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Sulie L Chang, Wenfei Huang, Xin Mao, Sabroni Sarkar
Morphine, an effective but addictive analgesic, can profoundly affect the inflammatory response to pathogens, and long-term use can result in morphine tolerance. Inflammasomes are protein complexes involved in the inflammatory response. The nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor (NLR) Family Pyrin Domain Containing (NLRP) 12 (NLRP12) inflammasome has been reported to have anti-inflammatory activity. In this study, we examined the expression of NLRP12 inflammasome related genes in the adult F344 rat brain in response to the bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the presence and absence of morphine tolerance...
February 6, 2017: Brain Sciences
K Wagener, H Pothmann, I Prunner, S Peter, R Erber, C Aurich, M Drillich, C Gabler
Repeat breeder cows (RBC) are defined as cyclic cows without clinical abnormalities that fail to conceive after at least three subsequent inseminations. Previous studies have elucidated cellular defence mechanisms in the bovine uterus but detailed information on inflammatory events of endometrial cells in RBC is still lacking. Thus, the objective of this study was to analyse endometrial mRNA expression of selected transcripts associated with uterine inflammatory processes. Cytobrush samples from 91 RBC and 11 synchronised heifers with no history of gynaecological abnormalities (controls, CON) were collected...
March 1, 2017: Theriogenology
Tobias Dahm, Franziska Frank, Ortwin Adams, Holger A Lindner, Hiroshi Ishikawa, Christel Weiss, Christian Schwerk, Horst Schroten, Tobias Tenenbaum, Henriette Rudolph
Viral meningitis by non-polio enteroviruses (NPEV) is a major public health burden causing fatal outcomes especially in the younger population. Strong evidence exists that the blood-cerebrospinal-fluid (CSF) barrier (BCSFB) serves as an entry point for enterovirus and leucocytes into the central nervous system (CNS). Moreover, analysis of clinical CSF specimens of patients with a NPEV infection revealed a predominance of polymorphonuclear granulocytes (PMN) in the early phase and mononuclear cells in the later course of meningitis...
February 1, 2017: Virus Research
Wei-Kang Pan, Ya-Fei Zhang, Hui Yu, Ya Gao, Bai-Jun Zheng, Peng Li, Chong Xie, Xin Ge
BACKGROUND: Hirschsprung's disease (HSCR) is a type of megacolon induced by deficiency or dysfunction of ganglion cells in the distal intestine and is associated with developmental disorders of the enteric nervous system. To explore the mechanisms of HSCR, we analyzed the RNA-sequencing data of the expansion and the narrow segments of colon tissues separated from children with HSCR. METHODS: RNA-sequencing of the expansion segments and the narrow segments of colon tissues isolated from children with HSCR was performed...
January 25, 2017: World Journal of Pediatrics: WJP
Manuela Ceccarelli, Laura Micheli, Felice Tirone
Medulloblastoma (MB), tumor of the cerebellum, remains a leading cause of cancer-related mortality in childhood. We previously showed, in a mouse model of spontaneous MB (Ptch1(+/-)/Tis21(-/-)), that a defect of the migration of cerebellar granule neuron precursor cells (GCPs) correlates with an increased frequency of MB. This occurs because GCPs, rather than migrating internally and differentiating, remain longer in the proliferative area at the cerebellar surface, becoming targets of transforming insults...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Giulia Gentile, Manuela Ceccarelli, Laura Micheli, Felice Tirone, Sebastiano Cavallaro
We have recently generated a novel medulloblastoma (MB) mouse model with activation of the Shh pathway and lacking the MB suppressor Tis21 (Patched1(+/-)/Tis21(KO) ). Its main phenotype is a defect of migration of the cerebellar granule precursor cells (GCPs). By genomic analysis of GCPs in vivo, we identified as drug target and major responsible of this defect the down-regulation of the promigratory chemokine Cxcl3. Consequently, the GCPs remain longer in the cerebellum proliferative area, and the MB frequency is enhanced...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
João Paulo Portela Catani, Ruan F V Medrano, Aline Hunger, Paulo Del Valle, Sandy Adjemian, Daniela Bertolini Zanatta, Guido Kroemer, Eugenia Costanzi-Strauss, Bryan E Strauss
Therapeutic strategies that act by eliciting and enhancing antitumor immunity have been clinically validated as an effective treatment modality but may benefit from the induction of both cell death and immune activation as primary stimuli. Using our AdRGD-PG adenovector platform, we show here for the first time that in situ gene transfer of p19Arf and interferon-β (IFNβ) in the LLC1 mouse model of lung carcinoma acts as an immunotherapy. Although p19Arf is sufficient to induce cell death, only its pairing with IFNβ significantly induced markers of immunogenic cell death...
