of supporting or favoring life on the host. In the current review, we will discuss the recent progress on the roles of vitamin D/VDR in gut microbiome and inflammation. We will summarize evidence of probiotics in modulating vitamin D/VDR and balancing gut microbiota in health and gastrointestinal diseases...
December 2, 2016: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Sabina Górska, Corine Sandstrőm, Justyna Wojas-Turek, Joanna Rossowska, Elżbieta Pajtasz-Piasecka, Ewa Brzozowska, Andrzej Gamian
Characteristic changes in the microbiota biostructure and a decreased tolerance to intestinal bacteria have been associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, few studies have examined the constituents of the intestinal microbiota, including the surface molecules of the bacteria, in healthy and IBD subsets. Here, we compare the chemical structures and immunomodulatory properties of the exopolysaccharides (EPS) of lactobacilli isolated from mice with induced IBD (IBD "+") versus those of healthy mice (IBD "-")...
November 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
H As Murad
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is involved in multiple gastrointestinal and extra-gastrointestinal disorders. This review focuses on possible link between H. pylori eradication and Crohn's disease (CD) which is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Fecal calprotectin and; to lesser extent; fecal lactoferrin are sensitive and specific markers for monitoring CD activity. Data about link between H. pylori eradication and CD are limited and inconclusive. The infection likely shifts equilibrium between T helper 1 (Th1) and Th2 immune responses to the Th2 pattern...
July 2016: Acta Gastro-enterologica Belgica
Roberta E Rossi, Tara Whyand, Charles D Murray, Mark I Hamilton, Dario Conte, Martyn E Caplin
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are chronic immune disorders of unclear aetiology. Dietary deficiencies may be a potential pathogenic factor in their development. Patients often take food supplements without knowledge of any evidence base. We have therefore assessed the evidence for food supplementation in the management of IBD. A PubMed search was performed for the terms Inflammatory bowel disease; nutritional deficiencies; dietary supplements; curcumin; green tea; vitamin D/other vitamins; folic acid; iron; zinc; probiotics; andrographis paniculata; and boswellia serrate...
December 2016: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Adam S Cheifetz, Robert Gianotti, Raphael Luber, Peter R Gibson
Patients and physicians often have many questions regarding the role of complementary and alternative medicines (CAMs), or non-allopathic therapies, for inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). CAMs of various forms are used by more than half of patients with IBD during some point in their disease course. We summarize the available evidence for the most commonly used and discussed CAMs. We discuss evidence for the effects of herbs (such as cannabis and curcumin), probiotics, acupuncture, exercise, and mind-body therapy...
October 12, 2016: Gastroenterology
Yu Qi Qiao, Chen Wen Cai, Zhi Hua Ran
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients exhibit impaired control of the microbiome in the gut. "Dysbiosis" is commonly observed. A Western diet is a risk factor for the development of IBD but may have different effects on the gut microbiota in IBD and non-IBD individuals. Exclusive enteral nutrition (EEN) can induce remission in pediatric Crohn's disease (CD) with a decrease in gut microbiome diversity after EEN treatment. Although there are some theoretical benefits, the actual treatment effects of prebiotics and probiotics in IBD patients can vary...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Digestive Diseases
Cristiano Pagnini, Michela Martorelli, Claudio Lanini, Gianfranco Delle Fave
The consistent technical and conceptual progress in the study of the microbiota has led novel impulse to the research for therapeutical application of probiotic bacteria in human pathologies, such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Considering the heterogenous results of probiotics in clinical studies, the model of translational medicine may lead to a more specific and efficacious utilization of probiotic bacteria in IBD. In this regard, the selection and utilization of appropriate experimental models may drive the transition from pure in vitro systems to practical clinical application...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
Hui-Lu Zhang, Wen-Shuai Li, Dian-Nan Xu, Wan-Wei Zheng, Yi Liu, Jian Chen, Zhi-Bing Qiu, Robert G Dorfman, Jun Zhang, Jie Liu
Gut microbiota composition of patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) is markedly altered compared with healthy individuals. There is mounting evidence that probiotic therapy alleviates disease severity in animal models and patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Bacillus subtilisis, as a probiotic, has also demonstrated a protective effect in IBD. However, the therapeutic mechanism of its action has yet to be elucidated. In the present study, a dextrose sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced UC mouse model was used to investigate the role of B...
