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stroke and diet 2016

Bianca Hemmingsen, David Peick Sonne, Maria-Inti Metzendorf, Bernd Richter
BACKGROUND: The projected rise in the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) could develop into a substantial health problem worldwide. Whether insulin secretagogues (sulphonylureas and meglitinide analogues) are able to prevent or delay T2DM and its associated complications in people at risk for the development of T2DM is unknown. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of insulin secretagogues on the prevention or delay of T2DM and its associated complications in people with impaired glucose tolerance, impaired fasting blood glucose, moderately elevated glycosylated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) or any combination of these...
October 17, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Lukas Schwingshackl, Georg Hoffmann, Benjamin Missbach, Marta Stelmach-Mardas, Heiner Boeing
BACKGROUND: Nuts have been an indispensable component of the human diet for hundreds because of their unique nutrient composition and are thought to play a beneficial part in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the extent, validity and presence of evidence for studies investigating the impact of nuts intake on biomarkers of cardiovascular disease and cardiovascular events, we performed an umbrella review of all published meta-analyses synthesizing data from both observational studies and randomized controlled trials...
October 10, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Michael G Silverman, Brian A Ference, Kyungah Im, Stephen D Wiviott, Robert P Giugliano, Scott M Grundy, Eugene Braunwald, Marc S Sabatine
IMPORTANCE: The comparative clinical benefit of nonstatin therapies that reduce low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) remains uncertain. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between lowering LDL-C and relative cardiovascular risk reduction across different statin and nonstatin therapies. DATA SOURCES AND STUDY SELECTION: The MEDLINE and EMBASE databases were searched (1966-July 2016). The key inclusion criteria were that the study was a randomized clinical trial and the reported clinical outcomes included myocardial infarction (MI)...
September 27, 2016: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Miguel A Martinez-Gonzalez, Nerea Martin-Calvo
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The recent relevant evidence of the effects of the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) and lifestyle on health (2015 and first months of 2016). RECENT FINDINGS: Large observational prospective epidemiological studies with adequate control of confounding and two large randomized trials support the benefits of the Mediterranean dietary pattern to increase life expectancy, reduce the risk of major chronic disease, and improve quality of life and well-being...
November 2016: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
Jianguo Chen, Qingfeng Huang, Wei Shi, Liu Yang, Jian Chen, Qing Lan
The association between whole and refined grain consumption and stroke risk remains unclear. A search using MEDLINE and EMBASE databases was performed through February 29, 2016. Seven prospective studies with a total of 446 451 subjects and 5892 stroke events were included. The summary relative risk (SRR) of stroke for the high versus low consumption was 0.95 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.83-1.14) for total grains, 0.92 (95% CI = 0.72-1.17) for whole grains, and 0.99 (95% CI = 0.84-1.16) for refined grains...
May 23, 2016: Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health
Lars Barregard, Gerd Sallsten, Björn Fagerberg, Yan Borné, Margaretha Persson, Bo Hedblad, Gunnar Engström
BACKGROUND: Cadmium exposure may increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. The only published longitudinal study on cadmium and incident cardiovascular disease was performed in American Indians with relatively high cadmium exposure. OBJECTIVES: Our aim was to examine the association between blood cadmium at baseline and incident cardiovascular events in a population-based study of Swedish men and women with cadmium levels similar to those of most European and U...
May 2016: Environmental Health Perspectives
(no author information available yet)
UNLABELLED: In June 2008, the Medical Advisory Secretariat began work on the Diabetes Strategy Evidence Project, an evidence-based review of the literature surrounding strategies for successful management and treatment of diabetes. This project came about when the Health System Strategy Division at the Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care subsequently asked the secretariat to provide an evidentiary platform for the Ministry's newly released Diabetes Strategy.After an initial review of the strategy and consultation with experts, the secretariat identified five key areas in which evidence was needed...
2009: Ontario Health Technology Assessment Series
M Dennis, S Lewis, G Cranswick, J Forbes
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether routine oral nutritional supplementation of a normal hospital diet improves outcome after stroke (Trial 1); whether early tube feeding improves the outcomes of dysphagic stroke patients (Trial 2); and if tube feeding via a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) results in better outcomes than that via a nasogastric tube (NG) (Trial 3). DESIGN: The Feed Or Ordinary Diet (FOOD) trial was a family of three pragmatic, randomised controlled trials (RCTs)...
January 2006: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
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