December 2016: Translational Oncology
Asghar Abbasi, Rodolfo de Paula Vieira, Felix Bischof, Michael Walter, Masoud Movassaghi, Nicole C Berchtold, Andreas M Niess, Carl W Cotman, Hinnak Northoff
BACKGROUND: While exercise effects on the immune system have received increasing attention in recent years, it remains unclear to what extent gender and fluctuations in sex hormones during menstrual cycle influence immunological responses to exercise. METHODS: We investigated mRNA changes induced through exhaustive exercise (half-marathon; pre-exercise and post-exercise [30 min, 3 h, 24 h] on whole blood cultures ± lipopolysaccharide [LPS] [1 h]) with a specific focus on sex differences (men vs women in luteal phase) as an extension of our previous study...
November 10, 2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Juan Carlos Pena-Philippides, Ernesto Caballero-Garrido, Tamar Lordkipanidze, Tamara Roitbak
BACKGROUND: MicroRNA miR-155 is implicated in modulation of the inflammatory processes in various pathological conditions. In our previous studies, we demonstrated that in vivo inhibition of miR-155 promotes functional recovery after mouse experimental stroke. In the present study, we explored if this beneficial effect is associated with miR-155 inhibition-induced alterations in post-stroke inflammatory response. METHODS: Intravenous injections of a specific miR-155 inhibitor were initiated at 48 h after mouse distal middle cerebral artery occlusion (dMCAO)...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Bin Song, Juan Du, Ye Feng, Yong-Jian Gao, Ji-Sheng Zhao
The aim of the present study was to investigate the mechanisms of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in a gastric cancer cell line treated with celecoxib. The human gastric carcinoma cell line NCI-N87 was treated with 15 µM celecoxib for 72 h (celecoxib group) and an equal volume of dimethylsulfoxide (control group), respectively. Libraries were constructed by NEBNext Ultra RNA Library Prep kit for Illumina. Paired-end RNA sequencing reads were aligned to a human hg19 reference genome using TopHat2. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and lncRNAs were identified using Cuffdiff...
October 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Ke-Qi Han, Hui Han, Xue-Qun He, Lei Wang, Xiao-Dong Guo, Xue-Ming Zhang, Jie Chen, Quan-Gang Zhu, Hua Nian, Xiao-Feng Zhai, Ma-Wei Jiang
The purpose of this study was to screen for changes in chemokine and chemokine-related genes that are expressed in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) as potential markers of HCC progression. Total RNA was extracted from tumor and peritumor tissues from mice with HCC and analyzed using a PCR microarray comprising 98 genes. Changes in gene expression of threefold or more were screened and subsequently confirmed by immunohistochemical analyses and western blotting. Furthermore, whether chemokine knockdown by RNA interference (RNAi) could significantly suppress tumor growth in vivo was also evaluated...
September 28, 2016: Cancer Medicine
Joji Kusuyama, Anna Komorizono, Kenjiro Bandow, Tomokazu Ohnishi, Tetsuya Matsuguchi
Chemokines are a family of cytokines inducing cell migration and inflammation. Recent reports have implicated the roles of chemokines in cell differentiation. However, little is known about the functional roles of chemokines in adipocytes. Here, we explored gene expression levels of chemokines and chemokine receptors during adipogenic differentiation. We have found that two chemokines, chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 3 (CXCL3) and CXCL13, as well as CXC chemokine receptor 2 (CXCR2), a CXCL3 receptor, are highly expressed in mature adipocytes...
October 2016: Journal of Lipid Research
Paul J Davis, Gennadi V Glinsky, Hung-Yun Lin, Shaker A Mousa
The extracellular domain of plasma membrane integrin αvβ3 contains a receptor for thyroid hormone (L-thyroxine, T4; 3,5,3'-triiodo-L-thyronine, T3); this receptor also binds tetraiodothyroacetic acid (tetrac), a derivative of T4. Tetrac inhibits the binding of T4 and T3 to the integrin. Fractalkine (CX3CL1) is a chemokine relevant to inflammatory processes in the CNS that are microglia-dependent but also important to normal brain development. Expression of the CX3CL1 gene is downregulated by tetrac, suggesting that T4 and T3 may stimulate fractalkine expression...
2016: Journal of Immunology Research
G Ramage, D F Lappin, E Millhouse, J Malcolm, A Jose, J Yang, D J Bradshaw, J R Pratten, S Culshaw
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Different bacteria differentially stimulate epithelial cells. Biofilm composition and viability are likely to influence the epithelial response. In vitro model systems are commonly used to investigate periodontitis-associated bacteria and their interactions with the host; therefore, understanding factors that influence biofilm-cell interactions is essential. The present study aimed to develop in vitro monospecies and multispecies biofilms and investigate the epithelial response to these biofilms...
