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pediatric diabetic ketoacidosis

Jeniece Trast Ilkowitz, Steven Choi, Michael L Rinke, Kathy Vandervoot, Rubina A Heptulla
BACKGROUND: Diabetes ketoacidosis (DKA) is a life-threatening complication of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Reducing DKA admissions in children with T1DM requires a coordinated, comprehensive management plan. We aimed to decrease DKA admissions, 30-day readmissions, and length of stay (LOS) for DKA admissions. METHODS: A multipronged intervention was designed in 2011 to reach all patients: (1) increase insulin pump use and basal-bolus regimen versus sliding scales, (2) transform educational program, (3) increased access to medical providers, and (4) support for patients and families...
October 2016: Quality Management in Health Care
Eleanor R Gunn, Benjamin B Albert, Paul L Hofman, Wayne S Cutfield, Alistair J Gunn, Craig A Jefferies
BACKGROUND: There has been little change in the incidence of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) in newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) in children and adolescents in most developed countries. OBJECTIVES: To assess potentially modifiable antecedents of DKA in children <15 years of age with new onset T1DM. METHODS: Retrospective review of prospectively collected data from a complete regional cohort of children with T1DM in Auckland (New Zealand) from 2010 to 2014...
October 11, 2016: Pediatric Diabetes
Luke Baldelli, Ben Flitter, Laura Pyle, David M Maahs, Georgeanna Klingensmith, Robert Slover, G Todd Alonso
OBJECTIVE: Pediatric patients in Colorado with new onset type 1 diabetes (T1D) presenting with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) increased from 29.9% to 46.2% from 1998 to 2012. The purpose of this study was to compare differences between patients with newly diagnosed T1D who presented in DKA with those who did not across three domains: sociodemographic factors, access to medical care, and medical provider factors, aiming to identify potential targets for intervention. METHODS: Sixty-one patients <17 years of age with T1D duration <6 months completed the questionnaire...
October 11, 2016: Pediatric Diabetes
Dubravka Negovetić Vranić, Josipa Jurković, Jesenka Jeličić, Antonija Balenović, Gordana Stipančić, Ivana Čuković-Bagić
Medical emergencies that are life threatening can occur in dental practice. Complications may arise because of an underlying disease or a reaction to medication. Reactions to medications may be allergic and toxic. The most common reactions are toxic reactions to local anesthetics, whereas allergies occur mainly as a consequence of the application of antibiotics, usually penicillin. In response to stress, vasovagal syncope typically occurs. Other causes may be related to an underlying disease-specific pathology (such as acute asthma attack, diabetic ketoacidosis, hypoglycemia, or seizures) or accidents (aspiration of a foreign body causing obstruction of the respiratory system)...
March 2016: Acta Stomatologica Croatica
Rayzel Shulman, Therese A Stukel, Fiona A Miller, Alice Newman, Denis Daneman, Jonathan D Wasserman, Astrid Guttmann
OBJECTIVE: To describe adverse events in pediatric insulin pump users since universal funding in Ontario and to explore the role of socioeconomic status and 24-hour support. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Population-based cohort study of youth (<19 years) with type 1 diabetes (n=3193) under a universal access program in Ontario, Canada, from 2006 to 2013. We linked 2012 survey data from 33 pediatric diabetes centers to health administrative databases. The relationship between patient and center-level characteristics and time to first diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) admission or death was tested using a Cox proportional hazards model and the rate of diabetes-related emergency department visits and hospitalizations with a Poisson model, both using generalized estimating equations...
2016: BMJ Open Diabetes Research & Care
Alaysia Barrot, Thierry Agm Huisman, Andrea Poretti
Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a state of severe insulin deficiency and a serious complication in children with diabetes mellitus type 1. In a small number of children, DKA is complicated by injury of the central nervous system. These children have a significant mortality and high long-term neurological morbidity. Cerebral edema is the most common neuroimaging finding in children with DKA and may cause brain herniation. Ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke during the acute DKA episode is less common and accounts for approximately 10% of intracerebral complications of DKA...
