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Thomas Lombard, Virginie Neirinckx, Bernard Rogister, Yves Gilon, Sabine Wislet
In recent years, medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (MRONJ) became an arising disease due to the important antiresorptive drug prescriptions to treat oncologic and osteoporotic patients, as well as the use of new antiangiogenic drugs such as VEGF antagonist. So far, MRONJ physiopathogenesis still remains unclear. Aiming to better understand MRONJ physiopathology, the first objective of this review would be to highlight major molecular mechanisms that are known to be involved in bone formation and remodeling...
2016: Stem Cells International
Lidan Zhao, Linfang Huang, Xuan Zhang
Rapid progress has been made in exploring the connections between the skeletal system and the immune system over the past decade. Bone tissue forms developmental niches for hematopoietic stem cells, and activated immune cells are involved in bone metabolism regulation and are potent mediators of osteoporosis and bone erosion under pathological conditions. The interdisciplinary field of osteoimmunology has emerged to pool the knowledge of the interdependence of these two systems, including the shared ligands and receptors, their crosstalk and interaction, and common intracellular signaling pathways with bidirectional influence...
September 20, 2016: Science China. Life Sciences
Lia Ginaldi, Massimo De Martinis
OBJECTIVE: Osteoimmunology investigates interactions between skeleton and immune system. In the light of recent discoveries in this field, a new reading register of osteoporosis is actually emerging, in which bone and immune cells are strictly interconnected. Osteoporosis could therefore be considered a chronic immune mediated disease which shares with other age related disorders a common inflammatory background. Here, we highlight these recent discoveries and the new landscape that is emerging...
September 7, 2016: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Katharina Schmidt-Bleek, Ralph Marcucio, Georg Duda
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons
Kathrin Sinningen, Sylvia Thiele, Lorenz C Hofbauer, Martina Rauner
Milk fat globule-epidermal growth factor 8 (MFG-E8) is a glycoprotein that is abundantly expressed in various tissues and has a pivotal role in the phagocytic clearance of apoptotic cells. However, MFG-E8 has also gained significant attention because of its wide range of functions in autoimmunity, inflammation and tissue homeostasis. More recently, MFG-E8 has been identified as a critical regulator of bone homeostasis, being expressed in both, osteoblasts and osteoclasts. In addition, it was shown that MFG-E8 fulfils an active role in modulating inflammatory processes, suggesting an anti-inflammatory role of MFG-E8 and proposing it as a novel therapeutic target for inflammatory diseases...
2016: BoneKEy Reports
Xuemin Qiu, Yuyan Gui, Na Zhang, Yingping Xu, Dajin Li, Ling Wang
Osteoimmunology is a new discipline that focuses on the interaction between the bones and the immune system. Immune cells play an important role in bone metabolism. The aim of this study was to illustrate the effect of Bu-Shen-Ning-Xin Decoction (BSNXD) on lymphocytes in the spleen and bone marrow to explore the potential role on the bone. C57BL/6 mice were divided into four groups: sham, ovariectomized (OVX), OVX+BSNXD, and OVX+ estrogen. The sham and OVX groups were treated with saline, the OVX+BSNXD group was treated with BSNXD, and the OVX+ estrogen group was treated with estrogen...
July 31, 2016: Bioscience Trends
Veli Özgen Öztürk, Gülnur Emingil, Nagihan Bostanci, Georgios N Belibasakis
OBJECTIVES: The study aimed to determine the levels of soluble receptor activator of nuclear factor-кB ligand (sRANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG) as well as their relative calculated ratio in peri-implant crevicular fluid (PICF) obtained around two different types of implant-abutment connection on short implants following a 12-month monitoring period. Moreover, the levels of a number of oral bacterial species were investigated in the corresponding submucosal biofilm samples. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty short implants were randomly placed in posterior maxillary edentulous sites using a split-mouth design in 15 periodontally healthy subjects...
July 29, 2016: Clinical Oral Implants Research
G Schett
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2016: Zeitschrift Für Rheumatologie
Bo Yu, Cun-Yu Wang
Osteoporosis is an age-related progressive bone disease. Recent advances in epigenetics, cell biology, osteoimmunology, and genetic epidemiology have unraveled new mechanisms and players underlying the pathology of osteoporosis, supporting a model of age-related dysregulation and crosstalk in the bone microenvironment.
August 2016: Trends in Molecular Medicine
Elena V Shashkova, Jahnavi Trivedi, Anna B Cline-Smith, Chloe Ferris, Zachary S Buchwald, Jesse Gibbs, Deborah Novack, Rajeev Aurora
Osteoimmunology arose from the recognition that cytokines produced by lymphocytes can affect bone homeostasis. We have previously shown that osteoclasts, cells that resorb bone, act as APCs. Cross-presentation of Ags by osteoclasts leads to expression of CD25 and Foxp3, markers of regulatory T cells in the CD8 T cells. Octeoclast-induced Foxp3(+) CD25(+) regulatory CD8 T cells (OC-iTcREG) suppress priming of CD4 and CD8 T cells by dendritic cells. OC-iTcREG also limit bone resorption by osteoclasts, forming a negative feedback loop...