October 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Diego Currò, Gianluca Ianiro, Silvia Pecere, Stefano Bibbò, Giovanni Cammarota
Functional bowel disorders (FBDs), mainly irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and functional constipation (FC, also called chronic idiopathic constipation), are highly diffused worldwide. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), including ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, although less common, has a strong impact on patients' quality of life, as well as is highly expensive for our healthcare. A definite cure for those disorders is still yet to come. Over the years, several therapeutic approaches complementary or alternative to traditional pharmacological treatments, including probiotics, prebiotics, synbiotics, fiber and herbal medicinal products, have been investigated for the management of both groups of diseases...
October 3, 2016: British Journal of Pharmacology
Shelby R Hayes, Ashley J Vargas
: Goldenberg JZ, Lytvyn L, Steurich J, Parkin P, Mahant S, Johnston BC. Probiotics for the prevention of pediatric antibiotic-associated diarrhea.Cochrane Database Syst Rev2015, Issue 12. Art. No.: CD004827. BACKGROUND: Antibiotics are frequently prescribed in children. They alter the microbial balance within the gastrointestinal tract, commonly resulting in antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD). Probiotics may prevent AAD via restoration of the gut microflora...
November 2016: Explore: the Journal of Science and Healing
Ishfaq Ahmed, Badal C Roy, Salman A Khan, Seth Septer, Shahid Umar
Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) is a multifactorial disorder that conceptually occurs as a result of altered immune responses to commensal and/or pathogenic gut microbes in individuals most susceptible to the disease. During Crohn's Disease (CD) or Ulcerative Colitis (UC), two components of the human IBD, distinct stages define the disease onset, severity, progression and remission. Epigenetic, environmental (microbiome, metabolome) and nutritional factors are important in IBD pathogenesis. While the dysbiotic microbiota has been proposed to play a role in disease pathogenesis, the data on IBD and diet are still less convincing...
June 15, 2016: Microorganisms
Angela B Javurek, William G Spollen, Sarah A Johnson, Nathan J Bivens, Karen H Bromert, Scott A Givan, Cheryl S Rosenfeld
Gut dysbiosis may result in various diseases, such as metabolic and neurobehavioral disorders. Exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), including bisphenol A (BPA) and ethinyl estradiol (EE), especially during development, may also increase the risk for such disorders. An unexplored possibility is that EDC-exposure might alter the gut microbial composition. Gut flora and their products may thus be mediating factors for the disease-causing effects of these chemicals. To examine the effects of EDCs on the gut microbiome, female and male monogamous and biparental California mice (Peromyscus californicus) were exposed to BPA (50 mg/kg feed weight) or EE (0...
September 13, 2016: Gut Microbes
Min Cai, Lu Zeng, Lin-Jing Li, Li-Hua Mo, Rui-Di Xie, Bai-Sui Feng, Peng-Yuan Zheng, Zhi-Gang Liu, Zhan-Ju Liu, Ping-Chang Yang
BACKGROUND: Hypersensitivity reaction to certain allergens plays a role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). This study aims to observe the effect of specific immunotherapy in a group of IBD patients. METHODS: Patients with both ulcerative colitis (UC) and food allergy were recruited into this study. Food allergy was diagnosed by skin prick test and serum specific IgE. The patients were treated with specific immunotherapy (SIT) and Clostridium butyricum (CB) capsules...
2016: Allergy, Asthma, and Clinical Immunology
Alejandra de Moreno de LeBlanc, Silvina Del Carmen, Jean-Marc Chatel, Vasco Azevedo, Philippe Langella, Luis Bermudez-Humaran, Jean Guy LeBlanc
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) affect the gastrointestinal tract and are characterized by recurrent inflammation that requires lifelong therapies. Probiotics such as lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been proposed to complement current treatment protocols for these patients; however, their characteristics are strain dependent. In this regard, certain novel characteristics are only possible through the genetic modification of these beneficial micro-organisms. Different delivery systems, such as protein delivery of anti-oxidant enzymes and anti-inflammatory cytokines, have been shown to be effective in preventing and treating IBD in animal models...