October 2016: Neuroradiology Journal
Benjamin Edward Orwoll
OBJECTIVE: To review the findings and discuss the implications of the use of low-dose insulin infusions in pediatric diabetic ketoacidosis compared with standard-dose insulin. DATA SOURCES: A search of the electronic PubMed database was used to perform the clinical query as well as to search for additional relevant literature. STUDY SELECTION AND DATA EXTRACTION: The article by Nallasamy K et al "Low-Dose vs Standard-Dose Insulin in Pediatric Diabetic Ketoacidosis: A Randomized Clinical Trial...
October 2016: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
Satti Abdulrahim Satti, Imad Yassin Saadeldin, Ali Saeed Dammas
Type I diabetes mellitus is the most common endocrine-metabolic disorder of childhood and adolescence and diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) can be life-threatening. The study aims at identifying precipitating factors, states epidemiological features and describes clinical presentations in children with DKA admitted to Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU), King Fahad Hospital, Al-Baha, Saudi Arabia. The hospital records of 80 children admitted to PICU with DKA between January 2000 and December 2004 were reviewed. Results were compared with published data from Saudi Arabia and other countries...
2013: Sudan J Paediatr
Gregory Hansen, Jeff K Vallance, Darcy L Beer, Ian Clark, Elizabeth A C Sellers
OBJECTIVE: Intracranial hypertension is an infrequent but serious acute complication of pediatric diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). Subclinical elevations of intracranial pressures however, may be more common, and can be indirectly evaluated with ultrasonography of the optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD). In this pilot study, we report serial data on ONSD trajectories from five pediatric patients with DKA to generate hypotheses for future studies. METHODS: Five pediatric patients with type 1 diabetes presented to our emergency department with DKA and enrolled in our study <3h after initiation of treatment...
November 2016: Journal of Diabetes and its Complications
Zeynelabidin Öztürk, E Nazlı Gönç, Leman Akcan, Selman Kesici, İlker Ertuğrul, Benan Bayrakçı
Heart transplantation indications in pediatric population include congenital heart diseases, cardiomyopathies and retransplants. Cardiomyopathy is the primary indication for 11 to 17 years of age. The surveillance after transplantation is a very important issue because of both the rejection risk and the adverse effects due to medications after transplantation. Immunosuppressive agents that are commonly used after heart transplantations have several toxicities. Here we present an adolescent patient diagnosed with dilated cardiomyopathy, performed heart transplantation, treated with tacrolimus and suffered from diabetic ketoacidosis due to tacrolimus...
September 2015: Turkish Journal of Pediatrics
Stephanie S Crossen, Darrell M Wilson, Olga Saynina, Lee M Sanders
OBJECTIVE: To identify patterns of outpatient care associated with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) among pediatric patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D). METHODS: Retrospective cohort study using Medicaid claims data from 2009 to 2012 for children with T1D enrolled ≥365 consecutive days in California Children's Services, a Title V program for low-income children with chronic disease. Outcome was DKA hospitalization >30 days after enrollment. Outpatient visits to primary care, endocrinology, pharmacies, and emergency departments (EDs) were assessed during the 6 months before an index date: either date of first DKA hospitalization or end of enrollment for those without DKA...
June 2016: Pediatrics
Ireneusz Haponiuk, Maciej Chojnicki, Konrad Paczkowski, Wojciech Kosiak, Radosław Jaworski, Mariusz Steffens, Aneta Szofer-Sendrowska, Katarzyna Gierat-Haponiuk, Marek Tomaszewski
The presence of a pathologic mass in the right ventricle (RV) may lead to hemodynamic consequences and to a life-threatening incident of pulmonary embolism. The diagnosis of an unstable thrombus in the right heart chamber usually necessitates intensive treatment to dissolve or remove the pathology. We present a report of an unusual complication of severe ketoacidosis: thrombus in the right ventricle, removed from the tricuspid valve (TV) apparatus. A four-year-old boy was diagnosed with diabetes mellitus (DM) type I de novo...
2016: Heart Surgery Forum
Kathleen Healy-Collier, Walter J Jones, James E Shmerling, Kenneth R Robertson, Robert J Ferry
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether the likelihood of readmission (adjusted for severity on first admission) for pediatric type 1 diabetes (T1D) differs between Medicaid managed care and non-managed care. STUDY DESIGN: De-identified patients were retrospectively selected from the Pediatric Health Information Systems database of the Children's Hospital Association (CHA). The cohort of 42 hospitals across 25 states included discharges between 2008 and 2011 for patients who were receiving Medicaid at the time of service and had T1D as their diagnosis...
