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Osteoimmunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814613/osteoimmunology-the-conceptual-framework-unifying-the-immune-and-skeletal-systems
#1
REVIEW
Kazuo Okamoto, Tomoki Nakashima, Masahiro Shinohara, Takako Negishi-Koga, Noriko Komatsu, Asuka Terashima, Shinichiro Sawa, Takeshi Nitta, Hiroshi Takayanagi
The immune and skeletal systems share a variety of molecules, including cytokines, chemokines, hormones, receptors, and transcription factors. Bone cells interact with immune cells under physiological and pathological conditions. Osteoimmunology was created as a new interdisciplinary field in large part to highlight the shared molecules and reciprocal interactions between the two systems in both heath and disease. Receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) plays an essential role not only in the development of immune organs and bones, but also in autoimmune diseases affecting bone, thus effectively comprising the molecule that links the two systems...
October 1, 2017: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758305/revisiting-the-page-schroeder-model-the-good-the-bad-and-the-unknowns-in-the-periodontal-host-response-40%C3%A2-years-later
#2
REVIEW
George Hajishengallis, Jonathan M Korostoff
In their classic 1976 paper, Page & Schroeder described the histopathologic events and the types of myeloid cells and lymphocytes involved in the initiation and progression of inflammatory periodontal disease. The staging of periodontal disease pathogenesis as 'initial', 'early', 'established' and 'advanced' lesions productively guided subsequent research in the field and remains fundamentally valid. However, major advances regarding the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the induction, regulation and effector functions of immune and inflammatory responses necessitate a reassessment of their work and its integration with emerging new concepts...
October 2017: Periodontology 2000
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720797/commensal-gut-microbiota-immunomodulatory-actions-in-bone-marrow-and-liver-have-catabolic-effects-on-skeletal-homeostasis-in-health
#3
Chad M Novince, Carolyn R Whittow, Johannes D Aartun, Jessica D Hathaway, Nicole Poulides, Michael B Chavez, Heidi M Steinkamp, Kaeleigh A Kirkwood, Emily Huang, Caroline Westwater, Keith L Kirkwood
Despite knowledge the gut microbiota regulates bone mass, mechanisms governing the normal gut microbiota's osteoimmunomodulatory effects on skeletal remodeling and homeostasis are unclear in the healthy adult skeleton. Young adult specific-pathogen-free and germ-free mice were used to delineate the commensal microbiota's immunoregulatory effects on osteoblastogenesis, osteoclastogenesis, marrow T-cell hematopoiesis, and extra-skeletal endocrine organ function. We report the commensal microbiota has anti-anabolic effects suppressing osteoblastogenesis and pro-catabolic effects enhancing osteoclastogenesis, which drive bone loss in health...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683495/osteoimmunology-influence-of-the-immune-system-on-bone-regeneration-and-consumption
#4
Andreas Limmer, Dieter C Wirtz
Background Stimulating bone regeneration is a central aim in orthopaedic and trauma surgery. Although the replacement of bone with artificial materials like cement or apatite helps to keep up bone stability, new bone often cannot be regenerated. Increasing research efforts have led to the clinical application of growth factors stimulating bone growth (e.g. bone morphogenic protein, BMP) and inhibitors preventing bone consumption (e.g. RANKL blocking antibodies). These factors mostly concentrate on stimulating osteoblast or preventing osteoclast activity...
June 2017: Zeitschrift Für Orthopädie und Unfallchirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667799/reduced-bone-loss-in-a-murine-model-of-postmenopausal-osteoporosis-lacking-complement-component-3
#5
Danielle L MacKay, Thomas J Kean, Kristina G Bernardi, Heather S Haeberle, Catherine G Ambrose, Feng Lin, James E Dennis
The growing field of osteoimmunology seeks to unravel the complex interdependence of the skeletal and immune systems. Notably, we and others have demonstrated that complement signaling influences the differentiation of osteoblasts and osteoclasts, the two primary cell types responsible for maintaining bone homeostasis. However, the net effect of complement on bone homeostasis in vivo was unknown. Our published in vitro mechanistic work led us to hypothesize that absence of complement component 3 (C3), a central protein in the complement activation cascade, protects against bone loss in the ovariectomy-based model of postmenopausal osteoporosis...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647888/osteoimmunology-in-bone-fracture-healing
#6
REVIEW
Takehito Ono, Hiroshi Takayanagi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In the process of bone fracture healing, inflammation is thought to be an essential process that precedes bone formation and remodeling. We review recent studies on bone fracture healing from an osteoimmunological point of view. RECENT FINDINGS: Based on previous observations that many types of immune cells infiltrate into the bone injury site and release a variety of molecules, recent studies have addressed the roles of specific immune cell subsets...