August 1, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
K W Frommer, E Neumann, U Lange
Microscopic fractures (so-called microcracks) or traumatic macrofractures require bone, as the basic scaffold of the human body, to have a high regenerative capability. In order to be able to provide this regenerative capability, bone is in a constant process of remodeling. This finely tuned homeostasis of bone formation and degradation can become disrupted, which leads to osteoporosis or other bone disorders. It has been shown that the immune system is substantially involved in the regulation of bone homeostasis and that chronic inflammation in particular can disturb this balance; therefore, this article reviews the osteoimmunological aspects contributing to osteoporosis and other diseases associated with bone degradation...
June 2016: Zeitschrift Für Rheumatologie
Shirin Kalyan
Among the most significant developments to have taken place in osteology over the last few decades is an evolution from treating and viewing bone disorders primarily through an endocrine lens to instead seeing them as metabolic disorders that interface at the molecular and cellular level with the immune system. Osteoimmunology was officially born in response to accumulating evidence that the immune system is integrally involved in bone remodelling, but much of the early work focused on the role of conventional αβ T cells in driving bone loss...
May 21, 2016: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
Patrizia D'Amelio, Francesca Sassi
The immune system has been recognized as one of the most important regulators of bone turnover and its deregulation is implicated in several bone diseases such as postmenopausal osteoporosis and inflammatory bone loss; recently it has been suggested that the gut microbiota may influence bone turnover by modulation of the immune system. The study of the relationship between the immune system and bone metabolism is generally indicated under the term 'osteoimmunology'. The vast majority of these studies have been performed in animal models; however, several data have been confirmed in humans as well: this review summarizes recent data on the relationship between the immune system and bone with particular regard to the data confirmed in humans...
2016: BoneKEy Reports
Manabu Yanagita, Shinya Murakami
Periodontal diseases are chronic inflammatory disorders caused by the accumulation of a bacterial biofilm, characterized by the destruction of periodontal tissues, and result in loss of tooth. Recently, a part of mechanism of alveolar bone destruction has been revealed with advances in osteoimmunology. Here, we review the possible mechanisms of periodontal destruction. In addition, we described future outlook of our translational research for periodontal regenerative medicine.
May 2016: Clinical Calcium
Yuichi Takashi, Seiji Fukumoto, Toshio Matsumoto
Vitamin D was considered to be one of nutrients which has an important role in the maintenance of calcium and phosphate metabolism. It was then revealed that 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D metabolized from vitamin D works as a calciotropic hormone. Vitamin D metabolites were further shown to affect cell proliferation and differentiation. In immune system, vitamin D metabolites modulate both innate and adaptive immunity. Epidemiological studies indicated the associations between vitamin D deficiency and various diseases such as autoimmune diseases, allergy, infection and malignancy...
May 2016: Clinical Calcium
Takenobu Katagiri
Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressive (FOP) is a genetic disorder characterized by progressive heterotopic ossification (HO) in skeletal muscle, tendons and ligaments. FOP is caused by gain-of-function mutations of ALK2, a receptor of bone morphogenetic proteins. Immune responses have been suggested to be involved in HO in FOP, because muscle trauma induces acute HO in patients with FOP. Recently, Activin A, a non-osteogenic ligand, was identified as a ligand of the mutated ALK2 to induce HO. It was suggested that Activin A is a novel interface between FOP and osteoimmunology...
May 2016: Clinical Calcium
Takehito Ono, Hiroshi Takayanagi
Bone serves not only as a locomotive organ but also as an organ instrumental in many other functions such as hematopoiesis. To this end, bone undergoes renewal by sequential resorption and formation. Bone resorption and formation are regulated by many systems including the endocrine, the nervous and the immune systems. The skeletal and the immune systems are closely related because they share many regulatory molecules such as cytokines and transcription factors. Studies on such shared molecules and inflammatory bone destruction in rheumatoid arthritis have fostered a novel interdisciplinary field, "osteoimmunology"...
May 2016: Clinical Calcium
Ya-Hui Chiu, Christopher T Ritchlin
Osteoimmunology research is a new emerging research field that investigates the links between the bone and immune responses. Results from osteoimmunology studies suggest that bone is not only an essential component of the musculoskeletal system, but is also actively involved in immune regulation. Many important factors involved in immune regulation also participate in bone homeostasis. Bone homeostasis is achieved by a coordinated action between bone-synthesizing osteoblasts and bone-degrading osteoclasts. An imbalanced action between osteoblasts and osteoclasts often results in pathological bone diseases: osteoporosis is caused by an excessive osteoclast activity, whereas osteopetrosis results from an increased osteoblast activity...
November 2016: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Kevin A Tompkins
The mineralized structure of bone undergoes constant remodeling by the balanced actions of bone-producing osteoblasts and bone-resorbing osteoclasts (OCLs). Physiologic bone remodeling occurs in response to the body's need to respond to changes in electrolyte levels, or mechanical forces on bone. There are many pathological conditions, however, that cause an imbalance between bone production and resorption due to excessive OCL action that results in net bone loss. Situations involving chronic or acute inflammation are often associated with net bone loss, and research into understanding the mechanisms regulating this bone loss has led to the development of the field of osteoimmunology...
2016: Connective Tissue Research
Roberto Pacifici
Osteoimmunology is field of research dedicated to the study of the interactions between the immune system and bone. Among the cells of the immune system that regulate the skeleton in health and disease are T lymphocytes, T cells secrete inflammatory/osteoclastogenic cytokines such as RANKL, TNF, and IL-17, as well as factors that stimulate bone formation, including Wnt ligands. In addition, T cells regulate the differentiation and life span of stromal cells via CD40L and other costimulatory molecules expressed on their surface...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
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