June 22, 2016: Journal of Periodontal Research
Lin Zhang, Lixing Zhang, Hong Li, Chao Ge, Fangyu Zhao, Hua Tian, Taoyang Chen, Guoping Jiang, Haiyang Xie, Ying Cui, Ming Yao, Jinjun Li
Although the chemotactic cytokine CXCL3 is thought to play an important role in tumor initiation and invasion, little is known about its function in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In our previous study, we found that Ikaros inhibited CD133 expression via the MAPK pathway in HCC. Here, we showed that Ikaros may indirectly down-regulate CXCL3 expression in HCC cells, which leads to better outcomes in patients with CD133(+) cancer stem cell (CSC) populations. CD133 overexpression induced CXCL3 expression, and silencing of CD133 down-regulated CXCL3 in HCC cells...
2016: Scientific Reports
Ta-Ying Zhong, Sergio Arancibia, Raimundo Born, Ricardo Tampe, Javiera Villar, Miguel Del Campo, Augusto Manubens, María Inés Becker
Hemocyanins induce a potent Th1-dominant immune response with beneficial clinical outcomes when used as a carrier/adjuvant in vaccines and nonspecific immunostimulant in cancer. However, the mechanisms by which hemocyanins trigger innate immune responses, leading to beneficial adaptive immune responses, are unknown. This response is triggered by a proinflammatory signal from various components, of which macrophages are an essential part. To understand how these proteins influence macrophage response, we investigated the effects of mollusks hemocyanins with varying structural and immunological properties, including hemocyanins from Concholepas concholepas, Fissurella latimarginata, and Megathura crenulata (keyhole limpet hemocyanin), on cultures of peritoneal macrophages...
June 1, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Ping Chen, Zhengzi Yi, Weijia Zhang, Mary E Klotman, Benjamin K Chen
OBJECTIVE: Viral replication and interstitial inflammation play important roles in the pathogenesis of HIV-associated nephropathy. Cell-cell interactions between renal tubule epithelial cells (RTECs) and HIV-infected T cells can trigger efficient virus internalization and viral gene expression by RTEC. To understand how HIV replication initiates HIV-associated nephropathy, we studied the cellular response of RTECs to HIV, examining the transcriptional profiles of primary RTECs exposed to cell-free HIV or HIV-infected T cells...
July 31, 2016: AIDS
Mathilde Pohin, William Guesdon, Adela Andrine Tagne Mekouo, Hanitriniaina Rabeony, Isabelle Paris, Hristo Atanassov, Laure Favot, Jiad Mcheik, François-Xavier Bernard, Carl D Richards, Jérôme Amiaud, Frédéric Blanchard, Jean-Claude Lecron, Franck Morel, Jean-François Jégou
Oncostatin M (OSM) has been reported to be overexpressed in psoriasis skin lesions and to exert proinflammatory effects in vitro on human keratinocytes. Here, we report the proinflammatory role of OSM in vivo in a mouse model of skin inflammation induced by intradermal injection of murine OSM-encoding adenovirus (AdOSM) and compare with that induced by IL-6 injection. Here, we show that OSM potently regulates the expression of genes involved in skin inflammation and epidermal differentiation in murine primary keratinocytes...
July 2016: European Journal of Immunology
Ann J Ligocki, Jerry Y Niederkorn
PURPOSE: Immune privilege of the eye protects the nonregenerative ocular tissues from innate and adaptive immune-mediated inflammation. In the case of intraocular tumors, immune privilege can be arrested to allow for immune-mediated rejection. Activation of innate immune cells can contribute to necrosis of the intraocular tumor and bystander ocular tissue. Identifying the cellular components of the innate immune system that contribute to ocular destruction, but are not needed for tumor rejection, provides insights into the immunopathological sequelae in intraocular tumor rejection...
March 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Christoph F A Vogel, W L William Chang, Sarah Kado, Kelly McCulloh, Helena Vogel, Dalei Wu, Thomas Haarmann-Stemmann, GuoXiang Yang, Patrick S C Leung, Fumio Matsumura, M Eric Gershwin
BACKGROUND: The aryl hydrocarbon receptor repressor (AhRR) is known to repress aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) signaling, but very little is known regarding the role of the AhRR in vivo. OBJECTIVE: This study tested the role of AhRR in vivo in AhRR overexpressing mice on molecular and toxic end points mediated through a prototypical AhR ligand. METHODS: We generated AhRR-transgenic mice (AhRR Tg) based on the genetic background of C57BL/6J wild type (wt) mice...
July 2016: Environmental Health Perspectives
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