August 2017: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552067/bone-muscle-crosstalk-unraveling-new-therapeutic-targets-for-osteoporosis
#7
Anna Picca, Riccardo Calvani, Ester Manes-Gravina, Leonardo Spaziani, Francesco Landi, Roberto Bernabei, Emanuele Marzetti
Osteoporosis is a condition featured by bone mass loss and bone tissue microarchitectural alterations due to impaired tissue homeostasis favoring excessive bone resorption versus deposition. The trigger of such an impairment and the downstream molecular pathways involved are yet to be clarified. The natural course of osteoporosis is particularly worrisome because, through a "silent" progression, it enhances bone fragility, increases the risk of fractures and is associated with increased risk of disability and mortality...
May 25, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494718/osteoimmunology-offers-new-perspectives-for-the-treatment-of-pathological-bone-loss
#8
Hongrui Liu, Tingting Luo, Jiali Tan, Minqi Li, Jie Guo
New evidence of the interactions between the immune system and bone has accumulated in bone diseases, including osteoporosis, periodontitis and rheumatoid arthritis. A marked imbalance between bone resorption and formation is central to the onset of pathological bone loss. Osteoimmunology has revealed that the immune system, including T cells, B cells and inflammatory cytokines, is a key regulator of both osteoclasts and osteoblasts. Th1 cells, which differentiate from CD4+T cells, are thought to play a major function during bone loss...
May 11, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390147/concise-review-stem-cells-in-osteoimmunology
#9
Fernando A Fierro, Jan A Nolta, Iannis E Adamopoulos
Bone remodeling is a lifelong process in which mature bone tissue is removed from the skeleton by bone resorption and is replenished by new during ossification or bone formation. The remodeling cycle requires both the differentiation and activation of two cell types with opposing functions; the osteoclast, which orchestrates bone resorption, and the osteoblast, which orchestrates bone formation. The differentiation of these cells from their respective precursors is a process which has been overshadowed by enigma, particularly because the precise osteoclast precursor has not been identified and because the identification of skeletal stem cells, which give rise to osteoblasts, is very recent...
April 8, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361303/macrophage-type-modulates-osteogenic-differentiation-of-adipose-tissue-mscs
#10
Yang Zhang, Thomas Böse, Ronald E Unger, John A Jansen, Charles James Kirkpatrick, Jeroen J J P van den Beucken
Since the reconstruction of large bone defects remains a challenge, knowledge about the biology of bone healing is desirable to develop novel strategies for improving the treatment of bone defects. In osteoimmunology, macrophages are the central component in the early stage of physiological response after bone injury and bone remodeling in the late stage. During this process, a switch of macrophage phenotype from pro-inflammatory (M1) to anti-inflammatory (M2) is observed. An appealing option for bone regeneration would be to exploit this regulatory role for the benefit of osteogenic differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells (e...
March 30, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340056/neutrophil-derived-mitochondrial-dna-promotes-receptor-activator-of-nuclear-factor-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-its-ligand-signalling-in-rheumatoid-arthritis
#11
Anne Contis, Stéphane Mitrovic, Julie Lavie, Isabelle Douchet, Estibaliz Lazaro, Marie-Elise Truchetet, Cyril Goizet, Cécile Contin-Bordes, Thierry Schaeverbeke, Patrick Blanco, Rodrigue Rossignol, Benjamin Faustin, Christophe Richez, Pierre Duffau
Objectives.: Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) contains sequestered damage-associated molecular patterns that might be involved in osteoimmunological pathogenesis of RA. Here, we aimed to investigate the cellular source of mtDNA and its role in RANK ligand (RANKL) expression by RA SF neutrophils. Methods.: The gene expression signature of SF neutrophils was examined by proteomic quantitative analysis. Levels of mtDNA in circulating and SF neutrophils from RA patients and OA control subjects were assessed by real-time PCR...
March 13, 2017: Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176273/the-haematoma-and-its-role-in-bone-healing
#12
REVIEW
H Schell, G N Duda, A Peters, S Tsitsilonis, K A Johnson, K Schmidt-Bleek
Fracture treatment is an old endeavour intended to promote bone healing and to also enable early loading and regain of function in the injured limb. However, in today's clinical routine the healing potential of the initial fracture haematoma is still not fully recognized. The Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Osteosynthesefragen (AO) formed in Switzerland in 1956 formulated four AO principles of fracture treatment which are still valid today. Fracture treatment strategies have continued to evolve further, as for example the relatively new concept of minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis (MIPO)...