September 2016: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Mayuko Yamamoto, Satoshi Matsumoto
The mucosal immune system is unique to the gastrointestinal mucosa, in which a large number of immune cells are located and exert multiple functions. Meanwhile, ~100 trillion microorganisms are thought to co-inhabit in the gastrointestinal tract. Furthermore, immune cells and gut microbiota have a mutual influence and the maintenance of this symbiotic relationship results in gut homeostasis. A recent study suggested that a disturbance of gut microbiota-so called "dysbiosis"-is related to various diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and colitis-associated cancer (CAC)...
2016: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
José Antonio Uranga, Visitación López-Miranda, Felipe Lombó, Raquel Abalo
Inflammatory bowel diseases (ulcerative colitis; Crohn's disease) are debilitating relapsing inflammatory disorders affecting the gastrointestinal tract, with deleterious effect on quality of life, and increasing incidence and prevalence. Mucosal inflammation, due to altered microbiota, increased intestinal permeability and immune system dysfunction underlies the symptoms and may be caused in susceptible individuals by different factors (or a combination of them), including dietary habits and components. In this review we describe the influence of the Western diet, obesity, and different nutraceuticals/functional foods (bioactive peptides, phytochemicals, omega 3-polyunsaturated fatty acids, vitamin D, probiotics and prebiotics) on the course of IBD, and provide some hints that could be useful for nutritional guidance...
August 2016: Pharmacological Reports: PR
Bhupesh Kumar Thakur, Piu Saha, George Banik, Dhira Rani Saha, Sunita Grover, Virender Kumar Batish, Santasabuj Das
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a group of inflammatory disorders of the intestine caused by dysregulated T-cell mediated immune response against commensal microflora. Probiotics are reported as therapeutically effective against IBD. However, variable efficacy of the live probiotic strains, difference in survival and persistence in the gut between the strains and the lack of insight into the mechanisms of probiotic action limit optimal therapeutic efficacy. Our aims were to evaluate the lactobacillus strains isolated from the North Indian population for the generation of regulatory cells and cytokines in the intestine, to study their effects on pro-inflammatory mediators in the mouse model of inflammatory bowel disease and to explore the underlying mechanisms of their actions...
April 21, 2016: International Immunopharmacology
Mario Matijašić, Tomislav Meštrović, Mihaela Perić, Hana Čipčić Paljetak, Marina Panek, Darija Vranešić Bender, Dina Ljubas Kelečić, Željko Krznarić, Donatella Verbanac
The healthy intestine represents a remarkable interface where sterile host tissues come in contact with gut microbiota, in a balanced state of homeostasis. The imbalance of gut homeostasis is associated with the onset of many severe pathological conditions, such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), a chronic gastrointestinal disorder increasing in incidence and severely influencing affected individuals. Despite the recent development of next generation sequencing and bioinformatics, the current scientific knowledge of specific triggers and diagnostic markers to improve interventional approaches in IBD is still scarce...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Jacob R Emge, Kevin Huynh, Elaine N Miller, Manvir Kaur, Colin Reardon, Kim E Barrett, Mélanie G Gareau
UNLABELLED: Anxiety, depression, and altered memory are associated with intestinal diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Understanding the link between these behavioral changes and IBD is important clinically since concomitant mood disorders often increase a patient's risk of requiring surgery and developing secondary functional gastrointestinal diseases. Anxiety-like behavior (light/dark box test) and recognition memory (novel object recognition task) were determined at the peak and during resolution of inflammation in the dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) mouse model of acute colitis...
June 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
Abdo Jurjus, Assad Eid, Sahar Al Kattar, Marie Noel Zeenny, Alice Gerges-Geagea, Hanine Haydar, Anis Hilal, Doreid Oueidat, Michel Matar, Jihane Tawilah, Inaya Hajj Hussein, Pierre Schembri-Wismayer, Francesco Cappello, Giovanni Tomasello, Angelo Leone, Rosalyn A Jurjus
The co-occurrence of the three disease entities, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), colorectal cancer (CRC), type 2diabetes mellitus (T2DM) along with inflammation and dismicrobism has been frequently reported. Some authors have even suggested that dysbiosis could be the link through a molecular crosstalk of multiple inflammatory loops including TGFβ, NFKB, TNFα and ROS among others. This review focuses on the inflammatory process along with the role of microbiota in the pathophysiology of the three diseases...
June 2016: BBA Clinical
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