April 2016: American Journal of Managed Care
Waleed Janem, Lucy D Mastrandrea
The stalling or regression of pubertal development may be the first sign of hypergonadotropic hypogonadism in adolescent males. We report here a case of pediatric hypergonadotropic hypogonadism that likely developed secondary to ischemic injury during severe diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). This case highlights the importance of performing genital exams during all evaluations of pediatric patients.
April 2016: Clinical Case Reports
Martin M H Woo, Eric K Patterson, Cheril Clarson, Gediminas Cepinskas, Mahmud Bani-Yaghoub, Danica B Stanimirovic, Douglas D Fraser
OBJECTIVE: Diabetic ketoacidosis in children is associated with vasogenic cerebral edema, possibly due to the release of destructive polymorphonuclear neutrophil azurophilic enzymes. Our objectives were to measure plasma azurophilic enzyme levels in children with diabetic ketoacidosis, to correlate plasma azurophilic enzyme levels with diabetic ketoacidosis severity, and to determine whether azurophilic enzymes disrupt the blood-brain barrier in vitro. DESIGN: Prospective clinical and laboratory study...
September 2016: Critical Care Medicine
Mohamed Hesham Sayed, Moustafa Abdelaal Hegazi, Khairyah Abdulwahed, Khairya Moussa, Basem Salama El-Deek, Hala Gabel, Rana Ragheb
BACKGROUND: Little is known about levels of glycemic control and risk factors for uncontrolled hyperglycemia in Saudi children with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). The aim of the present study was to identify levels of glycemic control, risk factors and predictors of uncontrolled hyperglycemia (HG) and diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) in children with T1DM. METHODS: A retrospective study was performed on Saudi children and adolescents with confirmed T1DM who were followed at the Pediatric Endocrinology Clinic of the Maternity and Children Hospital, Jeddah, from 2000 to 2014...
April 4, 2016: Journal of Diabetes
Serife Uysal, Basavaraj Kerur, Jason M Shapiro, Linda K Snelling, Jose Bernardo Quintos
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2016: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Michal Cohen, Noa Leibovitz, Smadar Shilo, Nehama Zuckerman-Levin, Itai Shavit, Naim Shehadeh
BACKGROUND: Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) treatment protocols vary, however low-dose intravenous administration of regular insulin is the standard care for replacing insulin in most centers. Few studies, the majority in adults, demonstrated subcutaneous injection of rapid-acting insulin every 1-2 hours to be a valid alternative. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of subcutaneous regular insulin administered every 4 hours in pediatric DKA in a clinical setting...
March 23, 2016: Pediatric Diabetes
Esmeralda Colino, María Martín-Frías, Rosa Yelmo, M Ángeles Álvarez, Belén Roldán, Raquel Barrio
AIMS: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of Continuous Subcutaneous Insulin Infusion (CSII) in a pediatric cohort and to determine if the ISPAD/IDF/ADA criteria for good metabolic control are achieved during long periods of time. METHODS: Retrospective longitudinal study including ninety patients [10.5 (6.5-13.9) years of age, 58% males]. Age at debut, type 1 diabetes mellitus duration, pubertal stage, HbA1c, insulin dose, mean number of glycemic controls, number of basal rates, % basal/total insulin, severe hypoglycemia and diabetic ketoacidosis events were analyzed...
March 2016: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
Tansit Saengkaew, Taninee Sahakitrungruang, Suttipong Wacharasindhu, Vichit Supornsilchai
A 13-year-old adolescent boy with type 1 diabetes mellitus (1b) presented with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and cerebral edema. Grossly lipemic serum and lipemia retinals due to extremely high triglyceride (TG) level were observed without evidence of xanthoma or xanthelasma. Cerebral edema was treated by appropriate ventilation and mannitol administration. Normal saline was carefully given and regular insulin was titrated according to blood sugar levels. Triglyceride levels were reduced from 9,800 mg/dL to normal range within 9 days after conventional treatment was commenced without antilipid medication...
2016: Case Reports in Endocrinology
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