December 2017: Journal of Experimental Orthopaedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921117/mcp1-triggers-monocyte-dysfunctions-during-abnormal-osteogenic-differentiation-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-ankylosing-spondylitis
#13
Zhongyu Xie, Peng Wang, Jinteng Li, Yuxi Li, Shan Wang, Xiaohua Wu, Suhe Sun, Shuizhong Cen, Hongjun Su, Wen Deng, Zhenhua Liu, Yi Ouyang, Yanfeng Wu, Huiyong Shen
Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by pathological osteogenesis and inflammation. However, the pathogenesis of AS and the pathological relationship between osteogenesis and inflammation in this disease remain largely unknown. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent progenitor cells capable of osteogenic differentiation and immunoregulation. Recently, we demonstrated that MSCs from AS patients (ASMSCs) have a greater potential for osteogenic differentiation than MSCs from healthy donors (HDMSCs), which therefore seems to be a component of pathological osteogenesis in AS...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888492/vitamin-d-deficiency-in-early-implant-failure-two-case-reports
#14
Tobias Fretwurst, Sebastian Grunert, Johan P Woelber, Katja Nelson, Wiebke Semper-Hogg
An association between vitamin D deficiency and early dental implant failure is not properly verified, but its role in osteoimmunology is discussed. This article illustrates two case reports with vitamin D deficiency and early implant failure. Prior to implant placement, the first patient received crestal bone grafting with autologous material. Both patients received dental implants from different manufacturers in the molar region of the mandible. In the case of bone grafting in the first patient, all implants were placed in a two-stage procedure...
December 2016: International Journal of Implant Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833731/bone-cells-dynamics-during-peri-implantitis-a-theoretical-analysis
#15
REVIEW
Maria Helena Fernandes, Pedro de Sousa Gomes
OBJECTIVES: The present manuscript aims a detailed characterization of the bone cells dynamics during physiological bone remodelling and, subsequently, to address the cellular and molecular mechanisms that play a fundamental role in the immune-inflammatory-induced uncoupled bone remodelling observed in peri-implantitis. RESULTS: An intimate relationship between the immune system and bone is acknowledged to be determinant for bone tissue remodelling and integrity...
July 2016: Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812916/gabab-receptors-as-modulating-target-for-inflammatory-responses-of-the-periodontal-ligament
#16
Anna Konermann, Thomas Van Dyke, Alpdogan Kantarci, Andreas Jäger
PDL cells express GABAB1 and GABAB2 receptors, which are regulated by inflammation and thus might be implicated in periodontal immunology. It was the aim of this study to elucidate the functional role of GABAB receptors in immunomodulation regarding activation of proregenerative versus proinflammatory mechanisms. Human PDL cells were exposed to GABA and/or GABAB receptor antagonist CGP-52432 alone or in combination with IL-1β to mimic inflammation. The influence on marker expression for inflammatory tissue destruction was determined via qRT-PCR and Luminex assays...
August 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809990/the-roles-of-immune-cells-in-bone-healing-what-we-know-do-not-know-and-future-perspectives
#17
REVIEW
Jehan J El-Jawhari, Elena Jones, Peter V Giannoudis
Key events occurring during the bone healing include well-orchestrated and complex interactions between immune cells, multipotential stromal cells (MSCs), osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Through three overlapping phases of this physiological process, innate and adaptive immune cells, cytokines and chemokines have a significant role to play. The aim of the escalating immune response is to achieve an osseous healing in the shortest time and with the least complications facilitating the restoration of function. The uninterrupted progression of these biological events in conjunction with a favourable mechanical environment (stable fracture fixation) remains the hallmark of successful fracture healing...
November 2016: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27721837/medication-related-osteonecrosis-of-the-jaw-new-insights-into-molecular-mechanisms-and-cellular-therapeutic-approaches
#18
REVIEW
Thomas Lombard, Virginie Neirinckx, Bernard Rogister, Yves Gilon, Sabine Wislet
In recent years, medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (MRONJ) became an arising disease due to the important antiresorptive drug prescriptions to treat oncologic and osteoporotic patients, as well as the use of new antiangiogenic drugs such as VEGF antagonist. So far, MRONJ physiopathogenesis still remains unclear. Aiming to better understand MRONJ physiopathology, the first objective of this review would be to highlight major molecular mechanisms that are known to be involved in bone formation and remodeling...
2016: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27650950/osteoimmunology-memorandum-for-rheumatologists
#19
REVIEW
Lidan Zhao, Linfang Huang, Xuan Zhang
Rapid progress has been made in exploring the connections between the skeletal system and the immune system over the past decade. Bone tissue forms developmental niches for hematopoietic stem cells, and activated immune cells are involved in bone metabolism regulation and are potent mediators of osteoporosis and bone erosion under pathological conditions. The interdisciplinary field of osteoimmunology has emerged to pool the knowledge of the interdependence of these two systems, including the shared ligands and receptors, their crosstalk and interaction, and common intracellular signaling pathways with bidirectional influence...
December 2016: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27604089/osteoimmunology-and-beyond
#20
REVIEW
Lia Ginaldi, Massimo De Martinis
OBJECTIVE: Osteoimmunology investigates interactions between skeleton and immune system. In the light of recent discoveries in this field, a new reading register of osteoporosis is actually emerging, in which bone and immune cells are strictly interconnected. Osteoporosis could therefore be considered a chronic immune mediated disease which shares with other age related disorders a common inflammatory background. Here, we highlight these recent discoveries and the new landscape that is emerging...
2016: Current Medicinal Chemistry
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